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Experimental Eye Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642110/pedf-plus-dha-modulate-inflammation-and-stimulate-nerve-regeneration-after-hsv-1-infection
#1
Jiucheng He, Donna Neumann, Azucena Kakazu, Thang Luong Pham, Farhana Musarrat, M Soledad Cortina, Haydee E P Bazan
Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) infection leads to impaired corneal sensation and, in severe cases, to corneal ulceration, melting and perforation. Here, we explore the potential therapeutic action of pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on corneal inflammation and nerve regeneration following HSV-1 infection. Rabbits inoculated with 100,000 PFU/eye of HSV-1 strain 17Syn+ were treated with PEDF + DHA or vehicle. PEDF + DHA treatment resulted in a biphasic immune response with stronger infiltration of CD4+T cells, neutrophils and macrophages at 7-days post-treatment (p...
June 19, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629927/quick-freeze-deep-etch-electron-microscopy-visualization-of-the-mouse-posterior-pole
#2
Ebraheim N Ismail, Jeffrey W Ruberti, Goldis Malek
The mouse is one of the most commonly used mammalian systems to study human diseases. In particular it has been an invaluable tool to model a multitude of ocular pathologies affecting the posterior pole. The aim of this study was to create a comprehensive map of the ultrastructure of the mouse posterior pole using the quick-freeze/deep-etch method (QFDE). QFDE can produce detailed three-dimensional images of tissue structure and macromolecular moieties, without many of the artifacts introduced by structure-altering post-processing methods necessary to perform conventional transmission electron microscopy (cTEM)...
June 16, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629926/different-functional-susceptibilities-of-mouse-retinal-ganglion-cell-subtypes-to-optic-nerve-crush-injury
#3
Zhen Puyang, Hai-Qing Gong, Shi-Gang He, John B Troy, Xiaorong Liu, Pei-Ji Liang
In optic neuropathies, the progressive deterioration of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) function leads to irreversible vision loss. Increasing experimental evidence suggests differing susceptibility for RGC functional subtypes. Here with multi-electrode array recordings, RGC functional loss was characterized at multiple time points in a mouse model of optic nerve crush. Firing rate, latency of response and receptive field size were analyzed for ON, OFF and ON-OFF RGCs separately. It was observed that responses and receptive fields of OFF cells were impaired earlier than ON cells after the injury...
June 16, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625822/comparison-of-the-expression-and-spatial-localization-of-glucose-transporters-in-the-rat-bovine-and-human-lens
#4
Julie C Lim, Rebecca D Perwick, Bo Li, Paul J Donaldson
The energy required to drive lens transparency is derived from the metabolism of glucose. In the lens, the uptake of glucose is likely to involve either facilitative glucose uptake mediated by members of the GLUT family or Na(+) dependent glucose uptake via members of the SGLT family, or both. While GLUT1 and GLUT3 have previously been identified in the rat lens, the expression of SGLTs is unknown. Since antibodies directed against the N and C-terminal epitopes of the GLUT and SGLT family are now commercially available, the purpose of this study is to extend our screening of glucose transporters in the rat lens to include the SGLTs and compare the expression profiles of GLUTs and SGLTs in the different regions of the lens...
June 15, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619506/near-infra-red-light-attenuates-corneal-endothelial-cell-dysfunction-in-situ-and-in%C3%A2-vitro
#5
Claudia Núñez-Álvarez, Susana Del Olmo-Aguado, Jesús Merayo-Lloves, Neville N Osborne
In the present study mechanical damage to the corneal endothelium was induced by elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP, 140 mmHg, 60 min) to one eye of rats, delivered either in complete darkness or in the presence of red light (16.5 W/m(2), 3000 lx, 625-635 nm). IOP raised in the dark revealed the endothelium to be damaged as staining for the gap junction protein ZO-1 was irregular in appearance with some cells displaced in position or lost to leave gaps or holes. This damage was clearly attenuated when red light was focused through the pupil during the insult of raised IOP...
