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American Psychologist

Suzanne Bennett Johnson, David Marrero
Although the biomedical model has dominated U.S. health care for more than a century, it has failed to adequately address current U.S. health care challenges, including the treatment and prevention of chronic disease; the epidemic rise in diabetes is one important example. In response, newer models of health care have been developed that address patients' mental and physical health concerns by multidisciplinary care teams that place the patient and family in the center of shared decision making. These new models of care offer many important opportunities for psychologists to play a larger role in the prevention and treatment of diabetes...
October 2016: American Psychologist
Delia Smith West, Sandra M Coulon, Courtney M Monroe, Dawn K Wilson
The majority of individuals with Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are overweight or obese, and this excess adiposity negatively impacts cardiovascular risk and contributes to challenges in disease management. Treatment of obesity by behavioral lifestyle intervention, within the context of diabetes, produces broad and clinically meaningful health improvements, and recent studies demonstrate long-term sustained weight management success with behavioral lifestyle interventions. Details of the Look AHEAD intensive lifestyle intervention are provided as an exemplar approach to the secondary prevention of T2D and obesity...
October 2016: American Psychologist
Elizabeth M Venditti
Self-management is critical for the prevention and control of chronic health conditions. Research shows that dietary and physical activity behaviors related to obesity are inextricably linked to the development, course, and outcomes of Type 2 diabetes and its comorbidities. Therefore, a compelling case has been made for behavioral lifestyle intervention as the first-line approach. Academic psychologists and other behavioral scientists have contributed to all stages of obesity and diabetes prevention research and practice...
October 2016: American Psychologist
Marisa E Hilliard, Priscilla W Powell, Barbara J Anderson
As members of multidisciplinary diabetes care teams, psychologists are well-suited to support self-management among youth with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and their families. Psychological and behavioral interventions can promote adherence to the complex and demanding diabetes care regimen, with the goals of promoting high quality of life, achieving optimal glycemic control, and ultimately preventing disease-related complications. This article reviews well-researched contemporary behavioral interventions to promote optimal diabetes family- and self-management and health outcomes in youth with T1D, in the context of key behavioral theories...
October 2016: American Psychologist
Linda A Gonder-Frederick, Jaclyn A Shepard, Jesse H Grabman, Lee M Ritterband
Use of technology in diabetes management is rapidly advancing and has the potential to help individuals with diabetes achieve optimal glycemic control. Over the past 40 years, several devices have been developed and refined, including the blood glucose meter, insulin pump, and continuous glucose monitor. When used in tandem, the insulin pump and continuous glucose monitor have prompted the Artificial Pancreas initiative, aimed at developing control system for fully automating glucose monitoring and insulin delivery...
October 2016: American Psychologist
Christopher M Ryan, Eelco van Duinkerken, Caterina Rosano
Mild cognitive dysfunction is a well-established complication of diabetes and its management, although large numbers of psychologists and health professionals may be unaware of its existence, clinical implications, and etiology. Drawing on results from key studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, this article delineates the neurocognitive phenotypes characteristic of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D), and identifies the most plausible risk factors, both those that may be modifiable, like degree of metabolic control, and those that cannot be changed, like the age when a child or adult is diagnosed...
October 2016: American Psychologist
Mary de Groot, Sherita Hill Golden, Julie Wagner
Type 1 (T1D) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) represent a demanding set of biopsychosocial challenges for patients and their families, whether the age of disease onset occurs in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood. Psychological conditions, defined as syndromes, disorders, and diabetes-specific psychological issues affect a larger proportion of individuals with T1D and T2D compared to the general population. In this review, we summarize the prevalence, impact and psychological treatments associated with the primary categories of psychological conditions that affect adults with T1D and T2D: depressive symptoms and syndromes, anxiety disorders, eating behaviors and disorders and serious mental illness...
October 2016: American Psychologist
Jeffrey S Gonzalez, Molly L Tanenbaum, Persis V Commissariat
Diabetes is a chronic illness that places a significant self-management burden on affected individuals and families. Given the importance of health behaviors-such as medication adherence, diet, physical activity, blood glucose self-monitoring-in achieving optimal glycemic control in diabetes, interventions designed and delivered by psychologists hold promise in assisting children, adolescents, and adults with diabetes in improving their health status and lowering their risk of serious complications. This article first provides an overview of diabetes self-management and associated challenges and burdens...
October 2016: American Psychologist
Deborah J Wiebe, Vicki Helgeson, Cynthia A Berg
Diabetes self-management is crucial to maintaining quality of life and preventing long-term complications, and it occurs daily in the context of close interpersonal relationships. This article examines how social relationships are central to meeting the complex demands of managing Type I and Type 2 diabetes across the life span. The social context of diabetes management includes multiple resources, including family (parents, spouses), peers, romantic partners, and health care providers. We discuss how these social resources change across the life span, focusing on childhood and adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood and aging...
October 2016: American Psychologist
Christine M Hunter
Diabetes is a common, chronic, and costly condition that currently affects millions of individuals in the United States and worldwide with even greater numbers at high risk for developing the disease. Dramatic increases in diagnosed diabetes are projected for the decades to come meaning that most people will be affected by diabetes; either personally or through a family member. This article introduces the special issue of the American Psychologist focused on diabetes by providing an overview of the scope of diabetes and the importance of psychologists for improving disease management and quality of life...
