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American Psychologist

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481595/steven-reiss-1947-2016
#1
Richard J McNally
This article memorializes Steven Reiss (1947-2016), an eminent clinical psychologist. He was professor emeritus of psychology and psychiatry at the Ohio State University. Reiss has made major contributions to three areas of psychology. He formulated the concept of anxiety sensitivity, an individual difference variable signifying a person's proneness to respond fearfully to bodily sensations that accompany anxiety. He was the key developer of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), a self-report measure of the fear of anxiety sensations translated into more than 20 languages...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481594/colin-d-elliott-1937-2016
#2
John O Willis, Ron Dumont
This article memorializes Colin D. Elliott (1937-2016). For 7 years, in his work as a school psychologist, Elliott studied the ability profiles of children with learning disabilities and the measurement of children's developmental stages. Subsequently, he trained school psychologists for over 20 years at the University of Manchester. In 1983, he made a major, enduring contribution to the field of psychometric assessment in both his home country and the wider field with the publication of the innovative British Ability Scales (BAS)...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481593/john-a-swets-1928-2016
#3
Raymond S Nickerson
This article memorializes John A. Swets (1928 -2016). Swets's scientific work included empirical experimentation, theory development, and practical applications. It attracted much attention, not only in psychology, but in other fields as well, especially medicine, education, and engineering. His work on the application of the theory of signal detection-which he began while still a graduate student- is very well known and has been influential in essentially every context in which people have to deal with noisy data...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481592/luciano-l-abate-1928-2016
#4
Robert Henley Woody
This article memorializes Luciano L'Abate (1928 -2016). In 1964, L'Abate became an assistant professor of medical psychology at the Washington University School of Medicine and, in 1965, an associate professor of pediatrics in the Emory University School of Medicine. He then transitioned to the Georgia State University (GSU), where he was promoted to professor of psychology. From 1965 to 1990, he served as director of the Family Psychology Program and Family Study Center at GSU. In retirement, L'Abate increased his writing and lecturing...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481591/carl-n-zimet-1925-2015
#5
Josette G Harris, Steven A Rosenberg
This article memorializes Carl N. Zimet (1925-2015). In 1963, Zimet was recruited to the University of Colorado School of Medicine as chief of the Division of Psychology. Throughout his career, he was engaged in the practice of psychotherapy. He served on numerous boards and committees of the American Psychological Association (APA), including APA's Board of Directors. Zimet was a founder of the National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology and was its first president, a position he held for 11 years...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481590/basing-clinical-practice-on-unified-psychological-science-comment-on-melchert-2016
#6
Warren W Tryon
The article by Melchert (2016) called for professional psychology to leave its preparadigmatic past behind and move forward based upon a single unified theoretical orientation. Although leaving the preparadigmatic past behind is important, the claim that psychology has recently transitioned to a unified paradigmatic science based on a unified theoretical orientation seems premature at this time. However, the prospect of progress toward a unified psychological science is fostered by a large and growing literature not cited in the Melchert article...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481589/the-problem-of-choosing-between-irreconcilable-theoretical-orientations-comment-on-melchert-2016
#7
Stephen Joseph
Melchert (2016) argued that knowledge of psychological processes is now grounded in experimental tests of falsifiable theories that support a unified, paradigmatic understanding of human psychology. Although his argument for leaving behind our preparadigmatic past of competing theoretical orientations is welcome, Melchert (2016) presented a perspective in which the degree to which this is currently possible is overstated. In this comment, it is argued that scientific research does not replace paradigmatic assumptions but takes place within them...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481588/unified-clinical-science-or-paradigm-diversity-comment-on-melchert-2016
#8
Michael R Jackson
