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Experimental Eye Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419863/cellular-stress-response-in-human-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-mio-m1-after-bevacizumab-treatment
#1
Monique Matsuda, Paloma Gava Krempel, Mônica Valeria Marquezini, Alfred Sholl-Franco, Amanda Lameu, Mário Luiz R Monteiro, Nádia Campos de Oliveira Miguel
Bevacizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent, is widely used in the treatment of retinal vascular diseases. However, due to the essential role Müller cell derived-VEGF plays in the maintenance of retinal neurons and glial cells, cell viability is likely to be affected by VEGF inhibition. We therefore evaluated the effect of bevacizumab-induced VEGF inhibition on Müller cells (MIO-M1) in vitro. MIO-M1 cells were cultured for 12 or 24 h in media containing bevacizumab at 0.25 or 0.5 mg/mL...
April 15, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414059/a-mouse-ocular-explant-model-that-enables-the-study-of-living-optic-nerve-head-events-after-acute-and-chronic-intraocular-pressure-elevation-focusing-on-retinal-ganglion-cell-axons-and-mitochondria
#2
Elizabeth C Kimball, Mary E Pease, Matthew R Steinhart, Ericka N Oglesby, Ian Pitha, Cathy Nguyen, Harry A Quigley
We developed an explant model of the mouse eye and optic nerve that facilitates the study of retinal ganglion cell axons and mitochondria in the living optic nerve head (ONH) in an ex vivo environment. Two transgenic mouse strains were used, one expressing yellow fluorescent protein in selected axons and a second strain expressing cyan fluorescent protein in all mitochondria. We viewed an explanted mouse eye and optic nerve by laser scanning microscopy at and behind the ONH, the site of glaucoma injury. Explants from previously untreated mice were studied with the intraocular pressure (IOP) set artificially at normal or elevated levels for several hours...
April 14, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410963/regional-differences-in-glutathione-accumulation-pathways-in-the-rat-cornea-mapping-of-amino-acid-transporters-involved-in-glutathione-synthesis
#3
Vithushiya Yoganandarajah, Bo Li, Ankita Umapathy, Paul J Donaldson, Julie C Lim
In this study we have sought to complete the identification and localization of uptake pathways involved in accumulating precursor amino acids involved in GSH synthesis in the rat cornea. To do this, we performed reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) to identify glutamate transporters (EAAT 1-5) and glycine transporters (GLYT 1-2) at the transcript level. Western blotting was used to verify protein expression, while immunolabeling of sagittal sections was used to localise transporters to the different layers of the cornea...
April 11, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395971/differential-effects-of-nitric-oxide-and-cyclo-oxygenase-inhibition-on-the-diameter-of-porcine-retinal-vessels-with-different-caliber-during-hypoxia-ex-vivo
#4
Peter Skov Jensen, Christian Aalkjaer, Toke Bek
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia induced relaxation of larger retinal arterioles has been shown to be mediated by nitric oxide (NO) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX) products both in vivo and in vitro. However, the involvement of smaller retinal vessels in the response is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of blocking the synthesis of NO and COX on hypoxia induced changes in the diameter of smaller porcine retinal vessels at different branching level. METHODS: Porcine hemiretinas were mounted in a tissue chamber and were constricted with the prostaglandin agonist U46619...
April 7, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365272/erk1-2-signaling-is-required-for-the-initiation-but-not-progression-of-tgf%C3%AE-induced-lens-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-emt
#5
Magdalena C Wojciechowski, Leila Mahmutovic, Daisy Y Shu, Frank J Lovicu
Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFβ) potently induces lens epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The resultant mesenchymal cells resemble those found in plaques of human forms of subcapsular cataract. Smad signaling has long been implicated as the sole driving force of TGFβ-mediated activity. Rat lens epithelial explants were used to examine the role of the Smad-independent signaling, namely the MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway, in the initiation and progression of TGFβ-induced EMT. Phase contrast microscopy was used to observe the morphological changes associated with TGFβ-induced EMT in this model, including cell elongation, cell membrane blebbing, cell loss as indicated by the area of bare capsule and capsular wrinkling...
