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Experimental Eye Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782826/sheets-of-human-retinal-progenitor-transplants-improve-vision-in-rats-with-severe-retinal-degeneration
#1
Bin Lin, Bryce T McLelland, Anuradha Mathur, Robert B Aramant, Magdalene J Seiler
Loss of photoreceptors and other retinal cells is a common endpoint in retinal degenerate (RD) diseases that cause blindness. Retinal transplantation is a potential therapy to replace damaged retinal cells and improve vision. In this study, we examined the development of human fetal retinal sheets with or without their retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) transplanted to immunodeficient retinal degenerate rho S334ter-3 rats. Sheets were dissected from fetal human eyes (11-15.7 weeks gestation) and then transplanted to the subretinal space of 24-31 d old RD nude rats...
May 18, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782825/characterization-of-an-n-terminal-mutant-of-%C3%AE-a-crystallin-%C3%AE-a-r21q-associated-with-congenital-cataract
#2
Ashutosh S Phadte, Puttur Santhoshkumar, K Krishna Sharma
Several mutations associated with congenital cataracts in human beings target conserved arginine residues in αA-crystallin. The N-terminal region of αA-crystallin is a "mutational hotspot," with multiple cataract-related mutations reported in this region. Two mutations at arginine 21 in the N-terminal domain of αA-crystallin - αA-R21L and αA-R21W have been associated with congenital cataract. A third mutant of R21, αA-R21Q, was recently identified to be associated with congenital cataract in a South Australian family...
May 18, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778740/alpha-1-antitrypsin-ameliorates-inflammation-and-neurodegeneration-in-the-diabetic-mouse-retina
#3
Gustavo Ortiz, Emiliano S Lopez, Juan P Salica, Constanza Potilinski, Mariano Fernández Acquier, Eduardo Chuluyan, Juan E Gallo
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common cause of blindness in the working age population. Early events of DR are accompanied by neurodegeneration of the inner retina resulting in ganglion cell loss. These findings together with reduced retinal thickness are observed within the first weeks of experimental DR. Besides, an inflammatory process is triggered in DR in which the innate immune response plays a relevant role. Alpha 1 antitrypsin (AAT), an inhibitor of serine proteases, has shown anti-inflammatory properties in several diseases...
May 17, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763582/the-pathogenic-role-of-dendritic-cells-in-non-infectious-anterior-uveitis
#4
M O'Rourke, U Fearon, C M Sweeney, S A Basdeo, J M Fletcher, C C Murphy, M Canavan
BACKGROUND: Anterior uveitis (AU) is characterised by infiltration of immune cells into the anterior chamber of the eye. Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells that initiate and promote inflammation. This study aims to characterise DC in AU and to examine the effects of aqueous humor (AqH) on DC maturation and function. METHODS: The frequency and phenotype of AU and healthy control (HC) circulating DC was examined. AU and HC AqH was immunostained and assessed by flow cytometry...
May 17, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777678/uva-riboflavin-collagen-crosslinking-stiffening-effects-on-anterior-and-posterior-corneal-flaps
#5
Hamed Hatami-Marbini, Sandeep M Jayaram
The UVA/riboflavin collagen crosslinking (CXL) is one of the treatment procedure for stopping the progression of keratoconus. The inclusion criterion for this procedure is a minimum corneal thickness of 400 μm, which is not often met in patients with advanced keratoconus. Preoperatively swelling of thin corneas was shown to stabilize the keratectasia without any postoperative endothelial damage. Recently, we have shown that swelling porcine corneas prior to the CXL treatment had no significant effect on the resulting improvement in their tensile properties...
May 16, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777677/usherin-defects-lead-to-early-onset-retinal-dysfunction-in-zebrafish
#6
Margo Dona, Ralph Slijkerman, Kimberly Lerner, Sanne Broekman, Jeremy Wegner, Taylor Howat, Theo Peters, Lisette Hetterschijt, Nando Boon, Erik de Vrieze, Nasrin Sorusch, Uwe Wolfrum, Hannie Kremer, Stephan Neuhauss, Jingjing Zang, Maarten Kamermans, Monte Westerfield, Jennifer Phillips, Erwin van Wijk
Mutations in USH2A are the most frequent cause of Usher syndrome and autosomal recessive nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa. To unravel the pathogenic mechanisms underlying USH2A-associated retinal degeneration and to evaluate future therapeutic strategies that could potentially halt the progression of this devastating disorder, an animal model is needed. The available Ush2a knock-out mouse model does not mimic the human phenotype, because it presents with only a mild and late-onset retinal degeneration. Using CRISPR/Cas9-technology, we introduced protein-truncating germline lesions into the zebrafish ush2a gene (ush2armc1 : c...
