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Anatomical Record

Helene M Langevin, Jason A Yandow
Acupuncture meridians traditionally are believed to constitute channels connecting the surface of the body to internal organs. We hypothesize that the network of acupuncture points and meridians can be viewed as a representation of the network formed by interstitial connective tissue. This hypothesis is supported by ultrasound images showing connective tissue cleavage planes at acupuncture points in normal human subjects. To test this hypothesis, we mapped acupuncture points in serial gross anatomical sections through the human arm...
December 15, 2002: Anatomical Record
E Robert Burns
The Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) is the administrative home of a nationally recognized educational outreach program in the health sciences for K-12 teachers (includes school nurses, counselors, etc.) and students. This program is called the Partners in Health Sciences (PIHS) program. It began in the summer of 1991 and is based on an annual needs assessment of the state's teachers. PIHS is a program available to all teachers and students in the state...
August 15, 2002: Anatomical Record
Kathy Kay Hartford Svoboda, Wende R Reenstra
Many research projects will lead to understanding tissue and/or cell responses to extracellular influences either from soluble factors or the surrounding extracellular matrix. These types of investigations will require the understanding of signal transduction. This particular cell biological field has literally exploded with information and new technical approaches in the past 10 years. This article is directed toward investigators interested in using these new approaches to study their systems. An overview of the general principles of signal transduction events including the types of receptors and intracellular signaling events is followed by an introduction to methods for visualizing signal transduction...
April 15, 2002: Anatomical Record
A El-Sharaby, K Ueda, K Kurisu, S Wakisaka
Palatal taste buds are intriguing partners in the mediation of taste behavior and their spatial distribution is functionally important for suckling behavior, especially in the neonatal life. Their prenatal development has not been previously elucidated in the rat, and the onset of their maturation remains rather controversial. We delineated the development and frequency distribution of the taste buds as well as the immunohistochemical expression of alpha-gustducin, a G protein closely related to the transduction of taste stimuli, in the nasoincisor papilla (NIP) and soft palate (SP) from the embryonic day 17 (E17) till the postnatal day 70 (PN70)...
July 1, 2001: Anatomical Record
S Gökhan, M F Mehler
There have been recent dramatic advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing the elaboration of mature tissue-specific cellular subpopulations from embryonic stem (ES) cells. These investigations have generated a range of new biological and potential therapeutic reagents to allow us to dissect specific stages of mammalian development that were previously experimentally inaccessible. Ultimately, we will be able to reconstitute seminal signaling pathways to promote regeneration of the nervous system...
June 15, 2001: Anatomical Record
Q Wang, R S Reiter, Q Q Huang, J P Jin, J J Lin
In vertebrates, three troponin T (TnT) genes, cardiac TnT (cTnT), skeletal muscle fast-twitch TnT (fTnT), and slow-twitch TnT (sTnT), have evolved for the regulation of striated muscle contraction. To understand the mechanism for muscle fiber-specific expression of the TnT genes, we compared their expression patterns during mouse development. Our data revealed that the TnT expression in the developing embryo was not as restricted as that in the adult. In addition to a strong expression in the developing heart beginning at day 7...
May 1, 2001: Anatomical Record
H M Frost
Efforts to understand our anatomy and physiology can involve four often overlapping phases. We study what occurs, then how, then ask why, and then seek clinical applications. In that regard, in 1960 views, bone's effector cells (osteoblasts and osteoclasts) worked chiefly to maintain homeostasis under the control of nonmechanical agents, and that physiology had little to do with anatomy, biomechanics, tissue-level things, muscle, and other clinical applications. But it seems later-discovered tissue-level mechanisms and functions (including biomechanical ones, plus muscle) are the true key players in bone physiology, and homeostasis ranks below the mechanical functions...
April 1, 2001: Anatomical Record
N Kumar, S Kukreti, M Ishaque, R Mulholland
The anatomical parameters of the thoracic and lumbar regions of the deer spine were evaluated and compared with the existing data of the human spine. The objective was to create a database for the anatomical parameters of the deer spine, with a view to establish deer spine as a valid model for human spine biomechanical experiments in vitro. To date, the literature has supported the use of both calf and sheep spines as a suitable model for human spine experiments as the difficulty in procuring the human cadaveric spines is well appreciated...
October 1, 2000: Anatomical Record
B J Rongish, W H Kinsey
Fyn protein tyrosine kinase is present in the unfertilized and fertilized egg, becomes activated within minutes following fertilization, and has been localized to the cortical cytoplasm and spindle apparatus of the zygote. In order to establish the expression pattern of Fyn in the early embryo, we examined the distribution pattern of Fyn by immunofluorescence microscopy. Fyn protein is distributed evenly among cells of the cleavage stage zebrafish embryo and is concentrated in the cortical region of each cell...
October 1, 2000: Anatomical Record
C L Pin, A C Bonvissuto, S F Konieczny
Mist1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that represses E-box-mediated transcription. Previous studies have suggested that the Mist1 gene is expressed in a wide range of tissues, although a complete characterization of Mist1 protein accumulation in the adult organism has not been described. In an effort to identify specific cell types that contain the Mist1 protein, antibodies specific for Mist1 were generated and used in Western blot and immunohistochemical assays. Our studies show that the Mist1 protein is present in many different tissues but that it is restricted to cell types that are exclusively secretory in nature...
June 1, 2000: Anatomical Record
D Sedmera, T Pexieder, M Vuillemin, R P Thompson, R H Anderson
The heart in higher vertebrates develops from a simple tube into a complex organ with four chambers specialized for efficient pumping at pressure. During this period, there is a concomitant change in the level of myocardial organization. One important event is the emergence of trabeculations in the luminal layers of the ventricles, a feature which enables the myocardium to increase its mass in the absence of any discrete coronary circulation. In subsequent development, this trabecular layer becomes solidified in its deeper part, thus increasing the compact component of the ventricular myocardium...
