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Avian Diseases

Jinjun Xu, Chanbao Qu, Ping Guo, Zhennan Zhuo, Dandan Liu, Jianping Tao
Preliminary diagnosis of clinical symptoms and gross lesions with subsequent histopathologic and PCR analyses revealed histomoniasis in 276 chicken flocks in Jiangsu Province, China, and surrounding areas from January 2012 to December 2015. Detailed statistical analysis was performed to explore the occurrence and epidemic characteristics of histomoniasis in chicken flocks. The results indicated that histomoniasis usually occurred in free-range flocks of local broilers and laying hens. Also, 2- to 3-mo-old chickens were most susceptible to infection, and adult chickens rarely developed infection...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Nicolas Gaidet, India Leclercq, Christophe Batéjat, Quentin Grassin, Tanguy Daufresne, Jean-Claude Manuguerra
The connectedness in Arctic regions between migratory waterbird populations originating from different continents and the potential for virus exchange at their shared Arctic breeding ground point to the need to explore the largely unstudied circumpolar circulation of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We here report the investigation of AIV in wild birds and lakes in a high Arctic area of Northeast Greenland. No AIV could be detected in the fecal, feather, and water samples collected from large flocks of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus and barnacle geese Branta leucopsis in and around refuge lakes, where they congregate at high density during their flightless molting period in summer...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Ana M Villegas, Roy Berghaus, Guillermo Zavala, Miguel A Barrios, Monique França
Focal duodenal necrosis (FDN) is an intestinal disease of egg-laying chickens, characterized by multifocal mucosal erosions in the duodenal loop and proximal jejunum. It is currently considered by the Association of Veterinarians in Egg Production and the United States Animal Health Association as one of the top five disease concerns of the table egg industry in the United States. Previous studies have associated this condition with Clostridium species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic characteristics of table egg layer flocks affected with FDN...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Kiyohiko Andoh, Kanako Ashikaga, Kiyotaka Suenaga, Shun Endo, Kenichi Yamazaki
We identified novel linear epitopes on the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) spike S2 region. The conformational structure of the IBV spike protein was predicted from a homologous protein, human coronavirus NL63 spike. Although the obtained structure was incomplete, most of the IBV spike protein structure was predicted; the N-terminus of the S1 region could not be predicted due to its variability. In the model, the region located in the proximity of the fusion peptide appeared to be well conserved, and we evaluated the antigenicity of these domains, which are involved in the membrane fusion machinery...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
O Alejandro Aleuy, Maurice Pitesky, Rodrigo Gallardo
Although infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has been described as one of the most economically important viral respiratory diseases in poultry, there are few analyses of outbreaks that use spatial statistics. In order to better understand how the different genotypes of IBV behave spatially and temporally, we used geographic information system-based mapping coupled with spatial and spatial-temporal statistics to identify statistically significant clustering of multiple strains of infectious bronchitis (IB) between 2008 and 2012 in California...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Abdulmajid Sheykhi, Nariman Sheikhi, Saeid Charkhkar, Gholamreza Nikbakht Brujeni
Circovirus infections have been documented in adult and nestling canaries (Fringillidae) but the distribution of the virus in the world is not yet known. In captive canary flocks, Circovirus infections have been reported based on the clinical observations. In this study, the presence of both canary circovirus (CaCV) and chicken anemia virus (CAV) in canary flocks was investigated. Virus strains were detected by PCR and direct sequencing of amplified products. Nucleotide sequences were aligned and compared with existing data in GenBank...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Jianlin Wang, Shouchun Wang, Kaiyu Zou, Yi Zhang, Shouzhen Xu, Yanbo Yin