Drawing on Kuhn's (1970) analysis, Melchert (2016) argued that current professional psychology exists in a preparadigmatic state and that a transition to a unified clinical science based on the paradigm of the behavioral and neurosciences is now possible. But Melchert's analysis makes questionable assumptions about reducibility and neglects several crucial aspects of Kuhn's analysis. A close examination of psychological work on problems such as violence against women indicates that different research paradigms and their associated exemplars identify strengths and weaknesses of specific treatment resources that cannot be entirely encompassed within a single paradigmatic perspective (Jackson, 2015b) and additionally suggests that psychological knowledge is governed by at least 3 overarching research paradigms, as well as a variety of subparadigms encompassing applied and mixed methods research and many current orientations to professional psychology (Jackson, 2015a)...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481587/achieving-a-unified-clinical-science-requires-a-meta-theoretical-solution-comment-on-melchert-2016
#9
Gregg Henriques
Timothy Melchert's vision for a unified clinical science that transcends the specific theoretical orientations and is grounded in the science of human psychology is a laudable goal. However, his solution to achieve this goal via reliance on evolutionary theory, neuroscience, and empirically verifiable research findings is not sufficient. The way forward is to recognize that the field of psychology is fragmented and lacks a clear meta-theoretical perspective. Conceptual work is needed to develop such a perspective, which can then allow for clearly defining the field and effectively integrating and assimilating the key concepts from the various theoretical orientations into a coherent whole...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481586/don-t-forget-the-person-when-promoting-healthy-cognitive-aging-comment-on-smith-2016
#10
Patrick L Hill, Brennan R Payne
Smith (2016) provided a valuable review on healthy cognitive aging, addressing potential risk factors for dementia, as well as multiple mechanisms for preventing dementia. However, missing in this discussion was an acknowledgment of the potential that personality may play in shaping trajectories of cognitive aging. The current response provides a brief review of the ever accruing evidence that our dispositional traits and self-efficacy beliefs can predict trajectories of cognitive aging, as well as the mechanisms that produce these trajectories, including participants' likelihood to adhere to intervention efforts to reduce cognitive decline...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481585/psychologists-and-the-problem-of-population-growth-reply-to-bridgeman-2017
#11
Susan Clayton, Amanda Carrico, Linda Steg, Janet K Swim, Mirilia Bonnes, Patrick Devine-Wright
Bridgeman (2017) describes the important role of population growth in contributing to environmental problems. The present essay argues that population is an important component of human impact on the environment, but it must be considered in combination with consumption rates. A place-based approach, examining the local context for reproductive decisions, is necessary to assess population growth as a contributor to environmental impact and to develop appropriate behavioral interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481584/population-growth-underlies-most-other-environmental-problems-comment-on-clayton-et-al-2016
#12
Bruce Bridgeman
The need to protect our environment is urgent, and psychology can contribute to accomplishing this goal. Combating climate change, resource exhaustion, species extinction, and other problems is an admirable goal, but such efforts will fail in the long run if the population growth that creates or exacerbates the other problems is not addressed. The large and growing human population inevitably demands more and more resources. In this comment on Clayton et al. (2016), the author proposes that psychology can identify reasons why the underlying population issue is not adequately addressed and can suggest ways to improve the situation...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481583/stepping-forward-together-could-walking-facilitate-interpersonal-conflict-resolution
#13
Christine E Webb, Maya Rossignac-Milon, E Tory Higgins
Walking has myriad benefits for the mind, most of which have traditionally been explored and explained at the individual level of analysis. Much less empirical work has examined how walking with a partner might benefit social processes. One such process is conflict resolution-a field of psychology in which movement is inherent not only in recent theory and research, but also in colloquial language (e.g., "moving on"). In this article, we unify work from various fields pointing to the idea that walking together can facilitate both the intra- and interpersonal pathways to conflict resolution...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481582/evolutionary-psychology-a-how-to-guide
#14
David M G Lewis, Laith Al-Shawaf, Daniel Conroy-Beam, Kelly Asao, David M Buss
