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Experimental Eye Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228349/identification-of-prdm-genes-in-human-corneal-endothelium
#1
Kostadin Rolev, G O'Donovan Dominic, Christiana Georgiou, Rajan Madhavan, Alexandra Chittka
Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are essential for maintaining corneal stromal hydration and ensuring its transparency, which is necessary for normal vision. Dysfunction of CECs leads to stromal decompensation, loss of transparency and corneal blindness. Corneal endothelium has low proliferative potential compared to surface epithelial cells leading to poor regeneration of CEC following injury or age related decline in cellular density. The mechanisms which control proliferation and differentiation of neural crest derived CEC progenitors are yet to be clearly elucidated...
February 19, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223180/biomechanical-aspects-of-axonal-damage-in-glaucoma-a-brief-review
#2
REVIEW
Cheri Stowell, Claude Burgoyne, Ernst R Tamm, C Ross Ethier
The biomechanical environment within the optic nerve head (ONH) is complex and is likely directly involved in the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in glaucoma. Unfortunately, our understanding of this process is poor. Here we describe factors that influence ONH biomechanics, including ONH connective tissue microarchitecture and anatomy; intraocular pressure (IOP); and cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp). We note that connective tissue factors can vary significantly from one individual to the next, as well as regionally within an eye, and that the understanding of ONH biomechanics is hindered by anatomical differences between small-animal models of glaucoma (rats and mice) and humans...
February 18, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223179/biological-aspects-of-axonal-damage-in-glaucoma-a-brief-review
#3
REVIEW
Ernst R Tamm, C Ross Ethier, Claude Burgoyne, C Ross Ethier, Ernst R Tamm, Cheri Stowell, John E Dowling, Crawford Downs, Mark H Ellisman, Steven Fisher, Brad Fortune, Marcus Fruttiger, Tatjana Jakobs, Geoffrey Lewis, Claire H Mitchell, John Morrison, Sansar C Sharma, Ian Sigal, Michael Sofroniew, Lin Wang, Janey Wiggs, Samuel Wu, Richard H Masland
Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a critical risk factor in glaucoma, and the available evidence derived from experimental studies in primates and rodents strongly indicates that the site of IOP-induced axonal damage in glaucoma is at the optic nerve head (ONH). However, the mechanisms that cause IOP-induced damage at the ONH are far from understood. A possible sequence of events could originate with IOP-induced stress in the ONH connective tissue elements (peripapillary sclera, scleral canal and lamina cribrosa) that leads to an increase in biomechanical strain...
February 18, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219733/meibocyte-differentiation-and-renewal-insights-into-novel-mechanisms-of-meibomian-gland-dysfunction-mgd
#4
REVIEW
Ho Sik Hwang, Geraint J Parfitt, Donald J Brown, James V Jester
This paper reviews our current understanding of age-related meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and the role of the nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), in the regulation of meibomian gland function, meibocyte differentiation and lipid synthesis. The studies suggest that PPARγ is a master regulator of meibocyte differentiation and function, whose expression and nuclear signaling coupled with meibocyte renewal is altered during aging, potentially leading to atrophy of the meibomian gland as seen in clinical MGD...
February 17, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219732/all-trans-retinal-levels-and-formation-of-lipofuscin-precursors-after-bleaching-in-rod-photoreceptors-from-wild-type-and-abca4-mice
#5
Leopold Adler, Chunhe Chen, Yiannis Koutalos
The accumulation of lipofuscin in the cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is thought to play an important role in the development and progression of degenerative diseases of the retina. The bulk of RPE lipofuscin originates in reactions of the rhodopsin chromophore, retinal, with components of the photoreceptor outer segment. The 11-cis retinal isomer is generated in the RPE and supplied to rod photoreceptor outer segments where it is incorporated as the chromophore of rhodopsin. It is photoisomerized during light detection to all-trans and subsequently released by photoactivated rhodopsin as all-trans retinal, which is removed through reduction to all-trans retinol in a reaction requiring metabolic input in the form of NADPH...
February 17, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202286/equatorial-wrinkles-in-the-human-lens-capsule
#6
H J Burd, G A Montenegro, L P Cortés, R I Barraquer, R Michael
Equatorial wrinkles, or crenations, have been previously observed around the equator in coronal images of the human ocular lens. However, wrinkles are typically not apparent when the lens is viewed from saggital directions. In the current paper, the existence and geometry of these wrinkles is shown to be consistent with a mechanical model of the isolated lens, in which the capsule is held in a state of residual tension by a spatially uniform internal pressure. The occurrence of equatorial wrinkles is therefore seen to be a mechanical consequence of the spheroidal shape of the lens capsule and an excess intralenticular pressure...
