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Experimental Eye Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30029023/the-current-state-of-stem-cell-therapy-for-ocular-disease
#1
REVIEW
Samantha Bobba, Nick Di Girolamo, Megan Munsie, Fred Chen, Alice Pébay, Damien Harkin, Alex Hewitt, Michael O'Connor, Samuel McLenachan, Audra M A Shadforth, Stephanie L Watson
Herein, we review the safety, efficacy, regulatory standards and ethical implications of the use of stem cells in ocular disease. A literature review was conducted, registered clinical trials reviewed, and expert opinions sought. Guidelines and codes of conduct from international societies and professional bodies were also reviewed. Collated data is presented on current progress in the field of ocular regenerative medicine, future challenges, the clinical trial process and ethical considerations in stem cell therapy...
July 17, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025919/vasoactivity-of-retinal-veins-a-potential-involvement-of-endothelin-1-et-1-in-the-pathogenesis-of-retinal-vein-occlusion-rvo
#2
Teruyo Kida, Josef Flammer, Hidehiro Oku, Katarzyna Konieczka, Seita Morishita, Taeko Horie, Tsunehiko Ikeda
PURPOSE: Whilst the pathogenesis of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is still unclear, systemic hypertension and increased level of endothelin-1 (ET-1) are known risk factors. Therefore, we studied the influence of ET-1 on the retinal veins in hypertensive rats. METHODS: We focused on the behavior of retinal veins in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). To determine whether ET-1 was associated with the blood flow in eyes of SHRs, the chorioretinal blood flow in the rats was assessed using laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG-Micro, Softcare, Fukuoka, Japan) before and after an intravenous injection of ET-1 under general anesthesia...
July 17, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025918/demonstration-of-p-selectin-expression-and-potential-function-in-human-corneal-epithelial-cells
#3
Peter J Gillies, Neil A Richardson, Jennifer Walshe, Sally-Anne Stephenson, Rebecca A Dawson, Damien G Harkin
In response to an unexpected observation of apparent localisation by immunocytochemistry, we have investigated the potential expression and function of P-selectin (CD62P) in human corneal epithelial cells. The SV40 immortalised cell line, HCE-T (validated by STR profiling), along with multiple donor corneal-limbal tissue samples, were examined for P-selectin expression using a combination of immunocytochemistry, Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Potential expression of the major ligand for P-selectin (P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1; PSGL-1; CD162) was also examined by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR...
July 17, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012507/smooth-pursuit-of-amodally-completed-images
#4
Esther G González, Henry Liu, Luminita Tarita-Nistor, Efrem Mandelcorn, Mark Mandelcorn
In order to evaluate the effect of the parafoveal area of the retina on smooth pursuit, we compared the horizontal smooth pursuit of visible and amodally completed stimuli in people with central vision loss and controls. In the amodally completed stimuli, a black mask covered the bottom vertex of a moving diamond which is the feature whose movement participants had to track. Both the visible and the amodally completed stimuli moved along regular and irregular sinusoidal motion paths. Our results show that people with central vision loss are able to track a perceptually completed moving stimulus albeit with lower gain, larger tracking errors, and more saccadic eye movements than people with normal vision...
July 13, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009825/retinal-dysfunction-parallels-morphologic-alterations-and-precede-clinically-detectable-vascular-alterations-in-meriones-shawi-a-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#5
Imane Hammoum, Maha Benlarbi, Ahmed Dellaa, Rim Kahloun, Riadh Messaoud, Soumaya Amara, Rached Azaiz, Ridha Charfeddine, Mohamed Dogui, Moncef Khairallah, Ákos Lukáts, Rafika Ben Chaouacha-Chekir
Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness. The aim of this work was to analyze functional and vascular changes in diabetic Meriones shawi (M.sh) an animal model of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The animals were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 3 and 7 months, two other groups served as age-matched controls. Retinal function was assessed using full field electroretinogram (Ff-ERG). Retinal thickness and vasculature were examined by optical coherence tomography, eye fundus and fluorescein angiography...
