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Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology

Shinji Ueno, Ayami Nakanishi, Akira Sayo, Taro Kominami, Yasuki Ito, Takaaki Hayashi, Kazushige Tsunoda, Takeshi Iwata, Hiroko Terasaki
PURPOSE: Patients with complete achromatopsia (ACHM) lack cone function, and patients with incomplete ACHM have relatively good visual acuity with residual color vision. The pathological mechanism(s) underlying incomplete ACHM has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to determine the pathophysiology of ACHM in two siblings: one with complete ACHM and the other with incomplete ACHM. METHODS: The medical charts of the two siblings were reviewed. RESULTS: The sibling with incomplete ACHM had decimal visual acuities that ranged from 0...
February 14, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Joanna Karaśkiewicz, Krzysztof Penkala, Maciej Mularczyk, Wojciech Lubiński
BACKGROUND: To evaluate retinal ganglion cell (RGC) function after intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction measured by pattern electroretinogram (PERG) in patients with newly diagnosed, non-treated preperimetric and early stages of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS: Twenty-four eyes from 24 patients with POAG: 11 eyes with preperimetric glaucoma and 13 eyes with early glaucoma received Ganfort (®) (bimatoprost + timolol) once a day for a period of 1 month...
February 7, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
C Quentin Davis, Olga Kraszewska, Colette Manning
PURPOSE: To compare the effect of variable pupil size on the flicker electroretinogram (ERG) between a stimulus having constant luminance and a stimulus having constant retinal illuminance (constant Troland) that compensates for pupil size. METHODS: Subjects (n = 18) were tested with 12 pairs of the stimuli. The stimulus pair consisted of the ISCEV standard constant luminance stimulus (3 cd·s/m(2) with a 30 cd/m(2) background) and a constant retinal illuminance stimulus (32 Td·s with a 320 Td background) selected to provide the same stimulus and background when the pupil diameter is 3...
February 3, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Libe Gradstein, Ronald M Hansen, Gerald F Cox, Pablo Altschwager, Anne B Fulton
PURPOSE: We report for the first time electroretinographic (ERG) evidence of progressive retinal abnormalities in a girl who presented in infancy with ocular features of albinism and gradually developed choroidal sclerosis and patchy retinal atrophy leading to a diagnosis of Knobloch syndrome (KS, OMIM 267750, COL18A1). METHODS: At age 2 months, nystagmus and esotropia prompted ophthalmic evaluation. The appearance of choroidal sclerosis and atrophic retinal patches led to further evaluation at age 8 years...
January 31, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
John P Kelly, James O Phillips, Avery H Weiss
PURPOSE: Assessing vision in young children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is challenging due to multi-directional infantile nystagmus, the range of optic nerve loss, and cognitive delay. This study examined visual evoked potential (VEP) responses and averaging techniques in children with ONH. The assumption is that EEG epochs with inconsistent temporal phase would be associated with nystagmus, signal reduction due to axon loss, and visual inattention. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on 44 children (average age 2...
November 23, 2016: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Paul A Constable, Michael Bach, Laura J Frishman, Brett G Jeffrey, Anthony G Robson
The clinical electro-oculogram (EOG) is an electrophysiological test of the outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in which changes in the electrical potential across the RPE are recorded during successive periods of dark and light adaptation. This document presents the 2017 EOG Standard from the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV: ). This standard has been reorganized and updated to include an explanation of the mechanism of the EOG, but without substantive changes to the testing protocol from the previous version published in 2011...
February 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
J Maguire, N R A Parry, J Kremers, I J Murray, D McKeefry
PURPOSE: To record transient ERGs from the light-adapted human retina using silent substitution stimuli which selectively reflect the activity of rod photoreceptors. We aim to describe the morphology of these waveforms and examine how they are affected by the use of less selective stimuli and by retinal pathology. METHODS: Rod-isolating stimuli with square-wave temporal profiles (250/250 ms onset/offset) were presented using a 4 primary LED ganzfeld stimulator...
February 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Jana Szanyi, Jan Kremlacek, Zuzana Kubova, Miroslav Kuba, Pavel Gebousky, Jaroslav Kapla, Juraj Szanyi, Frantisek Vit, Jana Langrova
PURPOSE: The goal of the current study was to explore visual function in virally suppressed HIV patients undergoing combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) by using pattern-reversal and motion-onset visual evoked potentials (VEPs). METHODS: The pattern-reversal and motion-onset VEPs were recorded in 20 adult HIV+ patients with a mean age of 38 years and CD4 cell counts ≥230 × 10(6) cells/L of blood. RESULTS: Nine out of 20 patients displayed VEP abnormalities...
February 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
John P Kelly, James O Phillips, Avery H Weiss
PURPOSE: The relationship between eye movements and the visual evoked potential (VEP) response was examined in two subjects with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS). Changes in VEP amplitude were compared between periods of foveation versus periods of high-frequency nystagmus. An analysis is proposed that improves extraction of the checkerboard reversal VEP signal from subjects with INS. METHODS: INS subjects were 2 healthy children (12-13 years old) with 20/40 or better corrected acuity...
February 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Anthony W Van Alstine, Suresh Viswanathan
PURPOSE: To assess the test-retest reliability of the multifocal photopic negative response (mfPhNR) of normal human subjects. METHODS: Multifocal electroretinograms were recorded from one eye of 61 healthy adult subjects on two separate days using a Visual Evoked Response Imaging System software version 4.3 (EDI, San Mateo, California). The visual stimulus delivered on a 75-Hz monitor consisted of seven equal-sized hexagons each subtending 12° of visual angle...
