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Annual Review of Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192062/pomc-neurons-from-birth-to-death
#1
Chitoku Toda, Anna Santoro, Jung Dae Kim, Sabrina Diano
The hypothalamus is an evolutionarily conserved brain structure that regulates an organism's basic functions, such as homeostasis and reproduction. Several hypothalamic nuclei and neuronal circuits have been the focus of many studies seeking to understand their role in regulating these basic functions. Within the hypothalamic neuronal populations, the arcuate melanocortin system plays a major role in controlling homeostatic functions. The arcuate pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in particular have been shown to be critical regulators of metabolism and reproduction because of their projections to several brain areas both in and outside of the hypothalamus, such as autonomic regions of the brain stem and spinal cord...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192061/the-contributions-of-human-mini-intestines-to-the-study-of-intestinal-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#2
Huimin Yu, Nesrin M Hasan, Julie G In, Mary K Estes, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Nicholas C Zachos, Mark Donowitz
The lack of accessibility to normal and diseased human intestine and the inability to separate the different functional compartments of the intestine even when tissue could be obtained have held back the understanding of human intestinal physiology. Clevers and his associates identified intestinal stem cells and established conditions to grow "mini-intestines" ex vivo in differentiated and undifferentiated conditions. This pioneering work has made a new model of the human intestine available and has begun making contributions to the understanding of human intestinal transport in normal physiologic conditions and the pathophysiology of intestinal diseases...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192060/macrophages-in-renal-injury-and-repair
#3
Sarah C Huen, Lloyd G Cantley
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a growing global health concern, yet no treatment is currently available to prevent it or to promote kidney repair after injury. Animal models demonstrate that the macrophage is a major contributor to the inflammatory response to AKI. Emerging data from human biopsies also corroborate the presence of macrophages in AKI and their persistence in progressive chronic kidney disease. Macrophages are phagocytic innate immune cells that are important mediators of tissue homeostasis and host defense...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192059/inflammasomes-key-mediators-of-lung-immunity
#4
Judie A Howrylak, Kiichi Nakahira
Inflammasomes are key inflammatory signaling platforms that detect microbial substances, sterile environmental insults, and molecules derived from host cells. Activation of the inflammasome promotes caspase-1-mediated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 and pyroptosis. Recent developments in this field demonstrate the crucial role of the inflammasome in a wide range of disease models. Although inflammasomes are a crucial part of host defense mechanisms against pathogens, the exuberant immune response resulting from inflammasome activation also contributes to the development of various diseases...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192058/the-sodium-iodide-symporter-nis-molecular-physiology-and-preclinical-and-clinical-applications
#5
Silvia Ravera, Andrea Reyna-Neyra, Giuseppe Ferrandino, L Mario Amzel, Nancy Carrasco
Active iodide (I(-)) transport in both the thyroid and some extrathyroidal tissues is mediated by the Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS). In the thyroid, NIS-mediated I(-) uptake plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone (TH) biosynthesis. THs are key during embryonic and postembryonic development and critical for cell metabolism at all stages of life. The molecular characterization of NIS in 1996 and the use of radioactive I(-) isotopes have led to significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer and provide the molecular basis for studies aimed at extending the use of radioiodide treatment in extrathyroidal malignancies...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192057/tongue-and-taste-organ-biology-and-function-homeostasis-maintained-by-hedgehog-signaling
#6
Charlotte M Mistretta, Archana Kumari
The tongue is an elaborate complex of heterogeneous tissues with taste organs of diverse embryonic origins. The lingual taste organs are papillae, composed of an epithelium that includes specialized taste buds, the basal lamina, and a lamina propria core with matrix molecules, fibroblasts, nerves, and vessels. Because taste organs are dynamic in cell biology and sensory function, homeostasis requires tight regulation in specific compartments or niches. Recently, the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway has emerged as an essential regulator that maintains lingual taste papillae, taste bud and progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation, and neurophysiological function...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992733/trefoil-factor-peptides-and-gastrointestinal-function
#7
Eitaro Aihara, Kristen A Engevik, Marshall H Montrose
