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Experimental Eye Research

Peter Skov Jensen, Christian Aalkjaer, Toke Bek
Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by retinal lesions related to disturbances in retinal blood flow. The metabolic dysregulation in diabetes involves hyperglycemia which in both clinical and experimental studies has been shown to induce dilatation of larger retinal vessels, which has been suggested to be mediated by nitric oxide (NO). However, the effects of glucose on the diameter of smaller retinal vessels that are the site of development of diabetic retinopathy are unknown. Diameter changes in porcine retinal arterioles, pre-capillary arterioles and capillaries were studied ex vivo during acute changes in intraluminal glucose concentrations that mimicked changes in plasma glucose in diabetic patients...
November 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Mathieu Theriault, Olivier Roy, Isabelle Brunette, Stéphanie Proulx
Cells and tissues are influenced by environmental conditions. In vivo, the corneal endothelium is subjected to hydrostatic intraocular pressure (IOP) and to the hydrokinetic pressure of the moving aqueous humor in the anterior chamber. In this paper, we used a corneal bioreactor to recreate the IOP condition and investigated the effect of the in vivo hydrodynamic environment of corneal endothelial cells on the formation of tight junctions. Native ex vivo corneas and engineered corneal endothelia subjected to pressure showed an increase in ZO-1 expression at the cell periphery...
November 8, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Mohit Parekh, Gary Peh, Jodhbir S Mehta, Sajjad Ahmad, Diego Ponzin, Stefano Ferrari
The purpose of this study was to investigate the growth capacity of human corneal endothelial cells (HCEnCs) isolated from old donor corneas preserved in 4 different storage conditions. The following conditions were evaluated, A) cold storage (CS) (Optisol GS) for 7 days at 4 °C [n = 6]; B) organ culture (OC) (Cornea Max) for 7 days at 31 °C [n = 6]; C) OC for 28 days at 31 °C [n = 6] and; D) CS for 7 days at 4 °C followed by OC for 28 days at 31 °C [n = 6]. Following preservations, the Descemet membrane-endothelium complex was peeled and digested using Collagenase-Type1 and was subsequently trypsinized before being plated into 2 wells (from each cornea) of an 8-well chamber slide...
November 8, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Patrick Zadravec, Barbara M Braunger, Benjamin Melzer, Markus Kroeber, Michael R Bösl, Herbert Jägle, Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ernst R Tamm
Sequence variants in LOXL1 coding for the secreted enzyme lysyl oxidase homolog 1 (LOXL1) associate with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome, a condition that is characterized by the deposition of extracellular fibrillar PEX material in the anterior eye and other parts of the body. Since the specific role of LOXL1 in the pathogenesis of PEX is unclear, and an increase in its expression was reported for early stages of PEX syndrome, we generated and studied transgenic mice with ocular overexpression of its mouse ortholog Loxl1...
November 3, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Rabab Sharif, Sashia Bak-Nielsen, Henrik Sejersen, Kai Ding, Jesper Hjortdal, Dimitrios Karamichos
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of Prolactin-Induced Protein (PIP) as a predictive biomarker for Keratoconus (KC). PARTICIPANTS: This study included one hundred and forty-seven patients with KC (105 male, 42 female), and sixty healthy controls (27 male, 33 female). METHODS: Tears, plasma and saliva samples were collected from all participants. In both KC and healthy groups all collected samples were divided into four age subgroups (15-24y), (25-34y), (35-44y) and (45y and up)...
October 26, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Hanna Dumanska, Nickolai Veselovsky
Using the paired patch-clamp technique, we studied the effects of short-term hypoxia on retinocollicular synaptic transmission in an originally-developed coculture of dissociated retinal cells and superficial superior colliculus (SSC) neurons. Pharmacologically isolated N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA)-, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA)- and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAA )-mediated postsynaptic currents (PSCs) were evoked in SSC neurons by generation action potentials in presynaptic retinal ganglion cells...
