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Experimental Eye Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720437/quantification-of-micrornas-in-human-aqueous-humor-by-mirflp-assay
#1
Bijun Zhu, Wenli Zhu, Shangyu Ye, Delun Luo, Kai Xu, Zhigang Wu, Haidong Zou
MiRNAs are expressed in a tissue-specific fashion in the eyes and changes in miRNAs levels in aqueous humor (AH) may reflect the function of the eye and eye disease. Due to the low concentration of total miRNA in human aqueous humor, high volume of sample is required for RNA extraction prior to routine quantification such as RT-qPCR. However, limited volume of AH could be collected through surgery because of the characteristic of the eye. In addition, inefficiency of RNA-extraction kits could affect target miRNA quantification dramatically...
July 15, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720436/direct-measurement-of-pressure-independent-aqueous-humour-flow-using-iperfusion
#2
Michael Madekurozwa, Ester Reina-Torres, Darryl R Overby, Joseph M Sherwood
Reduction of intraocular pressure is the sole therapeutic target for glaucoma. Intraocular pressure is determined by the dynamics of aqueous humour secretion and outflow, which comprise several pressure-dependent and pressure-independent mechanisms. Accurately quantifying the components of aqueous humour dynamics is essential in understanding the pathology of glaucoma and the development of new treatments. To better characterise aqueous humour dynamics, we propose a method to directly measure pressure-independent aqueous humour flow...
July 15, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712540/aqueous-humor-tyrosinase-activity-is-indicative-of-iris-melanocyte-toxicity
#3
Sarmistha Mahanty, Ankush A Kawali, Shruthi Shirur Dakappa, Padmamalini Mahendradas, Mathew Kurian, Varun Kharbanda, Rohit Shetty, Subba Rao Gangi Setty
Antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones (FQLs) are commonly used to treat ocular infections but are also known to cause dermal melanocyte toxicity. The release of dispersed pigments from the iris into the aqueous humor has been considered a possible ocular side effect of the systemic administration of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin, and this condition is known as bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT). Bilateral acute depigmentation of iris (BADI) is a similar condition, with iris pigment released into the aqueous, but it has not been reported as a side effect of FQL...
July 13, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709891/neuroprotective-effects-of-methyl-3-4-dihydroxybenzoate-in-a-mouse-model-of-retinitis-pigmentosa
#4
Jia Zhang, Di Xu, Huan Ouyang, Songhui Hu, Ang Li, Huanmin Luo, Ying Xu
Retinitis pigmentosa is a photoreceptor-degenerative disease that is currently untreatable and eventually causes blindness. Methyl 3,4 dihydroxybenzoate (MDHB) is a small molecule that exerts neuroprotective effect in vitro. The present study tests whether MDHB protects the retina of rd10 mice, a model of retinitis pigmentosa. MDHB or equal volume of vehicle was intraperitoneally injected in rd10 mice daily from postnatal day 12 (P12) to P26. Retinal morphology was evaluated by immunostaining, and retinal function by electroretinogram (ERG) and by visual behavior...
July 11, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689749/iontophoresis-assisted-accelerated-riboflavin-ultraviolet-a-scleral-cross-linking-a-potential-treatment-for-pathologic-myopia
#5
Shuo Rong, Chaoying Wang, Baoyan Han, Pengfei Feng, Weiwei Lan, Zhipeng Gao, Xiaona Li, Weiyi Chen
Scleral collagen cross-linking is one of the most promising treatments to control the pathologic process of myopia. However, the exact procedure and its impact on animal models of myopia are still to be explored. We modified the scleral riboflavin/ultraviolet A (UVA) cross-linking procedure with an iontophoresis-assisted drug delivery system and an accelerated UVA irradiation (10 mW/cm(2), 9 min) and applied this treatment to an animal model of myopia. Ninety-six New Zealand White rabbits developed relatively stable myopia by visual deprivation and then underwent the modified scleral cross-linking surgery...
