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British Journal of Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241223/tumour-sidedness-and-intrinsic-subtypes-in-patients-with-stage-ii-iii-colon-cancer-analysis-of-nsabp-c-07-nrg-oncology
#1
S Rim Kim, Nan Song, Greg Yothers, Patrick G Gavin, Carmen J Allegra, Soonmyung Paik, Katherine L Pogue-Geile
BACKGROUND: We tested the association of colon tumour sidedness with prognosis and with molecular subtypes recently shown to be predictive of oxaliplatin benefit in stage III colon cancer. METHODS: NSABP/NRG C-07 trial (N=1603) was used to determine association of tumour sidedness with molecular subtypes and recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Sidedness was associated with molecular subtypes except stem-like/CMS4 subtype...
December 14, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241222/flavopiridol-enhances-abt-199-sensitivity-in-unfavourable-risk-multiple-myeloma-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Liang Zhou, Yu Zhang, Deepak Sampath, Joel Leverson, Yun Dai, Maciej Kmieciak, Matthew Nguyen, Robert Z Orlowski, Steven Grant
BACKGROUND: The BCL-2-specific BH3-mimetic ABT-199 (venetoclax) has been reported to be principally active against favourable-risk multiple myeloma (MM) cells, prompting efforts to extend its activity to include more resistant, higher-risk MM subsets. METHODS: Effects of the CDK9 inhibitor flavopiridol (FP; alvocidib) on responses to ABT-199 were examined in MM cells. Cell death and protein expression were evaluated by western blot and immunofluorescence. Xenograft models were used to study combination effects in vivo...
December 14, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235571/the-hypoxia-marker-caix-is-prognostic-in-the-uk-phase-iii-vortex-biobank-cohort-an-important-resource-for-translational-research-in-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#3
Laura Forker, Piers Gaunt, Stefano Sioletic, Patrick Shenjere, Robert Potter, Darren Roberts, Joely Irlam, Helen Valentine, David Hughes, Ana Hughes, Lucinda Billingham, Rob Grimer, Beatrice Seddon, Ananya Choudhury, Martin Robinson, Catharine M L West
BACKGROUND: Despite high metastasis rates, adjuvant/neoadjuvant systemic therapy for localised soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is not used routinely. Progress requires tailoring therapy to features of tumour biology, which need exploration in well-documented cohorts. Hypoxia has been linked to metastasis in STS and is targetable. This study evaluated hypoxia prognostic markers in the phase III adjuvant radiotherapy VorteX trial. METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour biopsies, fresh tumour/normal tissue and blood were collected before radiotherapy...
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235570/targeting-negative-regulation-of-p53-by-mdm2-and-wip1-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-in-cutaneous-melanoma
#4
Chiao-En Wu, Arman Esfandiari, Yi-Hsuan Ho, Nan Wang, Ahmed Khairallah Mahdi, Erhan Aptullahoglu, Penny Lovat, John Lunec
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous melanoma is the most serious skin malignancy and new therapeutic strategies are needed for advanced melanoma. TP53 mutations are rare in cutaneous melanoma and hence activation of wild-type p53 is a potential therapeutic strategy in cutaneous melanoma. Here, we investigated the WIP1 inhibitor, GSK2830371, and MDM2-p53 binding antagonists (nutlin-3, RG7388 and HDM201) alone and in combination treatment in cutaneous melanoma cell lines and explored the mechanistic basis of these responses in relation to the genotype and induced gene expression profile of the cells...
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235569/s-1-chemotherapy-and-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-after-d1-d2-lymph-node-dissection-in-patients-with-node-positive-gastric-cancer-a-phase-i-ii-study
#5
X Wang, D B Zhao, L Yang, Y Chi, Y Tang, N Li, S L Wang, Y W Song, Y P Liu, W Y Liu, H Ren, T Zhang, J Y Wang, X S Chen, H Fang, W H Wang, Y X Li, J Jin
BACKGROUND: This phase I/II clinical trial investigated S-1 administered with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) as adjuvant therapy for node-positive gastric cancer. Patients had undergone radical resection and D1/D2 lymph node dissection. METHODS: In phase I, patients received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy of IMRT (45 Gy in 25 fractions) with concurrent S-1 administered on a dose-escalation schedule to determine the recommended dose (RD). In phase II, the safety and efficacy of the RD of S-1 combined with IMRT were assessed...
