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American Journal of Botany

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724594/harnessing-plant-spectra-to-integrate-the-biodiversity-sciences-across-biological-and-spatial-scales
#1
Jeannine Cavender-Bares, John A Gamon, Sarah E Hobbie, Michael D Madritch, José Eduardo Meireles, Anna K Schweiger, Philip A Townsend
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724593/less-is-more-independent-loss-of-function-ocimene-synthase-alleles-parallel-pollination-syndrome-diversification-in-monkeyflowers-mimulus
#2
Foen Peng, Kelsey J R P Byers, Harvey D Bradshaw
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Pollinator-mediated selection on flower phenotypes (e.g., shape, color, scent) is key to understanding the adaptive radiation of angiosperms, many of which have evolved specialized relationships with a particular guild of animal pollinators (e.g., birds, bats, moths, bees). E-β-Ocimene, a monoterpene produced by OCIMENE SYNTHASE (OS) in Mimulus lewisii, is a floral scent important in attracting the species' bumblebee pollinators. The taxa closely related to M. lewisii have evolved several different pollination syndromes, including hummingbird pollination and self pollination (autogamy)...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724592/vascular-development-in-very-young-conifer-seedlings-theoretical-hydraulic-capacities-and-potential-resistance-to-embolism
#3
Megan L Miller, Daniel M Johnson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Conifers have the highest rates of mortality during their first year, often attributed to water stress; yet, this tree life stage is the least studied in terms of hydraulic properties. Previous work has revealed correlations between xylem anatomy to both hydraulic transport capacity and resistance to hydraulic dysfunction. In this study, we compared xylem anatomical and plant functional traits of Pseudotsuga menziesii, Larix occidentalis, and Pinus ponderosa seedlings over the first 10 wk of growth to evaluate potential maximum hydraulic capabilities and resistance to drought-induced embolism...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724591/evidence-for-environment-dependent-introgression-of-adaptive-genes-between-two-red-oak-species-with-different-drought-adaptations
#4
Sudhir Khodwekar, Oliver Gailing
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Introgression of adaptive alleles between hybridizing species is likely an important mechanism to generate new genetic variation for adaptation to rapidly changing environmental conditions. Oaks provide a model for the study of adaptive gene introgression because environmental selection maintains high interspecific differentiation at a few outlier loci and species-specific adaptations despite recurrent interspecific gene flow. Previously, we identified a CONSTANS-like gene under strong divergent selection between drought-tolerant Quercus ellipsoidalis and drought-averse Quercus rubra...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710127/floral-evolution-and-phylogeny-of-the-dialioideae-a-diverse-subfamily-of-tropical-legumes
#5
Erin Zimmerman, Patrick S Herendeen, Gwilym P Lewis, Anne Bruneau
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The Dialioideae is an early diverging clade of caesalpinioid legumes containing approximately 85 species in 17 genera. Dialioideae floral morphology is highly variable and may provide clues to caesalpinioid evolution, but a well-resolved phylogeny is needed. Here, we have carried out a comprehensive morphological study of 78 Dialioideae and four outgroup species. METHODS: For all available Dialioideae DNA samples, the plastid rpS16 and trnL introns were sequenced...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710126/incomplete-lineage-sorting-and-hybridization-in-the-evolutionary-history-of-closely-related-endemic-yellow-flowered-aechmea-species-of-subgenus-ortgiesia-bromeliaceae
#6
Márcia Goetze, Camila M Zanella, Clarisse Palma-Silva, Miriam V Büttow, Fernanda Bered
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The yellow-flowered Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia (yfAsO) (Bromeliaceae) is a group of seven morphologically similar bromeliads found mostly in the southern Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. The recent origin of this group probably contributes to its taxonomic complexity. The aims of this study were to investigate the levels of genetic diversity and structure at the population and species levels, to gain insight into the processes behind the diversification of the group, and to contribute to the establishment of species boundaries...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710125/visualization-of-extracellular-dna-released-during-border-cell-separation-from-the-root-cap
#7
Fushi Wen, Gilberto Curlango-Rivera, David A Huskey, Zhongguo Xiong, Martha C Hawes
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Root border cells are programmed to separate from the root cap as it penetrates the soil environment, where the cells actively secrete >100 extracellular proteins into the surrounding mucilage. The detached cells function in defense of the root tip by an extracellular trapping process that also requires DNA, as in mammalian white blood cells. Trapping in animals and plants is reversed by treatment with DNase, which results in increased infection. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of DNA in the structural integrity of extracellular structures released as border cells disperse from the root tip upon contact with water...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701296/herbarium-specimens-as-exaptations-new-uses-for-old-collections