July 6, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689748/in-vivo-corneal-pulsation-in-relation-to-in-vivo-intraocular-pressure-and-corneal-biomechanics-assessed-in-vitro-an-animal-pilot-study
#6
Maja M Rogala, Monika E Danielewska, Agnieszka Antończyk, Zdzisław Kiełbowicz, Marta E Rogowska, Marta Kozuń, Jerzy Detyna, D Robert Iskander
The aim was to ascertain whether the characteristics of the corneal pulse (CP) measured in-vivo in a rabbit eye change after short-term artificial increase of intraocular pressure (IOP) and whether they correlate with corneal biomechanics assessed in-vitro. Eight New Zealand white rabbits were included in this study and were anesthetized. In-vivo experiments included simultaneous measurements of the CP signal, registered with a non-contact method, IOP, intra-arterial blood pressure, and blood pulse (BPL), at the baseline and short-term elevated IOP...
July 6, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689747/hypoxia-inhibits-growth-proliferation-and-increases-response-to-chemotherapy-in-retinoblastoma-cells
#7
Qian Yang, Arushi Tripathy, Wayne Yu, Charles G Eberhart, Laura Asnaghi
Retinoblastoma is a malignant tumor of the retina and the most frequent intraocular cancer in children. Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) is a common phenomenon in advanced retinoblastomas, but its biological effect on retinoblastoma growth is not clearly understood. Here we studied how hypoxia altered retinoblastoma gene expression and modulated growth and response to chemotherapy. The hypoxic marker lysyl oxidase (LOX) was expressed in 8 of 12 human retinoblastomas analyzed by immunohistochemistry, suggesting that a hypoxic microenvironment is present in up to two thirds of the cases...
July 6, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669846/meibomian-glands-meibum-and-meibogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Igor A Butovich
Meibum is a lipid-rich secretion that is produced by fully differentiated meibocytes in the holocrine Meibomian glands (MG) of humans and most mammals. The secretion is a part of a defense mechanism that protects the ocular surface from hazardous environmental factors, and from desiccation. Meibomian lipids that have been identified in meibum are very diverse and unique in nature. The lipid composition of meibum is different from virtually any other lipid pool found in the human body. In fact, meibum is quite different from sebum, which is the closest secretion that is produced by anatomically, physiologically, and biochemically related sebaceous glands...
June 29, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655605/gadolinium-enhanced-7-0%C3%A2-t-magnetic-resonance-imaging-assessment-of-the-aqueous-inflow-in-rat-eyes-in%C3%A2-vivo
#9
Lu Li, Yuxiang Yuan, Liwen Chen, Mu Li, Pingting Ji, Jieling Gong, Yin Zhao, Hong Zhang
The goal of this study was to calculate the anterior chamber volume and assess aqueous inflow in rat eyes in vivo, under anesthetic condition. Gadolinium-contrast agent (Gd-DTPA, 234.5 mg/ml) was administered to Sprague-Dawley rat eyes via anterior chamber injection or instillation of 234.5 or 117.25 mg/ml Gd-DTPA in 0.2% azone as eye drops, and changes of Gd signal visualized by 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The safety of local application of Gd-DTPA and azone were performed after MRI scanning...
June 24, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655604/melatonin-synthesis-in-the-human-ciliary-body-triggered-by-trpv4-activation-involvement-of-aanat-phosphorylation
#10
Hanan Awad Alkozi, María J Perez de Lara, Jesús Pintor
Melatonin is a substance synthesized in the pineal gland as well as in other organs. This substance is involved in many ocular functions, giving its synthesis in numerous eye structures. Melatonin is synthesized from serotonin through two enzymes, the first limiting step into the synthesis of melatonin being aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). In this current study, AANAT phosphorylation after the activation of TRPV4 was studied using human non-pigmented epithelial ciliary body cells. Firstly, it was necessary to determine the adequate time and dose of the TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A to reach the maximal phosphorylation of AANAT...
