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Experimental Eye Research

Maria Valle, Janine Dworshak, Ashok Sharma, Ahmed Ibrahim, Mohamed Al-Shabrawey, Shruti Sharma
Vascular inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Recently, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) trans-signaling via soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) has emerged as a prominent regulator of inflammation in endothelial cells. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that selective inhibition of the IL-6 trans-signaling pathway will attenuate inflammation and subsequent barrier disruption in retinal endothelial cells. Human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) were exposed to IL-6 and sIL-6R to induce IL-6 trans-signaling and the commercially available compound sgp130Fc (soluble gp-130 fused chimera) was used to selectively inhibit IL-6 trans-signaling...
September 18, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Mathangi Sankaran, Patrick W Keeley, Li He, P Michael Iuvone, Benjamin E Reese
Many types of retinal neuron modulate the distribution of their processes to ensure a uniform coverage of the retinal surface. Dendritic field area, for instance, is inversely related to the variation in cellular density for many cell types, observed either across retinal eccentricity or between different strains of mice that differ in cell number. Dopaminergic amacrine (DA) cells, by contrast, have dendritic arbors that bear no spatial relationship to the presence of their immediate homotypic neighbors, yet it remains to be determined whether their coverage upon the retina, as a population, is conserved across variation in their total number...
September 18, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Kai Flachsbarth, Wanda Jankowiak, Katharina Kruszewski, Sabine Helbing, Susanne Bartsch, Udo Bartsch
Neuroprotection is among the potential treatment options for glaucoma and other retinal pathologies characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Here, we examined the impact of a neural stem (NS) cell-based intravitreal co-administration of two neuroprotective factors on the survival of axotomized RGCs. To this aim we used lentiviral vectors to establish clonal NS cell lines ectopically expressing either glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) or ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)...
September 17, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Carrie E Smith, Robert S Allison, Frances Wilkinson, Laurie M Wilcox
Recent studies have confirmed that monovision treatment degrades stereopsis but it is not clear if these effects are limited to fine disparity processing, or how they are affected by viewing distance or age. Given the link between stereopsis and postural stability, it is important that we have full understanding of the impact of monovision on binocular function. In this study we assessed the short-term effects of optically induced monovision on a depth-discrimination task for young and older (presbyopic) adults...
September 17, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Luciano Fiore, Mara Medori, Gonzalo Spelzini, Cindy Olmos Carreño, Néstor Gabriel Carri, Viviana Sanchez, Gabriel Scicolone
The Eph and ephrins are involved in the genesis of topographic ordered connections at the visual system. Previously we demonstrated that tectal EphA3 stimulates axon growth of nasal retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) toward the caudal tectum preventing them from branching in the rostral tectum. Now we investigated whether tectal EphA3 plays this role by modulating the axonal EphA4 forward signaling or throughout axonal ephrin-As reverse signaling. For this purpose we used cultures of nasal retinal explants and dissociated retinal neurons from chicken embryos...
September 17, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Jing Xiang, Lihua Kang, Hongbo Gao, Jian Wu, Bai Qin, Tianqiu Zhou, Guowei Zhang, Huaijin Guan
Age-related cataract (ARC) is the most common cause of severe visual impairment and blindness. The precise mechanisms of ARC are not completely understood, but it is well accepted that oxidative damage plays an important role in the disease pathogenesis. BLM, the key enzyme of the double-strand break repair (DSBR) pathway, is part of a family of DNA unwinding enzymes and has a crucial role in multiple steps of the DNA recombination, replication and repair processes. We have recently shown that BLM-rs1063147 is initially associated with nuclear ARC in a cross-section study...
September 15, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
M P Simunovic, W Shen, J Y Lin, D A Protti, L Lisowski, M C Gillies
Inherited retinal disease (IRD) affects about 1 in 3000 to 1 in 5000 individuals and is now believed to be the most common cause of blindness registration in developed countries. Until recently, the management of such conditions had been exclusively supportive. However, advances in molecular biology and medical engineering have now seen the rise of a variety of approaches to restore vision in patients with IRDs. Optogenetic approaches are primarily aimed at rendering secondary and tertiary neurons of the retina light-sensitive in order to replace degenerate or dysfunctional photoreceptors...
September 12, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Yaping Ju, Srikanth Reddy Janga, Wannita Klinngam, J Andrew MacKay, Dillon Hawley, Driss Zoukhri, Maria C Edman, Sarah F Hamm-Alvarez
The male Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mouse is an established model of autoimmune dacryoadenitis characteristic of Sjögren's Syndrome (SS), but development of diabetes may complicate studies. The Non-Obese Diabetes Resistant (NOR) mouse is a MHC-II matched diabetes-resistant alternative, but development of autoimmune dacryoadenitis is not well-characterized. We compare features of SS in male NOD and NOR mice at 12 and 20 weeks. Stimulated tear secretion was decreased in 12 week NOD relative to BALB/c mice (p < 0...
September 8, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Muhammad Ali, Shahid Y Khan, Firoz Kabir, John D Gottsch, S Amer Riazuddin
The corneal endothelium (CE), a monolayer of hexagonal cells constitutes the innermost layer of the cornea that is critical in maintaining clarity by mediating hydration through barrier and pump functions. Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) have limited proliferative potential and therefore generation of CECs has been undertaken by many groups. We previously reported generation of CECs from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-originated, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In here, we extend our analysis through next-generation seqeuncing based transcriptome profiling of H9 human embryonic stem cell (hESC)- and human PBMC-originated, iPSC-derived CECs...