October 2016: American Psychologist
Sheldon Zedeck, Wayne Cascio
This article memorializes James L. Outtz, who passed away March 26, 2016. For more than 40 years, Outtz was a leading researcher, practitioner, and consultant in the areas of hiring and promotion, employment discrimination, selection-test design and implementation, and legal issues pertaining to employment. He worked tirelessly to enhance opportunities for workforce diversity through greater inclusion of minorities and women. Another important focus was on strategies to minimize adverse impact through alternative approaches to selection...
September 2016: American Psychologist
Bernard Spilka
This article memorializes Richard L. Gorsuch, who passed away at age 78 on February 14, 2016. His interests and work ranged from multivariate analysis to the psychology of religion. Gorsuch penned one of the most readable volumes on the topic of measurement and factor analysis. He also developed multivariate factor programs under the title UniMult. Professionally, he was recognized as an outstanding scholar, being a fellow of both the American Psychological Association and the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion...
September 2016: American Psychologist
Michele Harway
This article memorializes Helen (Lena) Stavridou Astin, who died at her home October 27, 2015 after a long illness. As only the second woman to earn a doctorate in psychology at the University of Maryland, Lena opened the door for other women. Her 1969 classic book, , was the first to provide data to counteract the belief that highly educated women drop out of the labor force to concentrate on family. Within the American Psychological Association, Lena was the first chair of what became the Committee on Women in Psychology and the second president of the Division on the Psychology of Women (Division 35)...
September 2016: American Psychologist
Christopher J Ferguson
This article responds to comments by Tryon (see record ) regarding the nature of mechanism and free will in psychological science. It is agreed that psychological science has problems with the presentation of mechanistic theories that are simplistic and based on weak data. However, it is argued that a systematic effort to study free will is a worthwhile enterprise. Current data provide evidence both for and against the existence of free will. Sophisticated analysis may provide routes to reconcile determinism with free will in newer and more ecologically valid theory...
September 2016: American Psychologist
Warren W Tryon
Ferguson (see record ) proposed that our overreliance on mechanistic models is responsible for the public's negative view of psychology. On the contrary, I claim that our explanations do not actually explain because they lack mechanism information and that is why the public has a negative view of psychology. Some of the mechanism information required to move from interpretations to explanations can be found in parallel distributed processing connectionist neural network models of psychology and behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record...
September 2016: American Psychologist
Karen A Matthews, Nancy E Adler, Christopher B Forrest, William W Stead
Social, psychological, and behavioral factors are recognized as key contributors to health, but they are rarely measured in a systematic way in health care settings. Electronic health records (EHRs) can be used in these settings to routinely collect a standardized set of social, psychological, and behavioral determinants of health. The expanded use of EHRs provides opportunities to improve individual and population health, and offers new ways for the psychological community to engage in health promotion and disease prevention efforts...
September 2016: American Psychologist
Timothy P Melchert
The behavioral and neurosciences have made remarkable progress recently in advancing the scientific understanding of human psychology. Though research in many areas is still in its early stages, knowledge of many psychological processes is now firmly grounded in experimental tests of falsifiable theories and supports a unified, paradigmatic understanding of human psychology that is thoroughly consistent with the rest of the natural sciences. This new body of knowledge poses critical questions for professional psychology, which still often relies on the traditional theoretical orientations and other preparadigmatic practices for guiding important aspects of clinical education and practice...
September 2016: American Psychologist
Lisa Rosenthal
Intersectionality is receiving increasing attention in many fields, including psychology. This theory or framework has its roots in the work of Black feminist scholar-activists, and it focuses on interlocking systems of oppression and the need to work toward structural-level changes to promote social justice and equity. Thus, the current interest in intersectionality in psychology presents an opportunity to draw psychologists' attention more to structural-level issues and to make social justice and equity more central agendas to the field...
September 2016: American Psychologist
Dorainne J Levy, Jennifer A Heissel, Jennifer A Richeson, Emma K Adam
We present the race-based disparities in stress and sleep in context model (RDSSC), which argues that racial/ethnic disparities in educational achievement and attainment are partially explained by the effects of race-based stressors, such as stereotype threat and perceived discrimination, on psychological and biological responses to stress, which, in turn, impact cognitive functioning and academic performance. Whereas the roles of psychological coping responses, such as devaluation and disidentification, have been theorized in previous work, the present model integrates the roles of biological stress responses, such as changes in stress hormones and sleep hours and quality, to this rich literature...
September 2016: American Psychologist
(no author information available yet)
Presents the 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. In his introduction, President Barry Anton describes how 2015 was among APA's most challenging. Although 2015 ushered in an era of greater transparency within the association and enhanced communications to members and the public, it also required painful self-reflection stemming from the revelations of an independent review by an outside law firm. The review examined the question of whether APA played any role related to the Bush administration's use of abusive interrogation techniques during the war on terror...
July 2016: American Psychologist
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