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American Psychologist

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016183/paul-w-thayer-1927-2017
#1
Michael A Campion
Presents an obituary for Paul W. Thayer, who died on January 25, 2017, at the age of 89. Thayer was an industrial and organizational psychologist probably most distinguished by his professional service. He was a fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA), American Psychological Society (APS), and Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). He received multiple awards for his service, including SIOP's Distinguished Professional Contributions Award (1986) and its Distinguished Service Award (1990), as well as the APA Award for Distinguished Service to Psychological Science (2014)...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016182/martin-m-katz-1927-2017
#2
Anthony J Marsella
Presents an obituary for Martin M. Katz, who passed away on January 12, 2017 in Rockville, Maryland. Katz was the director of clinical research at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH; 1968-1978). Following Katz's retirement from his administration and scientific career at NIMH, he served as professor and director of clinical psychology training at Albert Einstein College of Medicine Medical College in New York (1984-1994). Until his final days, Katz served as a participating and consulting scientist in the longitudinal collaborative research projects he and colleagues initiated to investigate psychopharmacological treatments for depression...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016181/gerald-roy-patterson-1926-2016
#3
Thomas Dishion
Presents an obituary for Gerald ("Jerry") Roy Patterson, who passed away on August 22, 2016. Jerry was an intellectual powerhouse who made fundamental contributions to developmental psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, prevention science, and special education. In 1965 Jerry became the director of clinical training at the University of Oregon and professor of clinical psychology. In 1967 he joined the Oregon Research Institute, where he continued to study aggression, marital conflict, and treatment...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016180/albert-pepitone-1925-2016
#4
Florence L Denmark
Presents an obituary for Albert Pepitone, who died on March 17, 2016, in Philadelphia at the age of 91. Pepitone was a renowned social psychologist and professor emeritus at the University of Pennsylvania. His expertise in social psychology opened up areas that significantly broadened its scope, in particular calling attention to cultural issues. wrote extensively, including many scholarly articles and contributions to published volumes. Pepitone's research was largely experimental, testing hypotheses in cognitive, motivational, interpersonal, and group processes...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016179/george-mandler-1924-2016
#5
Fergus Craik
Presents an obituary for George Mandler, who died in London on May 6, 2016 at the age of 91. Mandler was one of the pioneers of the cognitive revolution in psychology. He was instrumental in moving the study of human learning from notions based largely on associations to a view of memory as an organized, nested hierarchical structure. Mandler was also a major proponent of the dual-process theory of recognition memory, in which general feelings of familiarity are distinguished from the context-rich experience of recollection...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016178/jerome-s-bruner-1915-2016
#6
Helen Haste, Howard Gardner
Presents an obituary for Jerome S. Bruner, who died in 2016. His long, and productive, life spanned much of the first century of experimental psychology and coincided with the launching of cognitive psychology, a field in which he played an indispensable and pioneering role. His innovative and provocative work constantly challenged the current "mainstream." His impact on education has been equated with that of John Dewey. He was driven throughout his life to pursue the nature of the "human" in both his conceptual and empirical work...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016177/toward-a-globally-informed-psychology-of-humiliation-comment-on-mccauley-2017
#7
Linda M Hartling, Evelin G Lindner
There has never been a more urgent time for psychologists to gain a broader and deeper understanding of the pernicious dynamics of humiliation. Congratulations to the American Psychologist for introducing an article on the topic of humiliation and asymmetric conflict. Based on more than 20 years of research, a global community of scholars has established humiliation studies as a field of academic inquiry and has built a solid foundation of expertise on the phenomenon of humiliation and its impact. Open violence is only the tip of the iceberg...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016176/witch-persecutions-and-torture-comment-on-alison-and-alison-2017
#8
Rickard L Sjöberg
In their article Alison and Alison (2017) argue that historical experiences speak against the efficacy of torture. In this comment experiences from the witch persecutions in Europe during the 15th to 17th centuries that support this notion are discussed. Converging data suggests that torture was often instrumental in making large numbers of suspects confess to flying children through the air to nocturnal satanic meetings, during this period. A comparison of the number of false self incriminating confessions given during the Swedish witch trial in the parish of Rättvik 1671 (before royal sanction of torture was given) and the parish of Ockelbo 1675 (after royal sanction of torture was given) is used to illustrate this point...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016175/missing-developmental-and-sociocultural-perspectives-comment-on-the-psychology-of-terrorism-special-issue-2017
#9
Cynthia García Coll, Amy K Marks
Two critical perspectives were missing from the special issue entitled "Psychology of Terrorism": developmental and sociocultural. From a developmental point of view, the fact that most individuals who engage in terrorist groups or terroristic acts are young men is critically important. Perspectives from adolescent development, neuroscience, and social psychology can shed light on why this is the case. In addition, sociocultural perspectives are needed to answer important community-level questions, such as why some communities are more prone to having youth recruited for terrorism than others...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016174/diverse-perspectives-are-welcome-reply-to-martin-2017
#10
Siddharth Chandra, Frederick T L Leong
Martin's (2017) comment on Chandra and Leong (2016) highlighted (a) lack of definitional clarity of the concept of adaptability, (b) conceptual generality of the model, and (c) incomplete citations of the literature on adaptability. In this reply, the authors contend that lack of definitional clarity of adaptability is symptomatic of the multitude of definitions of adaptability by psychologists of diverse persuasions. Conceptual generality of the diversified portfolio model (DPM) stems from the choice of a broad definition of adaptability, which extends beyond the narrower definitions provided by scholars including Martin, as well as the capability of the model to mesh with this broad definition...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016173/adaptability-what-it-is-and-what-it-is-not-comment-on-chandra-and-leong-2016
#11
Andrew J Martin
