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Davide Buttarazzi, Giuseppe Pandolfo, Giovanni C Porzio
The box-and-whiskers plot is an extraordinary graphical tool that provides a quick visual summary of an observed distribution. In spite of its many extensions, a really suitable boxplot to display circular data is not yet available. Thanks to its simplicity and strong visual impact, such a tool would be especially useful in all fields where circular measures arise: biometrics, astronomy, environmetrics, Earth sciences, to cite just a few. For this reason, in line with Tukey's original idea, a Tukey-like circular boxplot is introduced...
May 21, 2018: Biometrics
Rebecca Hager, Anastasios A Tsiatis, Marie Davidian
Clinicians often make multiple treatment decisions at key points over the course of a patient's disease. A dynamic treatment regime is a sequence of decision rules, each mapping a patient's observed history to the set of available, feasible treatment options at each decision point, and thus formalizes this process. An optimal regime is one leading to the most beneficial outcome on average if used to select treatment for the patient population. We propose a method for estimation of an optimal regime involving two decision points when the outcome of interest is a censored survival time, which is based on maximizing a locally efficient, doubly robust, augmented inverse probability weighted estimator for average outcome over a class of regimes...
May 18, 2018: Biometrics
Jialiang Li, Xiaochao Xia, Weng Kee Wong, David Nott
Forecasting and predictive inference are fundamental data analysis tasks. Most studies employ parametric approaches making strong assumptions about the data generating process. On the other hand, while nonparametric models are applied, it is sometimes found in situations involving low signal to noise ratios or large numbers of covariates that their performance is unsatisfactory. We propose a new varying-coefficient semiparametric model averaging prediction (VC-SMAP) approach to analyze large data sets with abundant covariates...
May 18, 2018: Biometrics
Paula J Griffin, Yuqing Zhang, William Evan Johnson, Eric D Kolaczyk
Cellular mechanism-of-action is of fundamental concern in many biological studies. It is of particular interest for identifying the cause of disease and learning the way in which treatments act against disease. However, pinpointing such mechanisms is difficult, due to the fact that small perturbations to the cell can have wide-ranging downstream effects. Given a snapshot of cellular activity, it can be challenging to tell where a disturbance originated. The presence of an ever-greater variety of high-throughput biological data offers an opportunity to examine cellular behavior from multiple angles, but also presents the statistical challenge of how to effectively analyze data from multiple sources...
May 17, 2018: Biometrics
Lan Wen, Shaun R Seaman
We propose semi-parametric methods to model cohort data where repeated outcomes may be missing due to death and non-ignorable dropout. Our focus is to obtain inference about the cohort composed of those who are still alive at any time point (partly conditional inference). We propose: i) an inverse probability weighted method that upweights observed subjects to represent subjects who are still alive but are not observed; ii) an outcome regression method that replaces missing outcomes of subjects who are alive with their conditional mean outcomes given past observed data; and iii) an augmented inverse probability method that combines the previous two methods and is double robust against model misspecification...
May 17, 2018: Biometrics
Elena Castilla, Abhik Ghosh, Nirian Martin, Leandro Pardo
This article derives a new family of estimators, namely the minimum density power divergence estimators, as a robust generalization of the maximum likelihood estimator for the polytomous logistic regression model. Based on these estimators, a family of Wald-type test statistics for linear hypotheses is introduced. Robustness properties of both the proposed estimators and the test statistics are theoretically studied through the classical influence function analysis. Appropriate real life examples are presented to justify the requirement of suitable robust statistical procedures in place of the likelihood based inference for the polytomous logistic regression model...
May 17, 2018: Biometrics
Francis K C Hui, Emi Tanaka, David I Warton
Generalized linear latent variable models (GLLVMs) offer a general framework for flexibly analyzing data involving multiple responses. When fitting such models, two of the major challenges are selecting the order, that is, the number of factors, and an appropriate structure for the loading matrix, typically a sparse structure. Motivated by the application of GLLVMs to study marine species assemblages in the Southern Ocean, we propose the Ordered Factor LASSO or OFAL penalty for order selection and achieving sparsity in GLLVMs...
May 11, 2018: Biometrics
Joseph Antonelli, Matthew Cefalu, Nathan Palmer, Denis Agniel
Valid estimation of treatment effects from observational data requires proper control of confounding. If the number of covariates is large relative to the number of observations, then controlling for all available covariates is infeasible. In cases where a sparsity condition holds, variable selection or penalization can reduce the dimension of the covariate space in a manner that allows for valid estimation of treatment effects. In this article, we propose matching on both the estimated propensity score and the estimated prognostic scores when the number of covariates is large relative to the number of observations...
May 11, 2018: Biometrics
Sandra E Safo, Jeongyoun Ahn, Yongho Jeon, Sungkyu Jung
We present a method for individual and integrative analysis of high dimension, low sample size data that capitalizes on the recurring theme in multivariate analysis of projecting higher dimensional data onto a few meaningful directions that are solutions to a generalized eigenvalue problem. We propose a general framework, called SELP (Sparse Estimation with Linear Programming), with which one can obtain a sparse estimate for a solution vector of a generalized eigenvalue problem. We demonstrate the utility of SELP on canonical correlation analysis for an integrative analysis of methylation and gene expression profiles from a breast cancer study, and we identify some genes known to be associated with breast carcinogenesis, which indicates that the proposed method is capable of generating biologically meaningful insights...