Researchers in the social and behavioral sciences are increasingly using evolutionary insights to test novel hypotheses about human psychology. Because evolutionary perspectives are relatively new to psychology and most researchers do not receive formal training in this endeavor, there remains ambiguity about "best practices" for implementing evolutionary principles. This article provides researchers with a practical guide for using evolutionary perspectives in their research programs and for avoiding common pitfalls in doing so...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481581/the-psychology-of-defendant-plea-decision-making
#15
Allison D Redlich, Stephanos Bibas, Vanessa A Edkins, Stephanie Madon
Every day, thousands of defendants, prosecutors, and defense attorneys must make guilty plea decisions, such as whether to accept a plea offer or proceed to trial. Most defendants opt to plead guilty; approximately 95% of state and federal convictions result from guilty pleas. In light of a newly emerging body of research and recent Supreme Court decisions on guilty pleas, this article asks and answers 2 questions: First, who pleads guilty and why? We describe the characteristics of those who are more or less likely to plead guilty, and examine the reasons why individuals plead guilty instead of proceeding to trial, exploring the cognitive, social influence, and developmental factors that underlie decision making...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481580/neurocognitive-deficits-in-children-with-chronic-health-conditions
#16
Bruce E Compas, Sarah S Jaser, Kristen Reeslund, Niral Patel, Janet Yarboi
Over 4 million children in the United States suffer from chronic health conditions, including cancer, sickle cell disease, and diabetes. Because of major advances in the early identification and treatment of these conditions, survival rates for these children continue to rise, and the majority now lives into adulthood. However, increases in survival have come with costs related to long-term effects of disease processes and treatments. Foremost among these consequences is impairment in brain development and neurocognitive function that may affect a substantial portion of children with chronic health conditions and follow many into adulthood...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481579/is-the-alliance-really-therapeutic-revisiting-this-question-in-light-of-recent-methodological-advances
#17
Sigal Zilcha-Mano
The therapeutic value of alliance is a contested supposition. Although many theorists and researchers believe that alliance is therapeutic in itself, others see it as a byproduct of effective treatment or as a common nonspecific factor enabling the truly effective ingredients of treatment to work. For many years, the debate was confined mainly to the domain of theory, and no studies were available to confirm which of these approaches is correct. The only empirical evidence that existed was studies showing a correlation between alliance and outcome, and advocates of the above conflicting opinions used the same correlation to prove the validity of their position...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383981/building-community-resilience-to-violent-extremism-through-genuine-partnerships
#18
B Heidi Ellis, Saida Abdi
What is community resilience in relation to violent extremism, and how can we build it? This article explores strategies to harness community assets that may contribute to preventing youth from embracing violent extremism, drawing from models of community resilience as defined in relation to disaster preparedness. Research suggests that social connection is at the heart of resilient communities and any strategy to increase community resilience must both harness and enhance existing social connections, and endeavor to not damage or diminish them...
April 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383980/risk-assessment-and-the-prevention-of-radicalization-from-nonviolence-into-terrorism
#19
Kiran M Sarma
This article considers the challenges associated with completing risk assessments in countering violent extremism. In particular, it is concerned with risk assessment of those who come to the attention of government and nongovernment organizations as being potentially on a trajectory toward terrorism and where there is an obligation to consider the potential future risk that they may pose. Risk assessment in this context is fraught with difficulty, primarily due to the variable nature of terrorism, the low base-rate problem, and the dearth of strong evidence on relevant risk and resilience factors...
April 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383979/revenge-versus-rapport-interrogation-terrorism-and-torture
#20
Laurence Alison, Emily Alison
This review begins with the historical context of harsh interrogation methods that have been used repeatedly since the Second World War. This is despite the legal, ethical and moral sanctions against them and the lack of evidence for their efficacy. Revenge-motivated interrogations (Carlsmith & Sood, 2009) regularly occur in high conflict, high uncertainty situations and where there is dehumanization of the enemy. These methods are diametrically opposed to the humanization process required for adopting rapport-based methods-for which there is an increasing corpus of studies evidencing their efficacy...
April 2017: American Psychologist
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