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235568/aldh1a3-affects-colon-cancer-in-vitro-proliferation-and-invasion-depending-on-cxcr4-status
#6
Hailiang Feng, Yanyan Liu, Xiaocui Bian, Fangying Zhou, Yuqin Liu
BACKGROUND: Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) has been widely used as a marker of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the ALDH family includes 19 members, and the most relevant isoforms and their biological functions in cancer biology are still controversial. METHODS: We examined ALDH enzyme activity and the mRNA expression of 19 ALDH members in 58 human cell lines. The biological effect and mechanism of knocking down ALDH1A3 with siRNA and shRNA in cell lines were explored...
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235567/alcohol-and-oestrogen-metabolites-in-postmenopausal-women-in-the-women-s-health-initiative-observational-study
#7
Mary C Playdon, Sally B Coburn, Steven C Moore, Louise A Brinton, Nicolas Wentzensen, Garnet Anderson, Robert Wallace, Roni T Falk, Ruth Pfeiffer, Xia Xu, Britton Trabert
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of several cancers. Potential mechanisms include altered oestrogen metabolism. Parent oestrogens metabolise into alternate pathways of oestrogen metabolites that may have variable effects on cancer pathogenesis. We examined associations of alcohol consumption with circulating oestrogen/oestrogen metabolites in postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI)-Observational Study (OS). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of prediagnosis ovarian/endometrial cancer case-control data within WHI-OS (N=1864)...
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235566/long-term-survival-outcomes-of-triple-receptor-negative-breast-cancer-survivors-who-are-disease-free-at-5-years-and-relationship-with-low-hormone-receptor-positivity
#8
S M Reddy, C H Barcenas, A K Sinha, L Hsu, S L Moulder, D Tripathy, G N Hortobagyi, V Valero
BACKGROUND: We counsel our triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients that the risk of recurrence is highest in the first 5 years after diagnosis. However, there are limited data with extended follow-up on the frequency, characteristics, and predictors of late events. METHODS: We queried the MD Anderson Breast Cancer Management System database to identify patients with stage I-III TNBC who were disease free at 5 years from diagnosis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate yearly recurrence-free interval (RFI), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and distant relapse-free survival (DRFS), as defined by the STEEP criteria...
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235565/anthropometric-measurements-and-survival-after-a-prostate-cancer-diagnosis
#9
Megan S Farris, Kerry S Courneya, Karen A Kopciuk, S Elizabeth McGregor, Christine M Friedenreich
BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the role of anthropometrics in prostate cancer survival is inconsistent. We examined the associations between anthropometric measures and survival outcomes. METHODS: Men diagnosed with prostate cancer (n=987) were recruited into a population-based case-control study between 1997 and 2000 then a prospective cohort study between 2000 and 2002 where anthropometric measurements (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio) were taken and participants were followed up to 19 years for survival outcomes...
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235564/influence-of-induction-chemotherapy-in-trimodality-therapy-eligible-oesophageal-cancer-patients-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomised-trial
#10
Yusuke Shimodaira, Rebecca S Slack, Kazuto Harada, Hsiang-Chun Chen, Tara Sagebiel, Manoop S Bhutani, Jeffrey H Lee, Brian Weston, Elena Elimova, Quan Lin, Fatemeh G Amlashi, Dilsa Mizrak Kaya, Mariela A Blum, Jack A Roth, Stephen G Swisher, Heath D Skinner, Wayne L Hofstetter, Jane E Rogers, Jaennette Mares, Irene Thomas, Dipen M Maru, Ritsuko Komaki, Garrett Walsh, Jaffer A Ajani
BACKGROUND: A randomised phase 2 trial of trimodality with or without induction chemotherapy (IC) in oesophageal cancer (EC) patients showed no advantage in overall survival (OS) or pathologic complete response rate. To identify subsets that might benefit from IC, a secondary analysis was done. METHODS: The trial had accrued 126 patients (NCT 00525915). Recursive partitioning and proportional hazards regression with interactions were performed. RESULTS: The median follow-up of surviving patients was 6...
