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American Journal of Botany

Riyadh Muhaidat, Athena D McKown, Mazhar Al Zoubi, Zakariya Bani Domi, Osama Otoum
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Tetraena simplex is an independently evolved C4 species in the Zygophylloideae (Zygophyllaceae) and a characteristic forb of saline flats in hot and sandy desert habitats. During early ontogeny, the species had a morphological shift from planar cotyledons (dorsiventral symmetry) to terete, succulent leaves (radial symmetry). We tested whether this shift had a corresponding change in internal Kranz anatomy and tissue patterning. METHODS: For a comprehensive characterization of C4 photosynthesis across early ontogeny in T...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Shih-Hui Liu, Christine E Edwards, Peter C Hoch, Peter H Raven, Janet C Barber
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Interpreting relationships within groups containing polyploids, which are frequent in angiosperms, can be greatly assisted by genomic techniques. In this study, we used a genome-skimming approach to investigate the evolutionary relationships and origins of polyploids in the monophyletic group, Ludwigia section Macrocarpon (Onagraceae), which includes diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid taxa. METHODS: We sampled all known taxa and ploidy levels in the section and conducted shotgun sequencing...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Russell K Monson, Paul Szejner, Soumaya Belmecheri, Kiyomi A Morino, William E Wright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Ulrich Kutschera, Karl J Niklas
The year 2018 marks the 150th anniversary of the first publication of Julius von Sachs' (1832-1897) Lehrbuch der Botanik (Textbook of Botany), which provided a comprehensive summary of what was then known about the plant sciences. Three years earlier, in 1865, Sachs produced the equally impressive Handbuch der Experimental-Physiologie der Pflanzen (Handbook of Experimental Plant Physiology), which summarized the state of knowledge in all aspects of the discipline known today as plant physiology. Both of these books provided numerous insights based on Sachs' seminal experiments...
May 17, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Rachel E Pain, Ruth G Shaw, Seema N Sheth
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Mutualistic relationships with microbes may aid plants in overcoming environmental stressors and increase the range of abiotic environments where plants can persist. Rhizobia, nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with legumes, often confer fitness benefits to their host plants by increasing access to nitrogen in nitrogen-limited soils, but effects of rhizobia on host fitness under other stresses, such as drought, remain unclear. METHODS: In this greenhouse study, we varied the application of rhizobia (Bradyrhizobium sp...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Elizabeth A Bowman, A Elizabeth Arnold
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Understanding distributions of plant-symbiotic fungi is important for projecting responses to environmental change. Many coniferous trees host ectomycorrhizal fungi (EM) in association with roots and foliar endophytic fungi (FE) in leaves. We examined how EM and FE associated with Pinus ponderosa each vary in abundance, diversity, and community structure over a spatially constrained elevation gradient that traverses four plant communities, 4°C in mean annual temperature, and 15 cm in mean annual precipitation...
May 13, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Donald M Waller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Joseph F Walker, Ya Yang, Tao Feng, Alfonso Timoneda, Jessica Mikenas, Vera Hutchison, Caroline Edwards, Ning Wang, Sonia Ahluwalia, Julia Olivieri, Nathanael Walker-Hale, Lucas C Majure, Raúl Puente, Gudrun Kadereit, Maximilian Lauterbach, Urs Eggli, Hilda Flores-Olvera, Helga Ochoterena, Samuel F Brockington, Michael J Moore, Stephen A Smith
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The Caryophyllales contain ~12,500 species and are known for their cosmopolitan distribution, convergence of trait evolution, and extreme adaptations. Some relationships within the Caryophyllales, like those of many large plant clades, remain unclear, and phylogenetic studies often recover alternative hypotheses. We explore the utility of broad and dense transcriptome sampling across the order for resolving evolutionary relationships in Caryophyllales. METHODS: We generated 84 transcriptomes and combined these with 224 publicly available transcriptomes to perform a phylogenomic analysis of Caryophyllales...
May 8, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Emily B Sessa, Sally M Chambers, Daijiang Li, Lauren Trotta, Lorena Endara, J Gordon Burleigh, Benjamin Baiser
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Many ecological and evolutionary processes shape the assembly of organisms into local communities from a regional pool of species. We analyzed phylogenetic and functional diversity to understand community assembly of the ferns of Florida at two spatial scales. METHODS: We built a phylogeny for 125 of the 141 species of ferns in Florida using five chloroplast markers. We calculated mean pairwise dissimilarity (MPD) and mean nearest taxon distance (MNTD) from phylogenetic distances and functional trait data for both spatial scales and compared the results to null models to assess significance...
May 5, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Heather Rose Kates, Matthew G Johnson, Elliot M Gardner, Nyree J C Zerega, Norman J Wickett
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Untapped information about allele diversity within populations and individuals (i.e., heterozygosity) could improve phylogenetic resolution and accuracy. Many phylogenetic reconstructions ignore heterozygosity because it is difficult to assemble allele sequences and combine allele data across unlinked loci, and it is unclear how reconstruction methods accommodate variable sequences. We review the common methods of including heterozygosity in phylogenetic studies and present a novel method for assembling allele sequences from target-enriched Illumina sequencing libraries...
