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American Sociological Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966346/rising-intragenerational-occupational-mobility-in-the-united-states-1969-to-2011
#1
Benjamin F Jarvis, Xi Song
Despite the theoretical importance of intragenerational mobility and its connection to intergenerational mobility, no study since the 1970s has documented trends in intragenerational occupational mobility. The present article fills this intellectual gap by presenting evidence of an increasing trend in intragenerational mobility in the United States from 1969 to 2011. We decompose the trend using a nested occupational classification scheme that distinguishes between disaggregated micro-classes and progressively more aggregated meso-classes, macro-classes, and manual and nonmanual sectors...
June 2017: American Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943642/neighborhood-attainment-over-the-adult-life-course
#2
Scott J South, Ying Huang, Amy Spring, Kyle Crowder
This study uses data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, in conjunction with neighborhood-level data from the U.S. decennial census and American Community Survey, to examine the trajectory of individuals' neighborhood characteristics from initial household formation into mid-to-late adulthood. Multilevel growth curve models reveal both different starting points and different life-course trajectories for blacks and whites in neighborhood economic status and neighborhood racial composition. Among respondents who first established an independent household during the 1970s, improvement in neighborhood income over the adult life course is substantially greater for whites than for blacks, while the racial difference in the percentage of neighbors who are non-Hispanic white narrows slightly with age...
December 2016: American Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818522/manufacturing-gender-inequality-in-the-new-economy-high-school-training-for-work-in-blue-collar-communities
#3
April Sutton, Amanda Bosky, Chandra Muller
Tensions between the demands of the knowledge-based economy and remaining, blue-collar jobs underlie renewed debates about whether schools should emphasize career and technical training or college-preparatory curricula. We add a gendered lens to this issue, given the male-dominated nature of blue-collar jobs and women's greater returns to college. Using the ELS:2002, this study exploits spatial variation in school curricula and jobs to investigate local dynamics that shape gender stratification. Results suggest a link between high school training and jobs in blue-collar communities that structures patterns of gender inequality into early adulthood...
August 2016: American Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27182069/penalized-or-protected-gender-and-the-consequences-of-nonstandard-and-mismatched-employment-histories
#4
David S Pedulla
Millions of workers are employed in positions that deviate from the full-time, standard employment relationship or work in jobs that are mismatched with their skills, education, or experience. Yet, little is known about how employers evaluate workers who have experienced these employment arrangements, limiting our knowledge about how part-time work, temporary agency employment, and skills underutilization affect workers' labor market opportunities. Drawing on original field and survey experiment data, I examine three questions: (1) What are the consequences of having a nonstandard or mismatched employment history for workers' labor market opportunities? (2) Are the effects of nonstandard or mismatched employment histories different for men and women? and (3) What are the mechanisms linking nonstandard or mismatched employment histories to labor market outcomes? The field experiment shows that skills underutilization is as scarring for workers as a year of unemployment, but that there are limited penalties for workers with histories of temporary agency employment...
April 2016: American Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594705/from-patrick-to-john-f-ethnic-names-and-occupational-success-in-the-last-era-of-mass-migration
#5
Joshua R Goldstein, Guy Stecklov
Taking advantage of historical census records that include full first and last names, we apply a new approach to measuring the effect of cultural assimilation on economic success for the children of the last great wave of immigrants to the United States. We created a quantitative index of ethnic distinctiveness of first names and show the consequences of ethnic-sounding names for the occupational achievement of the adult children of European migrants. We find a consistent tendency for the children of Irish, Italian, German, and Polish immigrants with more "American"-sounding names to have higher occupational achievement...
February 2016: American Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445413/childhood-disadvantage-and-health-problems-in-middle-and-later-life-early-imprints-on-physical-health
#6
Kenneth F Ferraro, Markus H Schafer, Lindsay R Wilkinson
Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, we examine the relationship between childhood disadvantage and health problems in adulthood. Using two waves of data from Midlife Development in the United States, we investigate whether childhood disadvantage is associated with adult disadvantage, including fewer social resources, and the effect of lifelong disadvantage on health problems measured at the baseline survey and a 10-year follow-up. Findings reveal that childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and frequent abuse by parents are generally associated with fewer adult social resources and more lifestyle risks...