Chandra and Leong (2016) propose a new model of adaptability: the diversified portfolio model (DPM) of adaptability. Further thought and research on adaptability is a welcome addition to the limited body of work conducted on this topic to date. However, in their discussion there is a lack of definitional clarity, and there is frequent conflation of adaptability and resilience. It is also the case that the hypothesized adaptability model is general and could apply to many psychological constructs and processes (not just adaptability)...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016172/addiction-training-in-clinical-psychology-are-we-keeping-up-with-the-rising-epidemic
#12
John D Dimoff, Michael A Sayette, John C Norcross
Addiction has emerged as a serious public health crisis. Clinical psychology as a hub science has a long-standing interest in addiction and is particularly well suited to offer multifaceted treatment to those struggling with substance use disorders. To examine how well clinical psychology training is addressing this proliferation of addiction-related problems, we surveyed the directors of clinical training at all APA-accredited U.S. clinical psychology doctoral programs on 7 occasions between 1999 and 2013...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016171/the-psychology-of-neurofeedback-clinical-intervention-even-if-applied-placebo
#13
Robert T Thibault, Amir Raz
Advocates of neurofeedback make bold claims concerning brain regulation, treatment of disorders, and mental health. Decades of research and thousands of peer-reviewed publications support neurofeedback using electroencephalography (EEG-nf); yet, few experiments isolate the act of receiving feedback from a specific brain signal as a necessary precursor to obtain the purported benefits. Moreover, while psychosocial parameters including participant motivation and expectation, rather than neurobiological substrates, seem to fuel clinical improvement across a wide range of disorders, for-profit clinics continue to sprout across North America and Europe...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016170/online-social-network-data-as-sociometric-markers
#14
Jens F Binder, Sarah L Buglass, Lucy R Betts, Jean D M Underwood
Data from online social networks carry enormous potential for psychological research, yet their use and the ethical implications thereof are currently hotly debated. The present work aims to outline in detail the unique information richness of this data type and, in doing so, to support researchers when deciding on ethically appropriate ways of collecting, storing, publishing, and sharing data from online sources. Focusing on the very nature of social networks, their structural characteristics, and depth of information, we provide a detailed and accessible account of the challenges associated with data management and data storage...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016169/the-microbiome-as-a-novel-paradigm-in-studying-stress-and-mental-health
#15
Richard T Liu
At the intersection between neuroscience, microbiology, and psychiatry, the enteric microbiome has potential to become a novel paradigm for studying the psychobiological underpinnings of mental illness. Several studies provide support for the view that the enteric microbiome influences behavior through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Moreover, recent findings are suggestive of the possibility that dysregulation of the enteric microbiota (i.e., dysbiosis) and associated bacterial translocation across the intestinal epithelium may be involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related psychiatric disorders, particularly depression...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016168/voice-only-communication-enhances-empathic-accuracy
#16
Michael W Kraus
This research tests the prediction that voice-only communication increases empathic accuracy over communication across senses. We theorized that people often intentionally communicate their feelings and internal states through the voice, and as such, voice-only communication allows perceivers to focus their attention on the channel of communication most active and accurate in conveying emotions to others. We used 5 experiments to test this hypothesis (N = 1,772), finding that voice-only communication elicits higher rates of empathic accuracy relative to vision-only and multisense communication both while engaging in interactions and perceiving emotions in recorded interactions of strangers...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016167/beyond-happiness-building-a-science-of-discrete-positive-emotions
#17
Michelle N Shiota, Belinda Campos, Christopher Oveis, Matthew J Hertenstein, Emiliana Simon-Thomas, Dacher Keltner
While trait positive emotionality and state positive-valence affect have long been the subject of intense study, the importance of differentiating among several "discrete" positive emotions has only recently begun to receive serious attention. In this article, we synthesize existing literature on positive emotion differentiation, proposing that the positive emotions are best described as branches of a "family tree" emerging from a common ancestor mediating adaptive management of fitness-critical resources (e...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880106/close-relationships-and-the-management-of-chronic-illness-associations-and-interventions
#18
Lynn M Martire, Vicki S Helgeson
Self-management of a chronic illness involves not only monitoring symptoms, adhering to medication regimens, and keeping medical appointments but also making and maintaining difficult lifestyle changes. This article highlights correlational and intervention research suggesting family members are influential in children's and adults' illness management. The argument is made that a dyadic approach to chronic illness management that targets the influence of close relationships may yield more sustainable effects on patient behavior than has been achieved in the past...
September 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880105/integrative-pathways-linking-close-family-ties-to-health-a-neurochemical-perspective
#19
Bert N Uchino, Baldwin M Way
The quality of one's familial life, for better or worse, has been linked to physical health. Such associations are evident across a number of acute and chronic conditions and highlight the widespread impact that close relationships have on physical health. However, the field currently lacks a complete understanding of the integrative biological pathways underlying the association between close relationships and disease risk. This article reviews the main peripheral biological and central nervous system pathways linking positive and negative familial relationship processes to physical health outcomes...
September 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880104/intimate-relationships-individual-adjustment-and-coronary-heart-disease-implications-of-overlapping-associations-in-psychosocial-risk
#20
Timothy W Smith, Brian R W Baucom
Being married or involved in a similar intimate relationship is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the quality of these relationships matters, as strain and disruption are associated with increased risk. These effects are typically studied separately from well-established psychosocial factors for CHD that are aspects of personality and emotional adjustment, even though discord and disruption in intimate relationships are related to these same individual characteristics. Thus, research to date tends to parse correlated risks, often taking a piecemeal approach by focusing on intimate relationships without considering aspects of personality and emotional adjustment that contribute to risk and protection, or focusing on individual-level risks while largely ignoring closely related health-relevant relationships...
September 2017: American Psychologist
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