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American Journal of Botany

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428199/experimental-insights-on-darwin-s-cross-promotion-hypothesis-in-tristylous-purple-loosestrife-lythrum-salicaria
#1
Joana Costa, Sílvia Castro, João Loureiro, Spencer C H Barrett
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Darwin proposed that the reciprocal arrangement of anthers and stigmas in heterostylous plants promotes cross-pollination through pollen segregation on pollinators' bodies. The floral tube in most heterostylous species constrains the feeding posture of pollinators determining the site of contact with sex organs located at different heights within a flower. Here, we evaluate Darwin's hypothesis in tristylous Lythrum salicaria, a species with a partially tubular corolla, and examine the extent to which the location of sex organs within a flower influence compatible and incompatible pollination...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428198/correlation-causation-and-the-evolution-of-leaf-teeth-a-reply-to-givnish-and-kriebel
#2
Erika J Edwards, David S Chatelet, Elizabeth L Spriggs, Elissa S Johnson, Caroline Schlutius, Michael J Donoghue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428197/unusual-positional-effects-on-flower-sex-in-an-andromonoecious-tree-resource-competition-architectural-constraints-or-inhibition-by-the-apical-flower
#3
Carlos Granado-Yela, Luis Balaguer, Luis Cayuela, Marcos Méndez
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Two, nonmutually exclusive, mechanisms-competition for resources and architectural constraints-have been proposed to explain the proximal to distal decline in flower size, mass, and/or femaleness in indeterminate, elongate inflorescences. Whether these mechanisms also explain unusual positional effects such as distal to proximal declines of floral performance in determinate inflorescences, is understudied. METHODS: We tested the relative influence of these mechanisms in the andromonoecious wild olive tree, where hermaphroditic flowers occur mainly on apical and the most proximal positions in determinate inflorescences...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424206/extending-the-fossil-record-of-polytrichaceae-early-cretaceous-meantoinea-alophosioides-gen-et-sp-nov-permineralized-gametophytes-with-gemma-cups-from-vancouver-island
#4
Alexander C Bippus, Ruth A Stockey, Gar W Rothwell, Alexandru M F Tomescu
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Diverse in modern ecosystems, mosses are dramatically underrepresented in the fossil record. Furthermore, most pre-Cenozoic mosses are known only from compression fossils, lacking detailed anatomical information. When preserved, anatomy vastly improves resolution in the systematic placement of fossils. Lower Cretaceous deposits at Apple Bay (Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada) contain a diverse anatomically preserved flora that includes numerous bryophytes, many of which have yet to be characterized...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424205/the-use-of-soil-pollen-to-determine-the-sex-of-overhead-individuals-of-a-temperate-dioecious-shrub
#5
Anna Sugiyama, Koji Shichi, Takashi Masaki, Stephen P Hubbell
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: In dioecious species, determining the sex of individual plants from one-time phenological observations is rarely feasible when some individuals capable of reproducing are not flowering or fruiting at the time of observation. Currently, sexing those individuals requires long-term phenological data on individuals and populations, but such data are rarely available or feasible to collect. We tested the hypothesis that differences in soil pollen concentrations beneath the crowns of female and male plants would exist and be sufficient to reliably determine the sex of the individual plant overhead in a dioecious species...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424204/a-species-on-a-tightrope-establishment-limitations-of-an-endangered-lichen-in-a-fragmented-mediterranean-landscape
#6
Juan Luis H Cardós, Gregorio Aragón, Isabel Martínez
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Habitat loss and forest fragmentation affect the dispersal and establishment of species. Furthermore, populations growing far from the species' optimal climate might be less viable because good-quality habitat can be scarce and easily altered by smaller changes. The lichen Pectenia plumbea has oceanic climatic requirements, so in the Mediterranean region it needs the humidity provided by well-preserved forests to thrive, but most of this habitat has disappeared and the remnants are fragmented...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424203/relationships-between-the-timing-of-budburst-plant-traits-and-distribution-of-24-coexisting-woody-species-in-a-warm-temperate-forest-in-japan
#7
Noriyuki Osada
