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Avian Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902918/recovery-of-chicken-growth-plate-by-heat-shock-protein-90-inhibitors-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-and-apigenin-in-thiram-induced-tibial-dyschondroplasia
#1
Muhammad Kashif Iqbal, Jingying Liu, Fazul Nabi, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Hui Zhang, Adnan Hassan Tahir, Jiakui Li
Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is an important tibiotarsal bone disorder characterized by an avascular and nonmineralized growth plate; it is attributed to abnormal differentiation of chondrocytes and causes lameness. Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a proangiogenic factor in animal tissues; however, its gene expression increases in cases of chicken TD. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and apigenin in thiram-induced TD birds; these substances were used because of their Hsp90 inhibitory activities...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902917/coccidiosis-in-the-chukar-partridge-alectoris-chukar-a-survey-of-coccidiosis-outbreaks-and-a-test-of-anticoccidial-drugs-against-eimeria-kofoidi
#2
R W Gerhold, A L Fuller, L R McDougald
Field isolates of coccidia from 20 natural outbreaks in the chukar partridge ( Alectoris chukar ) were received from gamebird farms in 10 U.S. states. These were propagated in the laboratory and identified by microscopy and PCR. Of 20 samples, 18 were Eimeria kofoidi, two were Eimeria legionensis only, and one was a mixture of the two species. One isolate of E. kofoidi also contained an unidentified species detected only by PCR, nucleotide sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. The efficacy of anticoccidial drugs against chukar coccidia was tested with experimental infections in battery cages...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902916/use-of-molecular-pathogenicity-indices-to-identify-pathogenic-strains-of-pasteurella-multocida
#3
Thales Quedi Furian, Karen Apellanis Borges, Roberta Marmitt Pilatti, Camila Neves de Almeida, André Felipe Streck, Brunna Dias de Emery, Vladimir Pinheiro do Nascimento, Carlos Tadeu Pippi Salle, Hamilton Luiz de Souza Moraes
In addition to being the causative agent of fowl cholera (FC), Pasteurella multocida is also one of the most prevalent opportunistic pathogens associated with respiratory diseases in various hosts. However, understanding of the traits that distinguish the virulent isolates that cause FC is still limited. The objective of this study was to characterize P. multocida isolates of Brazil by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in order to determine if strain-type correlates with virulence or with 22 previously studied virulence genes...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902915/characterization-of-chicken-splenic-derived-dendritic-cells-following-vaccine-and-very-virulent-strains-of-infectious-bursal-disease-virus-infection
#4
A R Yasmin, S K Yeap, M Hair-Bejo, A R Omar
Studies have shown that infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infects lymphoid cells, mainly B cells and macrophages. This study was aimed to examine the involvement of chicken splenic-derived dendritic cells (ch-sDCs) in specific-pathogen-free chickens following inoculation with IBDV vaccine strain (D78) and a very virulent (vv) strain (UPM0081). Following IBDV infection, enriched activated ch-sDCs were collected by using the negative selection method and were examined based on morphology and immunophenotyping to confirm the isolation method for dendritic cells (DCs)...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902914/inactivation-of-avian-influenza-virus-in-nonpelleted-chicken-feed
#5
H Toro, V L van Santen, C Breedlove
Corn stored outside could become contaminated with avian influenza virus (AIV) from wild bird droppings. AIV-contaminated ingredients could pass into the poultry flocks in nonpelleted chicken feed. The efficacy of two disinfectants at inactivating AIV in chicken feed was evaluated. Both Termin-8 (a blend of formaldehyde, propionic acid, terpenes, and surfactant) and Finio (a blend of approved phytochemicals and carboxylic acids) effectively inactivated AIV in chicken feed. Because stability of infectious AIV in chicken feed is limited, we evaluated addition of protein (skim milk powder) to the virus suspension...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902913/regulatory-considerations-for-the-approval-of-drugs-against-histomoniasis-blackhead-disease-in-turkeys-chickens-and-game-birds-in-the-united-states
#6
Prajwal R Regmi, Ashley L Shaw, Laura L Hungerford, Janis R Messenheimer, Tong Zhou, Padmakumar Pillai, Amy Omer, Jeffrey M Gilbert
Histomoniasis, commonly referred to as blackhead disease, is a serious threat to the turkey and game bird industries worldwide, and it is having an increasingly negative impact on the chicken industry as well. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM), charged with the approval and regulation of new animal drugs in the United States, understands the rising need for the availability of therapeutic options against histomoniasis. CVM has actively engaged in discussions with the poultry industry, academic institutions, and animal health companies regarding the current status of histomoniasis in the United States and varied success of past and current management, prophylactic, and therapeutic interventions that have been used against the disease...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902912/author-index-2016
