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American Psychologist

Laura D Wandner, Ravi Prasad, Amir Ramezani, Sylvia A Malcore, Robert D Kerns
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has reported that approximately 100 million Americans experience chronic pain. The IOM report on pain and the subsequent National Pain Strategy (NPS) issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services have both noted the educational gaps regarding pain management and highlighted the pivotal role that psychology plays in the field of pain management. Fishman and colleagues (2013) emphasized the need for all providers involved in the study and practice of pain management to acquire a common fund of knowledge and proposed a comprehensive set of core competencies that would apply across multiple professions and specialty areas (e...
August 2, 2018: American Psychologist
Aprile D Benner, Yijie Wang, Yishan Shen, Alaina E Boyle, Richelle Polk, Yen-Pi Cheng
This meta-analytic study systematically investigates the relations between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and socioemotional distress, academics, and risky health behaviors during adolescence, and potential variation in these relations. The study included 214 peer-reviewed articles, theses, and dissertations, with 489 unique effect sizes on 91,338 unique adolescents. Random-effects meta-analyses across 11 separate indicators of well-being identified significant detrimental effects. Greater perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination were linked to more depressive and internalizing symptoms; greater psychological distress; poorer self-esteem; lower academic achievement and engagement; less academic motivation; greater engagement in externalizing behaviors, risky sexual behaviors, and substance use; and more associations with deviant peers...
July 19, 2018: American Psychologist
Jamile A Ashmore, Kirk W Ditterich, Claire C Conley, Melissa R Wright, Peggy S Howland, Kelly L Huggins, Jena Cooreman, Priscilla S Andrews, Donald R Nicholas, Lind Roberts, Larissa Hewitt, Joan N Scales, Jenny K Delap, Christine A Gray, Lynelle A Tyler, Charlotte Collins, Catherine M Whiting, Brittany M Brothers, Marlena M Ryba, Barbara L Andersen
The gap between treatment development and efficacy testing to scaled up implementations of evidence-based treatment (EBT) is an estimated 20 years, and hybrid research designs aim to reduce the gap. One was used for a multisite study in cancer control, testing coprimary aims: (a) determine the feasibility and utility of a flexible EBT implementation strategy and (b) determine the clinical effectiveness of an EBT as implemented by newly trained providers. Therapists from 15 diverse sites implemented the biobehavioral intervention (BBI) for cancer patients ( N = 158) as part of standard care...
July 19, 2018: American Psychologist
Janet Shibley Hyde, Rebecca S Bigler, Daphna Joel, Charlotte Chucky Tate, Sari M van Anders
The view that humans comprise only two types of beings, women and men, a framework that is sometimes referred to as the "gender binary," played a profound role in shaping the history of psychological science. In recent years, serious challenges to the gender binary have arisen from both academic research and social activism. This review describes 5 sets of empirical findings, spanning multiple disciplines, that fundamentally undermine the gender binary. These sources of evidence include neuroscience findings that refute sexual dimorphism of the human brain; behavioral neuroendocrinology findings that challenge the notion of genetically fixed, nonoverlapping, sexually dimorphic hormonal systems; psychological findings that highlight the similarities between men and women; psychological research on transgender and nonbinary individuals' identities and experiences; and developmental research suggesting that the tendency to view gender/sex as a meaningful, binary category is culturally determined and malleable...
July 19, 2018: American Psychologist
Katharine H Greenaway, Tegan Cruwys
We introduce a model of group threat that articulates the opposing effects of intergroup (between-groups) and intragroup (within-group) threat on identity processes and group relations. The source model of group threat argues that the perceived source of a threat is critical in predicting its consequences, such that perceptions of intergroup threat will strengthen (in)group identity processes and relations, whereas perceptions of intragroup threat has the potential to undermine the same. In addition to reviewing the large literature on intergroup threat and a smaller body of unsynthesized work on intragroup threat, we discuss how these processes are captured in representations of monsters (aliens, vampires, and zombies) in popular media and how these ideas can inform interpretation of current political debates, such as those around homegrown terrorism...
