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Avian Diseases

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September 2017: Avian Diseases
Grant N Burcham, José A Ramos-Vara, Duane A Murphy
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a systemic lethal disease of poultry caused by several subtypes of influenza A virus and classified on the basis of serologic reactions to hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface glycoproteins. In January 2016, a novel subtype of HPAI-H7N8-was diagnosed in a commercial turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) flock in southern Indiana. Clinical signs and history included increased mortality, dyspnea, head tremors, recumbency, and somnolent or unaware birds. Postmortem examination of six recently dead birds showed red-tinged mucous in the choana and trachea and marked pulmonary edema...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
Mohammed A Abdel-Sabour, Emad M Al-Ebshahy, Samy A Khaliel, Nabil A Abdel-Wanis, Tokuma Yanai
The present study aimed to determine the molecular characteristics of circulating infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains in vaccinated broiler flocks in the Giza and Fayoum governorates. Thirty-four isolates were collected, and egg propagation revealed their ability to induce typical IBV lesions after three to five successive passages. Three selected isolates were identified as IBV using a real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay targeted the nucleocapsid (N) gene and further characterized by partial spike (S) gene sequence analysis...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
Michael Zhang, Zhenyu Shen, Dale Rollins, William Fales, Shuping Zhang
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an important issue for both wildlife conservation and public health. The purpose of this study was to screen for AMR in fecal bacteria isolated from northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), a species that is an ecologically and economically important natural resource in the southern United States. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 45 Escherichia coli isolates, 20 Enterococcus faecalis isolates, and 10 Enterococcus faecium isolates were determined using the Sensititer(TM) microbroth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) plate, AVIAN1F...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
Britni Brobey, Ashwini Kucknoor, Jim Armacost
Infectious diseases can be a major threat to wildlife populations, especially in human-modified habitats, but infection rates in populations of wild animals are often poorly studied. Trichomonas, Salmonella, and Listeria are all pathogens known to infect birds, but their infection rates in wild bird populations are not well documented. This study documents infection rates of the three pathogens in wild bird populations inhabiting a suburban to rural gradient in Southeast Texas. Various species of wild birds were sampled at five sites in Southeastern Texas representing rural (<1 house per ha), exurban (approximately 1 house per ha), and suburban (approximately 10 houses per ha) habitat types...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
Richard M Fulton
In a large population of animals, it is normal to have some die each day from causes not related to disease, which is often referred to as natural causes. In poultry production, this phenomenon is commonly referred to as daily mortality. In egg-producing chickens, many of the natural causes of death are associated with making an egg. The causes of normal mortality in commercial egg-laying chicken flocks have been described very little to date. A commercial chicken egg farm, housing approximately two million single-comb white leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in 16 egg-producing flocks, was visited on a monthly basis to monitor bird health, body conditioning, skeletal integrity, and causes of daily mortality in an attempt to provide early detection of health abnormalities...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
Jamshid Razmyar, Seyed Mostafa Peighambari, Amir Hossein Zamani
Necrotic enteritis due to Clostridium perfringens strains harboring the netB gene is a well-known disorder in poultry. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of a novel bacteriocin, perfrin, with netB among isolates from healthy and diseased ostriches and broiler chickens. Forty-six C. perfringens isolates from broiler chickens and ostriches collected from 2010 to 2014 were included in this study and subjected to PCR to detect netB and perfrin genes. Six (60%) and 9 (25%) isolates were positive for both netB and perfrin genes in broilers and ostriches, respectively...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
Abderrazak El Khantour, Sami Darkaoui, Tímea Tatár-Kis, Tamás Mató, Amal Essalah-Bennani, Christophe Cazaban, Vilmos Palya
Newcastle disease (ND) is still a major poultry disease worldwide. Vaccination remains the principal method of controlling ND in endemic countries. Various vaccination strategies, including the use of recently developed recombinant vaccines, have been used to control it. Recombinant vaccines that use the herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) as a vector to express one of the key antigens of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have been developed to overcome some of the drawbacks related to the use of conventional vaccines...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
Claudia Maria Tucciarone, Marianna Andreopoulou, Giovanni Franzo, Zoi Prentza, Ilias Chaligiannis, Mattia Cecchinato
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is considered a major pathogen for turkeys but its impact on chicken production is still partially neglected, even though it is fully acknowledged as a primary pathogen in chickens as well. The lack of structured diagnostic surveys does not allow a pervasive understanding of aMPV epidemiology. Being that aMPV is almost an everyday challenge for farmers and veterinarians, a more accurate report of its presence should be detailed, posing the basis for a deep and global epidemiologic analysis...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
Ryota Tsunekuni, Hirokazu Hikono, Taichiro Tanikawa, Riho Kurata, Takaaki Nakaya, Takehiko Saito
Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) expressing the hemagglutinin of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV HA) induces protective immunity against HPAIV in chickens. However, the efficacy of rNDV vectors is hampered when chickens are pre-immune to NDV, and most commercial chickens are routinely vaccinated against NDV. We recently showed that avian paramyxovirus serotypes 2, 6, and 10 (APMV-2, APMV-6, and APMV-10), which belong to the same genus as NDV, have low cross-reactivity with anti-NDV antisera...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
Mariana de Mello Zanim Michelazzo, João Pedro Sasse, Marielen de Souza, Victor Hugo Brunaldi Marutani, Ana Angelita Sampaio Baptista, João Luis Garcia, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Selwyn Arlington Headley
