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American Journal of Psychology

Christopher D Green, Ingo Feinerer
In an earlier article, we used digital historical methods to examine the first 14 volumes (1887-1903) of The American Journal of Psychology (AJP) by creating networks of the vocabularies used in every substantive article the journal published in those years. These networks showed us the major research groups that had been gathered together by the journal's founder-editor, G. Stanley Hall, and how the intellectual composition of the journal (and the discipline) changed over that 17-year period. In the present article we extended that study forward, creating networks for the next 15 volumes (1904-1918), broken into time blocks of 5 years each...
2016: American Journal of Psychology
Brian M Bird, Justin M Carré, Jennifer M Knack, Steven Arnocky
Correlational research has linked low mate value (MV)--one's worth as a mating partner to members of the opposite sex--with aggression in men. In 2 experiments, we examined the effects of self-perceived MV on men's reported willingness to aggress directly toward a hypothetical mate poacher (Experiment 1, N = 60) and observable aggression toward a same-sex rival in a laboratory paradigm (Experiment 2, N = 54). In both experiments, the roles of narcissism in moderating the effect of MV condition on subsequent aggression were examined...
2016: American Journal of Psychology
F Richard Ferraro, Jeffrey N Weatherly
We gave 127 undergraduates questionnaires about their iPod and texting dependence and 2 hypothetical delay discounting scenarios related to free downloaded songs and free texting for life. Using regression analyses we found that when iPod dependence was the dependent variable, Text2-excessive use, Text4-psychological and behavioral symptoms, iPod2-excessive use, and iPod3-relationship disruption were significant predictors of discounting. When texting dependence was the dependent variable, Text4-psychological and behavioral symptoms and iPod3-relationship disruption were significant predictors of discounting...
2016: American Journal of Psychology
Douglas Bermingham, Michael K Gardner, Dan J Woltz
Hambrick and Engle (2002) proposed 3 models of how domain knowledge and working memory capacity may work together to influence episodic memory: a "rich-get-richer" model, a "building blocks" model, and a "compensatory" model. Their results supported the rich-get-richer model, although later work by Hambrick and Oswald (2005) found support for a building blocks model. We investigated the effects of domain knowledge and working memory on recall of studied grocery prices. Working memory was measured with 3 simple span tasks...
2016: American Journal of Psychology
Casey E Turner, Ronald T Kellogg
Although a gradient of category membership seems to form the internal structure of semantic categories, it is unclear whether the 2 hemispheres of the brain differ in terms of this gradient. The 2 experiments reported here examined this empirical question and explored alternative theoretical interpretations. Participants viewed category names centrally and determined whether a closely related or distantly related word presented to either the left visual field/right hemisphere (LVF/RH) or the right visual field/left hemisphere (RVF/LH) was a member of the category...
2016: American Journal of Psychology
Mary Kim Ngo, Kim-Phuong L Vu, Thomas Z Strybel
We examined the interaction between music and tone language experience as related to relative pitch processing by having participants judge the direction and magnitude of pitch changes in a relative pitch task. Participants' performance on this relative pitch task was assessed using the Cochran-Weiss-Shanteau (CWS) index of expertise, based on a ratio of discrimination over consistency in participants' relative pitch judgments. Testing took place in 2 separate sessions on different days to assess the effects of practice on participants' performance...
2016: American Journal of Psychology
Peter A Hancock, Richard A Block
Effects of sex and handedness on the perception of temporal durations from 1 to 20 s were studied. A total of 80 male and 40 female participants were divided equally into left-handed and right-handed subgroups. Using an empty interval production procedure, each person estimated durations of 1, 3, 7, and 20 s, respectively, 50 times each. The order of presentation was randomized across participants but yoked across the sexes in each of the respective handedness subgroups. Results showed significant sex differences but no effects for handedness...
2016: American Journal of Psychology
K Alysse Bailey, Larkin Lamarche, Kimberley L Gammage, Philip J Sullivan
We investigated the mediating role of body shame in the relationship between self-objectification and body image coping strategies in highly physically active university women. Bivariate correlations revealed body shame was positively related to self-objectification, appearance fixing, and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. In addition, self-objectification was positively related to appearance fixing and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. Mediation analyses showed that body shame partially mediated the relationship between self-objectification and avoidance and appearance fixing coping but did not mediate the relationship between self-objectification and positive rational acceptance...
2016: American Journal of Psychology
Merav Rabinovich
The current research belongs to the stream of theoretical integration and establishes a theoretical platform for integrative psychotherapy in anxiety disorders. Qualitative metasynthesis procedures were applied to 40 peer-reviewed psychoanalytic articles involving emotional regulation. The concept of psychodynamic emotional regulation was found to be connected with the categories of desensitization, gradual exposure, containment, and transference. This article presents a model according to which psychoanalytic psychotherapy allows anxiety to be tolerated while following the core principles of systematic desensitization...
2016: American Journal of Psychology
Alison Whiteford Damerall, Ronald T Kellogg
The career of metaphor hypothesis suggests that novel metaphors are understood through a search for shared features between the topic and vehicle, but with repeated exposure, the figurative meaning is understood directly as a new category is established. The categorization hypothesis argues that instead good or apt metaphors are understood through a categorization process, whether or not they are familiar. Only poor metaphors ever invoke a literal comparison. In Experiment 1, with aptness equated, we found that high familiarity speeded comprehension time over low-familiarity metaphors...