March 30, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363775/the-human-meibomian-gland-epithelial-cell-line-as-a-model-to-study-meibomian-gland-dysfunction
#6
REVIEW
Ulrike Hampel, Fabian Garreis
The meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is the leading cause of dry eye disease (DED) throughout the world. The investigation of MGD lacks suitable in vivo and in vitro models. In 2010 a human meibomian gland epithelial cell line (HMGEC) was established, so far the only available meibomian gland cell line. The characterization of HMGEC is of major importance to clarify its suitability for studying the meibomian gland (patho)physiology in vitro. The current culture protocol and new concepts of HMGEC culture will be compared...
March 28, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347705/impact-of-temperature-on-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax-retina-fatty-acid-composition-expression-of-rhodopsin-and-enzymes-of-lipid-and-melatonin-metabolism
#7
Mehdi Bouaziz, Safa Bejaoui, Imen Rabeh, Raouf Besbes, M 'Hamed El Cafsi, Jack Falcon
Teleost fish are ectothermic vertebrates. Their metabolism, physiology and behavior rely on the external temperature. This study, on the retina of the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, reports on the impact of temperature on the fatty acid composition and mRNA abundance of key enzymes of lipid metabolism: fatty acid desaturase-2 (FADS2), fatty acid elongase-5 (ELOVL5), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), triglyceride lipase and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). We also report on the effects on the photopigment molecule rhodopsin and on enzymes of the melatonin synthesis pathway, namely arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferases 1a and 1b and acetylserotonin methyltransferase...
March 27, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336262/increased-susceptibility-to-fundus-camera-delivered-light-induced-retinal-degeneration-in-mice-deficient-in-oxidative-stress-response-proteins
#8
Yi Ding, Bogale Aredo, Xin Zhong, Cynthia X Zhao, Rafael L Ufret-Vincenty
Oxidative stress is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of many retinal diseases including age-related macular degeneration and retinal dystrophies. Light-induced retinal degeneration (LIRD) can serve as a model in which to study the response of the retina to stress. Of note, many genetic mutant mice are in a C57BL/6 J background and are thus resistant to the usual LIRD models. We recently developed a new model of fundus camera-delivered light-induced retinal degeneration (FCD-LIRD) which is effective in strains of mice expressing the light-resistant variant of RPE65 (450Met), including C57BL/6 J...
March 20, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336261/methane-rescues-retinal-ganglion-cells-and-limits-retinal-mitochondrial-dysfunction-following-optic-nerve-crush
#9
Ruobing Wang, Qinglei Sun, Fangzhou Xia, Zeli Chen, Jiangchun Wu, Yuelu Zhang, Jiajun Xu, Lin Liu
Secondary degeneration is a common event in traumatic central nervous system disorders, which involves neuronal apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Exogenous methane exerts the therapeutic effects in many organ injury. Our study aims to investigate the potential neuroprotection of methane in a rat model of optic nerve crush (ONC). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to ONC and administrated intraperitoneally with methane-saturated or normal saline (10 ml/kg) once per day for one week after ONC...
March 20, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336260/the-analysis-of-human-conjunctival-epithelium-proteome-in-ocular-surface-diseases-using-impression-cytology-and-2d-dige
#10
Javier Soria, Arantxa Acera, Juan A Durán, Ana Boto-de-Los-Bueis, Almudena Del-Hierro-Zarzuelo, Nerea González, Rebeca Reigada, Tatiana Suárez
Conjunctival impression cytology samples from patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), dry eye (DE), and healthy subjects (CT) were collected for determination of the degree of squamous metaplasia (SM) by PAS-hematoxylin staining and for comparative proteomic analyses by 2D-DIGE. The protein spots with discriminant expression were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Three independent statistical studies were conducted: i). Analysis of differential protein expression between study groups: We observed increased expression of proteins S100A4, S100A8, retinal dehydrogenase-1, peroxiredoxin-1, annexin-A1, annexin-A2, α-enolase, and glutathione S-transferase-P in DE, whereas the highest expression of peroxiredoxin-6, actin cytoplasmic-1, peroxiredoxin-2, and heat shock protein HSP-90-α was observed in MGD; ii)...
