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American Journal of Physiology

T A Abdul-Ghaffar, K Lukowiak, U Nayar
A problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum was introduced at McMaster University more than three decades ago. Not many schools have adopted the system despite its distinct advantages. The present paper examines the challenges of teaching physiology in a PBL curriculum and gleans through the literature supporting PBL. It appears that one of the reasons why PBL is not becoming readily acceptable is the lack of concrete reports evaluating the curricular outcomes. The suggestion (R.E. Thomas. Med Educ. 31:320-329, 1997) to standardize and internationalize all components of validated PBL curricula is quite valid...
December 1999: American Journal of Physiology
J Neugarten, I Medve, J Lei, S R Silbiger
We have previously shown that estradiol suppresses the synthesis of type I collagen by murine mesangial cells grown in the presence of serum via activation of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1). We hypothesized that estradiol upregulates AP-1 via activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade, a signal transduction pathway that regulates AP-1 activity. Estradiol (10(-10) to 10(-7) M) upregulated the MAP kinase pathway in murine mesangial cells grown in the presence of serum in a dose-dependent manner...
December 1999: American Journal of Physiology
Y Wang, K R Olson, M P Smith, M J Russell, J M Conlon
Endothelin (ET) from a nontetrapod species has never been characterized, either structurally or biologically. A single molecular form of trout ET with 21-amino-acid residues was isolated in pure form from an extract of the kidney of the steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss and its primary structure established as Cys-Ser-Cys-Ala-Thr-Phe-Leu-Asp-Lys-Glu10-Cys-Val-Tyr-Phe-Cys-His- L eu-Asp-Ile-Ile20-Trp. This amino acid sequence shows only three substitutions (Ala4-->Ser, Thr5-->Ser, and Phe6-->Trp) compared with human ET-2, demonstrating that the structure of the peptide has been well conserved during evolution and that the pathway of posttranslational processing of preproendothelin in the trout is probably similar to that in mammals...
December 1999: American Journal of Physiology
S Johnson, A Knox
Airway smooth muscle proliferation is important in asthma and is dependent on pro- and antimitogenic factors and cell-matrix interactions. Here we show an antiproliferative effect of protease inhibitors on human airway smooth muscle due to inhibition of autocrine-derived matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. Proliferation in response to fetal bovine serum, thrombin, and platelet-derived growth factor was inhibited by the broad-spectrum protease inhibitor Complete and the MMP inhibitors EDTA and Ro-31-9790 but not by cysteine or serine protease inhibitors...
December 1999: American Journal of Physiology
A Gysembergh, S Lemaire, C Piot, C Sportouch, S Richard, R A Kloner, K Przyklenk
Recent evidence revealed biphasic alterations in myocardial concentrations of the second messenger inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] with ischemic preconditioning (PC), i.e., increase during brief PC ischemia and decrease early during sustained test occlusion. Our aim was to determine whether an agonist and an antagonist of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) signaling (D-myo-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate hexasodium salt [D-myo-Ins(1,4, 5)P3] and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), respectively), given such that they mimic this biphasic profile, would mimic infarct size reduction with PC...
December 1999: American Journal of Physiology
M Birincioglu, X M Yang, S D Critz, M V Cohen, J M Downey
During coronary angioplasty, a stair-step decrease in peak S-T segment elevation from the first to the second coronary occlusion has been assumed to indicate a preconditioning (PC) effect. This association was evaluated with myocardial electrograms in rabbits, which revealed that two sequential 5-min coronary occlusions resulted in a marked decrease in the area under the S-T segment voltage-time curve (P < 0.05) with no change during a third occlusion. Pretreatment with either 5-hydroxydecanoate, a mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel blocker, or anisomycin, an activator of stress-activated protein kinases, had no effect on the stair-step decline in the S-T segment voltage between the first two occlusions...
December 1999: American Journal of Physiology
H Kawamura, T Otsuka, H Matsuno, M Niwa, N Matsui, K Kato, T Uematsu, O Kozawa
We previously reported that endothelin-1 (ET-1) activates p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells and consequently induces synthesis of interleukin-6. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ET-1 on the induction of heat shock protein 27 (HSP 27) in MC3T3-E1 cells. ET-1 time and dose dependently stimulated HSP 27 accumulation. ET-1 induced an increase in the levels of mRNA for HSP 27. Both staurosporine and calphostin C, inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), suppressed the ET-1-induced HSP 27 accumulation...