February 2016: American Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293242/family-structure-transitions-and-child-development-instability-selection-and-population-heterogeneity
#7
Dohoon Lee, Sara McLanahan
A growing literature documents the importance of family instability for child wellbeing. In this article, we use longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the impacts of family instability on children's cognitive and socioemotional development in early and middle childhood. We extend existing research in several ways: (1) by distinguishing between the number and types of family structure changes; (2) by accounting for time-varying as well as time-constant confounding; and (3) by assessing racial/ethnic and gender differences in family instability effects...
August 2015: American Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27231400/lifetime-socioeconomic-status-historical-context-and-genetic-inheritance-in-shaping-body-mass-in-middle-and-late-adulthood
#8
Hexuan Liu, Guang Guo
This study demonstrates body mass in middle and late adulthood as a consequence of the complex interplay among individuals' genes, lifetime socioeconomic experiences, and the historical context in which they live. Drawing on approximately 9,000 genetic samples from the Health and Retirement Study, we first investigate how socioeconomic status (SES) over the life course moderates the impact of 32 established obesity-related genetic variants on body mass index (BMI) in middle and late adulthood. Further, we consider differences across birth cohorts in the genetic influence on BMI and cohort variations in the moderating effects of life-course SES on the genetic influence...
August 2015: American Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27110031/ideals-as-anchors-for-relationship-experiences
#9
Margaret Frye, Jenny Trinitapoli
Research on young-adult sexuality in sub-Saharan Africa typically conceptualizes sex as an individual-level risk behavior. We introduce a new approach that connects the conditions surrounding the initiation of sex with subsequent relationship well-being, examines relationships as sequences of interdependent events, and indexes relationship experiences to individually held ideals. New card-sort data from southern Malawi capture young women's relationship experiences and their ideals in a sequential framework...
June 2015: American Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27041745/ancestry-matters-patrilineage-growth-and-extinction
#10
Xi Song, Cameron D Campbell, James Z Lee
Patrilineality, the organization of kinship, inheritance, and other key social processes based on patrilineal male descent, has been a salient feature of social organization in China and many other societies for centuries. Because continuity or growth of the patrilineage was the central focus of reproductive strategies in such societies, we introduce the number of patrilineal male descendants generations later as a stratification outcome. By reconstructing and analyzing 20,000 patrilineages in two prospective, multi-generational population databases from 18(th) and 19(th) century China, we show that patrilineages founded by high status males had higher growth rates for the next 150 years...
June 2015: American Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26120142/neighborhood-foreclosures-racial-ethnic-transitions-and-residential-segregation
#11
Matthew Hall, Kyle Crowder, Amy Spring
In this article, we use data on virtually all foreclosure events between 2005 and 2009 to calculate neighborhood foreclosure rates for nearly all block groups in the United States to assess the impact of housing foreclosures on neighborhood racial/ethnic change and on broader patterns of racial residential segregation. We find that the foreclosure crisis was patterned strongly along racial lines: black, Latino, and racially integrated neighborhoods had exceptionally high foreclosure rates. Multilevel models of racial/ethnic change reveal that foreclosure concentrations were linked to declining shares of whites and expanding shares of black and Latino residents...
June 2015: American Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26365994/can-we-finish-the-revolution-gender-work-family-ideals-and-institutional-constraint
#12
David S Pedulla, Sarah Th├ębaud
Why has progress toward gender equality in the workplace and at home stalled in recent decades? A growing body of scholarship suggests that persistently gendered workplace norms and policies limit men's and women's ability to create gender egalitarian relationships at home. In this article, we build on and extend prior research by examining the extent to which institutional constraints, including workplace policies, affect young, unmarried men's and women's preferences for their future work-family arrangements...
February 2015: American Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26456973/racial-inequality-trends-and-the-intergenerational-persistence-of-income-and-family-structure
#13
Deirdre Bloome
Racial disparity in family incomes remained remarkably stable over the past 40 years in the United States despite major legal and social reforms. Previous scholarship presents two primary explanations for persistent inequality through a period of progressive change. One highlights continuity: because socioeconomic status is transmitted from parents to children, disparities created through histories of discrimination and opportunity denial may dissipate slowly. The second highlights change: because family income results from joining individual earnings in family units, changing family compositions can offset individuals' changing economic chances...