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235563/cell-and-molecular-biology-a-new-section-joins-the-fight-against-cancer
#11
EDITORIAL
Colin R Goding
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235562/targeting-the-raf-kinases-in-human-cancer-the-raf-dimer-dilemma
#12
David E Durrant, Deborah K Morrison
The Raf protein kinases are key intermediates in cellular signal transduction, functioning as direct effectors of the Ras GTPases and as the initiating kinases in the ERK cascade. In human cancer, Raf activity is frequently dysregulated due to mutations in the Raf family member B-Raf or to alterations in upstream Raf regulators, including Ras and receptor tyrosine kinases. First-generation Raf inhibitors, such as vemurafenib and dabrafenib, have yielded dramatic responses in malignant melanomas containing B-Raf mutations; however, their overall usefulness has been limited by both intrinsic and acquired drug resistance...
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206819/mechanisms-of-inactivation-of-the-tumour-suppressor-gene-rhoa-in-colorectal-cancer
#13
Higinio Dopeso, Paulo Rodrigues, Josipa Bilic, Sarah Bazzocco, Fernando Cartón-García, Irati Macaya, Priscila Guimarães de Marcondes, Estefanía Anguita, Marc Masanas, Lizbeth M Jiménez-Flores, Águeda Martínez-Barriocanal, Rocío Nieto, Miguel F Segura, Simo Schwartz, John M Mariadason, Diego Arango
BACKGROUND: Reduced RHOA signalling has been shown to increase the growth/metastatic potential of colorectal tumours. However, the mechanisms of inactivation of RHOA signalling in colon cancer have not been characterised. METHODS: A panel of colorectal cancer cell lines and large cohorts of primary tumours were used to investigate the expression and activity of RHOA, as well as the presence of RHOA mutations/deletions and promoter methylation affecting RHOA. Changes in RHOA expression were assessed by western blotting and qPCR after modulation of microRNAs, SMAD4 and c-MYC...
December 5, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190637/standard-dose-osimertinib-for-refractory-leptomeningeal-metastases-in-t790m-positive-egfr-mutant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#14
Shigeki Nanjo, Akito Hata, Chiyuki Okuda, Reiko Kaji, Hideaki Okada, Daisuke Tamura, Kei Irie, Hiroshi Okada, Shoji Fukushima, Nobuyuki Katakami
BACKGROUND: Osimertinib demonstrated promising efficacy for refractory leptomeningeal metastases (LM) in preclinical data and a clinical study at 160 mg, but there is limited data for the standard 80 mg dose. METHODS: T790M-positive patients with suspected LM after classical epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) failure were enroled. RESULTS: We investigated 13 patients (5 definitive and 8 possible LM cases)...
November 30, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190636/tumour-budding-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-meta-analysis
#15
Alhadi Almangush, Matti Pirinen, Ilkka Heikkinen, Antti A Mäkitie, Tuula Salo, Ilmo Leivo
BACKGROUND: Tumour budding has been reported as a promising prognostic marker in many cancers. This meta-analysis assessed the prognostic value of tumour budding in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). METHODS: We searched OvidMedline, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science for articles that studied tumour budding in OSCC. We used reporting recommendations for tumour marker (REMARK) criteria to evaluate the quality of studies eligible for meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 16 studies evaluated the prognostic value of tumour budding in OSCC...
November 30, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182609/variation-in-fast-track-referrals-for-suspected-cancer-by-patient-characteristic-and-cancer-diagnosis-evidence-from-670%C3%A2-000-patients-with-cancers-of-35-different-sites
#16
Y Zhou, S C Mendonca, G A Abel, W Hamilton, F M Walter, S Johnson, J Shelton, L Elliss-Brookes, S McPhail, G Lyratzopoulos
BACKGROUND: In England, 'fast-track' (also known as 'two-week wait') general practitioner referrals for suspected cancer in symptomatic patients are used to shorten diagnostic intervals and are supported by clinical guidelines. However, the use of the fast-track pathway may vary for different patient groups. METHODS: We examined data from 669 220 patients with 35 cancers diagnosed in 2006-2010 following either fast-track or 'routine' primary-to-secondary care referrals using 'Routes to Diagnosis' data...