February 12, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188736/introduction
#7
EDITORIAL
Joram Piatigorsky, Steven Bassnett, John McAvoy, Roy Quinlan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185796/letter-to-the-editor-concerning-webber-et%C3%A2-al-exp-eye-res-148-97-102-2016
#8
LETTER
Thomas Wecker, Günther Schlunck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174024/david-c-beebe-1944-2015-in-memoriam
#9
EDITORIAL
Joram Piatigorsky, Steven Bassnett, John McAvoy, Suraj Bhat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159541/introduction-to-gedenkschrift-for-david-l-epstein-md
#10
EDITORIAL
W Daniel Stamer, Joel S Schuman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153739/the-challenge-of-regenerative-therapies-for-the-optic-nerve-in-glaucoma
#11
David J Calkins, Milos Pekny, Melissa L Cooper, Larry Benowitz
This review arose from a discussion of regenerative therapies to treat optic nerve degeneration in glaucoma at the 2015 Lasker/IRRF Initiative on Astrocytes and Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration. In addition to the authors, participants included Jonathan Crowston, Andrew Huberman, Elaine Johnson, Richard Lu, Hemai Phatnami, Rebecca Sappington, and Don Zack. Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease of the optic nerve, and is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The disease progresses as sensitivity to intraocular pressure (IOP) is conveyed through the optic nerve head to distal retinal ganglion cell (RGC) projections...
January 30, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153738/myocilin-expression-is-regulated-by-retinoic-acid-in-the-trabecular-meshwork-derived-cellular-environment
#12
Cécile Prat, Corinne Belville, Aurélie Comptour, Geoffroy Marceau, Gael Clairefond, Frédéric Chiambaretta, Vincent Sapin, Loïc Blanchon
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness and is usually classified as angle closure and open angle glaucoma (OAG). Primary open angle glaucoma represents the most frequent clinical presentation leading to ganglion cell death and optic nerve degeneration as a main consequence of an intraocular pressure' (IOP) increase. The mechanisms of this IOP increase in such pathology remain unclear but one protein called Myocilin could be a part of the puzzle in the trabecular meshwork (TM). Previously described to be transcriptionally regulated by glucocorticoids, the comprehension of the trabecular regulation of Myocilin' expression has only weakly progressed since 15 years...
January 30, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137601/genome-wide-mrna-analysis-reveals-a-tubd1-isoform-profile-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-diabetic-retinopathy-development
#13
Vanessa Villegas-Ruiz, Ferdinand Hendlmeier, Beatriz Buentello-Volante, José L Rodríguez-Loaiza, Antonio Miranda-Duarte, Juan C Zenteno
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects approximately one third of all diabetic subjects and is the leading cause of blindness in young to middle-aged adults in the developed world. While early diagnosis is crucial for preventing DR-associated visual loss, the identification of accessible biomarkers that could lead to presymptomatic recognition of the disease is of great clinical importance. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible involvement of alternative splicing events in DR development by performing a genome-wide transcriptional profiling comparing blood-derived RNA from DR subjects and from diabetic-non DR controls...
January 27, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131617/betab2-crystallin-mutations-associated-with-cataract-and-glaucoma-leads-to-mitochondrial-alterations-in-lens-epithelial-cells-and-retinal-neurons
#14
Jennifer E Dulle, Anne Rübsam, Sarah J Garnai, Hemant S Pawar, Patrice E Fort
Crystallin proteins are the most prominent protein of the lens and have been increasingly shown to play critical roles in other tissues, especially the retina. Members of all 3 sub-families of crystallins, alpha-, beta- and gamma-crystallins have been reported in the retina during diabetes, traumatic injury and other retinal diseases. While their specific role in the retina is still unclear and may vary, beta-crystallin proteins have been shown to play a critical role in ganglion cell survival following trauma...
