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American Psychologist

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792448/the-experimental-evidence-for-parapsychological-phenomena-a-review
#1
Etzel CardeƱa
This article presents a comprehensive integration of current experimental evidence and theories about so-called parapsychological (psi) phenomena. Throughout history, people have reported events that seem to violate the common sense view of space and time. Some psychologists have been at the forefront of investigating these phenomena with sophisticated research protocols and theory, while others have devoted much of their careers to criticizing the field. Both stances can be explained by psychologists' expertise on relevant processes such as perception, memory, belief, and conscious and nonconscious processes...
May 24, 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792447/the-source-model-of-group-threat-responding-to-internal-and-external-threats
#2
Katharine H Greenaway, Tegan Cruwys
We introduce a model of group threat that articulates the opposing effects of intergroup (between-groups) and intragroup (within-group) threat on identity processes and group relations. The source model of group threat argues that the perceived source of a threat is critical in predicting its consequences, such that perceptions of intergroup threat will strengthen (in)group identity processes and relations, whereas perceptions of intragroup threat has the potential to undermine the same. In addition to reviewing the large literature on intergroup threat and a smaller body of unsynthesized work on intragroup threat, we discuss how these processes are captured in representations of monsters (aliens, vampires, and zombies) in popular media and how these ideas can inform interpretation of current political debates, such as those around homegrown terrorism...
May 24, 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792446/an-expanded-theory-of-alzheimer-s-caregiving
#3
Samantha F Lang, Blaine J Fowers
The ancient and cross-culturally prevalent pattern of caregiving suggests that long-term caregiving is species characteristic for humans. If so, then an evolutionary account of the adaptation(s) that underwrite this caregiving is necessary, particularly for the one-sided and long-term nature of Alzheimer's caregiving. Four standard evolutionary explanations are evaluated: kin selection theory, the grandmother hypothesis, direct reciprocity, and indirect reciprocity. Each is found inadequate to explain caregiving because of the lack of reproductive benefits...
May 24, 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792445/the-society-for-industrial-and-organizational-psychology-s-guidelines-for-education-and-training-an-executive-summary-of-the-2016-2017-revision
#4
Jennifer Lee Gibson, Stephanie C Payne, Whitney Botsford Morgan, Joseph A Allen
The Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP, Division 14 of the American Psychological Association [APA]) maintains Guidelines for Education and Training to provide guidance for the training of industrial-organizational (I-O) psychologists. The 2016/2017 revision combines separate documents for master's- and doctoral-level training into one document, because the competencies required for each degree are not very different. Instead, the degrees differ in breadth and depth. The updated Guidelines were approved as APA policy in August 2017...
May 24, 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792470/the-science-of-teamwork-progress-reflections-and-the-road-ahead
#5
Eduardo Salas, Denise L Reyes, Susan H McDaniel
We need teams in nearly every aspect of our lives (e.g., hospitals, schools, flight decks, nuclear power plants, oil rigs, the military, and corporate offices). Nearly a century of psychological science has uncovered extensive knowledge about team-related processes and outcomes. In this article, we draw from the reviews and articles of this special issue to identify 10 key reflections that have arisen in the team literature, briefly summarized here. Team researchers have developed many theories surrounding the multilayered aspects of teams, such that now we have a solid theoretical basis for teams...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792469/unpacking-team-process-dynamics-and-emergent-phenomena-challenges-conceptual-advances-and-innovative-methods
#6
Steve W J Kozlowski, Georgia T Chao
Psychologists have studied small-group and team effectiveness for decades, and although there has been considerable progress, there remain significant challenges. Meta-analyses and systematic research have provided solid evidence for core team cognitive, motivational, affective, and behavioral processes that contribute to team effectiveness and empirical support for interventions that enhance team processes (e.g., team design, composition, training, and leadership); there has been substantial evidence for a science of team effectiveness...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792468/teamwork-and-collaboration-in-long-duration-space-missions-going-to-extremes
#7
Lauren Blackwell Landon, Kelley J Slack, Jamie D Barrett