December 1999: American Journal of Physiology
P Galassetti, Y Koyama, R H Coker, D B Lacy, A D Cherrington, D H Wasserman
UNLABELLED: Prior exercise stimulates muscle and liver glucose uptake. A negative arterial-portal venous glucose gradient (a-pv grad) stimulates resting net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU) but reduces muscle glucose uptake. This study investigates the effects of a negative a-pv grad during glucose administration after exercise in dogs. EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL: exercise (-180 to -30 min), transition (-30 to -20 min), basal period (-20 to 0 min), and experimental period (0 to 100 min)...
December 1999: American Journal of Physiology
Q D Wu, J H Wang, F Fennessy, H P Redmond, D Bouchier-Hayes
Elevated blood glucose in uncontrolled diabetes is causally correlated with diabetic microangiopathy. Hyperglycemia-triggered accelerated endothelial cell apoptosis is a critical event in the process of diabetes-associated microvascular disease. The conditionally semiessential amino acid taurine has been previously shown to protect against human endothelial cell apoptosis. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the role of taurine in the prevention of high-glucose-mediated cell apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the mechanisms involved...
December 1999: American Journal of Physiology
D B Polk, W Tong
The migration of intestinal cells is important in the development and maintenance of normal epithelium, in a process that may be regulated by growth factors and cytokines. Although a number of growth factor receptors are expressed by intestinal cells, little progress has been made toward assignment of functional roles for these ligand-receptor systems. This study compares several growth factors and cytokines for their chemoattraction of the mouse small intestinal epithelial cell line. Epidermal and hepatocyte growth factors stimulated a rapid 30-fold chemotaxis of cells with delayed threefold migration toward transforming growth factor-beta1...
December 1999: American Journal of Physiology
J H Park, N Okayama, D Gute, A Krsmanovic, H Battarbee, J S Alexander
The effects of hypoxia/aglycemia on microvascular endothelial permeability were evaluated, and the second messenger systems and the cytoskeletal-junctional protein alterations in this response were also examined. Monolayers of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells on microcarrier beads were exposed to either thioglycolic acid (5 mM, an O(2) chelator), glucose-free medium, or both stresses together. Permeability measurements were performed over a 90-min time course. Although neither hypoxia alone nor aglycemia alone increased endothelial permeability significantly, the combination of both increased significantly as early as 15 min...
December 1999: American Journal of Physiology
M T Cruz, C B Duarte, M Gonçalo, A P Carvalho, M C Lopes
In this report, we demonstrate that a fetal mouse skin-derived dendritic cell line produces nitric oxide (NO) in response to the endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] and to cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)]. Expression of the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) was confirmed by immunofluorescence with an antibody against iNOS. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein decreased LPS- and GM-CSF-induced nitrite (NO(-2)) production...
December 1999: American Journal of Physiology
T J Bivalacqua, A Dalal, H C Champion, P J Kadowitz
Hemodynamic responses to angiotensin II and the role of AT(1) and AT(2) receptors and the autonomic nervous system in mediating acute responses to angiotensin II were investigated in anesthetized CD1 mice. Injections of angiotensin II caused dose-related increases in systemic arterial pressure that were antagonized by candesartan. Pressor responses to angiotensin II were not altered by PD-123,319 in doses up to 25 mg/kg iv. At the lowest dose studied (20 microgram/kg iv), the inhibitory effects of candesartan were competitive, whereas at the highest dose (100 microgram/kg iv) the dose-response curve for angiotensin II was shifted to the right in a nonparallel manner with inhibitory effects that could not be surmounted...
November 1999: American Journal of Physiology
S Y Chin, K N Pandey, S J Shi, H Kobori, C Moreno, L G Navar
We have previously demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) exerts a greater modulatory influence on renal cortical blood flow in ANG II-infused hypertensive rats compared with normotensive rats. In the present study, we determined nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities and protein levels in the renal cortex and medulla of normotensive and ANG II-infused hypertensive rats. Enzyme activity was determined by measuring the rate of formation of L-[(14)C]citrulline from L-[(14)C]arginine. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the regional expression of endothelial (eNOS), neuronal (nNOS), and inducible (iNOS) isoforms in the renal cortex and medulla of control and ANG II-infused rats...