May 11, 2018: Biometrics
Gen Li, Jianhua Z Huang, Haipeng Shen
In many applications, non-Gaussian data such as binary or count are observed over a continuous domain and there exists a smooth underlying structure for describing such data. We develop a new functional data method to deal with this kind of data when the data are regularly spaced on the continuous domain. Our method, referred to as Exponential Family Functional Principal Component Analysis (EFPCA), assumes the data are generated from an exponential family distribution, and the matrix of the canonical parameters has a low-rank structure...
May 8, 2018: Biometrics
Kwonsang Lee, Dylan S Small, Paul R Rosenbaum
Effect modification means the magnitude or stability of a treatment effect varies as a function of an observed covariate. Generally, larger and more stable treatment effects are insensitive to larger biases from unmeasured covariates, so a causal conclusion may be considerably firmer if this pattern is noted if it occurs. We propose a new strategy, called the submax-method, that combines exploratory, and confirmatory efforts to determine whether there is stronger evidence of causality-that is, greater insensitivity to unmeasured confounding-in some subgroups of individuals...
May 8, 2018: Biometrics
Changgee Chang, Suprateek Kundu, Qi Long
Variable selection for structured covariates lying on an underlying known graph is a problem motivated by practical applications, and has been a topic of increasing interest. However, most of the existing methods may not be scalable to high-dimensional settings involving tens of thousands of variables lying on known pathways such as the case in genomics studies. We propose an adaptive Bayesian shrinkage approach which incorporates prior network information by smoothing the shrinkage parameters for connected variables in the graph, so that the corresponding coefficients have a similar degree of shrinkage...
May 8, 2018: Biometrics
Brenda L Price, Peter B Gilbert, Mark J van der Laan
A common scientific problem is to determine a surrogate outcome for a long-term outcome so that future randomized studies can restrict themselves to only collecting the surrogate outcome. We consider the setting that we observe n independent and identically distributed observations of a random variable consisting of baseline covariates, a treatment, a vector of candidate surrogate outcomes at an intermediate time point, and the final outcome of interest at a final time point. We assume the treatment is randomized, conditional on the baseline covariates...
April 27, 2018: Biometrics
Fan Yang, Peng Ding
In some randomized clinical trials, patients may die before the measurement time point of their outcomes. Even though randomization generates comparable treatment and control groups, the remaining survivors often differ significantly in background variables that are prognostic to the outcomes. This is called the truncation by death problem. Under the potential outcomes framework, the only well-defined causal effect on the outcome is within the subgroup of patients who would always survive under both treatment and control...
April 17, 2018: Biometrics
Minjung Lee, Eric J Feuer, Jason P Fine
Regression methodology has been well developed for competing risks data with continuous event times, both for the cause-specific hazard and cumulative incidence functions. However, in many applications, including those from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of the National Cancer Institute, the event times may be observed discretely. Naive application of continuous time regression methods to such data is not appropriate. We propose maximum likelihood inferences for estimation of model parameters for the discrete time cause-specific hazard functions, develop predictions for the associated cumulative incidence functions, and derive consistent variance estimators for the predicted cumulative incidence functions...
April 17, 2018: Biometrics
Chi-Chung Wen, Yi-Hau Chen
We develop a joint analysis approach for recurrent and nonrecurrent event processes subject to case I interval censorship, which are also known in literature as current count and current status data, respectively. We use a shared frailty to link the recurrent and nonrecurrent event processes, while leaving the distribution of the frailty fully unspecified. Conditional on the frailty, the recurrent event is assumed to follow a nonhomogeneous Poisson process, and the mean function of the recurrent event and the survival function of the nonrecurrent event are assumed to follow some general form of semiparametric transformation models...
April 17, 2018: Biometrics
Hojin Yang, Hongtu Zhu, Joseph G Ibrahim
The aim of this article is to develop a multiple-index latent factor modeling (MILFM) framework to build an accurate prediction model for clinical outcomes based on a massive number of features. We develop a three-stage estimation procedure to build the prediction model. MILFM uses an independent screening method to select a set of informative features, which may have a complex nonlinear relationship with the outcome variables. Moreover, we develop a latent factor model to project all informative predictors onto a small number of local subspaces, which lead to a few key features that capture reliable and informative covariate information...
April 17, 2018: Biometrics
Jacobo de Uña-Álvarez, Micha Mandel
Nonparametric estimation of the transition probability matrix of a progressive multi-state model is considered under cross-sectional sampling. Two different estimators adapted to possibly right-censored and left-truncated data are proposed. The estimators require full retrospective information before the truncation time, which, when exploited, increases efficiency. They are obtained as differences between two survival functions constructed for sub-samples of subjects occupying specific states at a certain time point...
March 31, 2018: Biometrics
Xuran Wang, Yang Jiang, Nancy R Zhang, Dylan S Small
In observational studies to estimate treatment effects, unmeasured confounding is often a concern. The instrumental variable (IV) method can control for unmeasured confounding when there is a valid IV. To be a valid IV, a variable needs to be independent of unmeasured confounders and only affect the outcome through affecting the treatment. When applying the IV method, there is often concern that a putative IV is invalid to some degree. We present an approach to sensitivity analysis for the IV method which examines the sensitivity of inferences to violations of IV validity...
March 31, 2018: Biometrics
Xiao Lin, Tao Lu, Fangrong Yan, Ruosha Li, Xuelin Huang
Predicting patient life expectancy is of great importance for clinicians in making treatment decisions. This prediction needs to be conducted in a dynamic manner, based on longitudinal biomarkers repeatedly measured during the patient's post-treatment follow-up period. The prediction is updated any time a new biomarker measurement is obtained. The heterogeneity across patients of biomarker trajectories over time requires flexible and powerful approaches to model noisy and irregularly measured longitudinal data...
March 30, 2018: Biometrics
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