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Experimental Eye Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162348/human-aniridia-limbal-epithelial-cells-lack-expression-of-keratins-k3-and-k12
#1
Lorenz Latta, Arne Viestenz, Tanja Stachon, Sarah Colanesi, Nóra Szentmáry, Berthold Seitz, Barbara Käsmann-Kellner
Patients with aniridia often develop aniridia-related keratopathy (ARK), due to limbal stem cell insufficiency. This study aimed to determine the proliferative capacity and differentiation status of limbal epithelial cells (LECs) in patients with ARK. We also investigated the influences of PAX6 genotype on PAX6-transcript and protein level. Here two patients with aniridia underwent keratoplasty were examined. During the surgery, small limbal biopsies and pannus tissue were excised and processed for cell culture...
November 18, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133122/involvement-of-cannabinoid-receptor-type-2-in-light-induced-degeneration-of-cells-from-mouse-retinal-cell-line-in-vitro-and-mouse-photoreceptors-in-vivo
#2
Tomoyo Imamura, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Yuki Inoue, Tomohiro Otsuka, Yuta Ohno, Shiho Ogami, Shinsaku Yamane, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki Hara
Earlier studies showed that the expressions of the agonists of the cannabinoid receptors are reduced in the vitreous humor of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and the cannabinoid type 2 receptor is present in the retinas of rats and monkeys. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the cannabinoid type 2 receptor is involved in the light-induced death of cultured 661W cells, an immortalized murine retinal cell line, and in the light-induced retinal degeneration in mice. Time-dependent changes in the expression and location of retinal cannabinoid type 2 receptor were determined by Western blot and immunostaining...
November 10, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128492/expression-of-potassium-dependent-sodium-calcium-exchanger-in-the-murine-lens
#3
Alicia De Maria, Haiqing Zhao, Steven Bassnett
Loss of intracellular calcium homeostasis may contribute to the opacification of lens tissue during cortical cataract formation. In healthy lenses, the concentration of intracellular calcium is maintained at levels far below electrochemical equilibrium but the identity of the calcium extrusion mechanism in lens fiber cells has remained elusive. Previous studies focused on the role of plasma membrane calcium ATPases and sodium-calcium exchangers. Here, we examined the expression of mRNA transcripts encoding potassium-dependent sodium-calcium exchangers (Nckx's, encoded by the Slc24 gene family) in the mouse lens...
November 9, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126840/neuroprotective-effect-of-cannabinoid-receptor-1-antagonist-in-the-mnu-induced-retinal-degeneration-model
#4
Yuanyuan Chen, Xue Luo, Shiliang Liu, Yin Shen
Endocannabinoid system involves in neuroprotective effects on the central neural system. The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) is widely expressed in the mouse retina. However, the role of cannabinoid receptors in the retina remains unclear. In this work, we established a photoreceptor degeneration mouse model via N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) administration to identify the neuroprotective effects of cannabinoid receptors. The MNU-induced retinal degeneration behaves similarly to that in the human retinitis pigmentosa (RP)...
November 7, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122605/phenotypic-characterization-of-p23h-and-s334ter-rhodopsin-transgenic-rat-models-of-inherited-retinal-degeneration
#5
Matthew M LaVail, Shimpei Nishikawa, Roy H Steinberg, Muna I Naash, Jacque L Duncan, Nikolaus Trautmann, Michael T Matthes, Douglas Yasumura, Cathy Lau-Villacorta, Jeannie Chen, Ward M Peterson, Haidong Yang, John G Flannery
We produced 8 lines of transgenic (Tg) rats expressing one of two different rhodopsin mutations in albino Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Three lines were generated with a proline to histidine substitution at codon 23 (P23H), the most common autosomal dominant form of retinitis pigmentosa in the United States. Five lines were generated with a termination codon at position 334 (S334ter), resulting in a C-terminal truncated opsin protein lacking the last 15 amino acid residues and containing all of the phosphorylation sites involved in rhodopsin deactivation, as well as the terminal QVAPA residues important for rhodopsin deactivation and trafficking...