April 1, 2000: Anatomical Record
H Shen, J D Glass, T Seki, M Watanabe
The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus are recognized as the principal circadian clock in mammals. The adult SCN express a high level of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a cell surface sialoglycoprotein capable of modulating cell-cell interactions. In the present study, the expression of PSA-NCAM in the mouse SCN was studied at the ultrastructural level by immunolabeling using monoclonal antibodies against the polysialic acid (PSA) moiety of PSA-NCAM. We showed that neuronal somal expression of PSA-NCAM was distributed heterogeneously in the SCN, with extensive staining of somas in the central region of the SCN, and minimal somal staining in the ventral portion of the nuclei...
December 1, 1999: Anatomical Record
J P Naftel, L P Richards, M Pan, J M Bernanke
The rodent dentition has become an important model for investigations of interactions between dental tissues and peripheral neurons. Although experimental nerve injury has been widely used for such studies, there is uncertainty about the courses of nerve fibers supplying the mandibular teeth. In order to clarify this, we used a mixture of monoclonal antibodies against neurofilament proteins to enhance demonstration of nerve fibers so that small nerves could be readily traced in serial frozen sections of mandibles of Sprague Dawley rats ranging in age from embryonic day (E) 18 to postnatal day (P) 90...
December 1, 1999: Anatomical Record
N Hernández, S H Torres, H J Finol, O Vera
Arterial hypertension produces changes along the vascular tree. However, there are few reports on its effect on human muscle capillaries. This study demonstrates the effects of essential hypertension on the capillaries of human quadriceps muscle. Muscle biopsy was taken from quadriceps femoris in eight men with recent diagnosis of essential hypertension, without treatment. Biopsies were also taken from eight normotensive men and were used as controls. Fiber types were classified by ATPase reaction, capillaries counted in alpha-amylase-PAS stained sections and ultrastructure studied by conventional methods of transmission electron microscopy...
December 1, 1999: Anatomical Record
L Mu, I Sanders
The tongue manipulates food while chewing and swallowing, dilates the airway during inspiration, and shapes the sounds of speech in humans. While performing these functions the tongue morphs through many complex shapes. At present it is not known how the muscles of the tongue perform these complex shape changes. The difficulty in understanding tongue biomechanics is partly due to gaps in our knowledge regarding the complex neuromuscular anatomy of the tongue. In this study the motor and sensory nerve anatomy of four canine tongues was studied with Sihler's stain, a technique that renders most of the tongue tissue translucent while counterstaining nerves...
December 1, 1999: Anatomical Record
A Shabsigh, N Tanji, V D'Agati, T Burchardt, M Burchardt, O Hayek, R Shabsigh, R Buttyan
The rat ventral prostate gland is a model tissue to study the effects of androgenic steroids on prostate cells. Recent reports suggest that the prostatic vascular system is a primary target of androgen action in this tissue. In order to better understand how the vascular system of the ventral prostate supports the tissue in an androgenically normal adult male rat we utilized a variety of microscopic imaging techniques to more fully characterize its structural anatomy and its interaction with other prostatic cell types...
December 1, 1999: Anatomical Record
L Fishelson, A Baranes
Ocular ontogenesis was studied in embryos of the placental viviparous shark, Iago omanensis, abundant in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, at depths of 150-1500 meters. Samples of gravid females were collected bi-monthly, and their embryos extracted. The eyes of 220 of those embryos of various dimensions were dissected and routinely prepared for histological and electron microscopic studies. The initial signs of eyes appear in embryos of 8 mm total length (TL). The primordial zone of germinal neural cells appears in 12 mmTL embryos and at 26 mm separation of the visual layer of the retina and the plexiform layers is initiated...
December 1, 1999: Anatomical Record
A M Lewis, O Mathieu-Costello, P J McMillan, R D Gilbert
In order to determine the effects of chronic, high-altitude hypoxia on the ovine fetal heart, we exposed pregnant ewes to 3,820 m beginning at 30 days gestation. We previously showed that following approximately 110 days of hypoxia the fetal heart showed significant reduction in cardiac output (76% of control) and contractility, and elevated levels of citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase. To investigate ultrastructural influences on these observed physiologic changes at altitude, we hypothesized that the volume densities of myofibrils and mitochondria, and glycogen content would be reduced in the ovine fetal heart and that this may contribute to contraction and cardiac output deficits in hypoxia...
December 1, 1999: Anatomical Record
M K Zanin, J Bundy, H Ernst, A Wessels, S J Conway, S Hoffman
Although chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are major components of the embryonic extracellular matrix, little attention has been paid to specific CSPGs in early heart development, in part because appropriate antibodies were not available. Therefore we prepared specific polyclonal antibodies against chicken aggrecan, versican, neurocan, and phosphacan. Western blotting and immunohistochemical studies revealed the presence of aggrecan and versican in stages 12-21 chicken embryo hearts in distinctive spatial and temporal patterns...
December 1, 1999: Anatomical Record
M L Baker, E Gemmell, R T Gemmell
The numbers and distribution of T and B cells in the thoracic thymus, spleen and intestinal tissue and the proliferation of T lymphocytes were examined during pouch life and in the adult to determine when the developing brushtail possum reaches immunological maturity. CD3-positive cells were observed in the thoracic thymus at day 2 post-partum indicating that the thymus produces T lymphocytes at or soon after birth. By day 25 the thymus was fully populated with CD3-positive T lymphocytes and they were observed in distinct regions of the cortex and medulla...
December 1, 1999: Anatomical Record
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