#8
J Mason Heberling, Bonnie L Isaac
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701295/-diminishing-returns-in-the-scaling-of-leaf-area-vs-dry-mass-in-wuyi-mountain-bamboos-southeast-china
#9
Jun Sun, Ruirui Fan, Karl J Niklas, Quanlin Zhong, Fuchun Yang, Man Li, Xiaoping Chen, Mengke Sun, Dongliang Cheng
PREMISE OF STUDY: Leaf area and dry mass are crucial for plant metabolic performance. The "diminishing returns" hypothesis predicts that leaf area will scale less than one with respect to leaf dry mass, indicating that the cost of light interception increases with leaf area. However, it remains unclear whether and how this scaling relationship varies among species growing in different environments. METHODS: More than 2000 measurements from five bamboo species adapted to high and low light and growing at different elevations in Wuyi Mountains, Southeast China, were used to explore how the leaf area vs...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634257/two-fossil-species-of-metrosideros-myrtaceae-from-the-oligo-miocene-golden-fleece-locality-in-tasmania-australia
#10
Myall Tarran, Peter G Wilson, Michael K Macphail, Greg J Jordan, Robert S Hill
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The capsular-fruited genus Metrosideros (Myrtaceae) is one of the most widely distributed flowering plant genera in the Pacific but is extinct in Australia today. The center of geographic origin for the genus and the reason for and timing of its extinction in Australia remain uncertain. We identify fossil Metrosideros fruits from the newly discovered Golden Fleece fossil flora in the Oligo-Miocene of Tasmania, Australia, shedding further light on these problems. METHODS: Standard paleopalynological techniques were used to date the fossil-bearing sediments...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634256/molecular-systematics-and-historical-biogeography-of-maianthemum-s-s
#11
Changkyun Kim, Kenneth M Cameron, Joo-Hwan Kim
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Understanding the underlying mechanisms for the evolution of intercontinental disjunct patterns has long fascinated botanists. We present a molecular phylogenetic reconstruction of Maianthemum s.l. (including Smilacina) with a focus on Maianthemum s.s. species, which have a disjunct distribution between Eurasia and North America. Within this evolutionary framework, we clarify the systematic classification and biogeographical history of Maianthemum s.s. METHOD: Data from two nuclear and five chloroplast DNA regions were analyzed using the programs PAUP*, RAxML, MrBayes, BEAST, and RASP...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634255/population-genetic-structure-of-bromus-tectorum-in-the-mountains-of-western-north-america
#12
Spencer Arnesen, Craig E Coleman, Susan E Meyer
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Invasive species are often initially restricted to a narrow range and may then expand through any of multiple mechanisms including phenotypic plasticity, in situ evolution, or selection on traits preadapted for new habitats. Our study used population genetics to explore possible processes by which the highly selfing invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum has expanded into montane environments. METHODS: We used 69 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers to genotype ca...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634254/widespread-paleopolyploidy-gene-tree-conflict-and-recalcitrant-relationships-among-the-carnivorous-caryophyllales
#13
Joseph F Walker, Ya Yang, Michael J Moore, Jessica Mikenas, Alfonso Timoneda, Samuel F Brockington, Stephen A Smith
PREMISE OF STUDY: The carnivorous members of the large, hyperdiverse Caryophyllales (e.g., Venus flytrap, sundews, and Nepenthes pitcher plants) represent perhaps the oldest and most diverse lineage of carnivorous plants. However, despite numerous studies seeking to elucidate their evolutionary relationships, the early-diverging relationships remain unresolved. METHODS: To explore the utility of phylogenomic data sets for resolving relationships among the carnivorous Caryophyllales, we sequenced 10 transcriptomes, including all the carnivorous genera except those in the rare West African liana family Dioncophyllaceae...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626040/pollinia-transfer-on-moth-legs-in-hoya-carnosa-apocynaceae
#14
Ko Mochizuki, Saori Furukawa, Atsushi Kawakita
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The genus Hoya (Apocynaceae; Asclepiadoideae) is characterized by a set of complex floral characters unique among the asclepiads, but their role in pollination is poorly understood. Here, we report a new mechanism of asclepiad pollination in the wax plant Hoya carnosa: the pollinaria are transferred on the legs of medium or large settling moths. METHODS: Floral visitors and their behavior were observed on Amami-Oshima Island during 2013-2015, and the efficacy of different pollinators was determined by counting the pollinarium loads on different flower visitors...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626039/the-role-of-idioblasts-in-leaf-water-relations-of-tropical-rhododendron