November 6, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106899/vinpocetine-protects-inner-retinal-neurons-with-functional-nmda-glutamate-receptors-against-retinal-ischemia
#6
Lisa Nivison-Smith, Pauline Khoo, Monica L Acosta, Michael Kalloniatis
Retinal ischemia is involved in the pathogenesis of many major vision threatening diseases. Vinpocetine is a natural drug, which has a range of neuroprotective actions against retinal ischemia including modulating cation flow, improving metabolic activity and preventing apoptosis. The exact mechanism behind these actions remains unknown but may involve glutamate receptors, major components of the ischemic cascade. This study examined the effects of vinpocetine in association with specific ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and kainate...
November 4, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100828/conditional-loss-of-spata7-in-photoreceptors-causes-progressive-retinal-degeneration-in-mice
#7
Aiden Eblimit, Smriti Akshay Agrawal, Kandace Thomas, Ivan Assenov Anastassov, Tajiguli Abulikemu, Graeme Mardon, Rui Chen
The mammalian retina consists of multiple cell layers including photoreceptor cells, which are light sensing neurons that play essential functions in the visual process. Previously, we identified mutations in SPATA7, encoding spermatogenesis associated protein 7, in families with Leber Congenital Amaurosis (LCA) and juvenile Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), and showed that Spata7 null mice recapitulate the human disease phenotype of retinal degeneration. SPATA7 is expressed in the connecting cilium of photoreceptor (PR) cells in the mouse retina, as well as in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, but the functional role of Spata7 in the RPE remains unknown...
October 31, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106900/peripapillary-distribution-of-muller-cells-within-the-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-in-human-eyes
#8
Shahar Frenkel, Gal Goshen, Lu Leach, Jacob Pe'er, Michael Mimouni, Eytan Z Blumenthal
The purpose of this study was to describe the distribution of Muller cell within the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in human eyes. Eleven unpaired normal postmortem eyes were recruited into this study. Each eye was sectioned using the "umbrella technique" to obtain a concentric peripapillary ring centered on the optic disc, with a diameter of 3.0 mm. Immunohistochemistry with anti- CRALBP stained Muller cell within each ring. The RNFL thickness measurements around the peripapillary ring were: 262...
October 26, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074386/unlike-th1-th17%C3%A2-cells-th2-th9-cells-selectively-migrate-to-the-limbus-conjunctiva-and-initiate-an-eosinophilic-infiltration-process
#9
Cuiyan Tan, Wambui S Wandu, Anthony St Leger, Jennifer Kielczewski, Eric F Wawrousek, Chi-Chao Chan, Igal Gery
In this study we compared polarized mouse T-helper (Th) lymphocytes of four populations, sensitized against an ocular antigen, for their patterns of migration and induction of inflammatory processes in recipient mouse eyes expressing the target antigen. Th1, Th2, Th9 and Th17 cells transgenically expressing T-cell receptor (TCR) specific against hen egg lysozyme (HEL) were adoptively transferred to recipient mice expressing HEL in their eyes. Recipient eyes collected 4 or 7 days post injection were analyzed for histopathological changes...
October 24, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074388/functional-assessment-of-the-aqueous-humour-distal-outflow-pathways-in-bovine-eyes-using-time-of-flight-magnetic-resonance-tomography
#10
Thomas Wecker, Christian van Oterendorp, Wilfried Reichardt
The major part of the aqueous humor leaves the eye through the "conventional outflow pathway", consisting of the trabecular meshwork, Schlemm's canal, collector channels, an intrasceral plexus and the episcleral veins. While the trabecular meshwork is well characterized, little is known about anatomical and functional features of the peripheral outflow tract beyond Schlemm's canal. The emergence of minimally-invasive glaucoma surgery directly targeting the outflow resistance in the trabecular meshwork has elicited growing interest in these structures...