June 13, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619505/application-of-crispr-cas9-in-eye-disease
#6
REVIEW
Wenyi Wu, Luosheng Tang, Patricia A D'Amore, Hetian Lei
The system of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated nuclease (Cas)9 is an effective instrument for revising the genome with great accuracy. This system has been widely employed to generate mutants in genomes from plants to human cells. Rapid improvements in Cas9 specificity in eukaryotic cells have opened great potential for the use of this technology as a therapeutic. Herein, we summarize the recent advancements of CRISPR-Cas9 use in research on human cells and animal models, and outline a basic and clinical pipeline for CRISPR-Cas9-based treatments of genetic eye diseases...
June 12, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603017/effects-of-diabetes-mellitus-on-biomechanical-properties-of-the-rabbit-cornea
#7
FangJun Bao, ManLi Deng, XiaoBo Zheng, LinNa Li, YiPing Zhao, Si Cao, AYong Yu, QinMei Wang, JinHai Huang, Ahmed Elsheikh
To investigate the effects of diabetes on the biomechanical behavior of cornea in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced in 20 rabbits using alloxan, while another 20 age- and weight-matched non-diabetic rabbits served as controls. Eyes were enucleated after 8 weeks of inducing diabetes and the whole cornea was removed with a 3 mm wide scleral ring and tested under inflation conditions with an internal pressure range of 2.0-30.0 mmHg to determine their stress-strain behavior using an inverse analysis process...
June 8, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603016/rapid-repeatable-in%C3%A2-vivo-detection-of-retinal-reactive-oxygen-species
#8
Ning Fan, Sean M Silverman, Yang Liu, Xizhen Wang, Byung-Jin Kim, Liping Tang, Abbot F Clark, Xuyang Liu, Iok-Hou Pang
Oxidative injuries, such as those related to reactive oxygen species (ROS), have been implicated in various retinal and optic nerve disorders. Many ROS detection methods have been developed. Although widely utilized, many of these methods are useful only in post mortem tissues, or require relatively expensive equipment, or involve intraocular injection. In the present study, we demonstrated and characterized a chemiluminescent probe L-012 as a noninvasive, in vivo ROS detection agent in the mouse retina. Using optic nerve crush (ONC) and retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) as injury models, we show that L-012 produced intensive luminescent signals specifically in the injured eyes...
June 8, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603015/activation-of-a-ca-2-dependent-cation-conductance-with-properties-of-trpm2-by-reactive-oxygen-species-in-lens-epithelial-cells
#9
Susanne Keckeis, Laura Wernecke, Daniel J Salchow, Nadine Reichhart, Olaf Strauß
Ion channels are crucial for maintenance of ion homeostasis and transparency of the lens. The lens epithelium is the metabolically and electrophysiologically active cell type providing nutrients, ions and water to the lens fiber cells. Ca(2+)-dependent non-selective ion channels seem to play an important role for ion homeostasis. The aim of the study was to identify and characterize Ca(2+)- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent non-selective cation channels in human lens epithelial cells. RT-PCR revealed gene expression of the Ca(2+)-activated non-selective cation channels TRPC3, TRPM2, TRPM4 and Ano6 in both primary lens epithelial cells and the cell line HLE-B3, whereas TRPM5 mRNA was only found in HLE-B3 cells...
June 8, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603014/distribution-of-cgrp-and-its-receptor-components-clr-and-ramp1-in-the-rat-retina
#10
Frank W Blixt, Aneta Radziwon-Balicka, Lars Edvinsson, Karin Warfvinge
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37 amino acid neuropeptide with several functions including vasodilation, the perception of painful stimuli, and inflammation. The CGRP receptor consists of two main components; calcitonin-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1). While there is a growing recognition that CGRP plays a key role in migraine, the function of CGRP in the retina has not been fully established. This study aims to investigate the distribution of CGRP and its two receptor components in the rat retina, visually by immunohistochemistry and quantitatively using flow cytometry...
