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American Psychologist

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446960/improving-adjustment-and-resilience-in-children-following-a-disaster-addressing-research-challenges
#1
Wendy S Grolnick, David J Schonfeld, Merritt Schreiber, Judith Cohen, Valerie Cole, Lisa Jaycox, John Lochman, Betty Pfefferbaum, Kenneth Ruggiero, Kenneth Wells, Marleen Wong, Douglas Zatzick
There is compelling evidence of the potential negative effects of disasters on children's adjustment and functioning. Although there is an increasing base of evidence supporting the effectiveness of some interventions for trauma following disaster, more research is needed, particularly on interventions that can be delivered in the early aftermath of disaster as well as those that can address a broader range of adjustment difficulties such as bereavement that may be experienced by children after a disaster. This article identifies gaps in the knowledge of how best to intervene with children following disasters...
February 15, 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431456/forensic-psychology-and-correctional-psychology-distinct-but-related-subfields-of-psychological-science-and-practice
#2
Tess M S Neal
This article delineates 2 separate but related subfields of psychological science and practice applicable across all major areas of the field (e.g., clinical, counseling, developmental, social, cognitive, community). Forensic and correctional psychology are related by their historical roots, involvement in the justice system, and the shared population of people they study and serve. The practical and ethical contexts of these subfields is distinct from other areas of psychology-and from one another-with important implications for ecologically valid research and ethically sound practice...
February 12, 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369661/progressive-taxation-income-inequality-and-happiness
#3
Shigehiro Oishi, Kostadin Kushlev, Ulrich Schimmack
Income inequality has become one of the more widely debated social issues today. The current article explores the role of progressive taxation in income inequality and happiness. Using historical data in the United States from 1962 to 2014, we found that income inequality was substantially smaller in years when the income tax was more progressive (i.e., a higher tax rate for higher income brackets), even when controlling for variables like stock market performance and unemployment rate. Time lag analyses further showed that higher progressive taxation predicted increasingly lower income inequality up to 5 years later...
January 25, 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355356/compelled-disclosure-of-college-sexual-assault
#4
Kathryn J Holland, Lilia M Cortina, Jennifer J Freyd
Sexual assault is a widespread problem on college campuses. In response, many institutions are developing policies mandating that certain employees report any student disclosure of sexual assault to university officials (and, in some cases, to police), with or without the survivor's consent. These policies, conceptualized here as compelled disclosure, have been prompted and shaped by federal law and guidance, including Title IX and The Clery Act. Proponents of compelled disclosure assert that it will increase reports-enabling universities to investigate and remedy more cases of sexual assault-and will benefit sexual assault survivors, university employees, and the institution...
January 22, 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355355/looking-for-intoolligence-a-unified-framework-for-the-cognitive-study-of-human-tool-use-and-technology
#5
François Osiurak, Dietmar Heinke
Humans have considerably modified their environment by making and building a number of tools, technologies, and constructions. This unique ability compared to other animals is the focus of researchers in different fields of psychology. However, there is confusion about the definitions proposed, generating difficulties in making connections between those different fields. This article presents the first unified framework (i.e., intoolligence) aiming to overcome these issues by focusing on the cognitive processes involved in the different forms taken by human tool use and technology, rather than on the overt behavior...
January 22, 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355354/civilization-and-its-discontented-links-between-youth-victimization-beliefs-about-government-and-political-participation-across-seven-american-presidencies
#6
Benjamin Oosterhoff, Julie B Kaplow, Christopher M Layne, Robert S Pynoos
Promoting trust in public officials and active political engagement is vital to sustaining a well-functioning democracy. Developmental psychologists propose that youths' beliefs about government and participation in politics are rooted in personal experiences within their communities. Previous studies have focused on how positive experiences within youths' families, schools, and communities facilitate greater social trust and political participation. However, less is known about how negative interpersonal experiences-such as criminal victimization-intersect with youths' beliefs about the trustworthiness, competence, and knowledge of government officials, and their participation in political activity...
January 22, 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355353/do-we-overemphasize-the-role-of-culture-in-the-behavior-of-racial-ethnic-minorities-evidence-of-a-cultural-mis-attribution-bias-in-american-psychology
#7
José M Causadias, Joseph A Vitriol, Annabelle L Atkin
Although culture influences all human beings, there is an assumption in American psychology that culture matters more for members of certain groups. This article identifies and provides evidence of the cultural (mis)attribution bias: a tendency to overemphasize the role of culture in the behavior of racial/ethnic minorities, and to underemphasize it in the behavior of Whites. Two studies investigated the presence of this bias with an examination of a decade of peer reviewed research conducted in the United States (N = 434 articles), and an experiment and a survey with psychology professors in the United States (N = 361 psychologists)...