July 13, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009826/conditional-loss-of-kcnj13-in-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium-causes-photoreceptor-degeneration
#6
Dany Roman, Hua Zhong, Sergey Yaklichkin, Rui Chen, Graeme Mardon
The retina is the light sensing tissue of the eye which contains multiple layers of cells required for the detection and transmission of a visual signal. Loss of the light-sensing photoreceptors leads to defects in visual function and blindness. Previously, we found that mosaic deletion of Kcnj13, and subsequent loss of the potassium channel Kir7.1, in mice leads to photoreceptor degeneration and recapitulates the human retinal disease phenotype (Zhong et al., 2015). Kcnj13 expression in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is essential for normal retinal electrophysiology, function, and survival...
July 12, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006274/establishment-of-a-conditionally-immortalized-mouse-optic-nerve-astrocyte-line
#7
Yang Liu, Gaurang C Patel, Weiming Mao, Abbot F Clark
Optic nerve astrocytes play a major role in axonal degeneration and regeneration. Astrocyte lines are an important tool to elucidate the responsible cellular mechanisms. In this study, we established a conditionally immortalized mouse optic nerve astrocyte line. Astrocytes were cultured from explants derived from postnatal day 5-7 H-2kb -tsA58 transgenic mouse optic nerves. Cells were cultured in defined astrocyte culture medium under permissive (33 °C) or non-permissive (38.5 °C) temperature with or without interferon-ɤ (IFN-ɤ)...
July 10, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006273/fixation-instability-during-binocular-viewing-in-anisometropic-and-strabismic-children
#8
Krista R Kelly, Christina Cheng-Patel, Reed M Jost, Yi-Zhong Wang, Eileen E Birch
PURPOSE: Strabismus or anisometropia disrupts binocularity and results in fixation instability, which is increased with amblyopia. Fixation instability has typically been assessed for each eye individually. Recently, vergence instability was reported in exotropic adults and monkeys during binocular viewing. We evaluated fixation instability during binocular viewing in children treated for anisometropia and/or strabismus. METHODS: 160 children age 4-12 years with treated esotropia and/or anisometropia (98 amblyopic, 62 nonamblyopic) were compared to 46 age-similar controls...
July 10, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006272/autoantibody-profiling-in-intraocular-fluid-of-patients-with-uveitis
#9
Josianne C Ten Berge, Marco Wj Schreurs, Joost van Rosmalen, Aniki Rothova
A high prevalence of serum antiretinal antibodies (ARAs) in patients with uveitis has been previously described, though their clinical role remains elusive. Assessment of intraocular ARAs may provide further insight into the pathogenesis of diverse uveitis entities. In this study we investigate the prevalence of multiple specific anti-ocular antibodies (AOcAs), including ARAs, in intraocular fluid of patients with uveitis. Autoantibody profiling with 188 different ocular antigens was performed by a multiplex immunoassay with intraocular fluid samples of 76 patients with uveitis...
July 10, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003884/the-presence-of-a-feeder-layer-improves-human-corneal-endothelial-cell-proliferation-by-altering-the-expression-of-the-transcription-factors-sp1-and-nfi
#10
Gaëtan Le-Bel, Claude J Giasson, Alexandre Deschambeault, Patrick Carrier, Lucie Germain, Sylvain L Guérin
Based on the use of tissue-cultured human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs), cell therapy is a very promising avenue in the treatment of corneal endothelial pathologies such as Fuchs' dystrophy, and post-surgical corneal edema. However, once in culture, HCECs rapidly lose their phenotypic and physiological characteristics, and are therefore unsuitable for the reconstruction of a functional endothelial monolayer. Expression of NFI, a transcription factor that can either function as an activator or a repressor of gene transcription, has never been examined in endothelial cells...