November 28, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182608/impact-of-tumour-histology-on-survival-in-advanced-cervical-carcinoma-an-nrg-oncology-gynaecologic-oncology-group-study
#17
Leigh G Seamon, James J Java, Bradley J Monk, Richard T Penson, Jubilee Brown, Robert S Mannel, Anna Oaknin, Mario M Leitao, Eric L Eisenhauer, Harry J Long, Shu Y Liao, Krishnansu S Tewari
BACKGROUND: Based primarily on studies concerning early-stage tumours (treated surgically), and locally advanced disease (treated with chemoradiation), the prognosis for women with adenocarcinoma (AC) or adenosquamous (AS) carcinoma has been reported to be poorer than those with squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) of the cervix. It is unclear whether differences in prognosis also persist in the setting of recurrent or metastatic disease treated using chemotherapy doublets with or without bevacizumab...
November 28, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169184/her2-expression-patterns-in-paired-primary-and-metastatic-endometrial-cancer-lesions
#18
Mari Kyllesø Halle, Ingvild Løberg Tangen, Hege Fredriksen Berg, Erling Andre Hoivik, Karen K Mauland, Kanthida Kusonmano, Anna Berg, Antoni Hurtado, Karl Henning Kalland, Anne M Øyan, Ingunn Stefansson, Olav K Vintermyr, Henrica M Werner, Ingfrid S Haldorsen, Jone Trovik, Helga B Salvesen, Camilla Krakstad
BACKGROUND: Despite successful implementation of drugs targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptor in breast and gastric cancers, the potential of HER2 as a therapeutic target in other cancers has been less studied, including endometrial cancer. We investigated expression levels of HER2 (ERBB2) in a large cohort of endometrial cancer lesions, also including complex atypical hyperplasia and metastatic lesions. METHODS: 67 precursor lesions, 790 primary endometrial cancers and 383 metastatic lesions were investigated for HER2 expression in relation to clinicopathologic features and outcome...
November 23, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169183/myc-regulation-of-glutamine-proline-regulatory-axis-is-key-in-luminal-b-breast-cancer
#19
Madeleine L Craze, Hayley Cheung, Natasha Jewa, Nuno D M Coimbra, Daniele Soria, Rokaya El-Ansari, Mohammed A Aleskandarany, Kiu Wai Cheng, Maria Diez-Rodriguez, Christopher C Nolan, Ian O Ellis, Emad A Rakha, Andrew R Green
BACKGROUND: Altered cellular metabolism is a hallmark of cancer and some are reliant on glutamine for sustained proliferation and survival. We hypothesise that the glutamine-proline regulatory axis has a key role in breast cancer (BC) in the highly proliferative classes. METHODS: Glutaminase (GLS), pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (ALDH18A1), and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1) were assessed at DNA/mRNA/protein levels in large, well-characterised cohorts...
November 23, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169182/gemcitabine-plus-platinum-based-chemotherapy-for-first-line-treatment-of-hepatocholangiocarcinoma-an-ageo-french-multicentre-retrospective-study
#20
Maëva Salimon, Caroline Prieux-Klotz, David Tougeron, Vincent Hautefeuille, Morgane Caulet, Jérôme Gournay, Tamara Matysiak-Budnik, Jaafar Bennouna, Manuela Tiako Meyo, Thierry Lecomte, Aziz Zaanan, Yann Touchefeu
BACKGROUND: Hepatocholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-ICC) is a rare liver tumour for which no data on chemosensitivity exist. The aims of this multicentre study were to evaluate overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and prognostic factors in cHCC-ICC treated by gemcitabine plus platinum as first-line. METHODS: Unresectable cHCC-ICC treated by gemcitabine plus platinum-based chemotherapy between 2008 and 2017 were retrospectively analysed. Diagnosis was based on histology or, in case of ICC or HCC histology, on discordant computerised tomography scan enhancement patterns associated with discordant serum tumour marker elevation suggesting the alternative tumour...
November 23, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
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