March 20, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336259/the-role-of-pili-in-bacillus-cereus-intraocular-infection
#11
Michelle C Callegan, Salai Madhumathi Parkunan, C Blake Randall, Phillip S Coburn, Frederick C Miller, Austin L LaGrow, Roger A Astley, Craig Land, So-Young Oh, Olaf Schneewind
Bacterial endophthalmitis is a potentially blinding intraocular infection. The bacterium Bacillus cereus causes a devastating form of this disease which progresses rapidly, resulting in significant inflammation and loss of vision within a few days. The outer surface of B. cereus incites the intraocular inflammatory response, likely through interactions with innate immune receptors such as TLRs. This study analyzed the role of B. cereus pili, adhesion appendages located on the bacterial surface, in experimental endophthalmitis...
March 20, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322827/structural-divergence-of-essential-triad-ribbon-synapse-proteins-among-placental-mammals-implications-for-preclinical-trials-in-photoreceptor-transplantation-therapy
#12
Christopher R J Laver, Joanne A Matsubara
As photoreceptor transplantation rapidly moves closer to the clinic, verifying graft efficacy in animal models may have unforeseen xenogeneic barriers. Although photoreceptor transplants have most convincingly exhibited functional synaptogenesis in conspecific studies, such evidence (while ruling out false-positives due to: viral graft labeling, fusion/cytosolic transfer, or neuroprotection) has not yet been shown for discordant xenografts. From this, a fundamental question should be raised: is useful xenosynaptogenesis likely between human photoreceptors and mouse retina? The triad ribbon synapse (TRS) that would normally form is unique and contains trans-synaptic proteins essential to its formation and function...
March 18, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322828/metabolic-characterization-of-human-aqueous-humor-in-relation-to-high-myopia
#13
Yinghong Ji, Jun Rao, Xianfang Rong, Shang Lou, Zhi Zheng, Yi Lu
High myopia is the common eye disorder worldwide, which may contribute to increase the risk of serious disorders including glaucoma and cataract. Although various studies including genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics have been implicated to identify potential biomarkers (genes or proteins) for predicting high myopia and to reveal the underlying mechanisms, the comprehensive metabolomics in relation to high myopia is very limited. In this study, we identified 242 metabolites in aqueous humor (AH) from a set of 40 patients (including 20 with high myopia and 20 for controls), using a non-targeted metabolomic technology, gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC/TOF MS)...
March 17, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315339/elastic-microfibril-distribution-in-the-cornea-differences-between-normal-and-keratoconic-stroma
#14
Tomas L White, Philip N Lewis, Robert D Young, Koji Kitazawa, Tsutomu Inatomi, Shigeru Kinoshita, Keith M Meek
The optical and biomechanical properties of the cornea are largely governed by the collagen-rich stroma, a layer that represents approximately 90% of the total thickness. Within the stroma, the specific arrangement of superimposed lamellae provides the tissue with tensile strength, whilst the spatial arrangement of individual collagen fibrils within the lamellae confers transparency. In keratoconus, this precise stromal arrangement is lost, resulting in ectasia and visual impairment. In the normal cornea, we previously characterised the three-dimensional arrangement of an elastic fiber network spanning the posterior stroma from limbus-to-limbus...