Trefoil factor (TFF) peptides, with a 40-amino acid motif and including six conserved cysteine residues that form intramolecular disulfide bonds, are a family of mucin-associated secretory molecules mediating many physiological roles that maintain and restore gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal homeostasis. TFF peptides play important roles in response to GI mucosal injury and inflammation. In response to acute GI mucosal injury, TFF peptides accelerate cell migration to seal the damaged area from luminal contents, whereas chronic inflammation leads to increased TFF expression to prevent further progression of disease...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992732/the-link-between-angiogenesis-and-endothelial-metabolism
#8
Michael Potente, Peter Carmeliet
Angiogenesis has traditionally been viewed from the perspective of how endothelial cells (ECs) coordinate migration and proliferation in response to growth factor activation to form new vessel branches. However, ECs must also coordinate their metabolism and adapt metabolic fluxes to the rising energy and biomass demands of branching vessels. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of such metabolic regulation in the endothelium and uncovered core metabolic pathways and mechanisms of regulation that drive the angiogenic process...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959621/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-lung-pathogenesis
#9
Claude A Piantadosi, Hagir B Suliman
Remarkable new roles for mitochondria in calcium handling, apoptosis, heme turnover, inflammation, and oxygen and nutrient sensing have been discovered for organelles that were once thought to be simple energy converters. Although deficits in mitochondrial function are often associated with energy failure and apoptosis, working cells maintain a mitochondrial reserve that affords the organelles distinct homeostatic sensing and regulatory abilities in lung cells. As primary intracellular sources of oxidants, mitochondria serve as critical monitors and modulators of vital oxidation-reduction processes, including mitochondrial biogenesis, mitophagy, inflammasome activation, cell proliferation, and prevention of fibrosis...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959620/microglia-in-physiology-and-disease
#10
Susanne A Wolf, H W G M Boddeke, Helmut Kettenmann
As the immune-competent cells of the brain, microglia play an increasingly important role in maintaining normal brain function. They invade the brain early in development, transform into a highly ramified phenotype, and constantly screen their environment. Microglia are activated by any type of pathologic event or change in brain homeostasis. This activation process is highly diverse and depends on the context and type of the stressor or pathology. Microglia can strongly influence the pathologic outcome or response to a stressor due to the release of a plethora of substances, including cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959619/macrophages-and-the-recovery-from-acute-and-chronic-inflammation
#11
Kajal Hamidzadeh, Stephen M Christensen, Elizabeth Dalby, Prabha Chandrasekaran, David M Mosser
In recent years, researchers have devoted much attention to the diverse roles of macrophages and their contributions to tissue development, wound healing, and angiogenesis. What should not be lost in the discussions regarding the diverse biology of these cells is that when perturbed, macrophages are the primary contributors to potentially pathological inflammatory processes. Macrophages stand poised to rapidly produce large amounts of inflammatory cytokines in response to danger signals. The production of these cytokines can initiate a cascade of inflammatory mediator release that can lead to wholesale tissue destruction...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959618/mechanisms-of-organ-injury-and-repair-by-macrophages
#12
Kevin M Vannella, Thomas A Wynn
Macrophages regulate tissue regeneration following injury. They can worsen tissue injury by producing reactive oxygen species and other toxic mediators that disrupt cell metabolism, induce apoptosis, and exacerbate ischemic injury. However, they also produce a variety of growth factors, such as IGF-1, VEGF-α, TGF-β, and Wnt proteins that regulate epithelial and endothelial cell proliferation, myofibroblast activation, stem and tissue progenitor cell differentiation, and angiogenesis. Proresolving macrophages in turn restore tissue homeostasis by functioning as anti-inflammatory cells, and macrophage-derived matrix metalloproteinases regulate fibrin and collagen turnover...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959617/senescence-in-copd-and-its-comorbidities
#13
Peter J Barnes
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is regarded as a disease of accelerated lung aging. This affliction shows all of the hallmarks of aging, including telomere shortening, cellular senescence, activation of PI3 kinase-mTOR signaling, impaired autophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, stem cell exhaustion, epigenetic changes, abnormal microRNA profiles, immunosenescence, and a low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammaging). Many of these pathways are driven by chronic exogenous and endogenous oxidative stress...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959616/coronary-artery-development-progenitor-cells-and-differentiation-pathways
#14
Bikram Sharma, Andrew Chang, Kristy Red-Horse
