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American Journal of Botany

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526727/inconvenient-realities-and-the-path-toward-science-based-forest-restoration-policies-a-reply-to-veldman-et-al
#1
Robin L Chazdon, Lars H Laestadius
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526726/are-phloem-sieve-tubes-leaky-conduits-supported-by-numerous-aquaporins
#2
Ryan C Stanfield, Uwe G Hacke, Joan Laur
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Aquaporin membrane water channels have been previously identified in the phloem of angiosperms, but currently their cellular characterization is lacking, especially in tree species. Pinpointing the cellular location will help generate new hypotheses of how membrane water exchange facilitates sugar transport in plants. METHODS: We studied histological sections of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.) in leaf, petiole, and stem organs. Immuno-labeling techniques were used to characterize the distribution of PIP1 and PIP2 subfamilies of aquaporins along the phloem pathway...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526725/phylogeography-and-genetic-structure-of-endemic-acmispon-argophyllus-and-a-dendroideus-fabaceae-across-the-california-channel-islands
#3
Lisa E Wallace, Gregory L Wheeler, Mitchell E McGlaughlin, Gerald Bresowar, Kaius Helenurm
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Taxa inhabiting the California Channel Islands exhibit variation in their degree of isolation, but few studies have considered patterns across the entire archipelago. We studied phylogeography of insular Acmispon argophyllus and A. dendroideus to determine whether infraspecific taxa are genetically divergent and to elucidate patterns of diversification across these islands. METHODS: DNA sequences were collected from nuclear (ADH) and plastid genomes (rpL16, ndhA, psbD-trnT) from >450 samples on the Channel Islands and California...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526724/highlights
#4
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526723/anisotomous-dichotomy-results-from-an-unequal-bifurcation-of-the-original-shoot-apical-meristem-in-diphasiastrum-digitatum-lycopodiaceae
#5
Xiaofeng Yin, Roger D Meicenheimer
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Two types of dichotomy are recognized in Lycopodiaceae: isotomous (equal) and anisotomous (unequal). Anisotomous dichotomy (anisotomy) has been hypothesized to result from unequal growth of an equal bifurcation of the original shoot apical meristem (SAM). Diphasiastrum digitatum (Lycopodiaceae) exhibits anisotomy at various locations. We thus used D. digitatum to test this classic hypothesis about anisotomy. METHODS: Transverse areas of original and derived SAMs of anisotomy exhibited by the rhizome and the vertical aerial vegetative stem were measured using scanning electron microscopy...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515078/shifting-quaternary-migration-patterns-in-the-bahamian-archipelago-evidence-from-the-zamia-pumila-complex-at-the-northern-limits-of-the-caribbean-island-biodiversity-hotspot
#6
Dayana E Salas-Leiva, Alan W Meerow, Michael Calonje, Javier Francisco-Ortega, M Patrick Griffith, Kyoko Nakamura, Vanessa Sánchez, Lindy Knowles, David Knowles
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The Bahamas archipelago is formed by young, tectonically stable carbonate banks that harbor direct geological evidence of global ice-volume changes. We sought to detect signatures of major changes on gene flow patterns and reconstruct the phylogeographic history of the monophyletic Zamia pumila complex across the Bahamas. METHODS: Nuclear molecular markers with both high and low mutation rates were used to capture two different time scale signatures and test several gene flow and demographic hypotheses...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515077/toward-principles-of-historical-ecology
#7
Erin Beller, Loren McClenachan, Andrew Trant, Eric W Sanderson, Jeanine Rhemtulla, Anita Guerrini, Robin Grossinger, Eric Higgs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515076/vertically-transmitted-symbionts-as-mechanisms-of-transgenerational-effects
#8
Pedro E Gundel, Jennifer A Rudgers, Kenneth D Whitney
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: A transgenerational effect occurs when a biotic or abiotic environmental factor acts on a parental individual and thereby affects the phenotype of progeny. Due to the importance of transgenerational effects for understanding plant ecology and evolution, their underlying mechanisms are of general interest. Here, we introduce the concept that inherited symbiotic microorganisms could act as mechanisms of transgenerational effects in plants. METHODS: We define the criteria required to demonstrate that transgenerational effects are microbially mediated and review evidence from the well-studied, vertically transmitted plant-fungal symbiosis (grass-Epichloë spp...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500229/isolation-by-distance-and-isolation-by-environment-contribute-to-population-differentiation-in-protea-repens-proteaceae-l-a-widespread-south-african-species
#9
Rachel Prunier, Melis Akman, Colin T Kremer, Nicola Aitken, Aaron Chuah, Justin Borevitz, Kent E Holsinger
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa is renowned for its botanical diversity, but the evolutionary origins of this diversity remain controversial. Both neutral and adaptive processes have been implicated in driving diversification, but population-level studies of plants in the CFR are rare. Here, we investigate the limits to gene flow and potential environmental drivers of selection in Protea repens L. (Proteaceae L.), a widespread CFR species. METHODS: We sampled 19 populations across the range of P...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500228/a-liana-from-the-lower-miocene-of-panama-and-the-fossil-record-of-connaraceae
#10
Nathan A Jud, Chris W Nelson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Permineralized wood is common in the Miocene beds exposed during the expansion of the Panama Canal. We describe a stem with the distinctive anatomy of a liana and evaluate the evolutionary, biogeographic, and ecological significance of this discovery. METHODS: The object of the study was obtained from a collection of fossil woods and fruits from a locality in the lower Miocene Cucaracha Formation, where the formation is exposed by the Culebra Cut of the Panama Canal...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490520/carbon-allocation-to-growth-and-storage-in-two-evergreen-species-of-contrasting-successional-status
#11
Frida I Piper, Paulina Sepúlveda, Angela Bustos-Salazar, Alejandra Zúñiga-Feest