October 25, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Eleonora Maurizi, Davide Schiroli, Sarah D Atkinson, Laura Mairs, David G Courtney, Barry O'Hagan, Victoria E McGilligan, Alastair T Pagnamenta, Jenny C Taylor, Jesus J D Vasquez, Daniel E Illanes-Velarde, Dave Goldsmith, Pieter Gouws, Jonathan E Moore, M Andrew Nesbit, C B Tara Moore
Pterygium is a pathological proliferative condition of the ocular surface, characterised by formation of a highly vascularised, fibrous tissue arising from the limbus that invades the central cornea leading to visual disturbance and, if untreated, blindness. Whilst chronic ultraviolet (UV) light exposure plays a major role in its pathogenesis, higher susceptibility to pterygium is observed in some families, suggesting a genetic component. In this study, a Northern Irish family affected by pterygium but reporting little direct exposure to UV was identified carrying a missense variant in CRIM1 NM_016441...
October 24, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Meredith Gregory-Ksander, Victor L Perez, Ann Marshak-Rothstein, Bruce R Ksander
Neutrophil-mediated inflammation plays a critical role in corneal damage following injury or infection. Previous studies demonstrated that membrane-bound FasL (mFasL) induces neutrophil chemokine production. However, the extracellular domain of mFasL is normally cleaved by matrix metalloproteinases to release a soluble form of FasL (sFasL) and sFasL antagonizes mFasL-mediated chemokine production. Therefore, we hypothesized that sFasL could be used to prevent neutrophil-mediated corneal inflammation associated with injury and bacterial keratitis...
October 23, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Yilin Zhao, Phillip A Wilmarth, Catherine Cheng, Saima Limi, Velia M Fowler, Deyou Zheng, Larry L David, Ales Cvekl
Epithelial cells and differentiated fiber cells represent distinct compartments in the ocular lens. While previous studies have revealed proteins that are preferentially expressed in epithelial vs. fiber cells, a comprehensive proteomics library comparing the molecular compositions of epithelial vs. fiber cells is essential for understanding lens formation, function, disease and regenerative potential, and for efficient differentiation of pluripotent stem cells for modeling of lens development and pathology in vitro...
October 22, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Yvonne T Wu, Tan N Truong, Connie Tam, Myra N Mendoza, Lucia Zhu, David J Evans, Suzanne M J Fleiszig
Research with animal models of Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis has shown that use of a topical corticosteroid alone against an established infection can significantly increase the number of colonizing bacteria or worsen clinical disease. Moreover, retrospective analysis has suggested that corticosteroid use in humans is associated with an increased risk of keratitis in eyes with pre-existing disease. Thus, while corticosteroids are often used to reduce ocular inflammation in the absence of infection, the risk of opportunistic infection remains a concern...
October 19, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Roni A Hazim, Stefanie Volland, Alice Yen, Barry L Burgess, David S Williams
Human RPE cell lines, especially the ARPE-19 cell line, are widely-used in eye research, as well as general epithelial cell studies. In comparison with primary RPE cells, they offer relative convenience and consistency, but cultures derived from these lines are typically not well differentiated. We describe a simple, rapid method to establish cultures from ARPE-19 cells, with significantly improved epithelial cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization, and RPE-related functions. We identify the presence of nicotinamide, a member of the vitamin B family, as an essential factor in promoting the observed differentiation, indicating the importance of metabolism in RPE cell differentiation...
October 15, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Qitao Zhang, Feriel Presswalla, Kecia Feathers, Xu Cao, Bret A Hughes, David N Zacks, Debra A Thompson, Jason M L Miller
The daily shedding and renewal of photoreceptor outer segments (OS) is critical for maintaining vision. This process relies on the efficient uptake, degradation, and sorting of shed OS material by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Poor OS degradation has been linked to retinal degenerations such as Stargardt disease and may contribute to macular degeneration. While primary human fetal RPE cultures have emerged as a valuable model of in vivo human RPE function, surprisingly few studies have utilized the model for tracking the degradation and fate of OS components in the RPE...
October 15, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
María F González Fleitas, Marcos L Aranda, Hernán H Dieguez, Julian D Devouassoux, Mónica S Chianelli, Damian Dorfman, Ruth E Rosenstein
Retinal ischemia is a condition associated with several degenerative diseases leading to visual impairment and blindness worldwide. Currently, there is no highly effective therapy for ischemic retinopathies. This study was designed to determine possible benefits of pre-exposure to enriched environment against retinal damage induced by acute ischemia. For this purpose, adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to a pre-ischemic standard environment or a pre-ischemic enriched environment for 3 weeks, followed by unilateral ischemia induced by increasing intraocular pressure above 120 mm Hg for 40 min and reperfusion for 1 or 2 weeks in standard environment...