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the number one cause of death worldwide and involves the accumulation of plaques within the artery wall that can occlude blood flow to the heart and cause myocardial infarction. The high mortality associated with CAD makes the development of medical interventions that repair and replace diseased arteries a high priority for the cardiovascular research community. Advancements in arterial regenerative medicine could benefit from a detailed understanding of coronary artery development during embryogenesis and of how these pathways might be reignited during disease...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959615/developmental-mechanisms-of-aortic-valve-malformation-and-disease
#15
Bingruo Wu, Yidong Wang, Feng Xiao, Jonathan T Butcher, Katherine E Yutzey, Bin Zhou
Normal aortic valves are composed of valve endothelial cells (VECs) and valve interstitial cells (VICs). VICs are the major cell population and have distinct embryonic origins in the endocardium and cardiac neural crest cells. Cell signaling between the VECs and VICs plays critical roles in aortic valve morphogenesis. Disruption of major cell signaling pathways results in aortic valve malformations, including bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). BAV is a common congenital heart valve disease that may lead to calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), but there is currently no effective medical treatment for this beyond surgical replacement...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912679/three-pillars-for-the-neural-control-of-appetite
#16
Scott M Sternson, Anne-Kathrin Eiselt
The neural control of appetite is important for understanding motivated behavior as well as the present rising prevalence of obesity. Over the past several years, new tools for cell type-specific neuron activity monitoring and perturbation have enabled increasingly detailed analyses of the mechanisms underlying appetite-control systems. Three major neural circuits strongly and acutely influence appetite but with notably different characteristics. Although these circuits interact, they have distinct properties and thus appear to contribute to separate but interlinked processes influencing appetite, thereby forming three pillars of appetite control...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912678/the-physiology-and-molecular-underpinnings-of-the-effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-obesity-and-diabetes
#17
Simon S Evers, Darleen A Sandoval, Randy J Seeley
Bariatric surgeries, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and vertical sleeve gastrectomy, produce significant and durable weight loss in both humans and rodents. Recently, these surgical interventions have also been termed metabolic surgery because they result in profound metabolic improvements that often surpass the expected improvement due to body weight loss alone. In this review we focus on the weight-loss independent effects of bariatric surgery, which encompass energy expenditure and macronutrient preference, the luminal composition of the gut (i...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860834/regulation-of-mammalian-oocyte-meiosis-by-intercellular-communication-within-the-ovarian-follicle
#18
Laurinda A Jaffe, Jeremy R Egbert
Meiotic progression in mammalian preovulatory follicles is controlled by the granulosa cells around the oocyte. Cyclic GMP (cGMP) generated in the granulosa cells diffuses through gap junctions into the oocyte, maintaining meiotic prophase arrest. Luteinizing hormone then acts on receptors in outer granulosa cells to rapidly decrease cGMP. This occurs by two complementary pathways: cGMP production is decreased by dephosphorylation and inactivation of the NPR2 guanylyl cyclase, and cGMP hydrolysis is increased by activation of the PDE5 phosphodiesterase...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860833/a-critical-and-comparative-review-of-fluorescent-tools-for-live-cell-imaging
#19
Elizabeth A Specht, Esther Braselmann, Amy E Palmer
Fluorescent tools have revolutionized our ability to probe biological dynamics, particularly at the cellular level. Fluorescent sensors have been developed on several platforms, utilizing either small-molecule dyes or fluorescent proteins, to monitor proteins, RNA, DNA, small molecules, and even cellular properties, such as pH and membrane potential. We briefly summarize the impressive history of tool development for these various applications and then discuss the most recent noteworthy developments in more detail...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860832/anoctamins-tmem16-proteins-chloride-channels-flirting-with-lipids-and-extracellular-vesicles
#20
Jarred M Whitlock, H Criss Hartzell
Anoctamin (ANO)/TMEM16 proteins exhibit diverse functions in cells throughout the body and are implicated in several human diseases. Although the founding members ANO1 (TMEM16A) and ANO2 (TMEM16B) are Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels, most ANO paralogs are Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid scramblases that serve as channels facilitating the movement (scrambling) of phospholipids between leaflets of the membrane bilayer. Phospholipid scrambling significantly alters the physical properties of the membrane and its landscape and has vast downstream signaling consequences...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
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