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Avian Diseases

Chong Wang, Susanne Elisabeth Pors, Anders Miki Bojesen
To assess the survival of G. anatis in dead laying hens, 21-week old laying hens were injected intraperitoneally with 0.5 ml brain hearth infusion broth containing 108 CFU of G. anatis 12656-12 liver (n=16), E. coli ST141(n=16), or a mix of G. anatis 12656-12 liver (n=16) and E. coli ST141 (n=16), respectively. Birds were euthanized 24 hours post injection and eight dead birds were kept at 4°C and room temperature, respectively. Swab samples were taken at different time points post euthanization and streaked on blood agar plates...
April 3, 2018: Avian Diseases
Banya Banowary, Van Tuan Dang, Subir Sarker, Joanne H Connolly, Jeremy Chenu, Peter Groves, Shane Raidal, Seyed Ali Ghorashi
Campylobacter infection is a common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans and remains a significant global public health issue. The capability of two multiplex PCR (mPCR)-high-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis methods (i.e., mPCR1-HRM and mPCR2-HRM) to detect and differentiate 24 poultry isolates and three reference strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was investigated. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli were successfully differentiated in both assays, but the differentiation power of mPCR2-HRM targeting the cadF gene was found superior to that of mPCR1-HRM targeting the gpsA gene or a hypothetical protein gene...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Zi-Rong He, Si-Fan Ruan, Jing Zhao, Hui-Ming Yang, Guo-Zhong Zhang
Clinical cases of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) from fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) have increased in China since 2013. Therefore, the development of a new serologic method for HHS detection is now urgent. Here, the FAdV-4 strain JSJ13 was used to construct a plasmid for prokaryotic expression of the JSJ13 fiber-2 protein. The protein, purified by affinity chromatography, was refolded by gradient dialysis. After coating a 96-well plate with the purified fiber-2 protein (1.5 μg/ml), standard serum and secondary antibodies (1:200 and 1:6000 dilutions, respectively) were used to develop an indirect ELISA (I-ELISA)...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Simone Stoute, Beate Crossley, H L Shivaprasad
A February 2015 outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 in a flock of commercial Pekin ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in California was investigated in detail. Approximately 17,349 five-wk-old ducks experienced an increased mortality from a normal of eight birds per day to 24, 18, 24, 33, and 61 birds per day, respectively, in the last 5 days prior to flock depopulation. Clinically, there was decreased water and feed consumption, and approximately 1.0% of the affected flock exhibited neurologic signs...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
C Grunenwald, I Sidor, R Mickley, C Dwyer, R Gerhold
During an outbreak of Wellfleet Bay virus (WFBV) in common eiders ( Somateria mollissima) from the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts, several birds were diagnosed with trichomonosis consisting of multiple trichomonad species. Six birds were examined, with trichomonads found in ceca in four birds and associated typhlitis in three of these four birds. PCR and DNA sequencing utilizing trichomonad-specific primers targeting the ITS1 region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) revealed the presence of Tetratrichomonas gallinarum in the gastrointestinal tracts of five birds and Trichomonas spp...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Molly Staley, Camille Bonneaud, Kevin J McGraw, Carol M Vleck, Geoffrey E Hill
In 1994, an endemic poultry pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), was identified as the causative agent of a novel disease in house finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus). After an initial outbreak in Maryland, MG spread rapidly throughout eastern North American populations of house finches. Subsequently, MG spread slowly through the northern interior of North America and then into the Pacific Northwest, finally reaching California in 2006. Until 2009, there were no reports of MG in the southwestern United States east of California...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Erica Spackman, Christopher B Stephens, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood
Poor efficacy of avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines in chickens has been documented in the field in spite of good results in experimental settings. Although the causes are multifactorial and complex, one contributing factor may be prior infection with immunosuppressive viruses. In an effort to evaluate the role of immunosuppressive agents on AIV pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy, the effect of prior infection with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a ubiquitous immunosuppressive virus of chickens, was evaluated...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Julia Blakey, Manuela Crispo, Arthur Bickford, Simone Stoute