February 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Gonzalo Ortiz, J Vernon Odom, Christopher L Passaglia, Radouil T Tzekov
PURPOSE: The existence of retinopetal (sometimes referred to as "efferent" or "centrifugal") axons in the mammalian optic nerve is a topic of long-standing debate. Opposition is fading as efferent innervation of the retina has now been widely documented in rodents and other animals. The existence and function of an efferent system in humans and non-human primates has not, though, been definitively established. Such a feedback pathway could have important functional, clinical, and experimental significance to the field of vision science and ophthalmology...
February 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Hanna Åkerblom, Sten Andreasson, Gerd Holmström
PURPOSE: Macular development is a complex process that starts by mid-gestation and continues several years after birth. A preterm birth could affect this development, causing increased thickness in the central macula, but the effect of the macular function remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the macular function measured with multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), in former preterm children and compare with healthy controls. A second aim was to correlate central macular function with central macular thickness measured with optical coherent tomography (OCT), in the preterm group...
December 2016: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Sven P Heinrich, Celia M Bock, Michael Bach
PURPOSE: Acuity testing based on visual evoked potentials (VEPs) overestimates acuity in patients with amblyopia. We hypothesized that distortion and fragmentation of the stimulus in amblyopia impede recognition of optotypes, while it leaves the pattern onset response in the VEP mostly unaffected, resulting in overestimation of acuity. METHODS: Acuity VEPs were recorded in visually normal participants with the stimulus degraded by patterned polymethyl methacrylate panes, which induce distortion and fragmentation...
November 18, 2016: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Jan Kremláček, Naďa Jirásková, Jana Nekolová, Radovan Šikl, Miroslav Kuba
PURPOSE: The implantation of an intraocular telescope increases life quality in patients with end-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The present study monitored changes in electrophysiological markers of visual processing before and during seventeen months after a novel mirror telescope implantation in two patients (OV-male 90 years, MZ-female 70 years) with the final-stage form of AMD. METHODS: Visual evoked potentials were recorded to high-contrast pattern-reversal (PR-VEP for check size 40' and 10'), low-contrast motion-onset stimuli (in visual periphery M-VEP M20°, and in central part M-VEP C8°), and event-related potentials (ERPs) in the oddball visual paradigm...
November 10, 2016: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Ángel García-García, Francisco José Muñoz-Negrete, Gema Rebolleda
PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the wave amplitude of multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) measurements and discomfort from Dawson-Trick-Litzkow (DTL) electrode located on the cornea (cDTL) and on the conjunctival fornix (fDTL) and ERG-jet contact lens electrode (CL). METHODS: Thirty-six patients and 18 healthy volunteers were evaluated with three different methods (cDTL, fDTL and CL). Wave amplitude, number of artifacts, number of electrode dislocations and level of discomfort obtained with each electrode were compared...
October 2016: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Gamal Tamam Ahmed Kariman, Yoshiaki Shimada, Masayuki Horiguchi
PURPOSE: To investigate the characteristics of the late foveal response component (lfrc) that presents on the first slice of the second-order kernel (K2.1) in multifocal electroretinograms (mfERGs). METHODS: mfERGs with 37 hexagonal stimulus elements were obtained from 27 healthy subjects under a stimulus intensity of 2.67 cds/m(2), base rate of 75 Hz, and a net recording time of 1 min 49.2 s, using bipolar contact lens electrodes. The responses on the centermost hexagon (with a diameter of 4...
October 2016: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Jan Kremers, Deepak Bhatt
PURPOSE: To determine whether electroretinograms (ERGs) to heterochromatic stimulation can detect and quantify hereditary colour vision deficiency. METHODS: ERGs were measured to counterphase modulation of red and green stimuli. The total modulation depth of the red and green stimuli was constant. The ratio of red to green modulation was varied, and the responses were measured at two temporal frequencies: 12 and 36 Hz. Subjects were 13 protanopes, 19 protanomalous trichromats, 38 deuteranopes, 16 deuteranomalous trichromats and 22 normal trichromats...
October 2016: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Hansa Kundra, Jason C Park, J Jason McAnany
PURPOSE: To compare measurements of the full-field photopic negative response (PhNR), as well as intra-subject variation in the PhNR, using time and time-frequency domain analyses. METHODS: Full-field ERGs were recorded from 20 normally sighted subjects (aged 24-65 years) elicited by a long-wavelength pulse (3 cd s m(-2)) presented against a short-wavelength adapting field (12.5 cd m(-2)). Three to 10 waveforms were obtained from each subject, and each waveform was analyzed using standard time domain analyses of the PhNR, as well as a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to extract time-frequency components that correspond to the PhNR...
October 2016: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Yuri Nakayama, Satoshi Katagiri, Tadashi Yokoi, Makiko Ui, Sachiko Nishina, Noriyuki Azuma
PURPOSE: To describe the outcome of scleral buckling to treat radial retinal folds (RFs) that caused a late-onset and sudden visual decrease with impairment of the fovea. METHODS: This is an observational case report. Ophthalmic examinations were performed preoperatively and postoperatively and included measurement of the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus examination, fluorescein angiography, focal macular electroretinography (FM-ERG), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
October 2016: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
K Stingl, K U Bartz-Schmidt, A Braun, F Gekeler, U Greppmaier, A Schatz, A Stett, T Strasser, V Kitiratschky, E Zrenner
PURPOSE: The subretinal Alpha IMS visual implant is a CE-approved medical device for restoration of visual functions in blind patients with end-stage outer retina degeneration. We present a method to test the function of the implant objectively in vivo using standard electroretinographic equipment and to assess the devices' parameter range for an optimal perception. METHODS: Subretinal implant Alpha IMS (Retina Implant AG, Reutlingen, Germany) consists of 1500 photodiode-amplifier-electrode units and is implanted surgically into the subretinal space in blind retinitis pigmentosa patients...
October 2016: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
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