The scientific study of teamwork in the context of spaceflight has uncovered a considerable amount of knowledge over the past 20 years. Although much is known about the underlying factors and processes of teamwork, much is left to be discovered for teams who will be operating in extreme isolation and confinement during a future Mars mission. Special considerations must be made to enhance teamwork and team well-being for multi-year missions during which the small team will live and work together. We discuss the unique challenges of effective teamwork in a Mars mission scenario, and the difficulties of studying teamwork using analogs of the space environment...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792467/interdisciplinary-team-science-and-the-public-steps-toward-a-participatory-team-science
#8
Jacob Kraemer Tebes, Nghi D Thai
Interdisciplinary team science involves research collaboration among investigators from different disciplines who work interdependently to share leadership and responsibility. Although over the past several decades there has been an increase in knowledge produced by science teams, the public has not been meaningfully engaged in this process. We argue that contemporary changes in how science is understood and practiced offer an opportunity to reconsider engaging the public as active participants on teams and coin the term participatory team science to describe public engagement in team science...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792466/the-science-of-team-science-a-review-of-the-empirical-evidence-and-research-gaps-on-collaboration-in-science
#9
Kara L Hall, Amanda L Vogel, Grace C Huang, Katrina J Serrano, Elise L Rice, Sophia P Tsakraklides, Stephen M Fiore
Collaborations among researchers and across disciplinary, organizational, and cultural boundaries are vital to address increasingly complex challenges and opportunities in science and society. In addition, unprecedented technological advances create new opportunities to capitalize on a broader range of expertise and information in scientific collaborations. Yet rapid increases in the demand for scientific collaborations have outpaced changes in the factors needed to support teams in science, such as institutional structures and policies, scientific culture, and funding opportunities...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792465/team-development-interventions-evidence-based-approaches-for-improving-teamwork
#10
Christina N Lacerenza, Shannon L Marlow, Scott I Tannenbaum, Eduardo Salas
The rate of teamwork and collaboration within the workforce has burgeoned over the years, and the use of teams is projected to continue increasing. With the rise of teamwork comes the need for interventions designed to enhance teamwork effectiveness. Successful teams produce desired outcomes; however, it is critical that team members demonstrate effective processes to achieve these outcomes. Team development interventions (TDIs) increase effective team competencies and processes, thereby leading to improvements in proximal and distal outcomes...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792464/debriefs-teams-learning-from-doing-in-context
#11
Joseph A Allen, Roni Reiter-Palmon, John Crowe, Cliff Scott
Debriefs are a type of work meeting in which teams discuss, interpret, and learn from recent events during which they collaborated. In a variety of forms, debriefs are found across a wide range of organizational types and settings. Well-conducted debriefs can improve team effectiveness by 25% across a variety of organizations and settings. For example, the U.S. military adopted debriefs decades ago to promote learning and performance across the various services. Subsequently, debriefs have been introduced in the medical field, the fire service, aviation, education, and in a variety of organizational training and simulation environments...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792463/terrorist-teams-as-loosely-coupled-systems
#12
Matthias Spitzmuller, Guihyun Park
Acts of terrorism can be harrowing and cause extensive damage, yet they occur far too frequently. How do terrorist groups organize and coordinate their attacks? What makes those groups simultaneously cohesive and flexible in a hostile environment? Different academic disciplines have contributed to a better understanding of the proliferation of terrorist acts in recent years. With very few exceptions, however, extant psychological research on terrorism has almost exclusively focused on the individual terrorist...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792462/extreme-teams-toward-a-greater-understanding-of-multiagency-teamwork-during-major-emergencies-and-disasters
#13
Nicola Power
Major emergencies are extreme team decision making environments. They are complex, dynamic, high-stakes and fast paced events, wherein successful resolution is contingent upon effective teamwork. Not only do emergency teams coordinate at the intrateam level (e.g., police team), but they are increasingly required to operate at the interteam level (e.g., police, fire and ambulance teams). This is in response to the desire for networked and cost-effective practice and due to the evolving nature of modern threats, such as extreme weather events and terrorist attacks, which require a multi- rather than single-agency response...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792461/teamwork-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#14
Jennifer N Ervin, Jeremy M Kahn, Taya R Cohen, Laurie R Weingart
