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American Journal of Botany

Daniel Spalink, Ricardo Kriebel, Pan Li, Matthew C Pace, Bryan T Drew, John G Zaborsky, Jeffrey Rose, Chloe P Drummond, Mary Ann Feist, William S Alverson, Donald M Waller, Kenneth M Cameron, Thomas J Givnish, Kenneth J Sytsma
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: We used spatial phylogenetics to analyze the assembly of the Wisconsin flora, linking processes of dispersal and niche evolution to spatial patterns of floristic and phylogenetic diversity and testing whether phylogenetic niche conservatism can account for these patterns. METHODS: We used digitized records and a new molecular phylogeny for 93% of vascular plants in Wisconsin to estimate spatial variation in species richness and phylogenetic α and β diversity in a native flora shaped mainly by postglacial dispersal and response to environmental gradients...
November 8, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Yuka Kawai, Gaku Kudo
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Variation in demographic parameters reflects the life-history strategies of plants in response to specific environments. We aimed to investigate the intraspecific variation in life-history traits of a clonal alpine herb, Gentiana nipponica, in various snowmelt conditions. METHODS: Individual ramets within genets accumulate leaves for 7-9 yr without shedding, and die after reproduction. We tested the physiological function of accumulated leaves for reproduction and monitored the ramet demography in early, intermediate, and late snowmelt populations over 3 yr...
November 2, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Chelsea N Miller, Charles Kwit
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Comparing ecological attributes of endemic species with related, widespread species can reveal differences accounting for rarity. Forests of the southeastern United States are home to many range-restricted endemic and widespread species of Trillium, a genus of ant-dispersed herbs. Evidence suggests that aspects of seed-related life history stages are often correlated with plant rarity, but few studies have tested whether the process of seed dispersal differs for endemic and widespread species...
November 1, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Nicole L Soper Gorden, Lynn S Adler
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Plants often interact simultaneously with multiple antagonists and mutualists that can alter plant traits at the phenotypic or genetic level, subsequent plant-insect interactions, and reproduction. Although many studies have examined the effects of single floral antagonisms on subsequent pollination and plant reproduction, we know very little about the combined, potentially non-additive effects of multiple flower-insect interactions. METHODS: We simulated increased florivory, nectar robbing, and pollination on field-grown Impatiens capensis, which allowed us to determine interactive effects on five subsequent plant-insect interactions and 16 plant traits, including traits related to plant growth, floral attractiveness, floral defenses, and plant reproduction...
October 30, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Jennifer A Rudgers, Eva Dettweiler-Robinson, Jayne Belnap, Laura E Green, Robert L Sinsabaugh, Kristina E Young, Catherine E Cort, Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Hailee B Korotkin, Rachel A Swenie, Otto Miettinen, Jessica M Budke, Ko-Hsuan Chen, François Lutzoni, Matthew E Smith, P Brandon Matheny
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The Hymenochaetales are dominated by lignicolous saprotrophic fungi involved in wood decay. However, the group also includes bryophilous and terricolous taxa, but their modes of nutrition are not clear. Here, we investigate patterns of carbon and nitrogen utilization in numerous non-lignicolous Hymenochaetales and provide a phylogenetic context in which these non-canonical ecological guilds arose. METHODS: We combined stable isotope analyses of δ13 C and δ15 N and phylogenetic analyses to explore assignment and evolution of nutritional modes...
October 26, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Reilly F Hayes, Selena Y Smith, Marisol Montellano-Ballesteros, Gerardo Álvarez-Reyes, René Hernandez-Rivera, David E Fastovsky
Premise of the Study Cretaceous Cornales provide a crucial record of the early history of asterids. Most lineages of the order are well represented in the fossil record, but South African families of Curtisiaceae and Grubbiaceae remain poorly understood. Seventy-three specimens of a fossil infructescence belonging to the genus Operculifructus Estrada-Ruiz & Cevallos-Ferriz emend. Hayes & Smith from the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) El Gallo Formation, Baja California, Mexico bear previously undescribed characters that suggest a relationship to Grubbiaceae...
October 25, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Juliette de Meaux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Thomas J Givnish, Alejandro Zuluaga, Daniel Spalink, Marybel Soto Gomez, Vivienne K Y Lam, Jeffrey M Saarela, Chodon Sass, William J D Iles, Danilo José Lima de Sousa, James Leebens-Mack, J Chris Pires, Wendy B Zomlefer, Maria A Gandolfo, Jerrold I Davis, Dennis W Stevenson, Claude dePamphilis, Chelsea D Specht, Sean W Graham, Craig F Barrett, Cécile Ané
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: We present the first plastome phylogeny encompassing all 77 monocot families, estimate branch support, and infer monocot-wide divergence times and rates of species diversification. METHODS: We conducted maximum likelihood analyses of phylogeny and BAMM studies of diversification rates based on 77 plastid genes across 545 monocots and 22 outgroups. We quantified how branch support and ascertainment vary with gene number, branch length, and branch depth...
October 24, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Jaqueline Dos Santos, Isabela Galarda Varassin, Valéria Cunha Muschner, Otso Ovaskainen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Seed and pollen dispersal are key processes shaping plant population dynamics and maintaining genetic diversity. The essence of these processes is the movement of propagules from a parental tree to the site of propagule establishment. The estimation of plant dispersal kernels has remained challenging due to the difficulty of making direct observations. We estimated the dispersal capacity of the endangered palm Euterpe edulis, whose seeds are dispersed by vertebrates and pollen by insects...