June 8, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599847/development-of-wound-healing-models-to-study-tgf%C3%AE-3-s-effect-on-sma
#11
Sriniwas Sriram, Jennifer A Tran, Xiaoqing Guo, Audrey E K Hutcheon, Andrius Kazlauskas, James D Zieske
The goal of this study was to test the efficacy of transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFβ3) in reducing α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression in two models-an ex vivo organ culture and an in vitro 3D cell construct-both of which closely mimic an in vivo environment. For the ex vivo organ culture system, a central 6.0 mm corneal keratectomy was performed on freshly excised rabbit globes The corneas were then excised, segregated into groups treated with 1.0 ng/ml TGFβ1 or β3 (T1 or T3, respectively), and cultured for 2 weeks...
June 6, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596085/brief-hyperopic-defocus-or-form-deprivation-have-different-effects-on-eye-growth-and-ocular-rhythms-depending-on-the-time-of-day-of-exposure
#12
Debora L Nickla, Kelsey Jordan, Jane Yang, Kristen Totonelly
It is generally accepted that myopic defocus is a more potent signal to the emmetropization system than hyperopic defocus: one hour per day of myopic defocus cancels out 11 h of hyperopic defocus. However, we have recently shown that the potency of brief episodes of myopic defocus at inhibiting eye growth depends on the time of day of exposure. We here ask if this will also be true of the responses to brief periods of hyperopic defocus: may integration of the signal depend on time of day? If so, are the rhythms in axial length and choroidal thickness altered? Hyperopic defocus: Birds had one eye exposed to hyperopic defocus by the wearing of -10D lenses for 2 or 6 h at one of 3 times of day for 5 days: Morning (7 a...
June 5, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587752/dickkopf-1-inhibits-wnt3a-induced-migration-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-human-lens-epithelial-cells
#13
Tingting Liu, Limin Zhang, Yanyan Wang, Haitao Zhang, Lin Li, Xiuli Bao
Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) is a major post-operative complication of cataract surgery. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to PCO. We previously indicated that Wnt3a induces the EMT of human lens epithelial cells (LECs) and plays an important role in the development of PCO. The present study aimed to test the potential effect of Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) on Wnt3a-induced cell migration and the EMT of LECs and to explore possible cellular mechanisms. The secretion of Dkk1 was reduced in the rabbit PCO model, and Dkk1 injected into the eyes post-surgical manipulation prevented PCO formation...
June 3, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579034/no-signaling-in-retinal-bipolar-cells
#14
A Agurto, A H Vielma, B Cadiz, E Couve, O Schmachtenberg
Nitric oxide (NO) is a neuromodulator involved in physiological and pathological processes in the retina. In the inner retina, a subgroup of amacrine cells have been shown to synthesize NO, but bipolar cells remain controversial as NO sources. This study correlates NO synthesis in dark-adapted retinas, through labeling with the NO marker DAF-FM, with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and inducible NOS expression, and presence of the NO receptor soluble guanylate cyclase in bipolar cells. NO containing bipolar cells were morphologically identified by dialysis of DAF fluorescent cells with intracellular dyes, or by DAF labeling followed by immunohistochemistry for nNOS and other cellular markers...
June 1, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579033/does-oxidative-stress-play-any-role-in-diabetic-cataract-formation-re-evaluation-using-a-thioltransferase-gene-knockout-mouse-model
#15
Jie Zhang, Hong Yan, Marjorie F Lou
Oxidative stress is a known risk factor in senile cataract formation. In recent years, it has been suggested that oxidation may also be associated with cataract induced by hyperglycemia, but this concept has not been well examined or validated. Since thioltransferase (TTase) is one of the key enzymes that regulates redox homeostasis and protects against oxidative stress in the lens, we have used TTase gene knockout (KO) mice as a model to examine this new concept. Lenses from 4 months old TTase KO and wild-type (WT) mice were incubated in TC199 culture medium containing 30 mM glucose for 48 h...
