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Experimental Eye Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893564/5-aza-2-deoxycytidine-induces-human-tenon-s-capsule-fibroblasts-differentiation-and-fibrosis-by-up-regulating-tgf-%C3%AE-type-i-receptor
#1
Shuhao Fu, Li Sun, Xiaoyan Zhang, Huimin Shi, Kang Xu, Yiqin Xiao, Wen Ye
The principle reason of high failure rate of glaucoma filtration surgery is the loss of filtration function caused by postoperative scar formation. We investigated the effects of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dc), a DNA methyltransferases inhibitor, on human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts (HTFs) differentiation and fibrosis and its mechanism of action, especially in relation to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 signaling. TGF-β1 was used to induce differentiation of cultured HTFs. 5-Aza-dc suppressed DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) activity 6 h after treatment with a course corresponding to that of TGF-β1-induced reduction of DNMT activity without affecting cell viability as measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay...
September 9, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889963/quantitative-analysis-of-retinal-perfusion-in-mice-using-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#2
Maged Alnawaiseh, Cristin Brand, Eike Bormann, Joachim Wistuba, Nicole Eter, Peter Heiduschka
PURPOSE: To evaluate repeatability of the quantitative analysis of vessel density in the retinas of healthy mice using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). METHODS: Seventeen eyes of seventeen healthy mice aged 10-15 weeks (young) and 75-95 weeks (old) were included in this study. OCT-A was performed using RTVue XR Avanti (Optovue Inc., Fremont, California, USA) under general anaesthesia. The retina was imaged twice using a 3 × 3 mm(2) scan. Retinal thickness and flow density data in the superficial and deep retinal OCT angiograms were extracted and analysed...
September 7, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888911/photobiomodulation-with-670%C3%A2-nm-light-ameliorates-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-mediated-activation-of-microglia-and-macrophages-in-retinal-degeneration
#3
Yen-Zhen Lu, Riccardo Natoli, Michele Madigan, Nilisha Fernando, Kartik Saxena, Riemke Aggio-Bruce, Haihan Jiao, Jan Provis, Krisztina Valter
Müller cells, the supporting cells of the retina, play a key role in responding to retinal stress by releasing chemokines, including CCL2, to recruit microglia and macrophages (MG/MΦ) into the damaged retina. Photobiomodulation (PBM) with 670 nm light has been shown to reduce inflammation in models of retinal degeneration. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether 670 nm light had an effect on Müller cell-initiated inflammation under retinal photo-oxidative damage (PD) in vivo and in vitro. Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated with 670 nm light (9J/cm(2)) once daily over 5 days prior to PD...
September 6, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887137/effects-of-a-high-level-of-illumination-before-sleep-at-night-on-chorioretinal-thickness-and-ocular-biometry
#4
Jaemoon Ahn, Soh-Eun Ahn, Kyung-Sook Yang, Seong-Woo Kim, Jaeryung Oh
The choroid is affected by many factors. One of the factors, change in illumination has been suggested to influence choroidal thickness. However, the effects of bright light before sleep at night on the human eye are not well established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a high level of illumination in the evening on ocular measurements. Twenty-seven men with myopia spent seven consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. During the first two nights, subjects were exposed to light at 150 lux between 20:00 and midnight...
September 5, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866013/contrasting-cellular-damage-after-blue-iris-and-femto-lasik-in-cat-cornea
#5
Kaitlin T Wozniak, Noah Elkins, Daniel R Brooks, Daniel E Savage, Scott MacRae, Jonathan D Ellis, Wayne H Knox, Krystel R Huxlin
Blue-intra-tissue refractive index shaping (Blue-IRIS) is a new approach to laser refractive correction of optical aberrations in the eye, which alters the refractive index of the cornea rather than changing its shape. Before it can be implemented in humans, it is critical to establish whether and to what extent, Blue-IRIS damages the cornea. Here, we contrasted the impact of -1.5 D cylinder refractive corrections inscribed using either Blue-IRIS or femtosecond laser in-situ keratomileusis (femto-LASIK) on corneal cell viability...
August 31, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864176/riboflavin-and-ultraviolet-a-irradiation-for-the-prevention-of-progressive-myopia-in-a-guinea-pig-model
#6
Xiaoxia Li, Miaoqin Wu, Luyi Zhang, Hui Liu, Lan Zhang, Jinjing He
In this study, we evaluated the effect of oral administration of riboflavin combined with whole-body ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation on the biochemical and biomechanical properties of sclera in a guinea pig model to control the progression of myopia. Experimental groups were administered 0.1% riboflavin solution with or without vitamin C by gavage from 3 days before myopic modeling and during the modeling process. Guinea pigs underwent 30 min of whole-body UVA irradiation after each gavage for 2 weeks. For control groups, guinea pigs were administered vitamin C and underwent either whole-body UVA irradiation without 0...