May 24, 2018: American Psychologist
Samantha F Lang, Blaine J Fowers
The ancient and cross-culturally prevalent pattern of caregiving suggests that long-term caregiving is species characteristic for humans. If so, then an evolutionary account of the adaptation(s) that underwrite this caregiving is necessary, particularly for the one-sided and long-term nature of Alzheimer's caregiving. Four standard evolutionary explanations are evaluated: kin selection theory, the grandmother hypothesis, direct reciprocity, and indirect reciprocity. Each is found inadequate to explain caregiving because of the lack of reproductive benefits...
May 24, 2018: American Psychologist
Kathleen Malley-Morrison, Victor Karandashev
Presents an obituary for Sherri McCarthy (1958-2017). A Professor of Educational Psychology at Northern Arizona University-Yuma, Sherry was instrumental in establishing their Human Relations Graduate Program. She was a fellow of Division 52 (International Psychology) of the American Psychological Association and active in Divisions 2 (Teaching of Psychology) and 48 (Peace Psychology). Sherri was particularly involved in service-oriented, community-oriented, and humanity-oriented fields of psychology, and was a tireless collaborator on research, educational, and counseling projects around the world...
July 2018: American Psychologist
Tonya Palermo, Terry Stancin
Presents an obituary for Dennis "Denny" Drotar (1945-2017). Denny was a brilliant and revered scholar who authored more than 350 papers, eight books, and many chapters that serve as a foundation for the field of pediatric psychology. Editor of the Journal of Pediatric Psychology from 2007-2013, he served as president of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP), Division 54 of the American Psychological Association (APA), and was the first psychologist to serve as president of the Society for Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics...
July 2018: American Psychologist
Kristen N Asplin
Presents an obituary for Diane T. Marsh (1941-2016). A retired faculty member at the University of Pittsburgh-Greensburg, she made substantial contributions to children's mental health, families affected by mental illness, and psychology education. During her 33 years at Pitt-Greensburg, Diane mentored many faculty members. She offered coauthorships to junior faculty on her book contracts, advised them on teaching, and helped many reach higher levels of research and professionalism. As a recipient of the Catherine Acuff Congressional Fellowship in 2003, Diane had the opportunity to influence public policy while working for U...
July 2018: American Psychologist
John Brick
Presents an obituary for Mary E. Reuder (1923-2017). Mary was a member of the American Psychological Association (APA) for more than 60 years. A fellow of seven APA divisions (1, 2, 3, 6, 32, 36, and 52), she was also a member of eight other divisions (5, 8, 10, 15, 20, 24, 26, and 51). She was an exceptional statistician, experimental psychologist, and licensed clinical psychologist, unusual at a time when women were sparse in academia. She worked for the U.S. Navy as a management specialist and as research psychologist for the Adjunct General's Office of the U...
July 2018: American Psychologist
Paula E Hartman-Stein
Presents an obituary for James (Jim) Georgoulakis (1948-2017). Georgoulakis was a psychologist, soldier, and scholar. An international consultant, leader, and well-respected advocate, he fought behind the scenes for decades, particularly on issues related to psychology and Medicare. He held several leadership positions with the U.S. Army, including director of the largest outpatient mental health program in the Department of Defense and Director of ambulatory care research for six military facilities. Jim's most substantial contribution to the profession of psychology was representing the American Psychological Association (APA) on the AMA's Relative Update Committee (RUC) for 20 years...
July 2018: American Psychologist
Henry L Roediger, Kay Deaux
Presents an obituary for Elizabeth Deutsch Capaldi Phillips (1945-2017). Always known as Betty, she was an important contributor to the scientific literature and a force in higher education. Beginning as an assistant professor at Purdue University in 1969, Betty rose through the ranks and served as head of the Department of Psychological Sciences (1983-1988) and assistant dean of the Graduate School (1982-1986). Academic administration suited her: After moving to the University of Florida as a professor in 1988, she was appointed provost (1996-1999)...