The present study was performed to detect and characterize the serotypes of fowl adenovirus associated with inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) or hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) in commercial poultry in some regions of China between 2007 and 2017. Approximately 81 fowl adenovirus strains were isolated from liver or kidney samples from diseased poultry. A sequencing analysis of the hexon loop 1 gene revealed fowl adenovirus serotypes 8a, 8b, and 11 in samples of broilers with IBH, serotype 11 in layers with IBH, and serotype 4 in poultry with HHS...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Kathleen E Long, Rachel M Ouckama, Alexandru Weisz, Marina L Brash, Davor Ojkić
Sixty-four cases of white chick syndrome (WCS) in broiler breeders producing affected progeny were reported from seven hatcheries in Ontario, Canada, between 2009 and 2016, with 43 of those originating from two hatcheries owned by a single company. WCS cases were identified by the presence of typical chicks in the hatchery that were generally weak with pale to white down, enlarged abdomens, and occasionally brown wiry fluff on the dorsum of the neck. Affected embryos and chicks had characteristic gross and histologic liver lesions, and livers were positive for chicken astrovirus (CAstV) RNA by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
L Gustafson, R Jones, L Dufour-Zavala, E Jensen, C Malinak, S McCarter, K Opengart, J Quinn, T Slater, A Delgado, M Talbert, L Garber, M Remmenga, M Smeltzer
An expert elicitation was staged to rapidly decipher plausible routes and risks of pathogen transmission in the 2017 H7N9 avian influenza (AI) outbreak in the four-state region of Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, and Kentucky. The process included the identification of risk factors found in a preponderance of commercial broiler breeder case farms over matched controls and an opinion-based weighting of risks and mitigations perceived influential to this outbreak. Although the two highly pathogenic AI case farms had general location and company ownership in common, obvious connections were lacking for the remainder of H7N9-infected (all low pathogenicity) commercial farms...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Md Shahin Alam, Satoru Takahashi, Mariko Ito, Mayuko Suzuki, Miyuki Komura, Natthanan Sangsriratanakul, Dany Shoham, Kazuaki Takehara
The bactericidal efficacy of food additive-grade calcium hydroxide [FdCa(OH)2 ] was evaluated for inactivation of Salmonella Infantis and Salmonella Enteritidis in liquid and Salmonella Infantis on contaminated eggshells. The activity of FdCa(OH)2 was also compared with that of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) containing 150 ppm chlorine (150 ppm NaOCl). FdCa(OH)2 solutions (0.1% and 0.2%) in the presence or absence of organic materials (5% calf serum [CS]) at pH 12.6 were used to inactivate Salmonella Infantis and Salmonella Enteritidis in a reaction tube or on eggshells artificially contaminated with Salmonella Infantis...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Tridib Kumar Rajkhowa, Catherine Vanlalruati, Rahul S Arya
In recent years, acute severe outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD) are frequently observed in commercial chicken populations of the North East Region (NER) of India, resulting in huge economic loses to poultry farmers. Field outbreaks of IBD in 30 different poultry farms in the NER were confirmed by clinicopathologic examination and reverse transcriptase PCR. A total of 10 isolates of IBD virus (IBDV) from these outbreaks were characterized by the genetic analysis of VP1 and the hypervariable region of the VP2 gene...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Manuela Crispo, H L Shivaprasad, George L Cooper, Arthur A Bickford, Simone T Stoute
Streptococcal bacterial species represent common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of animals and humans with a potential for opportunistic infections. Streptococcosis has been identified in turkey poults ( Meleagris gallopavo), ducklings and goslings (Anatidae), broiler chickens, semimature-adult chickens ( Gallus gallus domesticus), and young and adult pigeons (Columbidae). However, the exact underlying factors that lead to bacterial invasion of the blood stream and tissue colonization have not been completely elucidated...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
H Ozaki, K Yonehara, T Murase
To evaluate the virulence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates obtained from colibacillosis cases associated with pericarditis, perihepatitis, and salpingitis, the embryo lethality assay and experimental infection model in chicks were used in this study. According to the established criteria based on mortality in the embryo lethality assay for evaluating the virulence of E. coli isolates, 23 of the 26 APEC isolates associated with pericarditis and perihepatitis and 8 of the 20 isolates associated with salpingitis were found to be virulent...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Amanda M MacDonald, Claire M Jardine, Leonardo Susta, Durda Slavic, Nicole M Nemeth