July 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003883/phosphene-perception-and-pupillary-responses-to-sinusoidal-electrostimulation-for-an-objective-measurement-of-retinal-function
#11
Carina Kelbsch, Archana Jalligampala, Torsten Strasser, Paul Richter, Katarina Stingl, Christoph Braun, Daniel L Rathbun, Eberhart Zrenner, Helmut Wilhelm, Barbara Wilhelm, Tobias Peters, Krunoslav Stingl
The purpose was to evaluate retinal function by measuring pupillary responses to sinusoidal transcorneal electrostimulation in healthy young human subjects. This work also translates data from analogous in vitro experiments and connects it to the pupillary responses obtained in human experiments. 14 healthy human subjects participated (4 males, 10 females); for the in vitro experiments two male healthy mouse retinas (adult wild-type C57B/6J) were used. Pupillary responses to sinusoidal transcorneal electrostimulation of varying stimulus carrier frequencies (10, 20 Hz; envelope frequency constantly kept at 1...
July 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29990482/peripapillary-fluorescence-lifetime-reveals-age-dependent-changes-using-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging-ophthalmoscopy-in-rats
#12
J Teister, A Liu, D Wolters, N Pfeiffer, F H Grus
Many fundus diseases accompany fundus autofluorescence change. Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscope (FLIO) is a latest technique in imaging fundus autofluorescence. With FLIO, the fundus fluorescence lifetime (FLT) is recorded topographically, assisting to diagnose and monitor multiple fundus diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of FLT using FLIO on adult rats and to analyze the age-dependency of the peripapillary FLT of the fundus in a short spectral channel (498-560 nm) and a long spectral channel (560-720 nm)...
July 7, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981345/narrow-band-long-wavelength-lighting-promotes-hyperopia-and-retards-vision-induced-myopia-in-infant-rhesus-monkeys
#13
Li-Fang Hung, Baskar Arumugam, Zhihui She, Lisa Ostrin, Earl L Smith
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of narrow band, long-wavelength lighting on normal refractive development and the phenomena of lens compensation and form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in infant rhesus monkeys. Starting at 24 and continuing until 151 days of age, 27 infant rhesus monkeys were reared under long-wavelength LED lighting (630 nm; illuminance = 274 ± 64 lux) with unrestricted vision (Red Light (RL) controls, n = 7) or a +3 D (+3D-RL, n = 7), -3 D (-3D-RL, n = 6) or diffuser lens (From Deprivation (FD-RL), n = 7) in front of one eye and a plano lens in front of the fellow eye...
July 4, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981344/targeting-corneal-inflammation-by-gene-therapy-emerging-strategies-for-keratitis
#14
REVIEW
María Angeles Solinís, Alicia Rodríguez-Gascón
Inflammation is the underlying process of several diseases within the eye, specifically in the cornea. Current treatment options for corneal inflammation or keratitis, and related neovascularization, are restricted by limited efficacy, adverse effects, and short duration of action. Gene therapy has shown great potential for the treatment of diseases affecting the ocular surface, and major efforts are being targeted to inflammatory mediators and neovascularization, in order to develop potential treatments for corneal inflammation...
July 4, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981343/mir15a-regulates-nlrp3-inflammasome-proteins-in-the-retinal-vasculature
#15
Elizabeth Curtiss, Li Liu, Jena J Steinle
We have previously published that miR15a can reduce inflammatory cytokines, which could be key to diabetic retinal pathology. In this work, we wanted to investigate whether miR15a altered NLR pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) proteins. Whole retinal lysates from both miR15a overexpressing mice and endothelial cell specific miR15a/16 knockout mice were used to investigate protein levels of forkhead box protein O1 (Foxo1), NLRP3, cleaved caspase 1 and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Primary human retinal endothelial cells (REC) were cultured in normal and high glucose followed by transfection with a miR15a mimic for protein analyses...