August 31, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864177/corneoscleral-stiffening-increases-iop-spike-magnitudes-during-rapid-microvolumetric-change-in-the-eye
#7
Keyton Clayson, Xueliang Pan, Elias Pavlatos, Ryan Short, Hugh Morris, Richard T Hart, Jun Liu
Factors governing the steady-state IOP have been extensively studied; however, the dynamic aspects of IOP are less understood. Clinical studies have suggested that intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuation may be associated with glaucoma risk. This study aims to investigate how stiffening of corneoscleral biomechanical properties affects IOP spikes induced by rapid microvolumetric change. Porcine eyes (n = 25 in total) were subjected to volumetric infusions before and after external treatment of a circular area (11 mm diameter) in either the central cornea or posterior sclera...
August 30, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860021/disruption-of-fibronectin-matrix-affects-type-iv-collagen-fibrillin-and-laminin-deposition-into-extracellular-matrix-of-human-trabecular-meshwork-htm-cells
#8
Mark S Filla, Kaylee D Dimeo, Tiegang Tong, Donna M Peters
Fibronectin fibrils are a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the trabecular meshwork (TM). They are a key mediator of the formation of the ECM which controls aqueous humor outflow and contributes to the pathogenesis of glaucoma. The purpose of this work was to determine if a fibronectin-binding peptide called FUD, derived from the Streptococcus pyogenes Functional Upstream Domain of the F1 adhesin protein, could be used to control fibronectin fibrillogenesis and hence ECM formation under conditions where its expression was induced by treatment with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone...
August 30, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847738/sorsby-fundus-dystrophy-a-review-of-pathology-and-disease-mechanisms
#9
REVIEW
David R G Christensen, Ffion E Brown, Angela J Cree, J Arjuna Ratnayaka, Andrew J Lotery
Sorsby fundus dystrophy (SFD) is an autosomal dominant macular dystrophy with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 220,000 and an onset of disease around the 4th to 6th decade of life. Similar to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), ophthalmoscopy reveals accumulation of protein/lipid deposits under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), referred to as drusen, in the eyes of patients with SFD. SFD is caused by variants in the gene for tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP3), which has been found in drusen-like deposits of SFD patients...
August 26, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844620/whole-exome-sequencing-uncovering-causal-genetic-variants-for-ocular-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Shashank Gupta, Souradip Chatterjee, Ashim Mukherjee, Mousumi Mutsuddi
Identification of causal genetic defects for human diseases took a significant leap when the first generation DNA sequencing technologies enabled biologists extract sequence-based genetic information from living beings. However, these sequencing methods had unavoidable constraints of throughput, scalability, rapidity, and resolution. In this direction, next-generation sequencing (NGS) since the time of its advent has revolutionized the process of gene discovery for both monogenic and multifactorial genetic diseases...
August 24, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823941/norrin-treatment-improves-ganglion-cell-survival-in-an-oxygen-induced-retinopathy-model-of-retinal-ischemia
#11
Wendy A Dailey, Kimberly A Drenser, Sui Chien Wong, Mei Cheng, Joseph Vercellone, Kevin K Roumayah, Erin V Feeney, Mrinalini Deshpande, Alvaro E Guzman, Michael Trese, Kenneth P Mitton
Treatment of a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) with recombinant human Norrin (Norrie Disease Protein, gene: NDP) accelerates regrowth of the microvasculature into central ischemic regions of the neural retina, which are generated after treatment with 75% oxygen. While this reduces the average duration and severity of ischemia overall, we do not know if this accelerated recovery of the microvasculature results in any significant survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The purpose of this study was to investigate ganglion cell survival with and without the intravitreal injection of Norrin in the murine model of oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR), using two strains of mice: C57BL/6J and Thy1-YFP mice...
August 18, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822760/anterior-chamber-perfusion-versus-posterior-chamber-perfusion-does-not-influence-measurement-of-aqueous-outflow-facility-in-living-mice-by-constant-flow-infusion
#12
Navita N Lopez, Gaurang C Patel, Urmimala Raychaudhuri, Subhash Aryal, Tien N Phan, Abbot F Clark, J Cameron Millar
Mice are now routinely utilized in studies of aqueous humor outflow dynamics. In particular, conventional aqueous outflow facility (C) is routinely measured via perfusion of the aqueous chamber by a number of laboratories. However, in mouse eyes perfused ex-vivo, values for C are variable depending upon whether the perfusate is introduced into the posterior chamber (PC) versus the anterior chamber (AC). Perfusion via the AC leads to posterior bowing of the iris, and traction on the iris root/scleral spur, which may increase C...
August 16, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818394/focal-adhesion-kinase-family-is-involved-in-matrix-contraction-by-transdifferentiated-m%C3%A3-ller-cells
#13
Rintaro Tsukahara, Kazuhiko Umazume, Kevin McDonald, Henry J Kaplan, Shigeo Tamiya
Transdifferentiated Müller cells that adopt a fibroblastic/myofibroblastic phenotype have been identified in epiretinal membranes (ERMs) in several ocular disorders, and have been implicated to play a role in the formation and/or the contraction of ERMs. We have previously demonstrated that dasatinib, a dual inhibitor of Src-family kinases and Abl kinase, can prevent matrix contraction by transdifferentiated Müller cells. In this study, we examined molecules involved in matrix contraction downstream of primary dasatinib targets...