July 2018: American Psychologist
David A Washburn, Michael J Beran
Presents an obituary of Duane M. Rumbaugh (1929-2017). Rumbaugh was an experimental psychologist known for his many contributions toward understanding primate learning and behavior. His ape-language research with Lana and other chimpanzees, comparative studies of quantitative and qualitative hallmarks of primate intelligence, and numerous methodological innovations helped usher in the field of comparative cognition. Rumbaugh's scientific legacy is extensive. The computerized language keyboard invented for the Lana Project would subsequently be employed to teach other nonhuman primates, as well as humans with intellectual challenges to communicate...
July 2018: American Psychologist
Michael A Sayette, John C Norcross, John D Dimoff
The authors agree with Freimuth (2018) that addiction training among clinical psychologists would be enhanced by offering addiction-related training to all clinical students, including those who do not aim to specialize in substance abuse. It is argued that Freimuth's points in fact support Dimoff, Sayette, and Norcross's (2017) recommendation that clinical programs bolster their addiction training but, contrary to Freimuth, in all evidence-based (abstinence and nonabstinence) treatments predicated on patient needs, not on practitioner preferences...
July 2018: American Psychologist
Marilyn Freimuth
Dimoff, Sayette, and Norcross (2017) documented a serious omission in the education of psychologists. Their research showed a paucity of addiction training in doctoral programs despite the growing prevalence of addictions. Although their article briefly discussed possible explanations and barriers to explain this finding, the article itself was shaped by implicit assumptions about addiction training that contribute to the field's failure to embrace such training. The current article identifies these assumptions and offers elements of an alternative approach to addiction training better suited to psychologists...
July 2018: American Psychologist
Michael W Kraus
In his comment, Rossiter (2018) claims that voice-only communication elicits improvements in empathic accuracy that are "so slight as to not be of any practical importance" (p. 689). In this reply, I acknowledge that the reported experiments from Kraus (2017) produced small effects and are limited in terms of what they can conclude about empathic accuracy. Nevertheless, determining the practical importance of any effect is an empirical question worthy of further scrutiny. (PsycINFO Database Record
July 2018: American Psychologist
John R Rossiter
Kraus (2017) claims that voice-only communication allows more accurate detection of emotions than does voice-plus-visual communication. The present author reanalyzes the data from Kraus's five experiments to reveal that the voice-only advantage is so slight as to not be of any practical importance. (PsycINFO Database Record
July 2018: American Psychologist
Matthew J Hornsey, Kelly S Fielding
Tryon (2018) states that our proposed attitude roots are "effectively and functionally unconscious" (p. 685) and proposes connectionist neural network models as a mechanism for explaining these unconscious processes. In our response, we disagree with the presumption that our attitude roots necessarily operate at an unconscious level. Although some attitude roots may exert their influence through an unconscious process, others exert their influence as a result of explicit and mindful reasoning, and others still operate at a "preconscious" level: outside conscious awareness but accessible if required...
July 2018: American Psychologist
Warren W Tryon
The goals of this comment are to emphasize the positive contribution made by Hornsey and Fielding (2017) and to present reasons why their contribution is neither theoretic nor transtheoretic. This comment seeks to provide a theoretic and transtheoretic explanation that involves unconscious processing. It indicates that connectionist neural network models provide relevant mechanism information for how unconscious processing works. (PsycINFO Database Record
July 2018: American Psychologist
(no author information available yet)
Presents a summary report of journal operations compiled from the 2017 annual reports of the Council of Editors and from Central Office records. Also includes a summary report of division journal operations compiled from the 2017 annual reports of the division journal editors. (PsycINFO Database Record
July 2018: American Psychologist
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