June 24, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648760/corneal-endothelial-cells-activate-innate-and-acquired-arm-of-anti-viral-responses-after-cytomegalovirus-infection
#11
Dai Miyazaki, Ryu Uotani, Michiko Inoue, Tomoko Haruki, Yumiko Shimizu, Keiko Yakura, Satoru Yamagami, Tatsuo Suzutani, Mayumi Hosogai, Hiroki Isomura, Yoshitsugu Inoue
Infection of the corneal endothelial cells by human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of corneal endotheliitis. CMV endotheliitis is difficult to completely cure and relapses are frequent. This can cause blinding corneal bullous keratopathy. However, the pathogenesis of CMV endotheliitis remains undetermined. To understand the immunopathology of endotheliitis, we examined how corneal endothelial cells prime the anti-viral immunity after CMV infection based on global transcriptional responses. To accomplish this, human corneal endothelial (HCEn) cells were infected with CMV, and the global transcriptional responses were determined by microarray analyses for primary anti-viral responses using network analysis...
June 23, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648759/epha2-and-ephrin-a5-are-not-a-receptor-ligand-pair-in-the-ocular-lens
#12
Catherine Cheng, Velia M Fowler, Xiaohua Gong
Eph-ephrin bidirectional signaling is essential for eye lens transparency in humans and mice. Our previous studies in mouse lenses demonstrate that ephrin-A5 is mainly expressed in the anterior epithelium, where it is required for maintaining the anterior epithelial monolayer. In contrast, EphA2 is localized in equatorial epithelial and fiber cells where it is essential for equatorial epithelial and fiber cell organization and hexagonal cell shape. Immunostaining of lens epithelial and fiber cells reveals that EphA2 and ephrin-A5 are also co-expressed in anterior fiber cell tips, equatorial epithelial cells and newly formed lens fibers, although they are not precisely colocalized...
June 23, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642110/pedf-plus-dha-modulate-inflammation-and-stimulate-nerve-regeneration-after-hsv-1-infection
#13
Jiucheng He, Donna Neumann, Azucena Kakazu, Thang Luong Pham, Farhana Musarrat, M Soledad Cortina, Haydee E P Bazan
Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) infection leads to impaired corneal sensation and, in severe cases, to corneal ulceration, melting and perforation. Here, we explore the potential therapeutic action of pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on corneal inflammation and nerve regeneration following HSV-1 infection. Rabbits inoculated with 100,000 PFU/eye of HSV-1 strain 17Syn+ were treated with PEDF + DHA or vehicle. PEDF + DHA treatment resulted in a biphasic immune response with stronger infiltration of CD4+T cells, neutrophils and macrophages at 7-days post-treatment (p...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629927/quick-freeze-deep-etch-electron-microscopy-visualization-of-the-mouse-posterior-pole
#14
Ebraheim N Ismail, Jeffrey W Ruberti, Goldis Malek
The mouse is one of the most commonly used mammalian systems to study human diseases. In particular it has been an invaluable tool to model a multitude of ocular pathologies affecting the posterior pole. The aim of this study was to create a comprehensive map of the ultrastructure of the mouse posterior pole using the quick-freeze/deep-etch method (QFDE). QFDE can produce detailed three-dimensional images of tissue structure and macromolecular moieties, without many of the artifacts introduced by structure-altering post-processing methods necessary to perform conventional transmission electron microscopy (cTEM)...
June 17, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629926/different-functional-susceptibilities-of-mouse-retinal-ganglion-cell-subtypes-to-optic-nerve-crush-injury
#15
Zhen Puyang, Hai-Qing Gong, Shi-Gang He, John B Troy, Xiaorong Liu, Pei-Ji Liang
In optic neuropathies, the progressive deterioration of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) function leads to irreversible vision loss. Increasing experimental evidence suggests differing susceptibility for RGC functional subtypes. Here with multi-electrode array recordings, RGC functional loss was characterized at multiple time points in a mouse model of optic nerve crush. Firing rate, latency of response and receptive field size were analyzed for ON, OFF and ON-OFF RGCs separately. It was observed that responses and receptive fields of OFF cells were impaired earlier than ON cells after the injury...