May 16, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775563/anolis-carolinensis-as-a-model-to-understand-molecular-and-cellular-basis-of-foveal-development
#7
Naif S Sannan, Xianghong Shan, Kevin Gregory-Evans, Kenro Kusumi, Cheryl Y Gregory-Evans
The fovea is an anatomical specialization of the central retina containing closely packed cone-photoreceptors providing an area of high acuity vision in humans and primates. Despite its key role in the clarity of vision, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of foveal development, due to the absence of a foveal structure in commonly used laboratory animal models. Of the amniotes the retina in birds of prey and some reptiles do exhibit a typical foveal structure, but they have not been studied in the context of foveal development due to lack of availability of embryonic tissue, lack of captive breeding programs, and limited genomic information...
May 15, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772229/polybacterial-community-analysis-in-human-conjunctiva-through-16s-rrna-gene-libraries
#8
Deepthi KrishnanNair Geetha, Jayasudha Rajagopalaboopathi, Girish Rameshan Nair, Manikandan Palanisamy, Ram Rammohan, Narendran Venkatapathy, Prabagaran Solai Ramatchandirane
The conjunctival sac of healthy human harbours a variety of microorganisms. When the eye is compromised, an occasional inadvertent spread happens to the adjacent tissue, resulting in bacterial ocular infections. Microbiological investigation of the conjunctival swab is one of the broadly used modality to study the aetiological agent of conjunctiva. However, most of the time such methods yield unsatisfactory results. Hence, the present study intends to identify the bacterial community in human conjunctiva of pre-operative subjects through 16S rRNA gene libraries...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772228/3d-bioprinting-of-a-corneal-stroma-equivalent
#9
Abigail Isaacson, Stephen Swioklo, Che J Connon
Corneal transplantation constitutes one of the leading treatments for severe cases of loss of corneal function. Due to its limitations, a concerted effort has been made by tissue engineers to produce functional, synthetic corneal prostheses as an alternative recourse. However, successful translation of these therapies into the clinic has not yet been accomplished. 3D bioprinting is an emerging technology that can be harnessed for the fabrication of biological tissue for clinical applications. We applied this to the area of corneal tissue engineering in order to fabricate corneal structures that resembled the structure of the native human corneal stroma using an existing 3D digital human corneal model and a suitable support structure...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763583/m%C3%A3-ller-glial-cells-contribute-to-dim-light-vision-in-the-spectacled-caiman-caiman-crocodilus-fuscus-analysis-of-retinal-light-transmission
#10
Silke Agte, Alexey Savvinov, Anett Karl, Astrid Zayas-Santiago, Elke Ulbricht, Vladimir I Makarov, Andreas Reichenbach, Andreas Bringmann, Serguei N Skatchkov
In this study, we show the capability of Müller glial cells to transport light through the inverted retina of reptiles, specifically the retina of the spectacled caimans. Thus, confirming that Müller cells of lower vertebrates also improve retinal light transmission. Confocal imaging of freshly isolated retinal wholemounts, that preserved the refractive index landscape of the tissue, indicated that the retina of the spectacled caiman is adapted for vision under dim light conditions. For light transmission experiments, we used a setup with two axially aligned objectives imaging the retina from both sides to project the light onto the inner (vitreal) surface and to detect the transmitted light behind the retina at the receptor layer...
May 12, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758190/conserved-characteristics-of-ocular-refractive-development-did-the-eye-evolve-once
#11
REVIEW
Jacob G Sivak, Jeremy M Sivak
It has been speculated that the unitary eyes of vertebrates and molluscs, and the compound eyes of insects and crustaceans, evolved separately. On the other hand, the common use of rhodopsin as a photoreceptor molecule, and the conservation of Pax6 as a master control gene for eye development, suggest instead that the eye evolved once. Yet, recently the molecular genetics that had seemed to suggest a definitive answer to this evolutionary point has once again become cloudy. Here we propose an alternative approach to addressing the question of eye evolution through comparative analyses of physiological optics...
May 11, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758189/audiovisual-perception-in-amblyopia-a-review-and-synthesis
#12
REVIEW
Michael D Richards, Herbert C Goltz, Agnes M F Wong
Amblyopia is a common developmental sensory disorder that has been extensively and systematically investigated as a unisensory visual impairment. However, its effects are increasingly recognized to extend beyond vision to the multisensory domain. Indeed, amblyopia is associated with altered cross-modal interactions in audiovisual temporal perception, audiovisual spatial and motion perception, and audiovisual speech perception. Furthermore, although the visual impairment in amblyopia is typically unilateral, the multisensory abnormalities tend to persist even when viewing with both eyes...
May 11, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753729/controlled-microenvironments-to-evaluate-chemotactic-properties-of-cultured-m%C3%A3-ller-glia
#13
Juan Pena, Nihan Dulger, Tanya Singh, Jing Zhou, Robert Majeska, Stephen Redenti, Maribel Vazquez
Emerging therapies have begun to evaluate the abilities of Müller glial cells (MGCs) to protect and/or regenerate neurons following retina injury. The migration of donor cells is central to many reparative strategies, where cells must achieve appropriate positioning to facilitate localized repair. Although chemical cues have been implicated in the MGC migratory responses of numerous retinopathies, MGC-based therapies have yet to explore the extent to which external biochemical stimuli can direct MGC behavior...