September 6, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Hidetaka Miyagi, Iman Jalilian, Christopher J Murphy, Sara M Thomasy
Corneal wound healing is a complex process that consists of cellular integration of multiple soluble biochemical cues and cellular responses to biophysical attributes associated with the matrix of the wound space. Upon corneal stromal wounding, the transformation of corneal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts is promoted by transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ). This process is critical for wound healing; however, excessive persistence of myofibroblasts in the wound space has been associated with corneal fibrosis resulting in severe vision loss...
September 5, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Karen Eastlake, Wendy E Heywood, Phillip Banerjee, Emily Bliss, Kevin Mills, Peng T Khaw, David Charteris, G Astrid Limb
Müller glia are responsible for the neural retina regeneration observed in fish and amphibians throughout life. Despite the presence of these cells in the adult human retina, there is no evidence of regeneration occurring in humans following disease or injury. It may be possible that factors present in the degenerated retina could prevent human Müller glia from proliferating and neurally differentiating within the diseased retina. On this basis, investigations into the proteomic profile of these cells and the abundance of key proteins associated to Müller glia in the gliotic PVR retina, may assist in the identification of factors with the potential to control Müller proliferation and neural differentiation in vivo...
September 1, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Elizabeth L Irving, Linda Lillakas
The purpose of the study was to analyze vertical saccade parameters (latency, peak velocity, amplitude gain), and compare them to those of horizontal saccades in a cross-sectional study across the ages of the human lifespan. One hundred and thirty one participants (62 males) between the ages of 3 and 86 years made vertical prosaccades of 2-44° in response to a dot stimulus projected on a screen. A subset of participants also made horizontal prosaccades of 2-60° under the same conditions. The El-Mar (Downsview, Ontario, Canada) eye tracker was used to record binocular eye movements...
August 30, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Kiyohito Totsuka, Takashi Ueta, Takatoshi Uchida, Murilo F Roggia, Suguru Nakagawa, Demetrios G Vavvas, Megumi Honjo, Makoto Aihara
The dysfunction and cell death of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are hallmarks of late-stage dry (atrophic) age-related macular degeneration (AMD), for which no effective therapy has yet been developed. Previous studies have indicated that iron accumulation is a source of excess free radical production in RPE, and age-dependent iron accumulation in RPE is accelerated in patients with dry AMD. Although the pathogenic role of oxidative stress in RPE in the development of dry AMD is widely accepted, the mechanisms of oxidative stress-induced RPE cell death remain elusive...
August 29, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Raaya Ezra-Elia, Alexey Obolensky, Ayala Ejzenberg, Maya Ross, Dvir Mintz, Eyal Banin, Ron Ofri
Recombinant adeno associated viruses (AAV) are the most commonly used vectors in animal model studies of gene therapy for retinal diseases. The ability of a vector to localize and remain in the target tissue, and in this manner to avoid off-target effects beyond the site of delivery, is critical to the efficacy and safety of the treatment. The in vivo imaging system (IVIS) is a non-invasive imaging tool used for detection and quantification of bioluminescence activity in rodents. Our aim was to investigate whether IVIS can detect localization and biodistribution of AAV5 vector in mice following subretinal (SR) and intravitreal (IVT) injections...
August 29, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
A Trost, C Runge, D Bruckner, A Kaser-Eichberger, B Bogner, C Strohmaier, H A Reitsamer, F Schroedl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Eloy Bejarano, Allen Taylor
Laboratory and epidemiological data indicate that high blood sugar levels and/or consuming high glycemia diets are linked to multiple age-related diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, cataract, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, diabetic retinopathy, and, apparently glaucoma. High concentrations of blood sugar and perturbations of the systems that regulate blood sugar lead to the accumulation of advanced-glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are toxic compounds that are formed from the combination of sugars and their metabolites with biomolecules in a non-enzymatic biochemical reaction called glycation...
August 23, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Suganya Sivagurunathan, Rajiv Raman, Subbulakshmi Chidambaram
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major causes of blindness resulting from prolonged hyperglycemia which leads to breakdown of blood retinal barrier and excessive neovascularization. In our previous study, we demonstrated the presence of germline-specific PIWI-like proteins in human retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and a discrete function of HIWI2 (PIWIL4) in the assembly of tight junction through Akt/GSK3α/β. Recently, PIWI/piRNA has been suggested to be involved in the development of diabetes...
August 23, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Reuben K Dyer, Larry A Abel
INTRODUCTION: The utility of optokinetic nystagmus suppression as an index of visual attention has been demonstrated; however, a gap exists in our understanding of the effects of aging on attentional division. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a subject's age upon their ability to allocate visual attention among multiple salient elements which varied in location and complexity. METHOD: Large-field optokinetic nystagmus (OKN)-inducing animations were presented along with a central flashing fixation point to 27 subjects: 15 younger adults (range 19-23, mean age 21...
August 21, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Martina C Herwig-Carl Nee Herwig, Annette M Müller, Karin U Loeffler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 21, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Naime Tugac, David Gonzalez, Kimihiro Noguchi, Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo
Binocular vision provides the most accurate and precise depth information; however, many people have impairments in binocular visual function. It is possible that other sensory inputs could be used to obtain reliable depth information when binocular vision is not available. However, it is currently unknown whether depth information from another modality improves target localization in depth during action execution. Therefore, the goal of this study was to assess whether somatosensory input improves target localization during the performance of a precision placement task...
August 17, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
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