Liposarcomas are a malignant neoplasm of adipocytes, and are rarely diagnosed in avian species. This case report describes the evidence supporting a diagnosis of metastatic liposarcoma in a backyard silkie chicken. On September 28, 2017, a dead 3-yr-old backyard silkie chicken, with a history of unknown skin lesions involving the entire body and severe weight loss, was submitted to California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System-Turlock branch for necropsy. At necropsy, raised necrotic lesions involving the majority of the skin and multiple nodules in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow were noticed...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Marissa Gregory, Brianna Klein, Orhan Sahin, George Girgis
Spotty liver disease (SLD) is characterized by multifocal liver lesions, mortality, and drop in egg production. The disease is emerging in Europe and Australia, particularly in free-range and floor-raised layer flocks. Campylobacter hepaticus has been recently identified as the causative agent of SLD. We report the isolation and characterization of C. hepaticus from livers of laying hens affected with SLD in the United States. Two isolates were characterized and found to be highly similar to those described from SLD cases in the United Kingdom and Australia...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Sandra G Velleman, Daniel L Clark, Jeffrey R Tonniges
The wooden breast (WB) has been classically identified by the phenotypic presence of a wood-like pectoralis major (p. major) muscle. The WB-affected p. major muscle is characterized by necrotic muscle fibers and the replacement of muscle with connective tissue, water, and fat. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of the WB myopathy on sarcomere organization by transmission electron microscopy. Sarcomere structure and organization were examined in two broiler lines with a high incidence of WB (Lines A and B) and another broiler line without WB (Line C)...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
T Derksen, R Lampron, R Hauck, M Pitesky, R A Gallardo
Raising backyard chickens is an ever-growing hobby in the United States. These flocks can be a substrate for respiratory disease amplification and transmission to commercial facilities. Five hundred fifty-four chickens from 41 backyard flocks were sampled in this study. ELISA kits were used to detect antibodies against avian influenza (AI), infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS)...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Priscilla F Gerber, Mohammad F Hossain, Paul Reynolds, Phuong Hoang, Susan K Burgess, Katrin Renz, Mary McMillan, Margaret E Katz, Stephen W Walkden-Brown
A series of studies were undertaken to optimize the propagation of hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. A total of 562 SPF chickens were orally inoculated with an Australian avirulent HEV isolate of turkey origin at 9, 14, 21, or 28 days of age with 5, 6, 7, or 8 log 10 genomic copies (GC), while 102 chickens served as uninfected controls. No clinical signs were observed in infected chickens. There was an inoculum-dose-dependent increase in the relative spleen and liver weight ( P < 0...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Il Jang, Hyun-Jeong Lee, You-Chan Bae, Seok-Chan Park, Hee-Soo Lee, Kang-Seuk Choi
Avian infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) with the TC07-2 genotype have spread rapidly in East Asia since they were first reported in China in 2007. In 2015, an IBV with the TC07-2 genotype (designated KrD1515) was isolated from layer chickens with severe respiratory symptoms in Korea. In the present study, the full-length open reading frames of the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) genes of the virus were sequenced and analyzed. S1 gene phylogenetic analysis revealed that the KrD1515 virus clustered with viruses with the TC07-2 genotype, whereas N gene phylogenetic analysis revealed that the KrD1515 virus clustered with Korean IBVs, but not with Chinese TC07-2 IBV...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Modupeore Adeyemi, Dauda G Bwala, Celia Abolnik
Mycoplasma gallinaceum is not among the most pathogenic mycoplasmas affecting poultry, but its continuous re-isolation from flocks in South Africa displaying typical signs of mycoplasmosis prompted us to revisit its role in respiratory disease. Specific-pathogen-free white leghorn chickens were co-challenged with either M. gallinaceum (MGC) and QX-like infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), or the more virulent Mycoplasm gallisepticum (MG) and IBV. No clinical signs were observed apart from sneezing in chickens challenged with IBV, MGC + IBV, and MG + IBV...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
