journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Annual Review of Physiology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195055/neuromuscular-junction-formation-aging-and-disorders
#1
Lei Li, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Lin Mei
Synapses, the fundamental unit in neuronal circuits, are critical for learning and memory, perception, thinking, and reaction. The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a synapse formed between motoneurons and skeletal muscle fibers that is wrapped by Schwann cells (SCs). It is essential for controlling muscle contraction. NMJ formation requires intimate interactions among motoneurons, muscles, and SCs. Deficits in NMJ formation and maintenance cause neuromuscular disorders, including congenital myasthenic syndrome and myasthenia gravis...
December 1, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195054/bacterial-mechanosensors
#2
Charles D Cox, Navid Bavi, Boris Martinac
Bacteria represent one of the most evolutionarily successful groups of organisms to inhabit Earth. Their world is awash with mechanical cues, probably the most ancient form of which are osmotic forces. As a result, they have developed highly robust mechanosensors in the form of bacterial mechanosensitive (MS) channels. These channels are essential in osmoregulation, and in this setting, provide one of the simplest paradigms for the study of mechanosensory transduction. We explore the past, present, and future of bacterial MS channels, including the alternate mechanosensory roles that they may play in complex microbial communities...
December 1, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166242/dynamism-of-an-astrocyte-in-vivo-perspectives-on-identity-and-function
#3
Kira E Poskanzer, Anna V Molofsky
Astrocytes are an abundant and evolutionarily conserved central nervous system cell type. Despite decades of evidence that astrocytes are integral to neural circuit function, it seems as though astrocytic and neuronal biology continue to advance in parallel to each other, to the detriment of both. Recent advances in molecular biology and optical imaging are being applied to astrocytes in new and exciting ways but without fully considering their unique biology. From this perspective, we explore the reasons that astrocytes remain enigmatic, arguing that their responses to neuronal and environmental cues shape form and function in dynamic ways...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166241/two-classes-of-secreted-synaptic-organizers-in-the-central-nervous-system
#4
Michisuke Yuzaki
Research in the last two decades has identified many synaptic organizers in the central nervous system that directly regulate the assembly of preand/ or postsynaptic molecules, such as synaptic vesicles, active zone proteins, and neurotransmitter receptors. They are classified into secreted factors and cell adhesion molecules, such as neurexins and neuroligins. Certain secreted factors are termed extracellular scaffolding proteins (ESPs) because they are components of the synaptic extracellular matrix and serve as a scaffold at the synaptic cleft...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144825/salt-hypertension-and-immunity
#5
A Justin Rucker, Nathan P Rudemiller, Steven D Crowley
The link between inappropriate salt retention in the kidney and hypertension is well recognized. However, growing evidence suggests that the immune system can play surprising roles in sodium homeostasis, such that the study of inflammatory cells and their secreted effectors has provided important insights into salt sensitivity. As part of the innate immune system, myeloid cells have diverse roles in blood pressure regulation, ranging from prohypertensive actions in the kidney, vasculature, and brain, to effects in the skin that attenuate blood pressure elevation...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131758/titin-gene-and-protein-functions-in-passive-and-active-muscle
#6
Wolfgang A Linke
The thin and thick filaments of muscle sarcomeres are interconnected by the giant protein titin, which is a scaffolding filament, signaling platform, and provider of passive tension and elasticity in myocytes. This review summarizes recent insight into the mechanisms behind how titin gene mutations cause hereditary cardiomyopathy and how titin protein is mechanically active in skeletal and cardiac myocytes. A main theme is the evolving role of titin as a modulator of contraction. Topics include strain-sensing via titin in the sarcomeric A-band as the basis for length-dependent activation, titin elastic recoil and refolding of titin domains as an energy source, and Ca2+-dependent stiffening of titin stretched during eccentric muscle contractions...
November 13, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125794/sr-b1-a-unique-multifunctional-receptor-for-cholesterol-influx-and-efflux
#7
Wen-Jun Shen, Salman Azhar, Fredric B Kraemer
The scavenger receptor, class B type 1 (SR-B1), is a multiligand membrane receptor protein that functions as a physiologically relevant high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor whose primary role is to mediate selective uptake or influx of HDL-derived cholesteryl esters into cells and tissues. SR-B1 also facilitates the efflux of cholesterol from peripheral tissues, including macrophages, back to liver. As a regulator of plasma membrane cholesterol content, SR-B1 promotes the uptake of lipid soluble vitamins as well as viral entry into host cells...