October 23, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074387/ocular-tissue-distribution-and-pharmacokinetic-study-of-a-small-13kda-domain-antibody-after-intravitreal-subconjuctival-and-eye-drop-administration-in-rabbits
#11
Gerald Gough, Matthew Szapacs, Tejash Shah, Peter Clements, Craig Struble, Robert Wilson
Domain antibodies (dAb's) comprise the smallest functional unit of human IgG and can be targeted to a range of different soluble cytokine and receptor targets in the eye. In particular their small size may offer advantage for ocular tissue penetration and distribution. To investigate this we used a 13kDa tool molecule to undertake a preliminary short term ocular tissue distribution and pharmacokinetic study in the rabbit eye. The dAb was administered by the intravitreal or subconjunctival route or, as topical eye drops for up to five days and dAb concentrations measured in vitreous, aqueous, conjunctiva, choroid-RPE, retina, iris, sclera, and ciliary body...
October 23, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066281/visualizing-melanosomes-lipofuscin-and-melanolipofuscin-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelium-using-serial-block-face-scanning-electron-microscopy
#12
Andreas Pollreisz, Jeffrey D Messinger, Kenneth R Sloan, Tamara J Mittermueller, Alexandra S Weinhandl, Emily K Benson, Grahame J Kidd, Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth, Christine A Curcio
To assess serial section block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) for retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) ultrastructure, we determined the number and distribution within RPE cell bodies of melanosomes (M), lipofuscin (L), and melanolipofuscin (ML). Eyes of 4 Caucasian donors (16M, 32F, 76F, 84M) with unremarkable maculas were sectioned and imaged using an SEM fitted with an in-chamber automated ultramicrotome. Aligned image stacks were generated by alternately imaging an epoxy resin block face using backscattered electrons, then removing a 125 nm-thick layer...
October 21, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066280/implantation-and-testing-of-a-novel-episcleral-pressure-transducer-a-new-approach-to-telemetric-intraocular-pressure-monitoring
#13
Siegfried Mariacher, Martina Ebner, José Hurst, Peter Szurman, Kai Januschowski
Measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) is an essential tool in monitoring glaucoma. Single IOP assessments during clinical routine examinations represent punctual values and are not able to identify IOP fluctuations and spikes. Telemetric IOP measurements are able to monitor IOP during the day and night, and are location-independent. Six telemetric episcleral IOP sensors were investigated after minimally invasive subconjunctival implantation in 6 eyes of 6 New-Zealand-White rabbits. Three of the 4 edges of the implant were fixated intrasclerally with non-absorbable sutures...
October 21, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054387/the-post-natal-development-of-intraocular-pressure-in-normal-domestic-cats-felis-catus-and-in-feline-congenital-glaucoma
#14
Sara Adelman, Daniel Shinsako, Julie A Kiland, Vincent Yaccarino, N Matthew Ellinwood, Gil Ben-Shlomo, Gillian J McLellan
Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most consistent risk factor for progressive vision loss in glaucoma. Cats with recessively inherited feline congenital glaucoma (FCG) exhibit elevated IOP with gradual, painless progression of glaucoma similar to humans and are studied as a model of glaucoma in humans and animals. Here, post-natal development of IOP was characterized in normal domestic cats and in cats with FCG caused by a homozygous LTBP2 mutation. Rebound tonometry (TonoVet(®), ICare Oy, Finland) was used to measure IOP non-invasively, 2-3 times weekly in 63 FCG and 33 normal kittens, of both sexes, from eyelid opening until 3-6 months of age...
October 17, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051013/pericellular-interphotoreceptor-matrix-dictates-outer-retina-critical-surface-tension
#15
Federico Gonzalez-Fernandez, Mark Fornalik, Mary Alice Garlipp, Priscilla Gonzalez-Fernandez, Dongjin Sung, Anne Meyer, Robert Baier
Retinal detachments create two pathological surfaces, the surface of the outer neural retinal, and an apical retinal-pigmented epithelium (RPE) surface. The physicochemical properties of these two new surfaces are poorly understood. At a molecular level little is known how detachments form, how to optimize reattachment, or prevent extension of the detachment. A major limitation is lack of information about the biophysical consequences of the retina-RPE separation. The primary challenge is determining the molecular properties of the pathological interface surfaces...