May 5, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Carlos M Herrera, Conchita Alonso, Mónica Medrano, Ricardo Pérez, Pilar Bazaga
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The ecological and evolutionary significance of natural epigenetic variation (i.e., not based on DNA sequence variants) variation will depend critically on whether epigenetic states are transmitted from parents to offspring, but little is known on epigenetic inheritance in nonmodel plants. METHODS: We present a quantitative analysis of transgenerational transmission of global DNA cytosine methylation (= proportion of all genomic cytosines that are methylated) and individual epigenetic markers (= methylation status of anonymous MSAP markers) in the shrub Lavandula latifolia...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Austin R Mast, Elizabeth R Ellwood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Hilary A McManus, Karolina Fučíková, Paul O Lewis, Louise A Lewis, Kenneth G Karol
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Phylogenomic analyses across the green algae are resolving relationships at the class, order, and family levels and highlighting dynamic patterns of evolution in organellar genomes. Here we present a within-family phylogenomic study to resolve genera and species relationships in the family Hydrodictyaceae (Chlorophyceae), for which poor resolution in previous phylogenetic studies, along with divergent morphological traits, have precluded taxonomic revisions. METHODS: Complete plastome sequences and mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequences were acquired from representatives of the Hydrodictyaceae using next-generation sequencing methods...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Can Dai, Wen-Jie Luo, Yan-Bing Gong, Fan Liu, Zheng-Xiang Wang
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Understanding resource allocation to reproduction, a key factor in life history tradeoffs, has long intrigued plant ecologists. Despite the recognized importance of understanding the movement of resources among flowers following variable pollination, the patterns of resource reallocation to plant reproductive organs have not been thoroughly addressed. In this study, we aimed to empirically explore how resources redistribute within inflorescences in response to differential pollination intensities...
April 30, 2018: American Journal of Botany
L Lacey Knowles, Huateng Huang, Jeet Sukumaran, Stephen A Smith
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Discordant gene trees are commonly encountered when sequences from thousands of loci are applied to estimate phylogenetic relationships. Several processes contribute to this discord. Yet, we have no methods that jointly model different sources of conflict when estimating phylogenies. An alternative to analyzing entire genomes or all the sequenced loci is to identify a subset of loci for phylogenetic analysis. If we can identify data partitions that are most likely to reflect descent from a common ancestor (i...
April 30, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Wade R Roberts, Eric H Roalson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The Neotropical Gesneriaceae is a lineage known for its colorful and diverse flowers, as well as an extensive history of intra- and intergeneric hybridization, particularly among Achimenes (the magic flowers) and other members of subtribe Gloxiniinae. Despite numerous studies seeking to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of these lineages, relatively few have sought to infer specific patterns of gene flow despite evidence of widespread hybridization. METHODS: To explore the utility of phylogenomic data for reassessing phylogenetic relationships and inferring patterns of gene flow among species of Achimenes, we sequenced 12 transcriptomes...
April 27, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Carlos J Pasiche-Lisboa, Inés Sastre-De Jesús
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Mosses produce asexual propagules, which are dispersed, thus allowing population establishment and maintenance. However, it is unknown if or how protonemata-one of their asexually produced propagules-are dispersed. Moss protonemata were exposed to three dispersal vectors (water, wind, and snails) to describe the dispersal capability and survival after dispersal. METHODS: The protonemata of mosses Callicostella belangeriana and Taxiphyllum taxirameum were splashed with water drops from a 1 or 2 m height, exposed to two wind velocities (V1 = 2...
April 27, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Douglas E Soltis, Michael J Moore, Emily B Sessa, Stephen A Smith, Pamela S Soltis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Mark Fishbein, Shannon C K Straub, Julien Boutte, Kimberly Hansen, Richard C Cronn, Aaron Liston
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Leaf surface traits, such as trichome density and wax production, mediate important ecological processes such as anti-herbivory defense and water-use efficiency. We present a phylogenetic analysis of Asclepias plastomes as a framework for analyzing the evolution of trichome density and presence of epicuticular waxes. METHODS: We produced a maximum-likelihood phylogeny using plastomes of 103 species of Asclepias. We reconstructed ancestral states and used model comparisons in a likelihood framework to analyze character evolution across Asclepias...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Laryssa L Barnett, Ashley Troth, John H Willis
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Angiosperms have evolved multiple breeding systems that allow reproductive success under varied conditions. Striking among these are cleistogamous breeding systems, where individuals can produce alternative flower types specialized for distinct mating strategies. Cleistogamy is thought to be environmentally-dependent, but little is known about environmental triggers. If production of alternate flowers is environmentally induced, populations may evolve locally adapted responses...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Botany
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