Since being successfully reintroduced into Ontario, Canada, wild turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo) populations have undergone robust growth and range expansion. This, along with increases in land use changes from human population growth and subsequent developments in agriculture and livestock production, has heightened opportunities for interactions between wild turkeys, domestic poultry, and humans. As conspecifics, wild and domestic turkeys are susceptible to infection and disease from many of the same pathogens...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Gustavo H Schneiders, Sylva M Riblet, Maricarmen García
In an effort to produce more stable vaccines for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), recombinant strains with deletion of genes associated with virulence have been evaluated for attenuation and protection efficacy. Among viral genes associated with virulence, a cluster of five open reading frames (ORFs; A through E) have been identified. An attenuated ILTV recombinant strain with deletion of the ORF C gene induced protection comparable to that elicited by the tissue culture origin (TCO) vaccine when administered via eyedrop...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
O J Fletcher, R Mansell, M P Martin, L B Borst, H John Barnes, L M Gonzalez
Phosphorylated histone 3 (PH3) and cleaved caspase 3 (CCASP3) were used to detect proliferating and apoptotic cells, respectively, in the jejunums of female sibling poults, with and without enteritis and depressed growth, from hatch to day 35. Poults that developed enteritis and depressed growth (SIB flock) were raised on a commercial farm in eastern North Carolina, whereas poults with normal growth and no enteritis (TAU flock) were raised in the Teaching Animal Unit at North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Chong Wang, Susanne Elisabeth Pors, Anders Miki Bojesen
To assess the survival of Gallibacterium anatis in dead laying hens, 21-wk-old laying hens were injected intraperitoneally with 0.5 ml brain hearth infusion broth containing 108 colony-forming units (CFU) of G. anatis 12656-12 liver ( n = 16), Escherichia coli ST141 ( n = 16), or a mix of G. anatis 12656-12 liver and E. coli ST141 ( n = 16), respectively. Birds were euthanatized 24 hr post injection. From each group eight dead birds were kept at 4 C and eight at room temperature. Swab samples were taken at different time points post euthanatization and streaked on blood agar plates...
June 2018: Avian Diseases
Banya Banowary, Van Tuan Dang, Subir Sarker, Joanne H Connolly, Jeremy Chenu, Peter Groves, Shane Raidal, Seyed Ali Ghorashi
Campylobacter infection is a common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans and remains a significant global public health issue. The capability of two multiplex PCR (mPCR)-high-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis methods (i.e., mPCR1-HRM and mPCR2-HRM) to detect and differentiate 24 poultry isolates and three reference strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was investigated. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli were successfully differentiated in both assays, but the differentiation power of mPCR2-HRM targeting the cadF gene was found superior to that of mPCR1-HRM targeting the gpsA gene or a hypothetical protein gene...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Zi-Rong He, Si-Fan Ruan, Jing Zhao, Hui-Ming Yang, Guo-Zhong Zhang
Clinical cases of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) from fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) have increased in China since 2013. Therefore, the development of a new serologic method for HHS detection is now urgent. Here, the FAdV-4 strain JSJ13 was used to construct a plasmid for prokaryotic expression of the JSJ13 fiber-2 protein. The protein, purified by affinity chromatography, was refolded by gradient dialysis. After coating a 96-well plate with the purified fiber-2 protein (1.5 μg/ml), standard serum and secondary antibodies (1:200 and 1:6000 dilutions, respectively) were used to develop an indirect ELISA (I-ELISA)...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Simone Stoute, Beate Crossley, H L Shivaprasad
A February 2015 outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 in a flock of commercial Pekin ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in California was investigated in detail. Approximately 17,349 five-wk-old ducks experienced an increased mortality from a normal of eight birds per day to 24, 18, 24, 33, and 61 birds per day, respectively, in the last 5 days prior to flock depopulation. Clinically, there was decreased water and feed consumption, and approximately 1.0% of the affected flock exhibited neurologic signs...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
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