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Experimental Eye Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803936/slurp1-promotes-corneal-angiogenic-privilege-by-suppressing-nuclear-translocation-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#1
Sudha Swamynathan, Chelsea L Loughner, Shivalingappa K Swamynathan
Previously, we have reported that the Secreted Ly6/uPAR related protein-1 (SLURP1) serves an important immunomodulatory function in the ocular surface. Here, we examine the involvement of SLURP1 in regulating corneal angiogenic privilege. Slurp1 expression detected by QPCR, immunoblots and immunofluorescent stain, was significantly decreased in mouse corneas subjected to alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization (CNV). Addition of exogenous SLURP1 (6XHis-tagged, E. coli expressed and partially purified using Ni-ion columns) significantly suppressed the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated human umbilical cord vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803935/tnf-%C3%AE-upregulates-hif-1%C3%AE-expression-in-pterygium-fibroblasts-and-enhances-their-susceptibility-to-vegf-independent-of-hypoxia
#2
Kyoung Woo Kim, Soo Jin Lee, Jae Chan Kim
The clinical manifestations of pterygium are characterized by rapid growth and postoperative recurrences. We had previously proposed that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α recruits progenitor cells during the development and progression of pterygia. Recently, it was reported that various stimuli, including inflammation, could activate HIF-1α even under normoxic conditions. The ocular surface directly faces external environments, and is thus frequently exposed to inflammatory insults. First, we examined the gene expression of HIF-1α, its downstream molecule, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 in corneal and conjunctival cells compared with cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802859/special-issue-on-meibomian-glands
#3
EDITORIAL
Shizuya Saika, James V Jester, Winston Whei-Yang Kao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789942/statins-reduce-tgf-beta2-modulation-of-the-extracellular-matrix-in-cultured-astrocytes-of-the-human-optic-nerve-head
#4
Mi-Lyang Kim, Kyung Rim Sung, Jin A Shin, Joo Young Yoon, Joonhee Jang
Statins are cholesterol lowering drugs and have shown beneficial effects on glaucoma. With regard to the mechanism of statin action on glaucoma, we investigated the effects of statins on transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-β2)-induced expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in human astrocytes of the optic nerve head (ONH) lamina cribrosa (LC). By using primary human ONH astrocytes, we found that both simvastatin and lovastatin inhibited TGF-β2-mediated expression of ECM proteins such as connective tissue growth factor, collagen I, fibronectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1...
August 5, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782506/an-inducible-form-of-nrf2-confers-enhanced-protection-against-acute-oxidative-stresses-in-rpe-cells
#5
Khiem T Vu, John D Hulleman
Increasing evidence suggests that overt oxidative stress within the retina plays an important role in the progression of age-related retinal decline, and in particular, in the disease age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2) is a master transcription factor that upregulates numerous of antioxidant/detoxification genes. Nrf2(-/-) mice develop progressive retinal degeneration that includes the formation of drusen-like deposits, lipofuscin, and sub-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) deposition of inflammatory proteins...
August 4, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782505/chronic-pesticide-exposure-and-consequential-keratectasia-corneal-neovascularisation
#6
Shalini Sanyal, Atrayo Law, Sujata Law
Ocular toxicity as a consequence of chronic pesticide exposure is one of the health hazards caused due to extended exposure to pesticides. The cornea, due to its position as the outer ocular layer and its role in protecting the internal layers of the eye; is gravely affected by this xenobiotic insult to the eye, leading to ocular irritation and damage to normal vision. The deleterious effects of chronic pesticide exposure on the various corneal layers and the ocular risks involved therein, were explored by mimicking the on-field scenario...
August 4, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778401/postnatal-maturation-of-the-fovea-in-macaca-mulatta-using-optical-coherence-tomography
#7
Nimesh B Patel, Li-Fang Hung, Ronald S Harwerth
Changes in the foveal anatomy during infancy are an important component in early development of spatial vision. The present longitudinal study in rhesus monkeys was undertaken to characterize the postnatal maturation of the fovea. Starting at four weeks after birth, the retinas of the left eyes of sixteen infant monkeys were imaged using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Retinal scans were repeated every 30 days during the first year of life and every 60 days thereafter. Volume scans through the fovea were registered, scaled using a three surface schematic eye, and analyzed to measure foveal pit parameters...