January 26, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089775/degenerative-effects-of-cobalt-chloride-treatment-on-neurons-and-microglia-in-a-porcine-retina-organ-culture-model
#15
S Kuehn, J Hurst, F Rensinghoff, T Tsai, S Grauthoff, Y Satgunarajah, H B Dick, S Schnichels, S C Joachim
In order to understand the pathological processes of retinal diseases, experimental models are necessary. Cobalt, as part of the vitamin B12 complex, is important for neuronal integrity. However, it is known that high quantities of cobalt induce cytotoxic mechanisms via hypoxia mimicry. Therefore, we tested the degenerative effect of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) on neurons and microglia in a porcine retina organ culture model. Organotypic cultures of porcine retinas were cultured and treated with different concentrations of CoCl2 (0, 100, 300 and 500 μM) for 48 h...
January 12, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065590/mechanism-and-evidence-of-nonsense-suppression-therapy-for-genetic-eye-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Rose Richardson, Matthew Smart, Dhani Tracey-White, Andrew R Webster, Mariya Moosajee
Between 5 and 70% of genetic disease is caused by in-frame nonsense mutations, which introduce a premature termination codon (PTC) within the disease-causing gene. Consequently, during translation, non-functional or gain-of-function truncated proteins of pathological significance, are formed. Approximately 50% of all inherited retinal disorders have been associated with PTCs, highlighting the importance of novel pharmacological or gene correction therapies in ocular disease. Pharmacological nonsense suppression of PTCs could delineate a therapeutic strategy that treats the mutation in a gene- and disease-independent manner...
January 6, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065589/perk-and-xbp1-differentially-regulate-cxcl10-and-ccl2-production
#17
Shuang Zhu, Hua Liu, Haibo Sha, Ling Qi, Dian-Shuai Gao, Wenbo Zhang
Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of many retinal degenerative diseases related with photoreceptor dysfunction/degeneration. However the involvement of photoreceptor cells in inflammatory reactions is largely unknown as they are not considered as inflammatory cells. In this study, we assessed whether photoreceptor cells can produce CCL2 and CXCL10, two important players in inflammation during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. After photoreceptor 661 W cells were treated with ER stress inducer thapsigargin (TG), induction of ER stress increased CXCL10 and CCL2 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, which was significantly blocked by an ER stress blocker 4-phenylbutyrate...
January 5, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057442/iron-importers-zip8-and-zip14-are-expressed-in-retina-and-regulated-by-retinal-iron-levels
#18
Jacob Sterling, Samyuktha Guttha, Ying Song, Delu Song, Majda Hadziahmetovic, Joshua L Dunaief
Intracellular retinal iron accumulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of irreversible blindness among individuals over the age of 50. Ceruloplasmin/hephaestin double knockout mice (Cp/Heph DKO) and hepcidin knockout mice (Hepc KO) accumulate retinal iron and model some features of AMD. Two canonical pathways govern cellular iron import - transferrin-bound iron import and non-transferrin bound iron import. In Cp/Heph DKO and Hepc KO iron-loaded retinas, transferrin-bound iron import is downregulated...
January 3, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025000/determination-of-water-soluble-and-fat-soluble-vitamins-in-tears-and-blood-serum-of-infants-and-parents-by-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#19
Maryam Khaksari, Lynn R Mazzoleni, Chunhai Ruan, Robert T Kennedy, Adrienne R Minerick
Tears serve as a viable diagnostic fluid with advantages including less invasive sample to collect and less complex to prepare for analysis. Several water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins were detected and quantified in human tears and compared with blood serum levels. Samples from 15 family pairs, each pair consisting of a four-month-old infant and one parent were analyzed; vitamin concentrations were compared between tears and blood serum for individual subjects, between infants and parents, and against self-reported dietary intakes...
December 23, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989757/retinal-pigment-epithelium-and-microglia-express-the-cd5-antigen-like-protein-a-novel-autoantigen-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#20
Alessandro Iannaccone, T J Hollingsworth, Diwa Koirala, David D New, Nataliya I Lenchik, Sarka Beranova-Giorgianni, Ivan C Gerling, Marko Z Radic, Francesco Giorgianni
We report on a novel autoantigen expressed in human macular tissues, identified following an initial Western blot (WB)-based screening of sera from subjects with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) for circulating auto-antibodies (AAbs) recognizing macular antigens. Immunoprecipitation, 2D-gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), WBs, immunohistochemistry (IHC), human primary and ARPE-19 immortalized cell cultures were used to characterize this novel antigen...
December 15, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
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