The pathological and molecular findings associated with Histomonas meleagridis are described in a leucistic Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) from Southern Brazil. The most significant gross findings were multifocal necrotizing hepatitis and diphtheric typhlitis. Histopathologic evaluation of the liver, ceca, kidney, spleen, and small intestine revealed systemic histomoniasis (SH) associated with intralesional and intravascular accumulations of histomonad organisms consistent with H. meleagridis. PCR was used to amplify the DNA of H...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
Surya Paudel, Daniel Ruhnau, Patricia Wernsdorf, Dieter Liebhart, Michael Hess, Claudia Hess
Recently we demonstrated that co-infection with Avibacterium paragallinarum and Gallibacterium anatis leads to increased severity of clinical signs of infectious coryza in birds. The present study examined the interaction of these two pathogens in chickens by evaluation of histologic lesions in sinus infraorbitalis and nasal turbinates, applying a defined scoring scheme ranging from 0 to 3. Furthermore, for the first time, an in situ hybridization (ISH) technique was applied to detect A. paragallinarum in tissues...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
Khalid Mehmood, Hui Zhang, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Muhammad Shahzad, Kun Li, Shucheng Huang, Fazul Nabi, Lihong Zhang, Jiakui Li
Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is one of the common skeletal abnormalities in fast-growing birds, and it is characterized by nonvascularized, unmineralized, and nonviable cartilage in the tibial growth plate that fails to form bone. The aim of this study was to check the in vitro effect of apigenin and danshen on heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions in avian growth plate cells treated with sublethal concentration of thiram. Initially, chondrocytes from chicken growth plates were isolated on culturx ed medium with and without various concentration of thiram to determine the sublethal dose...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
Fatma Eldemery, Yufeng Li, Qingzhong Yu, Vicky L van Santen, Haroldo Toro
We previously demonstrated that chickens primed with a recombinant Newcastle disease virus LaSota (rLS) expressing the S2 gene of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and boosted with an attenuated IBV Massachusetts (Mass)-type vaccine were protected against IBV Arkansas (Ark)-type virulent challenge. A possible basis for the reported ability of IBV 4/91 (serotype 793/B) vaccine to protect against divergent IBV strains (e.g., QX, Q1, and D1466) in a prime-boost approach with an IBV Mass vaccine is that an immune response against the S2 protein of IBV 4/91 is cross-protective...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
Steven Clark, Emily Kimminau
Blackhead disease (histomoniasis) currently has no efficacious drug approved for use in poultry in the United States. Both chickens and turkeys can get the disease, but mortality is most often associated with turkeys. The lack of any approved therapies for blackhead is of concern, especially in the case of valuable turkey breeder candidate flocks. Due to the availability of efficacious drugs for many years, research focused on blackhead was minimal. However, without any drugs or reliable additives, blackhead will continue to be an issue in turkeys and broiler breeder chickens...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
Thomas N Denagamage, Bhushan M Jayarao, Eva Wallner-Pendleton, Paul H Patterson, Subhashinie Kariyawasam
Consumption of shell eggs has been associated with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in humans in the United States. Because of this, the Pennsylvania Egg Quality Assurance Program (PEQAP) was developed and implemented in 1994. The PEQAP involves periodic flock testing and management practices to minimize SE contamination of shell eggs. Subsequently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) introduced a mandatory federal program in 2010 and 2012 for shell egg producers modeled closely after PEQAP to reduce the incidence and prevalence of SE during production, storage, and transport nationwide...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
Si-Fan Ruan, Jing Zhao, Ying-Chao Ren, Jin-Ling Feng, Guo-Zhong Zhang
Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) have a worldwide distribution and are associated with a variety of diseases, causing considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. We characterized 10 FAdVs isolated from China in 2015-2016 and assessed the pathogenicity of a FAdV-8 strain in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. Phylogenetic analysis of a hexon gene revealed that only 1 of the 10 isolates belonged to FAdV-8, whereas others belonged to FAdV-4, indicating that Chinese FAdVs were mainly FAdV-4 in recent years...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
Kathleen E Long, Gordon M Hastie, Davor Ojkić, Marina L Brash
A cluster of 12 cases of White Chick Syndrome (WCS) in broiler breeder flocks producing affected progeny occurred from June to November 2015 in two broiler chicken hatcheries owned by a single company in Ontario, Canada. Cases were identified by the presence of typical chicks in the hatchery characterized by pale to white down, enlarged abdomens, and occasionally brown wiry fluff on the dorsum of the neck that were generally weak. Affected broiler breeder flocks experienced egg production drops of 0% to 15% and hatchability drops of 1...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
A P da Silva, R Hauck, H Zhou, R A Gallardo
Genetic resistance or susceptibility to infectious diseases has been largely associated with the avian major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. Our goal was to determine resistance and susceptibility of MHC B haplotype in congenic and inbred chicken lines in order to establish a resistant-susceptible model. Eight congenic lines (253/B18, 254/B15, 330/B21, 312/B24, 331/B2, 335/B19, 336/B21, and 342/BO), two inbred lines (003/B17 and 077/B19), and three commercial lines (white leghorn, brown layers, and broilers) were used in two experiments...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
Richard K Gast, Rupa Guraya, Deana R Jones, Jean Guard, Kenneth E Anderson, Darrin M Karcher
Eggs contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis are leading sources of human salmonellosis, but Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium are also egg-associated pathogens. The management practices and housing facilities characterizing different systems for housing commercial egg flocks can influence Salmonella persistence and transmission. Animal welfare aspects of poultry housing have been widely debated, but their food safety ramifications are not thoroughly understood. The present study assessed the effects of two different bird stocking densities on the frequency and duration of fecal shedding of strains of Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium in groups of experimentally infected laying hens housed in colony cages enriched with perching and nesting areas...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
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