December 2014: American Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25535409/network-ecology-and-adolescent-social-structure
#14
Daniel A McFarland, James Moody, David Diehl, Jeffrey A Smith, Reuben J Thomas
Adolescent societies-whether arising from weak, short-term classroom friendships or from close, long-term friendships-exhibit various levels of network clustering, segregation, and hierarchy. Some are rank-ordered caste systems and others are flat, cliquish worlds. Explaining the source of such structural variation remains a challenge, however, because global network features are generally treated as the agglomeration of micro-level tie-formation mechanisms, namely balance, homophily, and dominance. How do the same micro-mechanisms generate significant variation in global network structures? To answer this question we propose and test a network ecological theory that specifies the ways features of organizational environments moderate the expression of tie-formation processes, thereby generating variability in global network structures across settings...
December 1, 2014: American Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25999601/prenatal-exposure-to-violence-and-birth-weight-in-mexico-selectivity-exposure-and-behavioral-responses
#15
Florencia Torche, Andres Villarreal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2014: American Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25999600/ethnic-identification-and-its-consequences-for-measuring-inequality-in-mexico
#16
Andr├ęs Villarreal
This paper examines ethnic boundary crossing and its impact on estimates of ethnic disparities in children's outcomes in the specific context of Mexico, a country with the largest indigenous population in the Western hemisphere. The boundary that separates the indigenous and non-indigenous population is known to be extremely fluid as it is based on characteristics that can easily change within a generation such as language use, cultural practices and a subjective sense of belonging. Using data from the Mexican census I examine the ethnic classification of children of indigenous parents...
August 1, 2014: American Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25364012/the-reversal-of-the-gender-gap-in-education-and-trends-in-marital-dissolution
#17
Christine R Schwartz, Hongyun Han
The reversal of the gender gap in education has potentially far-reaching consequences for marriage markets, family formation, and relationship outcomes. One possible consequence of this is the growing number of marriages in which wives have more education than their husbands. Previous studies have found this type of union to be at higher risk of dissolution. Using data on marriages formed between 1950 and 2004 in the United States, we evaluate whether this association has persisted as the prevalence of this relationship type has increased...
August 1, 2014: American Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25349460/changing-work-and-work-family-conflict-evidence-from-the-work-family-and-health-network
#18
Erin L Kelly, Phyllis Moen, J Michael Oakes, Wen Fan, Cassandra Okechukwu, Kelly D Davis, Leslie Hammer, Ellen Kossek, Rosalind Berkowitz King, Ginger Hanson, Frank Mierzwa, Lynne Casper
Schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life are work resources that may help employees manage the work-family interface. However, existing data and designs have made it difficult to conclusively identify the effects of these work resources. This analysis utilizes a group-randomized trial in which some units in an information technology workplace were randomly assigned to participate in an initiative, called STAR, that targeted work practices, interactions, and expectations by (a) training supervisors on the value of demonstrating support for employees' personal lives and (b) prompting employees to reconsider when and where they work...
June 1, 2014: American Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26069341/are-suicidal-behaviors-contagious-in-adolescence-using-longitudinal-data-to-examine-suicide-suggestion
#19
Seth Abrutyn, Anna S Mueller
Though Durkheim argued that strong social relationships protect individuals from suicide, we posit that these relationships have the potential to increase individuals' vulnerability when they expose them to suicidality. Using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we evaluate whether new suicidal thoughts and attempts are in part responses to exposure to the suicide attempts of role models, specifically friends and family. We find that the suicide attempts of role models do in fact trigger new suicidal thoughts and in some cases attempts, even after significant controls are introduced...
April 2014: American Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24039271/does-specialization-explain-marriage-penalties-and-premiums
#20
Alexandra Killewald, Margaret Gough
Married men's wage premium is often attributed to within-household specialization: men can devote more effort to wage-earning when their wives assume responsibility for household labor. We provide a comprehensive evaluation of the specialization hypothesis, arguing that, if specialization causes the male marriage premium, married women should experience wage losses. Furthermore, specialization by married parents should augment the motherhood penalty and the fatherhood premium for married as compared to unmarried parents...
June 2013: American Sociological Review
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