July 4, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008391/mechanism-of-fibrosis-inhibition-in-laser-induced-choroidal-neovascularization-by-doxycycline
#16
Xuening Peng, Hu Xiao, Miao Tang, Zongyi Zhan, Yu Yang, Limei Sun, Xiaoling Luo, Aiyuan Zhang, Xiaoyan Ding
To explore the mechanisms underlying doxycycline suppression of fibrosis in laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (LCNV), C57BL/6J male mice (aged from 6 to 8 weeks) received intraperitoneal injections of PBS/doxycycline solution from one day before laser injury until they were sacrificed. Leakage was assessed by FA, and CNV (stained by IB4) or fibrosis (stained by collagen type I) size was measured. The percentage of Pan-keratin+ α-SMA+ cells was counted in the eyes' cryostat sections by immunohistochemistry...
July 3, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008390/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-circulating-extracellular-vesicles-from-diabetic-patients-with-and-without-retinopathy-and-healthy-subjects
#17
Aurora Mazzeo, Elena Beltramo, Tatiana Lopatina, Chiara Gai, Marina Trento, Massimo Porta
Diabetic retinopathy is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes, characterized by loss of retinal pericytes and abnormal angiogenesis. We previously demonstrated that extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells cultured in diabetic-like conditions are able to enter the pericytes, causing their detachment and migration, and stimulating angiogenesis in vitro. The purpose of this work was the molecular and functional characterization of EVs derived from diabetic subjects with or without diabetic retinopathy, compared with healthy controls...
July 3, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008388/retinal-nerve-fiber-bundle-trajectories-in-chinese-myopic-eyes-comparison-with-a-caucasian-based-mathematical-model
#18
Kunliang Qiu, Mingzhi Zhang, Zhenggen Wu, Jukka Nevalainen, Ulrich Schiefer, You Huang, Nomdo M Jansonius
Previously we developed a mathematical model for describing the retinal nerve fiber bundle (RNFB) trajectories in the human retina. The model was based on Caucasian eyes that were not selected regarding refraction. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the RNFB trajectories in Chinese myopic eyes. We collected high quality red free fundus images from 80 eyes of 80 Chinese myopic subjects (median [interquartile range/range] refraction -3.9 [-6.0 to -2.5/-10 to -1] D). We traced all visible RNFBs (n = 1460) and evaluated their trajectories using the previously published mathematical model...
July 3, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008389/tlr4-myd88-pathway-promotes-the-imbalanced-activation-of-nlrp3-nlrp6-via-caspase-8-stimulation-after-alkali-burn-injury
#19
Hui Chen, Yonghao Li, Jianjun Gu, Lin Yin, Fang Bian, Lishi Su, Yanhua Hong, Yang Deng, Wei Chi
Alkali burn (AB) is one of the most serious ocular traumas in the world, characterized by extreme ocular surface disorders, critical secondary dry eye and irreversible vision loss. The exact mechanisms involved are unknown. Innate immunity, including the involvement of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs), is believed to participate in the pathogenesis of the epithelia, but the exact mechanisms by which TLRs transduce signals to NLRs and downstream molecules to initiate innate immunity remain poorly defined...
July 2, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959928/a-new-multichannel-method-quantitating-tunel-in-detached-photoreceptor-nuclei
#20
Tyler Heisler-Taylor, Bongsu Kim, Alana Y Reese, Sumaya Hamadmad, Rania Kusibati, Andy J Fischer, Colleen M Cebulla
Nuclear co-localization labels are critical to ocular research. Among these, the TUNEL assay has been established as a gold standard of cell death and apoptosis. While several validated computer-based methods exist to quantitate these markers, including ImageJ Retina Analysis (RA) Toolkit and ImagePro, none verify the count with the nuclear counter stain to confirm nuclear co-localization. We established a new ImageJ-based automated multichannel thresholding (MCT) method to quantitate nuclear co-localized labeling...
June 27, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
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