June 16, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625822/comparison-of-the-expression-and-spatial-localization-of-glucose-transporters-in-the-rat-bovine-and-human-lens
#16
Julie C Lim, Rebecca D Perwick, Bo Li, Paul J Donaldson
The energy required to drive lens transparency is derived from the metabolism of glucose. In the lens, the uptake of glucose is likely to involve either facilitative glucose uptake mediated by members of the GLUT family or Na(+) dependent glucose uptake via members of the SGLT family, or both. While GLUT1 and GLUT3 have previously been identified in the rat lens, the expression of SGLTs is unknown. Since antibodies directed against the N and C-terminal epitopes of the GLUT and SGLT family are now commercially available, the purpose of this study is to extend our screening of glucose transporters in the rat lens to include the SGLTs and compare the expression profiles of GLUTs and SGLTs in the different regions of the rat, bovine and human lens...
June 15, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619506/near-infra-red-light-attenuates-corneal-endothelial-cell-dysfunction-in-situ-and-in%C3%A2-vitro
#17
Claudia Núñez-Álvarez, Susana Del Olmo-Aguado, Jesús Merayo-Lloves, Neville N Osborne
In the present study mechanical damage to the corneal endothelium was induced by elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP, 140 mmHg, 60 min) to one eye of rats, delivered either in complete darkness or in the presence of red light (16.5 W/m(2), 3000 lx, 625-635 nm). IOP raised in the dark revealed the endothelium to be damaged as staining for the gap junction protein ZO-1 was irregular in appearance with some cells displaced in position or lost to leave gaps or holes. This damage was clearly attenuated when red light was focused through the pupil during the insult of raised IOP...
June 13, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619505/application-of-crispr-cas9-in-eye-disease
#18
REVIEW
Wenyi Wu, Luosheng Tang, Patricia A D'Amore, Hetian Lei
The system of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated nuclease (Cas)9 is an effective instrument for revising the genome with great accuracy. This system has been widely employed to generate mutants in genomes from plants to human cells. Rapid improvements in Cas9 specificity in eukaryotic cells have opened great potential for the use of this technology as a therapeutic. Herein, we summarize the recent advancements of CRISPR-Cas9 use in research on human cells and animal models, and outline a basic and clinical pipeline for CRISPR-Cas9-based treatments of genetic eye diseases...
June 12, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603017/effects-of-diabetes-mellitus-on-biomechanical-properties-of-the-rabbit-cornea
#19
FangJun Bao, ManLi Deng, XiaoBo Zheng, LinNa Li, YiPing Zhao, Si Cao, AYong Yu, QinMei Wang, JinHai Huang, Ahmed Elsheikh
To investigate the effects of diabetes on the biomechanical behavior of cornea in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced in 20 rabbits using alloxan, while another 20 age- and weight-matched non-diabetic rabbits served as controls. Eyes were enucleated after 8 weeks of inducing diabetes and the whole cornea was removed with a 3 mm wide scleral ring and tested under inflation conditions with an internal pressure range of 2.0-30.0 mmHg to determine their stress-strain behavior using an inverse analysis process...
June 8, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603016/rapid-repeatable-in%C3%A2-vivo-detection-of-retinal-reactive-oxygen-species
#20
Ning Fan, Sean M Silverman, Yang Liu, Xizhen Wang, Byung-Jin Kim, Liping Tang, Abbot F Clark, Xuyang Liu, Iok-Hou Pang
Oxidative injuries, such as those related to reactive oxygen species (ROS), have been implicated in various retinal and optic nerve disorders. Many ROS detection methods have been developed. Although widely utilized, many of these methods are useful only in post mortem tissues, or require relatively expensive equipment, or involve intraocular injection. In the present study, we demonstrated and characterized a chemiluminescent probe L-012 as a noninvasive, in vivo ROS detection agent in the mouse retina. Using optic nerve crush (ONC) and retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) as injury models, we show that L-012 produced intensive luminescent signals specifically in the injured eyes...
June 8, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
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