R Hauck, S Stoute, R P Chin, C G Sentíes-Cué, H L Shivaprasad
The flagellate parasite Histomonas meleagridis causes a severe disease in turkeys. Since nitarsone, the last antiflagellate feed additive, was withdrawn from the market, H. meleagridis has gained increasing clinical and economic importance, and frequently entire turkey flocks are lost to the disease. Even before the antiflagellate market withdrawal, H. meleagridis has been recognized as a noteworthy disease in commercial turkeys. The aim of this study was to compile and analyze data on histomoniasis outbreaks diagnosed by the California Animal Health and Food Safety System in the years 2000 through 2014 while nitarsone was still available...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
K W Bafundo, M J da Costa, G M Pesti
Four floor pen studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of nicarbazin (NIC) administration on blood glucose concentrations and the onset of hypoglycemia in broiler chickens. All tests involved continuous NIC feeding at 0, 100, or 125 ppm to 28 days of age. In each study, birds were reared at both standard environmental temperatures and at 3 C below this level. In addition, two studies were conducted in the presence of coccidial infection and two were carried out in noninfected broilers. At 26 days of age in each test, two birds per pen were bled by puncture of the brachial vein, and whole blood glucose concentrations were determined...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Miguel Matos, Károly Dublecz, Beatrice Grafl, Dieter Liebhart, Michael Hess
The aim of the present study was to further unravel the pathophysiologic mechanisms of inclusion body hepatitis (IBH). In a first trial, the susceptibility of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) broilers to fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) infections was investigated. Regardless of viral dose, route of infection, and susceptibility to disease on day 1, the 3-week-old SPF broilers showed resistance to IBH, with no mortality being recorded throughout the experiment. In a second trial, SPF broilers were orally infected at 3 weeks of age with a FAdV-E strain, and their digestive and metabolic processes were monitored...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Angela Bullanday Scott, David Phalen, Marta Hernandez-Jover, Mini Singh, Peter Groves, Jenny-Ann L M L Toribio
The types of wildlife and the frequency of their visits to commercial chicken farms in Australia were assessed using infrared and motion-sensing camera traps. Cameras were set up on 14 free-range layer farms, three cage layer farms, two barn layer farms, five non-free-range meat chicken farms, and six free-range meat chicken farms in the Sydney basin region and South East Queensland. Wildlife visits were found on every farm type and were most frequent on cage layer farms (73%), followed by free-range layer farms (15%)...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Zongxi Han, Lei Jiang, Wenjun Zhao, Yuqiu Chen, Liwen Xu, Junfeng Sun, Yan Zhao, Shengwang Liu
Two infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains, designated as γCoV/ck/China/I0712/11 (I0712/11) and γCoV/ck/China/I0108/17 (I0108/17), were isolated from diseased chicken flocks in different provinces in China and genotyped as Arkansas (Ark)-type viruses with three other Chinese Ark field strains, the Jilin vaccine strain, and the American Ark- and Ark DPI-like viruses. Complete genomic sequence analysis and pairwise comparison of nucleotide sequences encoding the S1 subunit of the spike protein and other structural and accessory proteins revealed that Chinese Ark field isolates were genetically closely related to the Jilin vaccine and American ArkDPI11 strains, although extensive nucleotide changes were found across the genomes of Chinese Ark field isolates...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Kira Hydock, Holly Brown, Nicole Nemeth, Rebecca Poulson, Mary Jo Casalena, Joshua B Johnson, Justin Brown
Avian pox virus is a common cause of proliferative skin disease in wild turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo); however, other etiologies may produce grossly indistinguishable lesions. Common methods for diagnosing avian pox include histopathology, virus isolation, and PCR. While these methods are sufficient in most cases, each has their limitations. Cytology is a cost-effective and rapid approach that may be useful when traditional diagnostics are not feasible. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of cytology relative to histopathology and PCR for avian pox diagnosis in wild turkeys...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
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