May 10, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753728/retinal-adaptation-to-dim-light-vision-in-spectacled-caimans-caiman-crocodilus-fuscus-analysis-of-retinal-ultrastructure
#14
Anett Karl, Silke Agte, Astrid Zayas-Santiago, Felix N Makarov, Yomarie Rivera, Jan Benedikt, Mike Francke, Andreas Reichenbach, Serguei N Skatchkov, Andreas Bringmann
It has been shown that mammalian retinal glial (Müller) cells act as living optical fibers that guide the light through the retinal tissue to the photoreceptor cells (Agte et al., 2011; Franze et al., 2007). However, for nonmammalian species it is unclear whether Müller cells also improve the transretinal light transmission. Furthermore, for nonmammalian species there is a lack of ultrastructural data of the retinal cells, which, in general, delivers fundamental information of the retinal function, i.e. the vision of the species...
May 10, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752947/epitope-mapping-of-commercial-antibodies-that-detect-myocilin
#15
Athéna C Patterson-Orazem, Shannon E Hill, Michael P Fautsch, Raquel L Lieberman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752946/effect-of-free-amino-acids-on-bovine-retinal-pericytes
#16
S Vidhya, R Ramya, K Coral, K N Sulochana, S R Bharathidevi
AIM: This study was conducted to estimate the aminoacid levels in the vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and to correlate it with the adiponectin levels. Secondly to test if these amino acids can alter or induce adiponectin levels and its related factors in retinal cells like pericyte as an in vitro model. METHODS: All human studies were done as per declaration of Helsinki with institutional approval and after obtaining consent from participating individuals...
May 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750972/inhibition-of-cx43-gap-junction-uncoupling-prevents-high-glucose-induced-apoptosis-and-reduces-excess-cell-monolayer-permeability-in-retinal-vascular-endothelial-cells
#17
Dongjoon Kim, Ulrik Mouritzen, Bjarne Due Larsen, Sayon Roy
The aim of this study was to investigate whether inhibition of connexin 43 gap junction-uncoupling is sufficient to prevent retinal vascular cell loss under high glucose condition and reduce cell monolayer permeability. Rat retinal endothelial cells were grown for 3, 5, and 7 days in normal (5 mM) or high glucose (30 mM) medium; in parallel, cells grown in high glucose medium were exposed for 3, 5, and 7 days to 100 nM danegaptide, which stabilizes connexin 43-mediated cell coupling. Additionally, cells grown in normal medium were treated with a connexin 43 blocker as a negative control...
May 8, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746818/lymphatic-markers-in-the-human-optic-nerve
#18
A Trost, C Runge, D Bruckner, A Kaser-Eichberger, B Bogner, C Strohmaier, H A Reitsamer, F Schroedl
Tissues of the central nervous system (CNS), including the optic nerve (ON), are considered a-lymphatic. However, lymphatic structures have been described in the dura mater of human ON sheaths. Since it is known that lymphatic markers are also expressed by single non-lymphatic cells, these results need confirmation according to the consensus statement for the use of lymphatic markers in ophthalmologic research. The aim of this study was to screen for the presence of lymphatic structures in the adult human ON using a combination of four lymphatic markers...
May 7, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705099/ultraviolet-radiation-exposure-triggers-neurokinin-1-receptor-upregulation-in-ocular-tissues-in-vivo
#19
Janine Gross, Alfred R Wegener, Martin Kronschlaeger, Frank G Holz, Carl-Ludwig Schönfeld, Linda M Meyer
The purpose of this study was to investigate the neurokinin receptor-1 (NKR-1) protein expression in ocular tissues before and after supra-cataract threshold ultraviolet radiation (UVR-B peak at 312 nm) exposure in vivo in a mouse model. Six-week-old C57Bl/6 mice were unilaterally exposed to a single (2.9 kJ/m2 ) and an above 3-fold UVR-B cataract threshold dose (9.4 kJ/m2 ) of UVR. UVR-exposure (λpeak = 312 nm) was performed in mydriasis using a Bio-Spectra exposure system. After latency periods of 3 and 7 days, eyes were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin, sectioned and stained with fluorescence coupled antibody for NKR-1 and DAPI for cell nuclei staining...
April 26, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702100/signaling-pathways-activated-by-resolvin-e1-to-stimulate-mucin-secretion-and-increase-intracellular-ca-2-in-cultured-rat-conjunctival-goblet-cells
#20
Marit Lippestad, Robin R Hodges, Tor P Utheim, Charles N Serhan, Darlene A Dartt
Glycoconjugate mucin secretion from conjunctival goblet cells is tightly regulated by nerves and specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) to maintain ocular surface health. Here we investigated the actions of the SPM resolvin E1 (RvE1) on cultured rat conjunctival goblet cell glycoconjugate secretion and intracellular [Ca2+ ] ([Ca2+ ]i ) and the signaling pathways used by RvE1. Goblet cells were cultured from rat conjunctiva in RPMI medium. The amount of RvE1-stimulated glycoconjugate mucin secretion was determined using an enzyme-linked lectin assay with Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin 1 lectin...
April 24, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
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