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902911/subject-index-2016
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902910/recombinant-hemagglutinin-of-avian-influenza-virus-h5-expressed-in-the-chloroplast-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-and-evaluation-of-its-immunogenicity-in-chickens
#9
Inkar Castellanos-Huerta, Bernardo Bañuelos-Hernández, Guillermo Téllez, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, Luis G Brieba, Elizabeth Esquivel-Ramos, Josué I Beltrán-López, Gilberto Velazquez, Isidro Fernandez-Siurob
Globally, avian influenza (AI) is a serious problem in poultry farming. Despite vaccination, the prevalence of AI in México highlights the need for new approaches to control AI and to reduce the economic losses associated with its occurrence in susceptible birds. Recombinant proteins from avian influenza virus (AIV) have been expressed in different organisms, such as plants. The present study investigated the feasibility of designing and expressing the HA protein of AIV in the transplastomic microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a novel approach for AIV control and taking advantage of culture conditions, its reproductive range, and safe use in consideration of the generally regarded as safe food ingredient regulatory classification...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902909/marek-s-disease-in-backyard-chickens-a-study-of-pathologic-findings-and-viral-loads-in-tumorous-and-nontumorous-birds
#10
Aslı Mete, Radhika Gharpure, Maurice E Pitesky, Dan Famini, Karen Sverlow, John Dunn
Marek's disease (MD) is a major cause of mortality in backyard chickens. The diagnosis of MD is complex, however, and knowledge of Marek's disease virus (MDV) in spontaneous field cases such as in backyard chickens is largely unknown. In this study, 40 backyard chickens with a presumptive MD diagnosis based on histologic lymphoid infiltrations in peripheral nerves with and without lymphomas were investigated. Twenty-eight of the birds were submitted to the diagnostic laboratory for disease explorations, and 12 chickens were from a flock in which some members demonstrated anisocoria and pupil irregularities compatible with ocular MD...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902908/improved-performance-of-broilers-and-broiler-breeders-associated-with-an-amended-vaccination-program-against-reovirosis
#11
Peter De Herdt, Marlies Broeckx, Filip Van Driessche, Bart Vermeiren, Geert Van Den Abeele, Stefaan Van Gorp
A vertically integrated monitoring program was set up for breeders hatched in 2013 and their offspring to detect differences in performance related to the reovirus vaccination schedule. Within the same organization in Belgium, 17 breeder flocks were vaccinated with one dose of live and one dose of inactivated reovirus vaccine, while 14 flocks received two doses of inactivated vaccine without live priming. The hatchability of the eggs produced by these birds was examined. Further, the daily growth, feed conversion, mortality, slaughterhouse condemnation, production index, and antibiotic use were monitored in 110 broiler flocks derived from the breeders...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902907/thermal-stability-study-of-five-newcastle-disease-attenuated-vaccine-strains
#12
Zineb Boumart, Jihane Hamdi, Samira Daouam, Amal Elarkam, Khalid Omari Tadlaoui, Mehdi El Harrak
Newcastle disease (ND) is a big concern throughout the world because of the devastating losses that can occur with commercial and backyard poultry. The major problem in many countries is the loss of the vaccine's effectiveness due to inadequate use or storage conditions, particularly in hot climates. In the present study, stability of the five, most-used NDV vaccine strains (I-2, LaSota, B1, Clone 30 [C30], and VG-GA) was tested comparatively at different storage temperatures (4 and 37 C for the freeze-dried form and 4, 24, 37, and 45 C for the freeze-dried vaccine reconstituted in diluents)...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902906/generalized-tetanus-in-a-gyrfalcon-falco-rusticolus-with-pododermatitis
#13
Hugues Beaufrère, Delphine Laniesse, Paul Stickings, Robert Tierney, Thea Sesardic, Durda Slavic, Nicole Compo, Dale A Smith
A 2-yr-old male gyrfalcon ( Falco rusticolus ) was presented for severe and generalized muscle spasticity and pododermatitis. The falcon had been treated for pododermatitis over the previous 4 mo. Muscle rigidity and spasms involved the entire bird but were more severe on the right leg. The bird was also tachypneic and hyperthermic at 45 C. While the plantar pododermatitis lesions had healed, there was still a small abscess on the lateral aspect of the right foot. Clinical signs were consistent with tetanus...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902905/pathogenicity-of-genome-reassortant-infectious-bursal-disease-viruses-in-chickens-and-turkeys
#14
Daral J Jackwood, Simone T Stoute, Beate M Crossley