January 22, 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355352/community-based-participatory-research-cbpr-towards-equitable-involvement-of-community-in-psychology-research
#8
Susan E Collins, Seema L Clifasefi, Joey Stanton, Kee J E Straits, Eleanor Gil-Kashiwabara, Patricia Rodriguez Espinosa, Andel V Nicasio, Michele P Andrasik, Starlyn M Hawes, Kimberly A Miller, Lonnie A Nelson, Victoria E Orfaly, Bonnie M Duran, Nina Wallerstein
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) answers the call for more patient-centered, community-driven research approaches to address growing health disparities. CBPR is a collaborative research approach that equitably involves community members, researchers, and other stakeholders in the research process and recognizes the unique strengths that each bring. The aim of CBPR is to combine knowledge and action to create positive and lasting social change. With its origins in psychology, sociology, and critical pedagogy, CBPR has become a common research approach in the fields of public health, medicine, and nursing...
January 22, 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345495/milton-frank-shore-1928-2017
#9
Robert Henley Woody
Presents an obituary for Milton Frank Shore, who passed away on January 6, 2017, due to pneumonia. During a long career, he was a tireless advocate for children, particularly those who were underserved. In addition, he made important contributions as an author, editor, and administrator. He was actively engaged in independent practice at the time of his death. Milt was one of the founders of American Psychological Association (APA) Division 37 (Child, Youth, and Family Services) and served as its president (1978-1979)...
January 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345494/george-franklin-mccoy-1922-2017
#10
Tom Fagan
Presents an obituary for George Franklin McCoy, who passed away on February 6, 2017, in Tulsa, Oklahoma. McCoy was a citizen of the Cherokee Nation, having been born to Cherokee Nation citizens. He served as school psychologist for the Champaign, Illinois schools (1958-1962) and then began his 18 year career (1962-1980) as a psychology professor at Illinois State Normal University (ISNU, now ISU), where he also served as the school psychologist for the Thomas Metcalf and University High Schools. True to his Cherokee citizenship and Oklahoma roots, in 1980 he joined the United States Indian Health Services (IHS) as a psychologist at the Carl Albert Indian Health Facility in Ada, Oklahoma...
January 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345493/jon-douglas-carlson-1945-2017
#11
Matt Englar-Carlson, Jeffrey Kottler
Presents an obituary for Jon Douglas Carlson, who passed away on February 1, 2017, in Madison, Wisconsin, due to complications from a bone marrow transplant. Jon was a leading figure within counseling, psychology, and education, with a specific focus on Adlerian theory and practice. His professional work was informed by over 40 years of clinical practice. During his distinguished career, he published 64 books, 185 articles, and more than 300 training videos adopted by universities around the world. Carlson's professional legacy lives on through the many books and countless hours of professional video sessions, as well as through the healthy, engaged lives of the clients, students, and colleagues that he encouraged, mentored, and supported...
January 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345492/cigdem-kagitcibasi-1940-2017
#12
Zeynep Aycan, Zeynep Cemalcilar
Presents an obituary for Cigdem Kagitcibasi. Kagitcibasi is considered one of the founders of cross-cultural psychology. Her theoretical and applied research focused on human development in socio-cultural context, leading her to question the applicability of mainstream psychology to the majority (non-Western) world. Her emphasis on culture, social change, and the family as important aspects of the context of human development gave birth to Family Change Theory and the Theory of Autonomous-Related Self. Kagitcibasi was the first female president of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, the vice president of the International Union of Psychological Science and the International Social Science Council...
January 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345491/paul-b-pedersen-1936-2017
#13
Walter J Lonner, Juris G Draguns
Presents an obituary for Paul B. Pedersen, who passed away on January 11, 2017, in a Minnetonka, Minnesota hospital. In 1973 Pedersen convened a pathfinding APA (Division 9) symposium in Montreal that resulted in the publication in 1976 of Counseling Across Cultures (Pedersen, Lonner, and Draguns, Eds.). The first book of its kind, it became the "Granddaddy" of all subsequent books in that area. The seventh edition, published in 2016 (with Trimble and Scharron-del Rio, co-eds), benefitted from his steadfast encouragement, but his deteriorating health prevented a more active role...