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: A prevailing hypothesis in forest succession is that shade-tolerant species grow more slowly than shade-intolerant species, across light conditions, because they prioritize carbon (C) allocation to storage. We examined this hypothesis in a confamilial pair of species, including one of the fastest-growing tree species in the world (Eucalyptus globulus) and a shade-tolerant, slow-growing species (Luma apiculata). METHODS: Seedlings were subjected to one out of four combinations of light (high vs...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490519/multiple-factors-influence-population-sex-ratios-in-the-mojave-desert-moss-syntrichia-caninervis
#12
Jenna T Baughman, Adam C Payton, Amber E Paasch, Kirsten M Fisher, Stuart F McDaniel
PREMISE OF RESEARCH: Natural populations of many mosses appear highly female-biased based on the presence of reproductive structures. This bias could be caused by increased male mortality, lower male growth rate, or a higher threshold for achieving sexual maturity in males. Here we test these hypotheses using samples from two populations of the Mojave Desert moss Syntrichia caninervis. METHODS: We used double-digest restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to identify candidate sex-associated loci in a panel of sex-expressing plants...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456762/nature-s-potato-chip-the-role-of-salty-fungi-in-a-changing-world
#13
Klara Scharnagl, Anna Scharnagl, Eric von Wettberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 29, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456761/long-distance-dispersal-explains-the-bipolar-disjunction-in-carex-macloviana
#14
José I Márquez-Corro, Marcial Escudero, Santiago Martín-Bravo, Tamara Villaverde, Modesto Luceño
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The sedge Carex macloviana d'Urv presents a bipolar distribution. To clarify the origin of its distribution, we consider the four main hypotheses: long-distance dispersal (either by mountain hopping or by direct dispersal), vicariance, parallel evolution, and human introduction. METHODS: Phylogenetic, phylogeographic, and divergence time estimation analyses were carried out based on two nuclear ribosomal (ETS and ITS) regions, one nuclear single copy gene (CATP), and three plastid DNA regions (rps16 and 5'trnK introns, and psbA-trnH spacer), using Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and statistical parsimony...
April 29, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456760/grassy-biomes-an-inconvenient-reality-for-large-scale-forest-restoration-a-comment-on-the-essay-by-chazdon-and-laestadius
#15
Joseph W Veldman, Fernando A O Silveira, Forrest D Fleischman, Nataly L Ascarrunz, Giselda Durigan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 29, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428199/experimental-insights-on-darwin-s-cross-promotion-hypothesis-in-tristylous-purple-loosestrife-lythrum-salicaria
#16
Joana Costa, Sílvia Castro, João Loureiro, Spencer C H Barrett
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Darwin proposed that the reciprocal arrangement of anthers and stigmas in heterostylous plants promotes cross-pollination through pollen segregation on pollinators' bodies. The floral tube in most heterostylous species constrains the feeding posture of pollinators determining the site of contact with sex organs located at different heights within a flower. Here, we evaluate Darwin's hypothesis in tristylous Lythrum salicaria, a species with a partially tubular corolla, and examine the extent to which the location of sex organs within a flower influence compatible and incompatible pollination...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428198/correlation-causation-and-the-evolution-of-leaf-teeth-a-reply-to-givnish-and-kriebel
#17
Erika J Edwards, David S Chatelet, Elizabeth L Spriggs, Elissa S Johnson, Caroline Schlutius, Michael J Donoghue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428197/unusual-positional-effects-on-flower-sex-in-an-andromonoecious-tree-resource-competition-architectural-constraints-or-inhibition-by-the-apical-flower
#18
Carlos Granado-Yela, Luis Balaguer, Luis Cayuela, Marcos Méndez
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Two, nonmutually exclusive, mechanisms-competition for resources and architectural constraints-have been proposed to explain the proximal to distal decline in flower size, mass, and/or femaleness in indeterminate, elongate inflorescences. Whether these mechanisms also explain unusual positional effects such as distal to proximal declines of floral performance in determinate inflorescences, is understudied. METHODS: We tested the relative influence of these mechanisms in the andromonoecious wild olive tree, where hermaphroditic flowers occur mainly on apical and the most proximal positions in determinate inflorescences...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424206/extending-the-fossil-record-of-polytrichaceae-early-cretaceous-meantoinea-alophosioides-gen-et-sp-nov-permineralized-gametophytes-with-gemma-cups-from-vancouver-island
#19
Alexander C Bippus, Ruth A Stockey, Gar W Rothwell, Alexandru M F Tomescu
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Diverse in modern ecosystems, mosses are dramatically underrepresented in the fossil record. Furthermore, most pre-Cenozoic mosses are known only from compression fossils, lacking detailed anatomical information. When preserved, anatomy vastly improves resolution in the systematic placement of fossils. Lower Cretaceous deposits at Apple Bay (Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada) contain a diverse anatomically preserved flora that includes numerous bryophytes, many of which have yet to be characterized...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424205/the-use-of-soil-pollen-to-determine-the-sex-of-overhead-individuals-of-a-temperate-dioecious-shrub
#20
Anna Sugiyama, Koji Shichi, Takashi Masaki, Stephen P Hubbell
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: In dioecious species, determining the sex of individual plants from one-time phenological observations is rarely feasible when some individuals capable of reproducing are not flowering or fruiting at the time of observation. Currently, sexing those individuals requires long-term phenological data on individuals and populations, but such data are rarely available or feasible to collect. We tested the hypothesis that differences in soil pollen concentrations beneath the crowns of female and male plants would exist and be sufficient to reliably determine the sex of the individual plant overhead in a dioecious species...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
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