2016: American Journal of Psychology
Jeremy W Grabbe
Letter substitution has been shown to have a cost to word recognition performance, such as increased reaction time. The use of orthographically similar numbers or symbols as a substitute for letters is known as LEET. Perea, Duñabeitia, and Carreiras (2008) showed that word recognition was not affected when LEET substitutions were used as primes. This study examined whether the effects of LEET prime substitutions would remain constant across word frequency. The apparent lack of substitution costs may have been an effect of word-level processing such as holistic bias for high-frequency words...
2016: American Journal of Psychology
Ciro Civile, Rossy McLaren, Ian P L McLaren
The face inversion effect (FIE) is a reduction in recognition performance for inverted faces compared with upright faces. Several studies have proposed that a type of configural information, called second-order relational information, becomes more important with increasing expertise and gives rise to the FIE. However, recently it has been demonstrated that it is possible to obtain an FIE with facial features presented in isolation, showing that configural information is not necessary for this effect to occur...
2016: American Journal of Psychology
Nicholas Altieri, Michael J Wenger, Mark T Wallace, Ryan A Stevenson
What factors contribute to redundant target processing speed besides statistical facilitation? One possibility is that multiple percepts may drive these effects. Another, although not mutually exclusive hypothesis, is that cross-channel cueing from one modality to another may influence response times. We implemented an auditory-visual detection task using the sound-induced flash illusion to examine whether one or both of these possibilities contributes to changes in processing speed; we did so by examining the data of individual participants...
2016: American Journal of Psychology
Yu-Hsuan A Chang, David M Lane
The recognition-action theory of chess skill holds that expertise in chess is due primarily to the ability to recognize familiar patterns of pieces. Despite its widespread acclaim, empirical evidence for this theory is indirect. One source of indirect evidence is that there is a high correlation between speed chess and standard chess. Assuming that there is little or no time for calculation in speed chess, this high correlation implies that calculation is not the primary factor in standard chess. Two studies were conducted analyzing 100 games of speed chess...
2016: American Journal of Psychology
Thomas J Dinzeo, Eve Sledjeski, Christopher Durner, Nancy M Docherty
The empirical examination of personality characteristics related to the experience of strong negative emotions and the associated physiological response may help account for idiosyncratic responses to life events in schizophrenia. The current study examines the relationship between levels of neuroticism and arousability and physiological and emotional reactivity during the viewing of film clips with differing emotional valance. Data were collected on emotional and cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity across experimental conditions for a sample of outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia and a comparison group of nonpsychiatric controls...
2015: American Journal of Psychology
Irina Trofimova
This article analyzes sex differences in communicative and exploratory abilities and mental disabilities from the rarely discussed perspective of sex differences in the shape of phenotypic distributions. The article reviews the most consistent findings related to such differences and compares them with the evolutionary theory of sex (ETS). The ETS considers sexual dimorphism as a functional specialization of a species into 2 partitions: variational and conservational. The analysis suggests that male superiority in risk and sensation seeking and physical abilities; higher rates of psychopathy, dyslexia, and autism; and higher birth and accidental death rates reflects the systemic variational function of the male sex...
2015: American Journal of Psychology
Marco Tonti, Sergio Salvatore
The problem of the measurement of emotion is a widely debated one. In this article we propose an instrument, the Homogenization of Classification Functions Measure (HOCFUN), designed for assessing the influence of emotional arousal on a rating task consisting of the evaluation of a sequence of images. The instrument defines an indicator (κ) that measures the degree of homogenization of the ratings given over 2 rating scales (pleasant-unpleasant and relevant-irrelevant). Such a degree of homogenization is interpreted as the effect of emotional arousal on thinking and therefore lends itself to be used as a marker of emotional arousal...
2015: American Journal of Psychology
Samantha S Wootan, Juliana K Leding
The purpose of this experiment was to provide an enhanced understanding of need for cognition (NFC) and its influence on one's memory accuracy. People who are high in NFC tend to put more cognitive effort into their mental processes than their low-NFC counterparts. To determine whether one's natural processing tendencies, as determined by NFC, can be influenced by external factors, manipulations to levels of processing were added. Participants viewed word lists from the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and were instructed to process half of the DRM lists deeply and the other half shallowly...
2015: American Journal of Psychology
Cynthia Laurie-Rose, Meredith C Frey, Erick Sibata, Amanda Zamary
The current study applies a dual-task working memory and vigilance task to examine sustained attention performance and perceived workload in a multi-instrument battery. In Experiment 1 we modified a task developed by Helton and Russell (2011) to examine declines in performance and to assess the effects of its position within a larger battery. Experiment 1 failed to reveal a sensitivity decrement, and test position revealed only spurious influence. Workload scores derived from the NASA-TLX fell at the high end of the scale, with mental and temporal demand receiving the highest ratings...
2015: American Journal of Psychology
Gunnar Newquist, R Allen Gardner
In operant conditioning, rats pressing levers and pigeons pecking keys depend on contingent food reinforcement. Food reward agrees with Skinner's behaviorism, undergraduate textbooks, and folk psychology. However, nearly a century of experimental evidence shows, instead, that food in an operant conditioning chamber acts forward to evoke species-specific feeding behavior rather than backward to reinforce experimenter-defined responses. Furthermore, recent findings in neuroscience show consistently that intracranial stimulation to reward centers and dopamine release, the proposed reward molecule, also act forward to evoke inborn species-specific behavior...
2015: American Journal of Psychology
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