October 13, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Marianne Dor, Simone Eperon, Patrice H Lalive, Yan Guex-Crosier, Mehrad Hamedani, Cindy Salvisberg, Natacha Turck
Considering absence of invasiveness and side effects, tears emerge as a particularly attractive fluid for biomarker discovery and therefore for daily clinical use. However, to date this fluid remains poorly studied in healthy condition. Here, we present an updated in-depth characterisation of the human healthy tear protein composition using proteomics approach. Both eyes of 8 healthy controls (4 men and 4 women, average age: 38 ± 18) were collected using the Schirmer's strip method. After liquid digestion and off-gel electrophoresis fractionation, three independent proteomics analyses were performed on a LTQ-Orbitrap Velos Pro...
October 13, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Ruijuan Zhao, Jing Zhang, Yan Wang, Jiayi Jin, Hongyan Zhou, Jianping Chen, Shao Bo Su
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in inflammatory and immunological responses, which are intimately related to neovascularization. However, the precise mode of action of TLR3 in neovascularization still remains ambiguous. In this study, we sought to investigate the role of TLR3 in pathological corneal neovascularization (CNV) using a mouse model of alkali-induced CNV. CNV was attenuated in TLR3-deficient mice, and the absence of TLR3 led to decreased production of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), a well-characterized cytokine that regulates the recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to the sites of neo-angiogenic niches in the injured tissues...
October 12, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Agnieszka Piotrowska-Nowak, Ewa Kosior-Jarecka, Aleksandra Schab, Dominika Wrobel-Dudzinska, Ewa Bartnik, Tomasz Zarnowski, Katarzyna Tonska
Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness worldwide. However, the cause of retinal ganglion cell loss and damage of the optic nerve in its pathogenesis is largely unknown. The high energy demands of these cells may reflect their strong dependence on mitochondrial function and thus sensitivity to mitochondrial defects. To address this issue, we studied whole mitochondrial genome variation in normal tension glaucoma patients and control individuals from the Polish population using next generation sequencing...
October 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Elizabeth C Bryda, Matthew M LaVail
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Yu-Shiuan Cheng, Mikhail Linetsky, Xilin Gu, Naji Ayyash, Anthony Gardella, Robert G Salomon
Oxidative cleavage of docosahexaenoate (DHA) in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells produces 4-hydroxy-7-oxohept-5-enoic acid (HOHA) esters of 2-lysophosphatidylcholine (PC). HOHA-PC spontaneously releases a membrane-permeant HOHA lactone that modifies primary amino groups of proteins and ethanolamine phospholipids to produce 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) derivatives. CEPs have significant pathological relevance to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) including activation of CEP-specific T-cells leading to inflammatory M1 polarization of macrophages in the retina involved in "dry AMD" and TLR2-dependent induction of angiogenesis that characterizes "wet AMD"...
October 5, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Sujung Jun, Sayantan Datta, Lei Wang, Roma Pegany, Marisol Cano, James T Handa
The accumulation of lipids within drusen, the epidemiologic link of a high fat diet, and the identification of polymorphisms in genes involved in lipid metabolism that are associated with disease risk, have prompted interest in the role of lipid abnormalities in AMD. Despite intensive investigation, our understanding of how lipid abnormalities contribute to AMD development remains unclear. Lipid metabolism is tightly regulated, and its dysregulation can trigger excess lipid accumulation within the RPE and Bruch's membrane...
October 5, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Lorenz Latta, Karl Nordström, Tanja Stachon, Achim Langenbucher, Fabian N Fries, Nóra Szentmáry, Berthold Seitz, Barbara Käsmann-Kellner
PAX6-related Aniridia is a sight-threatening disease involving progression of secondary glaucoma and aniridia related keratopathy (ARK). Change or loss of limbal epithelial progenitors causes epithelial surface defects. We analyzed the effect of PAX6 on mRNA expression changes with a two-step approach, as follows. First, we sequenced mRNA from limbal epithelial cells isolated from controls and aniridia patients. Second, we confirmed the bioinformatics and literature-based result list for a small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based primary aniridia cell model (PAX6 knockdown)...
October 4, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
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