June 1, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577895/sox2-regulates-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-reprogramming-and-proliferation-in-the-regenerating-zebrafish-retina-via-lin28-and-ascl1a
#16
Ryne A Gorsuch, Manuela Lahne, Clare E Yarka, Michael E Petravick, Jingling Li, David R Hyde
Sox2 is a well-established neuronal stem cell-associated transcription factor that regulates neural development and adult neurogenesis in vertebrates, and is one of the critical genes used to reprogram differentiated cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. We examined if Sox2 was involved in the early reprogramming-like events that Müller glia undergo as they upregulate many pluripotency- and neural stem cell-associated genes required for proliferation in light-damaged adult zebrafish retinas. In the undamaged adult zebrafish retina, Sox2 is expressed in Müller glia and a subset of amacrine cells, similar to other vertebrates...
May 31, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572030/streamlined-duplex-live-dead-microplate-assay-for-cultured-cells
#17
Bruce A Pfeffer, Steven J Fliesler
A duplex fluorescence assay to assess the viability of cells cultured in multi-well plates is described, which can be carried out in the original culture plate using a plate reader, without exchanges of culture or assay medium, or transfer of cells or cell supernatant. The method uses freshly prepared reagents and does not rely on a proprietary, commercially supplied kit. Following experimental treatment, calcein acetoxymethyl ester (CaAM) is added to each well of cultured cells; after 30 min, the fluorescence intensity (emission λmax ∼ 530 nm) is measured...
May 30, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559202/inhibitory-effects-of-rosmarinic-acid-on-pterygium-epithelial-cells-through-redox-imbalance-and-induction-of-extrinsic-and-intrinsic-apoptosis
#18
Ya-Yu Chen, Chia-Fang Tsai, Ming-Chu Tsai, Yu-Wen Hsu, Fung-Jou Lu
Pterygium is a common tumor-like ocular disease, which may be related to exposure to chronic ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Although the standard treatment for pterygium is surgical intervention, the recurrence rate of pterygium is high when no effective inhibitory drug is used after surgery. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a polyphenol antioxidant with many biological activities, including anti-UV and anti-tumor properties. This study aimed to examine the inhibitory effects of RA on pterygium epithelial cells (PECs)...
May 27, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552384/light-induced-retinal-degeneration-causes-a-transient-downregulation-of-melanopsin-in-the-rat-retina
#19
Diego García-Ayuso, Caridad Galindo-Romero, Johnny Di Pierdomenico, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Marta Agudo-Barriuso, María P Villegas Pérez
In this work we study the effects of an acute light-induced retinal degeneration on the population of melanopsin positive retinal ganglion cells (m(+)RGCs) and the expression of the melanopsin protein in the retina. The m(+)RGCs may be more resistant than other RGCs to lesion, but the effects of an acute light exposure in this population are unknown. Albino rats were exposed to white light (3000 lux) continuously for 48 h and processed 0, 3, 7 or 30 days after light exposure (ALE). Whole-mounted retinas were immunodetected with antibodies against melanopsin, Brn3a, and rhodopsin to study the populations of m(+)RGC, Brn3a(+)RGC and rods (which are the most abundant photoreceptors in the rat retina)...
May 26, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552385/regional-distribution-of-phospholipids-in-porcine-vitreous-humor
#20
Abigail Schnepf, Marta Cecilia Yappert, Douglas Borchman
This project explores the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor, retina, and lens. Matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry has been used previously to image lipids, proteins, and other metabolites in retinas and lenses. However, the regional composition of phospholipids in vitreous humors is not known. To address this issue, we have applied this mass spectral method to explore the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor both ex-situ and in-vitro. To establish the possible source(s) of phospholipids in the vitreous humor, compositional studies of the lens and retina were also pursued...
May 25, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
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