August 15, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818393/the-modulation-of-the-phosphorylation-status-of-nkcc1-in-organ-cultured-bovine-lenses-implications-for-the-regulation-of-fiber-cell-and-overall-lens-volume
#14
Irene Vorontsova, Paul J Donaldson, Zhiying Kong, Chiharu Wickremesinghe, Leo Lam, Julie C Lim
In this study we have used an antibody that specifically detects the phosphorylation status of the Sodium/Potassium/2 Chloride Cotransporter (NKCC1) to study whether the activity of NKCC1 can be regulated in organ cultured bovine lenses. Western blotting was first used to confirm the expression of NKCC1, phosphorylated NKCC1 (NKCC1-P) and the regulatory kinases WNK/SPAK and phosphatases PP1/PP2A in bovine lenses at the protein level. Changes to NKCC1-P status were then assessed by organ culturing bovine lenses in either isotonic, hypertonic or hypotonic solutions in the presence or absence of the NKCC inhibitor, bumetanide, or phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and calyculin A...
August 14, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803936/inhibition-of-huvec-tube-formation-via-suppression-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-suggests-an-anti-angiogenic-role-for-slurp1-in-the-transparent-cornea
#15
Sudha Swamynathan, Chelsea L Loughner, Shivalingappa K Swamynathan
Previously, we have reported that the Secreted Ly6/uPAR related protein-1 (SLURP1) serves an important immunomodulatory function in the ocular surface. Here, we examine the involvement of SLURP1 in regulating corneal angiogenic privilege. Slurp1 expression detected by QPCR, immunoblots and immunofluorescent stain, was significantly decreased in mouse corneas subjected to alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization (CNV). Addition of exogenous SLURP1 (6XHis-tagged, E. coli expressed and partially purified using Ni-ion columns) significantly suppressed the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated human umbilical cord vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803935/tnf-%C3%AE-upregulates-hif-1%C3%AE-expression-in-pterygium-fibroblasts-and-enhances-their-susceptibility-to-vegf-independent-of-hypoxia
#16
Kyoung Woo Kim, Soo Jin Lee, Jae Chan Kim
The clinical manifestations of pterygium are characterized by rapid growth and postoperative recurrences. We had previously proposed that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α recruits progenitor cells during the development and progression of pterygia. Recently, it was reported that various stimuli, including inflammation, could activate HIF-1α even under normoxic conditions. The ocular surface directly faces external environments, and is thus frequently exposed to inflammatory insults. First, we examined the gene expression of HIF-1α, its downstream molecule, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 in corneal and conjunctival cells compared with cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802859/special-issue-on-meibomian-glands
#17
EDITORIAL
Shizuya Saika, James V Jester, Winston Whei-Yang Kao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827027/unravelling-the-stromal-nerve-interactions-in-the-human-diabetic-cornea
#18
Shrestha Priyadarsini, Tyler G Rowsey, Jian-Xing Ma, Dimitrios Karamichos
Corneal defects due to diabetes mellitus (DM) may cause severe vision impairments. Current studies focus on the corneal epithelium and nerve defects neglecting the corneal stroma. The aim of this study was to develop a 3D in vitro model to examine the interactions between corneal stroma and nerves in the context of DM. Primary human corneal stromal fibroblasts isolated from healthy (HCFs), Type 1 (T1DM) and Type 2 (T2DM) patients were stimulated with stable ascorbic acid to secrete and assemble an extracellular matrix (ECM)...
August 5, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789942/statins-reduce-tgf-beta2-modulation-of-the-extracellular-matrix-in-cultured-astrocytes-of-the-human-optic-nerve-head
#19
Mi-Lyang Kim, Kyung Rim Sung, Jin A Shin, Joo Young Yoon, Joonhee Jang
Statins are cholesterol lowering drugs and have shown beneficial effects on glaucoma. With regard to the mechanism of statin action on glaucoma, we investigated the effects of statins on transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-β2)-induced expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in human astrocytes of the optic nerve head (ONH) lamina cribrosa (LC). By using primary human ONH astrocytes, we found that both simvastatin and lovastatin inhibited TGF-β2-mediated expression of ECM proteins such as connective tissue growth factor, collagen I, fibronectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1...
August 5, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827028/the-s1p1-receptor-selective-agonist-cym-5442-protects-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-endothelin-1-induced-retinal-ganglion-cell-loss
#20
Román Blanco, Gema Martínez-Navarrete, Francisco J Valiente-Soriano, Marcelino Avilés-Trigueros, Consuelo Pérez-Rico, Ana Serrano-Puebla, Patricia Boya, Eduardo Fernández, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Pedro de la Villa
We investigated the feasibility and efficacy of using a specific sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P1) receptor agonist, CYM-5442, to slow or block retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss in endothelin-1 (ET-1) induced RGC loss. A single intravitreal injection of ET-1 (20pmol/ul), a potent vasoactive peptide that produces retinal vessels vasoconstriction, was used to induce and characterize RGC-specific cell death. CYM-5442 (1 mgr/kg) or vehicle was administered intraperitoneally for five consecutive days after ET-1-induced RGC loss...
August 4, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
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