October 16, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051012/vergence-driven-accommodation-with-simulated-disparity-in-myopia-and-emmetropia
#16
Guido Maiello, Kristen L Kerber, Frank Thorn, Peter J Bex, Fuensanta A Vera-Diaz
The formation of focused and corresponding foveal images requires a close synergy between the accommodation and vergence systems. This linkage is usually decoupled in virtual reality systems and may be dysfunctional in people who are at risk of developing myopia. We study how refractive error affects vergence-accommodation interactions in stereoscopic displays. Vergence and accommodative responses were measured in 21 young healthy adults (n=9 myopes, 22-31 years) while subjects viewed naturalistic stimuli on a 3D display...
October 16, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051011/carbon-monoxide-co-inhibits-hydrogen-peroxide-h2o2-induced-oxidative-stress-and-the-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-lens-epithelial-cells
#17
Yang Huang, Tianju Ma, Zi Ye, Hang Li, Yang Zhao, Wenqian Chen, Yu Fu, Zheng Ye, Ang Sun, Zhaohui Li
Lens epithelial cells (LECs) play a critical role in the maintenance of clear crystalline lens. Previously, we reported that heme oxygenase-1 can protect LECs from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress; however, to the best of our knowledge, these protection mechanisms have not yet been explained. As carbon monoxide (CO) is an active by-product of heme degradation, we investigated its cytoprotective mechanism in both H2O2-treated human LECs (SRA 01/04) and primary rabbit LECs. CO-releasing molecule-3 was used as a CO releasing vehicle...
October 16, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042140/myeloid-cells-contribute-indirectly-to-vegf-expression-upon-hypoxia-via-activation-of-m%C3%A3-ller-cells
#18
Christina Nürnberg, Norbert Kociok, Claudia Brockmann, Timo Lischke, Sergio Crespo-Garcia, Nadine Reichhart, Susanne Wolf, Ria Baumgrass, Sabine A Eming, Sandra Beer-Hammer, Antonia M Joussen
Anti-VEGF-directed therapies have been a milestone for treating retinal vascular diseases. Depletion of monocyte lineage cells suppresses pathological neovascularization in the oxygen-induced retinopathy mouse model. However, the question whether myeloid-derived VEGF-A expression is responsible for the pathogenesis in oxygen-induced retinopathy remained unknown. We analyzed LysMCre-driven myeloid cell-specific VEGF-A knockout mice as well as mice with complete depletion of circulating macrophages through clodronate-liposome treatment in the oxygen-induced retinopathy model by immunohistochemistry, qPCR, and flow cytometry...
October 14, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031854/angptl-4-induces-diabetic-retinal-inflammation-by-activating-profilin-1
#19
Qianyi Lu, Peirong Lu, Wei Chen, Li Lu, Zhi Zheng
Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common cause of irreversible blindness in working-age adults, results in central vision loss that is caused by microvascular damage to the inner lining of the back of the eye, the retina. The aim of this work was to assess the temporal relationships between angiopoietin-like protein-4 (ANGPTL-4), a novel adipocytokine factor, and diabetic retinal inflammation and microvascular dysfunction. The downstream pathway(s) and upstream mediator(s) of ANGPTL-4 were then determined under high glucose (HG) conditions...
October 13, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032155/functional-characterisation-of-glutathione-export-from-the-rat-lens
#20
Ankita Umapathy, Bo Li, Paul J Donaldson, Julie C Lim
In this study, we have investigated whether the lens was capable of exporting the antioxidant glutathione. Pairs of rat lenses were cultured in isosmotic artificial aqueous humour for one, two, three, or six hours in low oxygen conditions (90% N2, 5% CO2, 5% O2), and reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidised glutathione (GSSG) levels measured in the media and lenses. We show that the rat lens is capable of releasing ∼5 nmol GSH for each time point suggesting that GSH release is regulated since it does not appreciably increase over time...
October 12, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
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