March 14, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315338/lymphatic-and-vascular-markers-in-an-optic-nerve-crush-model-in-rat
#15
A Trost, D Bruckner, A Kaser-Eichberger, K Motloch, B Bogner, C Runge, C Strohmaier, S Couillard-Despres, H A Reitsamer, F Schroedl
Only few tissues lack lymphatic supply, such as the CNS or the inner eye. However, if the scleral border is compromised due to trauma or tumor, lymphatics are detected in the eye. Since the situation in the optic nerve (ON), part of the CNS, is not clear, the aim of this study is to screen for the presence of lymphatic markers in the healthy and lesioned ON. Brown Norway rats received an unilateral optic nerve crush (ONC) with defined force, leaving the dura intact. Lesioned ONs and unlesioned contralateral controls were analyzed 7 days (n = 5) and 14 days (n = 5) after ONC, with the following markers: PDGFRb (pericyte), Iba1 (microglia), CD68 (macrophages), RECA (endothelial cell), GFAP (astrocyte) as well as LYVE-1 and podoplanin (PDPN; lymphatic markers)...
March 14, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286282/retinal-accumulation-of-zeaxanthin-lutein-and-%C3%AE-carotene-in-mice-deficient-in-carotenoid-cleavage-enzymes
#16
Binxing Li, Preejith P Vachali, Zhengqing Shen, Aruna Gorusupudi, Kelly Nelson, Brian M Besch, Alexis Bartschi, Simone Longo, Ty Mattinson, Saeed Shihab, Nikolay E Polyakov, Lyubov P Suntsova, Alexander V Dushkin, Paul S Bernstein
Carotenoid supplementation can prevent and reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other ocular disease, but until now, there has been no validated and well-characterized mouse model which can be employed to investigate the protective mechanism and relevant metabolism of retinal carotenoids. β-Carotene oxygenases 1 and 2 (BCO1 and BCO2) are the only two carotenoid cleavage enzymes found in animals. Mutations of the bco2 gene may cause accumulation of xanthophyll carotenoids in animal tissues, and BCO1 is involved in regulation of the intestinal absorption of carotenoids...
March 9, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284957/proteolytic-activity-in-the-meibomian-gland-implications-to-health-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Pablo Argüeso
The function of the meibomian gland in the upper and lower eyelids is critical to maintaining homeostasis at the ocular surface. Highly specialized meibocytes within the gland must differentiate and accumulate intracellular lipid droplets that are released into the tear film following rupture of the cell membrane. Proteases and their inhibitors have been recognized as key players in remodeling extracellular matrices and promoting the normal integrity of glandular tissue. They modulate a wide range of biological processes, such as cell proliferation and differentiation, and can contribute to disease when aberrantly expressed...
March 8, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284956/astrocytes-and-glaucomatous-neurodegeneration
#18
EDITORIAL
Ernst R Tamm, John E Dowling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259670/identification-of-a-direct-aquaporin-0-binding-site-in-the-lens-specific-cytoskeletal-protein-filensin
#19
Zhen Wang, Kevin L Schey
An interaction between the C-terminus of aquaporin-0 (AQP0) and lens beaded filament protein filensin has been reported previously; however, the region of filensin that is involved in the interaction has not been determined. This study is designed to identify the region of filensin that interacts with AQP0. Chemical crosslinking coupled with mass spectrometry was used to identify the site of interaction. The protein complex was crosslinked with zero-length crosslinker: 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide Hydrochloride (EDC)...
March 1, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257831/silencing-of-galectin-1-inhibits-retinal-neovascularization-and-ameliorates-retinal-hypoxia-in-a-murine-model-of-oxygen-induced-ischemic-retinopathy
#20
Ning Yang, Wenxi Zhang, Tao He, Yiqiao Xing
Aberrant neovascularization is a consequence of inappropriate angiogenic signaling and contributes to several diseases. Although many regulators of pathogenic angiogenesis have been identified, the understanding of this process remains incomplete. Galectin-1 (Gal-1), as a homodimeric protein with a single carbohydrate-recognition domain, is implicated in several pathologic processes, including angiogenesis; however, its involvement in retinal neovascularization (RNV) remains unknown. Here, we investigated the anti-angiogenic effect of silencing Gal-1 through intravitreal injection in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR)...
February 28, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
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