August 2, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778400/peptide-gc31-inhibits-chemokines-and-icam-1-expression-in-corneal-fibroblasts-exposed-to-lps-or-poly-i-c-by-blocking-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-pathways
#8
Shaopin Zhu, Xun Xu, Kun Liu, Qing Gu, Fang Wei, Huiyi Jin
In keratitis, corneal fibroblasts play a vital role by releasing inflammatory cytokines and expressing intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1). GC31 is a novel peptide derived from thrombomodulin, an endogenous protein with potential anti-inflammation properties. We evaluated the protective effect of GC31 in LPS- or poly(I:C)-induced corneal fibroblasts. Cultured corneal fibroblasts were treated with either LPS or poly(I:C); The mRNA and protein expressions of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and IFN-γ were determined by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and ELISA...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774736/rep1-copy-number-variation-is-an-important-genetic-cause-of-choroideremia-in-chinese-patients
#9
Qi Zhou, Fengxia Yao, Xiaoxu Han, Hui Li, Lizhu Yang, Ruifang Sui
Choroidermia (CHM) is an X-linked chorioretinal disorder caused by mutations in the Rab Escort Protein 1 (Rep-1) gene. Its diagnosis depends on clinical findings and genetic confirmation; however, mutations in Rep-1 gene are not always detected by standard Sanger sequencing. We therefore conducted multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR) in cases of Chinese CHM families in which sequencing all the exons and flanking intronic regions of the CHM gene had not identified a mutation or exons could not be amplified...
July 31, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743502/cell-autonomous-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-contributes-to-maintenance-of-retinal-endothelial-tight-junctions
#10
Monica Diaz-Coranguez, Daniel L Chao, Enrique L Salero, Jeffrey L Goldberg, David A Antonetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 22, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739099/changes-of-meibomian-glands-in-the-early-stage-of-post-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#11
Seonjoo Kim, Young-Sik Yoo, Hyun Seung Kim, Choun-Ki Joo, Kyung-Sun Na
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the most effective cure for hematologic malignancies. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication following allogeneic HSCT, which significantly affects non-relapse mortality. And ocular manifestations of GVHD are known to occurin 60-90% of patients with chronic GVHD. Although the pathogenesis of ocular GVHD is not clearly known, it is known to progress into inflammation and fibrosis through presentation of antigens on CD4 and CD8 T cells. There is much evidence that the ocular surface and meibomian glands are severely damaged in ocular GVHD patients, and there are few observational studies on the early changes...
July 21, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734673/somatostatin-protects-human-retinal-pericytes-from-inflammation-mediated-by-microglia
#12
Aurora Mazzeo, Ana I Arroba, Elena Beltramo, Angela M Valverde, Massimo Porta
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is usually considered a microvascular disease. However, involvement of the neuroretina in the early stages of DR has recently gained major credit. Inflammatory processes, leading to glial activation and neuronal apoptosis, develop early in the retina of diabetic subjects. Pericytes constitute a link between the vascular and the neural retina, play a central role in blood-retinal barrier maintenance, and may influence neuroinflammation. Somatostatin (SST) is a potent neuroprotective factor, which is down-regulated during early DR...
July 20, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669846/meibomian-glands-meibum-and-meibogenesis
#13
REVIEW
Igor A Butovich
Meibum is a lipid-rich secretion that is produced by fully differentiated meibocytes in the holocrine Meibomian glands (MG) of humans and most mammals. The secretion is a part of a defense mechanism that protects the ocular surface from hazardous environmental factors, and from desiccation. Meibomian lipids that have been identified in meibum are very diverse and unique in nature. The lipid composition of meibum is different from virtually any other lipid pool found in the human body. In fact, meibum is quite different from sebum, which is the closest secretion that is produced by anatomically, physiologically, and biochemically related sebaceous glands...
June 29, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549900/four-decades-of-ocular-renin-angiotensin-and-kallikrein-kinin-systems-1977-2017
#14
REVIEW
Rajko Igić
This review offers a contemporary history of the renin-angiotensin (RAS) and kallikrein-kinin (KKS) systems with emphasis on how these complex systems affect the eye. It describes the types of communication (cross-talk) between the two systems and evaluates their potential role in the development of diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and uveitis. In addition to detailing the important physiological actions of components of the RAS and KKS, possibilities are suggested for new therapeutic avenues in the treatment of common ocular diseases...