Intensive care units (ICUs) provide care to the most severely ill hospitalized patients. Although ICUs increasingly rely on interprofessional teams to provide critical care, little about actual teamwork in this context is well understood. The ICU team is typically comprised of physicians or intensivists, clinical pharmacists, respiratory therapists, dieticians, bedside nurses, clinical psychologists, and clinicians-in-training. ICU teams are distinguished from other health care teams in that they are low in temporal stability, which can impede important team dynamics...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792460/the-complexity-diversity-and-science-of-primary-care-teams
#15
Kevin Fiscella, Susan H McDaniel
This article examines the past, present and future of primary care and teamwork. It begins with a definition and description of primary care-its uniqueness, diversity and complexity, including the historical role of teams within primary care. The article then reviews the emergence of innovative primary care teams, including those grounded in new processes such as the Patient-Centered Medical Home and interprofessional teams that include new types of health professionals, particularly psychologists and other integrated behavioral health clinicians...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792459/teamwork-in-healthcare-key-discoveries-enabling-safer-high-quality-care
#16
Michael A Rosen, Deborah DiazGranados, Aaron S Dietz, Lauren E Benishek, David Thompson, Peter J Pronovost, Sallie J Weaver
Few industries match the scale of health care. In the United States alone, an estimated 85% of the population has at least 1 health care encounter annually and at least one quarter of these people experience 4 to 9 encounters annually. A single visit requires collaboration among a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, administrative staff, patients, and their loved ones. Multiple visits often occur across different clinicians working in different organizations. Ineffective care coordination and the underlying suboptimal teamwork processes are a public health issue...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792458/the-trade-offs-of-teamwork-among-stem-doctoral-graduates
#17
Kevin M Kniffin, Andrew S Hanks
Teamwork has increasingly become prevalent in professional fields such as academic science, perhaps partly because research shows that teams tend to produce superior work. Although research on teamwork has typically focused on its impact on work products, we complement that work by examining the degree to which teamwork influences salary, hours worked, and overall job satisfaction. Drawing on microdata collected through the National Science Foundation's Survey of Doctorate Recipients as well as the Survey of Earned Doctorates, we find that doctoral degree holders in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields tend to earn substantially higher salaries and work more hours when they engage in teamwork...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792457/evaluating-problem-solving-teams-in-k-12-schools-do-they-work
#18
Sylvia Rosenfield, Markeda Newell, Scott Zwolski, Lauren E Benishek
Teams and other collaborative structures have become commonplace in American schools, although historically school staff members functioned more independently from one another. In this article, we describe the growing influence of collaboration and teaming in a variety of school contexts, but focus on the empirical literature on problem-solving teams as reflecting the state of research and practice in the schools. A review of the research on problem-solving teams, using an input-mediator-outcome-input framework, provides evidence for how teaming could become more effective and efficient in this context as well as sets an agenda for what additional research is needed...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792456/teamwork-situated-in-multiteam-systems-key-lessons-learned-and-future-opportunities
#19
Marissa L Shuffler, Dorothy R Carter
Many important contexts requiring teamwork, including health care, space exploration, national defense, and scientific discovery, present important challenges that cannot be addressed by a single team working independently. Instead, the complex goals these contexts present often require effectively coordinated efforts of multiple specialized teams working together as a multiteam system (MTS). For almost 2 decades, researchers have endeavored to understand the novelties and nuances for teamwork and collaboration that ensue when teams operate together as "component teams" in these interdependent systems...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792455/debunking-key-assumptions-about-teams-the-role-of-culture
#20
Jennifer Feitosa, Rebecca Grossman, Maritza Salazar
Scholars have argued that if psychologists are to gain a true understanding of human behavior, culture should be central to research and theory. The research on teams is an area where better integration between the mainstream and cross-cultural literatures is critically needed, given the increasing prevalence of multicultural teams. The purpose of this article is therefore to demonstrate how research focused on culture's influence on teams advances current mainstream theoretical understanding of team effectiveness...
May 2018: American Psychologist
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