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) contains two genome segments (segment A/segment B) that can reassort among the viruses. Reassortant IBDVs have been identified in several countries including the United States. These reassortant viruses usually include at least one genome segment from a very virulent (vv)IBDV strain. In vivo virulence of six reassortant IBDV from the United States was assessed relative to the virulence of three frequently described IBDV pathotypes: vvIBDV (rB strain), classic virulent (cv)IBDV (STC strain), and subclinical (sc)IBDV (Del-E strain)...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902904/infection-with-some-infectious-bursal-disease-virus-pathotypes-produces-virus-in-chicken-muscle-tissue-and-the-role-of-humoral-immunity-as-a-mitigation-strategy
#15
Mariana Sá E Silva, Kateri Bertran, Kira Moresco, Daral J Jackwood, David E Swayne
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes important economic losses and negatively affects global trade in poultry and poultry products. This study determined the presence of IBDV in primary lymphoid tissues and muscle tissue of infected broilers and the role of vaccination as a mitigation strategy. In the first study, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) broiler chickens were challenged with STC (classical [cIBDV]), Indiana (variant [varIBDV]), rA (very virulent [vvIBDV]), or Ohio (serotype 2, avirulent) IBDV...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902903/characterization-of-thai-mycoplasma-synoviae-isolates-by-sequence-analysis-of-partial-vlha-gene
#16
Kriengwich Limpavithayakul, Jiroj Sasipreeyajan, Somsak Pakpinyo
Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), a remarkable pathogen in poultry, causes subclinical infection of the upper respiratory tract and an infectious synovitis, especially in the tendon sheaths and synovial membranes of joints. Because the specific detection of MS 16S rRNA gene-based PCR was unsuitable for strain differentiation, vlhA gene-based PCR was designed to differentiate the MS strains. The vlhA gene of MS encodes for hemagglutinin and other immunodominant membrane proteins involved in colonization, antigenic variations, and virulence...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902902/history-of-the-first-generation-marek-s-disease-vaccines-the-science-and-little-known-facts
#17
Karel A Schat
Shortly after the isolation of Marek's disease (MD) herpesvirus (MDV) in the late 1960s vaccines were developed in England, the United States, and The Netherlands. Biggs and associates at the Houghton Poultry Research Station (HPRS) in England attenuated HPRS-16, the first cell-culture-isolated MDV strain, by passaging HPRS-16 in chick kidney cells. Although HPRS-16/Att was the first commercially available vaccine, it never became widely used and was soon replaced by the FC126 strain of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) vaccine developed by Witter and associates at the Regional Poultry Research Laboratory (now Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory [ADOL]) in East Lansing, MI...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902901/virulence-of-serovar-c-1-strains-of-avibacterium-paragallinarum
#18
H H Trujillo-Ruíz, H L Shivaprasad, V Morales-Erasto, M Talavera-Rojas, C Salgado-Miranda, F Salazar-García, P J Blackall, E Soriano-Vargas
The bacterium Avibacterium paragallinarum is the etiologic agent of infectious coryza of chickens. There are nine serovars of A. paragallinarum , and serovar C-1 has emerged in outbreaks of infectious coryza in layer hens in the Americas, with all isolates having been obtained from infectious coryza-vaccinated chickens. In the current study, the clinical and histopathologic outcomes of experimental infections in chickens with A. paragallinarum of serovar C-1 were investigated. The Japanese serovar reference strain, H-18, and a Mexican isolate, ESV-135, were included in the study...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902900/sensitivity-and-specificity-estimation-for-the-clinical-diagnosis-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-the-egyptian-participatory-disease-surveillance-program
#19
C Verdugo, I El Masry, Y Makonnen, H Hannah, F Unger, M Soliman, S Galal, J Lubroth, D Grace
Many developing countries lack sufficient resources to conduct animal disease surveillance. In recent years, participatory epidemiology has been used to increase the cover and decrease the costs of surveillance. However, few diagnostic performance assessments have been carried out on participatory methods. The objective of the present study was to estimate the diagnostic performance of practitioners working for the Community-Based Animal Health and Outreach (CAHO) program, which is a participatory disease surveillance system for the detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in Egypt...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902899/endemic-variation-of-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-in-china
#20
Yu-Fu Liu, Han-Zhang Lai, Lin Li, Yu-Peng Liu, Wen-Yan Zhang, Ren Gao, Wen-Ke Huang, Qin-Fang Luo, Yan Gao, Qiong Luo, Xiao-Yu Xie, Jia-Hua Xu, Rui-Ai Chen
Forty-two H9N2 subtype AIV strains were isolated from vaccinated commercial chickens in China from 2012 to 2015. Their HA genes had nucleotide sequence homology from 86.7% to 99.7%, and similarity to the classic vaccine strain was 88.6%-92.6%. A comparison was carried out with published HA genes (410 H9 strains) and whole genomes (306 strains) isolated in China during 2012-2015. Interestingly, 99.1% (448/452) of Chinese H9N2 AIV belonged to lineage h9.4.2, and 98.5% (445/452) of the viruses belonged to h9.4...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
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