November 9, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120692/epithelial-na-channel-regulation-by-extracellular-and-intracellular-factors
#8
Thomas R Kleyman, Ossama B Kashlan, Rebecca P Hughey
Epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaCs) are members of the ENaC/degenerin family of ion channels that evolved to respond to extracellular factors. In addition to being expressed in the distal aspects of the nephron, where ENaCs couple the absorption of filtered Na(+) to K(+) secretion, these channels are found in other epithelia as well as nonepithelial tissues. This review addresses mechanisms by which ENaC activity is regulated by extracellular factors, including proteases, Na(+), and shear stress. It also addresses other factors, including acidic phospholipids and modification of ENaC cytoplasmic cysteine residues by palmitoylation, which enhance channel activity by altering interactions of the channel with the plasma membrane...
November 8, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068766/the-role-of-autophagy-in-the-heart
#9
Sebastiano Sciarretta, Yasuhiro Maejima, Daniela Zablocki, Junichi Sadoshima
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which cytoplasmic elements are degraded intracellularly. Autophagy has also emerged as a major regulator of cardiac homeostasis and function. Autophagy preserves cardiac structure and function under baseline conditions and is activated during stress, limiting damage under most conditions. It reduces injury and preserves cardiac function during ischemia. It also reduces chronic ischemic remodeling and mediates the cardiac adaptation to pressure overload by restricting misfolded protein accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress...
October 25, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068765/mechanisms-of-renal-fibrosis
#10
Benjamin D Humphreys
Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a chronic and progressive process affecting kidneys during aging and in chronic kidney disease (CKD), regardless of cause. CKD and renal fibrosis affect half of adults above age 70 and 10% of the world's population. Although no targeted therapy yet exists to slow renal fibrosis, a number of important recent advances have clarified the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the disease. In this review, I highlight these advances with a focus on cells and pathways that may be amenable to therapeutic targeting...
October 25, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029594/chemoreceptors-in-the-gut
#11
S Steensels, I Depoortere
The gastrointestinal tract represents the largest interface between the human body and the external environment. It must continuously monitor and discriminate between nutrients that need to be assimilated and harmful substances that need to be expelled. The different cells of the gut epithelium are therefore equipped with a subtle chemosensory system that communicates the sensory information to several effector systems involved in the regulation of appetite, immune responses, and gastrointestinal motility. Disturbances or adaptations in the communication of this sensory information may contribute to the development or maintenance of disease...
October 13, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029593/lymphatic-dysfunction-leukotrienes-and-lymphedema
#12
Xinguo Jiang, Mark R Nicolls, Wen Tian, Stanley G Rockson
The lymphatic system is essential for the maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis, gastrointestinal lipid absorption, and immune trafficking. Whereas lymphatic regeneration occurs physiologically in wound healing and tissue repair, pathological lymphangiogenesis has been implicated in a number of chronic diseases such as lymphedema, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Insight into the regulatory mechanisms of lymphangiogenesis and the manner in which uncontrolled inflammation promotes lymphatic dysfunction is urgently needed to guide the development of novel therapeutics: These would be designed to reverse lymphatic dysfunction, either primary or acquired...
October 13, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961064/spinal-circuits-for-touch-pain-and-itch
#13
Stephanie C Koch, David Acton, Martyn Goulding
The exteroceptive somatosensory system is important for reflexive and adaptive behaviors and for the dynamic control of movement in response to external stimuli. This review outlines recent efforts using genetic approaches in the mouse to map the spinal cord circuits that transmit and gate the cutaneous somatosensory modalities of touch, itch, and pain. Recent studies have revealed an underlying modular architecture in which nociceptive, pruritic, and innocuous stimuli are processed by distinct molecularly defined interneuron cell types...