January 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345490/asher-r-pacht-1922-2017
#14
Barbara A Van Horne
Presents an obituary for Asher R. Pacht, who passed away on March 14, 2017. Pacht was a pioneer in bringing effective treatment to correctional clients including sex offenders. In addition to being a teacher with a clinical practice, he was a leader in numerous professional organizations, with particular commitment to the regulation and licensing of psychologists. Pacht's first professional job was with the Wisconsin Division of Corrections; he retired 24 years later as director of the Bureau of Clinical Services...
January 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345489/seymour-sy-epstein-1924-2016
#15
Edward O'Brien, Jean O'Brien, Everett Waters
Presents an obituary for Seymour (Sy) Epstein, who passed away in Amherst on May 20, 2016. Epstein was a significant voice in personality psychology for more than six decades. His wide-ranging, programmatic research addressed cognitive mediation of classical conditioning, stress and coping, the self-concept, drive, conflict, and psychopathology. His research on aggregation strongly influenced the person-situation debate. His most important contribution was his decades-long development of an integrated personality theory, culminating in his magnum opus, Cognitive-Experiential Theory (Oxford University Press, 2014)...
January 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345488/risky-business-correlation-and-causation-in-longitudinal-studies-of-skill-development
#16
Drew H Bailey, Greg J Duncan, Tyler Watts, Doug H Clements, Julie Sarama
Developmental theories often posit that changes in children's early psychological characteristics will affect much later psychological, social, and economic outcomes. However, tests of these theories frequently yield results that are consistent with plausible alternative theories that posit a much smaller causal role for earlier levels of these psychological characteristics. Our article explores this issue with empirical tests of skill-building theories, which predict that early boosts to simpler skills (e...
January 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345487/on-the-general-acceptance-of-confessions-research-opinions-of-the-scientific-community
#17
Saul M Kassin, Allison D Redlich, Fabiana Alceste, Timothy J Luke
Eighty-seven experts on the psychology of confessions-many of whom were highly published, many with courtroom experience-were surveyed online about their opinions on 30 propositions of relevance to deception detection, police interrogations, confessions, and relevant general principles of psychology. As indicated by an agreement rate of at least 80%, there was a strong consensus that several findings are sufficiently reliable to present in court. This list includes but is not limited to the proposition that the risk of false confessions is increased not only by explicit threats and promises but by 2 common interrogation tactics-namely, the false evidence ploy and minimization tactics that imply leniency by offering sympathy and moral justification...
January 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345486/facilitating-pipeline-progress-from-doctoral-degree-to-first-job
#18
Nadine J Kaslow, Debra A Bangasser, Catherine L Grus, Stephen R McCutcheon, Garth A Fowler
The sequence of professional development within psychology from doctoral education to first job represents a period of remarkable professional and personal growth for each trainee. However, this sequence also contains a variety of barriers that hinder progress through the pipeline. The myriad individual-, program-, and system-level barriers encountered by trainees in health service/other applied service psychology and in research basic/applied psychology are identified. To actively and systematically facilitate improved passage through major transition points, individual trainee and trainer, program- and system-level action steps are recommended...
January 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345485/journal-article-reporting-standards-for-qualitative-primary-qualitative-meta-analytic-and-mixed-methods-research-in-psychology-the-apa-publications-and-communications-board-task-force-report
#19
Heidi M Levitt, Michael Bamberg, John W Creswell, David M Frost, Ruthellen Josselson, Carola Suárez-Orozco
The American Psychological Association Publications and Communications Board Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards for Qualitative Research (JARS-Qual Working Group) was charged with examining the state of journal article reporting standards as they applied to qualitative research and with generating recommendations for standards that would be appropriate for a wide range of methods within the discipline of psychology. These standards describe what should be included in a research report to enable and facilitate the review process...
January 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345484/journal-article-reporting-standards-for-quantitative-research-in-psychology-the-apa-publications-and-communications-board-task-force-report
#20
Mark Appelbaum, Harris Cooper, Rex B Kline, Evan Mayo-Wilson, Arthur M Nezu, Stephen M Rao
Following a review of extant reporting standards for scientific publication, and reviewing 10 years of experience since publication of the first set of reporting standards by the American Psychological Association (APA; APA Publications and Communications Board Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards, 2008), the APA Working Group on Quantitative Research Reporting Standards recommended some modifications to the original standards. Examples of modifications include division of hypotheses, analyses, and conclusions into 3 groupings (primary, secondary, and exploratory) and some changes to the section on meta-analysis...
January 2018: American Psychologist
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