October 22, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Shoji Naoe, Takashi Masaki, Shoko Sakai
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: In animal-dispersed plants, seed dispersal patterns of the same species in the same habitat can greatly differ among individuals and temporally. Many studies have revealed the pervasive effects of spatial variation in fruit abundance on seed dispersal of individual plants. By contrast, very few studies have investigated the temporal variation in seed dispersal. METHODS: We investigated the effects of conspecific and community-level fruit abundance on fruit removal rate and seed dispersal distance of six bird-dispersed woody species in a Japanese temperate forest for 3 yr...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Leila R Fletcher, Hongxia Cui, Hilary Callahan, Christine Scoffoni, Grace P John, Megan K Bartlett, Dylan O Burge, Lawren Sack
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Studies across diverse species have established theory for the contribution of leaf traits to plant drought tolerance. For example, species in more arid climates tend to have smaller leaves of higher vein density, higher leaf mass per area, and more negative osmotic potential at turgor loss point (πTLP ). However, few studies have tested these associations for species within a given lineage that have diversified across an aridity gradient. METHODS: We analyzed the anatomy and physiology of 10 Ceanothus (Rhamnaceae) species grown in a common garden for variation between and within "wet" and "dry" subgenera (Ceanothus and Cerastes, respectively) and analyzed a database for 35 species for leaf size and leaf mass per area (LMA)...
October 2018: American Journal of Botany
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: American Journal of Botany
Bárbara S S Leal, Lilian R Medeiros, Elen A Peres, Thadeu Sobral-Souza, Clarisse Palma-Silva, Gustavo Q Romero, Claudia M A Carareto
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Historical abiotic and biotic factors have strongly affected species diversification and speciation. Although pre-Pleistocene events have been linked to the divergence of several Neotropical organisms, studies have highlighted a more prominent role of Pleistocene climatic oscillations in shaping current patterns of genetic variation of plants. METHODS: We performed phylogeographic analyses based on plastidial markers and modeled the current distribution and paleodistribution of Bromelia balansae (Bromeliaceae), an herbaceous species with a wide geographical distribution in South America, to infer the processes underlying its evolutionary history...
October 2018: American Journal of Botany
A K Ettinger, S Gee, E M Wolkovich
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Plant phenology is a critical trait, as the timings of phenophases such as budburst, leafout, flowering, and fruiting, are important to plant fitness. Despite much study about when individual phenophases occur and how they may shift with climate change, little is known about how multiple phenophases relate to one another across an entire growing season. We test the extent to which early phenological stages constrain later ones, throughout a growing season, across 25 angiosperm tree species...
October 2018: American Journal of Botany
Ghislain Vieilledent, Fabian Jörg Fischer, Jérôme Chave, Daniel Guibal, Patrick Langbour, Jean Gérard
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Basic wood density is an important ecological trait for woody plants. It is used to characterize species performance and fitness in community ecology and to compute tree and forest biomass in carbon cycle studies. While wood density has been historically measured at 12% moisture, it is convenient for ecological purposes to convert this measure to basic wood density, i.e., the ratio of dry mass over green volume. Basic wood density can then be used to compute tree dry biomass from living tree volume...
October 2018: American Journal of Botany
Brittany L Sutherland, Laura F Galloway
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to a species distribution. Among plants, the extrinsic effects of glaciation and intrinsic effects of whole genome duplication are powerful drivers of biogeographical patterns, but the interplay of these factors is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the roles glaciation and whole-genome duplication have played in the evolution of the widespread polyploid complex Campanula rotundifolia. METHODS: We assessed the cytotype of 37 populations that spanned the geographic and cytotypic range of the C...
October 2018: American Journal of Botany
John Huber, David L Dettman, David G Williams, Kevin R Hultine
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Giant cacti species possess long cylindrical stems that store massive amounts of water and other resources to draw on for photosynthesis, growth, and reproduction during hot and dry conditions. Across all giant cacti taxa, stem photosynthetic surface area to volume ratio (S:V) varies by several fold. This broad morphological diversity leads to the hypothesis that giant cacti function along a predictable resource use continuum from a "safe" strategy reflected in low S:V, low relative growth rates (RGR), and low net assimilation rates (Anet ) to a high-risk strategy that is reflected in high S:V, RGR, and Anet ...
October 2018: American Journal of Botany
Lauren B Trotta, Benjamin Baiser, Jennifer Possley, Daijiang Li, James Lange, Sarah Martin, Emily B Sessa
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Community phylogenetic methods incorporate information on evolutionary relationships into studies of organismal assemblages. We used a community phylogenetic framework to investigate relationships and biogeographic affinities and to calculate phylogenetic signal of endemism and invasiveness for the flora of the pine rocklands-a globally critically imperiled ecosystem with a significant portion of its distribution in South Florida, United States. METHODS: We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships of 538 vascular plant taxa, which represent 92...
October 2018: American Journal of Botany
Richard Jagels, Maria A Equiza, Douglas A Maguire, Damian Cirelli
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: In 1757 Leonhard Euler demonstrated that to avoid bending tall columns needed to be stiffer but not stronger than shorter columns of equal diameter and material density. Many researchers have concluded that trees have a fixed stiffness to basic density ratio, and therefore, trees adjust for increasing height by adding mass to adjust stem form. But the wood science literature points to considerable variance in stiffness with respect to green wood density. METHODS: Using the vast global repository of green wood mechanical properties, we compared relative stiffness and relative strength between taller and shorter species...
October 2018: American Journal of Botany
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