September 27, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938084/the-evolving-understanding-of-dopamine-neurons-in-the-substantia-nigra-and-ventral-tegmental-area
#14
Stephanie C Gantz, Christopher P Ford, Hitoshi Morikawa, John T Williams
In recent years, the population of neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN) has been examined at multiple levels. The results indicate that the projections, neurochemistry, and receptor and ion channel expression in this cell population vary widely. This review centers on the intrinsic properties and synaptic regulation that control the activity of dopamine neurons. Although all dopamine neurons fire action potentials in a pacemaker pattern in the absence of synaptic input, the intrinsic properties that underlie this activity differ considerably...
September 22, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934587/aging-in-the-cardiovascular-system-lessons-from-hutchinson-gilford-progeria-syndrome
#15
Magda R Hamczyk, Lara Del Campo, Vicente Andrés
Aging, the main risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), is becoming progressively more prevalent in our societies. A better understanding of how aging promotes CVD is therefore urgently needed to develop new strategies to reduce disease burden. Atherosclerosis and heart failure contribute significantly to age-associated CVD-related morbimortality. CVD and aging are both accelerated in patients suffering from Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a rare genetic disorder caused by the prelamin A mutant progerin...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192062/pomc-neurons-from-birth-to-death
#16
REVIEW
Chitoku Toda, Anna Santoro, Jung Dae Kim, Sabrina Diano
The hypothalamus is an evolutionarily conserved brain structure that regulates an organism's basic functions, such as homeostasis and reproduction. Several hypothalamic nuclei and neuronal circuits have been the focus of many studies seeking to understand their role in regulating these basic functions. Within the hypothalamic neuronal populations, the arcuate melanocortin system plays a major role in controlling homeostatic functions. The arcuate pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in particular have been shown to be critical regulators of metabolism and reproduction because of their projections to several brain areas both in and outside of the hypothalamus, such as autonomic regions of the brain stem and spinal cord...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192061/the-contributions-of-human-mini-intestines-to-the-study-of-intestinal-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#17
REVIEW
Huimin Yu, Nesrin M Hasan, Julie G In, Mary K Estes, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Nicholas C Zachos, Mark Donowitz
The lack of accessibility to normal and diseased human intestine and the inability to separate the different functional compartments of the intestine even when tissue could be obtained have held back the understanding of human intestinal physiology. Clevers and his associates identified intestinal stem cells and established conditions to grow "mini-intestines" ex vivo in differentiated and undifferentiated conditions. This pioneering work has made a new model of the human intestine available and has begun making contributions to the understanding of human intestinal transport in normal physiologic conditions and the pathophysiology of intestinal diseases...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192060/macrophages-in-renal-injury-and-repair
#18
REVIEW
Sarah C Huen, Lloyd G Cantley
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a growing global health concern, yet no treatment is currently available to prevent it or to promote kidney repair after injury. Animal models demonstrate that the macrophage is a major contributor to the inflammatory response to AKI. Emerging data from human biopsies also corroborate the presence of macrophages in AKI and their persistence in progressive chronic kidney disease. Macrophages are phagocytic innate immune cells that are important mediators of tissue homeostasis and host defense...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192059/inflammasomes-key-mediators-of-lung-immunity
#19
REVIEW
Judie A Howrylak, Kiichi Nakahira
Inflammasomes are key inflammatory signaling platforms that detect microbial substances, sterile environmental insults, and molecules derived from host cells. Activation of the inflammasome promotes caspase-1-mediated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 and pyroptosis. Recent developments in this field demonstrate the crucial role of the inflammasome in a wide range of disease models. Although inflammasomes are a crucial part of host defense mechanisms against pathogens, the exuberant immune response resulting from inflammasome activation also contributes to the development of various diseases...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192058/the-sodium-iodide-symporter-nis-molecular-physiology-and-preclinical-and-clinical-applications
#20
REVIEW
Silvia Ravera, Andrea Reyna-Neyra, Giuseppe Ferrandino, L Mario Amzel, Nancy Carrasco
Active iodide (I(-)) transport in both the thyroid and some extrathyroidal tissues is mediated by the Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS). In the thyroid, NIS-mediated I(-) uptake plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone (TH) biosynthesis. THs are key during embryonic and postembryonic development and critical for cell metabolism at all stages of life. The molecular characterization of NIS in 1996 and the use of radioactive I(-) isotopes have led to significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer and provide the molecular basis for studies aimed at extending the use of radioiodide treatment in extrathyroidal malignancies...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
journal
journal
23346
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"