#15
Tatpong Tulyananda, Erik T Nilsen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Although much is known about the anatomy of idioblasts, the relationship of leaf idioblasts to leaf physiology is poorly known. Our goal was to understand the relationship between idioblast abundance and leaf water relations. Tropical epiphytic and shrub Rhododendron species were the model system. METHODS: Leaf succulence and idioblast metrics of 61 plants representing 17 species were compared with stomatal and water relation metrics. Correlation, ANOVA, and regression were used to understand which water relation traits were best aligned with the proportion of the leaf occupied by idioblasts for epiphytic and shrub species...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626038/phenology-of-perennial-native-grass-belowground-axillary-buds-in-the-northern-mixed-grass-prairie
#16
Morgan L Russell, Lance T Vermeire, Amy C Ganguli, John R Hendrickson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Vegetative reproduction from belowground bud banks is the primary driver of grassland systems. Despite the importance of bud banks, the timing of recruitment and the crucial link between formation and maintenance is unknown. METHODS: We assessed patterns of belowground bud development, dormancy, and mortality associated with three perennial native grasses in the northern Great Plains. Temperature and soil moisture were measured below the soil surface to determine relationships with belowground bud development...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626037/autopolyploidization-geographic-origin-and-metabolome-evolution-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
Fredd Vergara, Bart Rymen, Ayuko Kuwahara, Yuji Sawada, Muneo Sato, Masami Y Hirai
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Autopolyploidy, or whole-genome duplication, is a recurrent phenomenon in plant evolution. Its existence can be inferred from the presence of massive levels of genetic redundancy revealed by comparative plant phylogenomics. Whole-genome duplication is theoretically associated with evolutionary novelties such as the development of new metabolic reactions and therefore contributes to the evolution of new plant metabolic profiles. However, very little is yet known about the impact of autopolyploidy on the metabolism of recently formed autopolyploids...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611073/population-genetic-structure-of-the-rock-outcrop-species-encholirium-spectabile-bromeliaceae-the-role-of-pollination-vs-seed-dispersal-and-evolutionary-implications
#18
Rodrigo C Gonçalves-Oliveira, Tina Wöhrmann, Ana M Benko-Iseppon, Florian Krapp, Marccus Alves, Maria das Graças L Wanderley, Kurt Weising
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Inselbergs are terrestrial, island-like rock outcrop environments that present a highly adapted flora. The epilithic bromeliad Encholirium spectabile is a dominant species on inselbergs in the Caatinga of northeastern Brazil. We conducted a population genetic analysis to test whether the substantial phenotypic diversity of E. spectabile could be explained by limited gene flow among populations and to assess the relative impact of pollen vs. seed dispersal on the genetic structure of the species...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611072/decoupled-leaf-and-root-carbon-economics-is-a-key-component-in-the-ecological-diversity-and-evolutionary-divergence-of-deciduous-and-evergreen-lineages-of-genus-rhododendron
#19
Juliana S Medeiros, Jean H Burns, Jaynell Nicholson, Louisa Rogers, Oscar Valverde-Barrantes
PREMISE: We explored trait-trait and trait-climate relationships for 27 Rhododendron species while accounting for phylogenetic relationships and within-species variation to investigate whether leaf and root traits are coordinated across environments and over evolutionary time, as part of a whole-plant economics spectrum. METHODS: We examined specific leaf area (SLA) and four root traits: specific root length (SRL), specific root tip abundance (SRTA), first order diameter, and link average length, for plants growing in a cold, seasonal climate (Kirtland, Ohio) and a warmer, less seasonal climate (Federal Way, Washington) in the United States...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611071/seedling-response-to-environmental-variability-the-relationship-between-phenotypic-plasticity-and-evolutionary-history-in-closely-related-eucalyptus-species
#20
Susan Rutherford, Stephen P Bonser, Peter G Wilson, Maurizio Rossetto
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Phenotypic plasticity is an important means through which organisms cope with environmental variability. We investigated seedling plasticity in the green ash eucalypts within a phylogenetic framework to examine the relationship between plasticity and evolutionary history. The green ashes are a diverse group, which include the tallest flowering plant in the world (Eucalyptus regnans) and a rare mallee less than 1 m tall (E. cunninghamii). METHODS: Seedlings of 12 species were exposed to high and low nutrient and water availability in a factorial experiment...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Botany
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