May 23, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757158/a-short-term-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-in-mice-impairs-optic-nerve-recovery-after-injury-and-this-is-not-reversed-by-exercise
#15
Vicki Chrysostomou, Peter van Wijngaarden, Gregory R Steinberg, Jonathan G Crowston
The aim of the current work was to test whether increased intake of dietary fat and sucrose in mice modifies the response of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of the optic nerve to injury, and whether any effects of diet are influenced by physical activity levels. C57BL/6J mice were given a high-fat high-sucrose (HFS) diet for 7 weeks, with or without exposure to regular exercise by swimming (60 min/day, 5 days/week). Injury to RGCs was subsequently induced by acute elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) and retinas were assessed for function and structure...
September 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739100/movement-of-retinal-vessels-toward-the-optic-nerve-head-after-increasing-intraocular-pressure-in-monkey-eyes-with-experimental-glaucoma
#16
Atsumi Kuroda, Nobuko Enomoto, Kyoko Ishida, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Tetsuro Noguchi, Naoto Horai, Hirotaka Onoe, Hideaki Hara, Goji Tomita
A shift or displacement of the retinal blood vessels (RBVs) with neuroretinal rim thinning indicates the progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In chronic open angle glaucoma, individuals with RBV positional shifts exhibit more rapid visual field loss than those without RBV shifts. The retinal vessels reportedly move onto the optic nerve head (ONH) in response to glaucoma damage, suggesting that RBVs are pulled toward the ONH in response to increased cupping. Whether this phenomenon only applies to RVBs located in the vicinity or inside the ONH or, more generally, to RBVs also located far from the ONH, however, is unclear...
September 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734674/retinal-exposure-to-high-glucose-condition-modifies-the-gabaergic-system-regulation-by-nitric-oxide
#17
R Carpi-Santos, R S Maggesissi, M P von Seehausen, K C Calaza
Diabetic retinopathy is a severe retinal complication that diabetic patients are susceptible to present. Although this disease is currently characterized as a microvascular disease, there is growing evidence that neural changes occur and maybe precede vascular impairments. Using chicken retina, an avascular tissue with no direct contact with blood vessels and neural retina, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of acute exposure to high glucose concentration in the retinal GABAergic system, and the role of nitric oxide (NO) in this modulation...
September 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734672/diabetes-of-5-years-duration-does-not-lead-to-photoreceptor-degeneration-in-the-canine-non-tapetal-inferior-nasal-retina
#18
LETTER
Deoye Tonade, Timothy S Kern
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720437/quantification-of-micrornas-in-human-aqueous-humor-by-mirflp-assay
#19
Bijun Zhu, Wenli Zhu, Shangyu Ye, Delun Luo, Kai Xu, Zhigang Wu, Haidong Zou
MiRNAs are expressed in a tissue-specific fashion in the eyes and changes in miRNAs levels in aqueous humor (AH) may reflect the function of the eye and eye disease. Due to the low concentration of total miRNA in human aqueous humor, high volume of sample is required for RNA extraction prior to routine quantification such as RT-qPCR. However, limited volume of AH could be collected through surgery because of the characteristic of the eye. In addition, inefficiency of RNA-extraction kits could affect target miRNA quantification dramatically...
September 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720436/direct-measurement-of-pressure-independent-aqueous-humour-flow-using-iperfusion
#20
Michael Madekurozwa, Ester Reina-Torres, Darryl R Overby, Joseph M Sherwood
Reduction of intraocular pressure is the sole therapeutic target for glaucoma. Intraocular pressure is determined by the dynamics of aqueous humour secretion and outflow, which comprise several pressure-dependent and pressure-independent mechanisms. Accurately quantifying the components of aqueous humour dynamics is essential in understanding the pathology of glaucoma and the development of new treatments. To better characterise aqueous humour dynamics, we propose a method to directly measure pressure-independent aqueous humour flow...
September 2017: Experimental Eye Research
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