November 1999: American Journal of Physiology
R B Robey, J Ma, A V Santos
Phorbol esters increase glucose (Glc) uptake and utilization in a variety of cell types, and, in some cells, these changes have been attributed to increased Glc phosphorylation and better functional coupling of hexokinases (HKs) to facilitative Glc transporters. Phorbol esters are potent mesangial cell mitogens, but their effects on HK-catalyzed Glc phosphorylation and metabolism are unknown. When examined in murine mesangial cells, active, but not inactive, phorbol esters increased HK activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner...
November 1999: American Journal of Physiology
L Rinaman
The present study sought to determine whether central glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-receptor signalling contributes to the anorexigenic effects of systemically administered lithium chloride (LiCl). Male Sprague-Dawley rats with chronic intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannulas were acclimated to a feeding schedule that included daily 30-min access to palatable mash. In the first experiment, ICV infusion of a GLP-1-receptor antagonist [exendin-4-(3-39)] significantly attenuated (10 microgram dose) or completely blocked (20 microgram dose) the inhibition of food intake produced by subsequent ICV infusion of GLP-1-(7-36) amide (5 microgram)...
November 1999: American Journal of Physiology
J D Laporte, P E Moore, J H Abraham, G N Maksym, B Fabry, R A Panettieri, S A Shore
We have previously reported that interleukin (IL)-1beta causes beta-adrenergic hyporesponsiveness in cultured human airway smooth muscle cells by increasing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostanoid formation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) are involved in these events. Levels of phosphorylated ERK (p42 and p44) increased 8.3- and 13-fold, respectively, 15 min after treatment with IL-1beta (20 ng/ml) alone. Pretreating cells with the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD-98059 or U-126 (2 h before IL-1beta treatment) decreased ERK phosphorylation...
November 1999: American Journal of Physiology
R R Baliga, D R Pimental, Y Y Zhao, W W Simmons, M A Marchionni, D B Sawyer, R A Kelly
Neuregulins are a family of growth-promoting peptides known to be important in neural and mesenchymal tissue development. Targeted disruption of neuregulin (NRG)-1 or one of two of its cognate receptors, ErbB2 or ErbB4, results in embryonic lethality because of failure of the heart to develop. Although expression of NRGs and their receptors declines after midembryogenesis, both ErbB2 and ErbB4 are present in cardiac myocytes, and NRG-1 expression remains inducible in primary cultures of coronary microvascular endothelial cells from adult rat ventricular muscle...
November 1999: American Journal of Physiology
C E Giammattei, J W Strandhoy, J C Rose
The renin-angiotensin system is critically important to fetal cardiovascular function and organ development. The feedback regulation of renin secretion by ANG II develops early in gestation yet does not linearly progress from fetal life to adulthood. Renin secretion is elevated in late gestation compared with earlier or postnatal time periods, which suggests that some component of the negative feedback regulation of renin secretion is less sensitive in late gestation. We examined in fetal sheep the age-related consequence of chronic in vivo manipulation of ANG II on renal renin secretion measured in vitro...
October 1999: American Journal of Physiology
H C Champion, T J Bivalacqua, D G Lambert, R A Abassi, P J Kadowitz
Hemodynamic responses to histamine were investigated in the anesthetized rabbit. Intravenous injections of histamine induced dose-dependent decreases in systemic arterial pressure that were blocked by the H(1)-receptor antagonist pyrilamine but not the H(2) antagonist cimetidine. Injections of histamine and the H(1) agonist 6-[2-(4-imidazolyl)ethylamine]-N-(4-trifuormethylphenyl)-heptan ecardo xamide dimaleate (HTMT) into the hindlimb perfusion circuit increased hindlimb perfusion pressure, whereas the H(2) agonist dimaprit decreased perfusion pressure and the H(3)-receptor agonist R-(-)-alpha-methylhistamine did not alter perfusion pressure...
October 1999: American Journal of Physiology
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