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Timing of budburst (DBB) may be related to the functional traits and distributions of woody species in temperate regions. Although many previous studies have investigated DBB in a number of temperate species, it has seldom been linked to multiple plant trait relationships. METHODS: DBB and plant traits were investigated for 24 woody species for 2 years in a warm-temperate secondary forest in Japan. Particular attention was paid to differences in trait relationships between coexisting deciduous and evergreen broad-leaved species...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411211/persistence-of-endophytic-fungi-in-cultivars-of-loliumperenne-grown-from-seeds-stored-for-22-years
#8
Gregory P Cheplick
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Genetic resources for forage crops often consist of seeds of specific species and cultivars in cold storage for future use in breeding and selection programs. Temperate grasses such as Lolium perenne, used worldwide for forage and turf, produce seeds commonly infected by hyphae of an endophytic fungus (Epichloë festucae var. lolii). This research determined whether endophytes could persist and infect seedlings of L. perenne emerging from seeds stored for over two decades...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411210/photoperiod-throughout-the-maternal-life-cycle-not-photoperiod-during-seed-imbibition-influences-germination-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#9
Toshiyuki Imaizumi, Gabriela Auge, Kathleen Donohue
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Plants adjust their phenology in response to seasonal cues experienced both by their parents and by themselves, and coordinating responses to these cues is necessary for expressing adaptive phenology. We investigated how cues are integrated across time to influence an important progeny phenotype, i.e., seed germination. METHODS: We used Arabidopsis thaliana to investigate how the photoperiod experienced by maternal parents and by progeny influences seed germination...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411209/phylogeography-of-the-wild-and-cultivated-stimulant-plant-qat-catha-edulis-celastraceae-in-areas-of-historical-cultivation
#10
Luke R Tembrock, Mark P Simmons, Christopher M Richards, Patrick A Reeves, Ann Reilley, Manuel A Curto, Harald Meimberg, Grace Ngugi, Sebsebe Demissew, Abdul Wali Al Khulaidi, Mansoor Al-Thobhani, Sheron Simpson, Daniel M Varisco
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) is a woody plant species cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids. Qat is important to the economy and culture in large regions of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Yemen. Despite the importance of this species, the wild origins and dispersal of cultivars have only been described in often contradictory historical documents. We examined the wild origins, human-mediated dispersal, and genetic divergence of cultivated qat compared to wild qat. METHODS: We sampled 17 SSR markers and 1561 wild and cultivated individuals across the historical areas of qat cultivation...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400415/recombination-dependent-replication-and-gene-conversion-homogenize-repeat-sequences-and-diversify-plastid-genome-structure
#11
Tracey A Ruhlman, Jin Zhang, John C Blazier, Jamal S M Sabir, Robert K Jansen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: There is a misinterpretation in the literature regarding the variable orientation of the small single copy region of plastid genomes (plastomes). The common phenomenon of small and large single copy inversion, hypothesized to occur through intramolecular recombination between inverted repeats (IR) in a circular, single unit-genome, in fact, more likely occurs through recombination-dependent replication (RDR) of linear plastome templates. If RDR can be primed through both intra- and intermolecular recombination, then this mechanism could not only create inversion isomers of so-called single copy regions, but also an array of alternative sequence arrangements...
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400414/differences-in-dehydration-tolerance-among-populations-of-a-gametophyte-only-fern
#12
Sally M Chambers, J E Watkins, Emily B Sessa
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: For many plant species, historical climatic conditions may have left lasting imprints that are detectable in contemporary populations. Additionally, if these historical conditions also prevented gene flow among populations, these populations may be differentiated with respect to one another and their contemporary environmental conditions. For the fern, Vittaria appalachiana, one theory is that historical conditions during the Pleistocene largely shaped both the distribution and lack of sporophyte production...
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400413/high-throughput-phenotyping
#13
Malia A Gehan, Elizabeth A Kellogg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341630/flexibility-of-resource-allocation-in-a-hermaphroditic-gynomonoecious-herb-through-deployment-of-female-and-male-resources-in-perfect-flowers
#14
Jannathan Mamut, Ying-Ze Xiong, Dun-Yan Tan, Shuang-Quan Huang
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: It has been hypothesized that two flower types permit flexible allocation of resources to female and male functions, yet empirical evidence for the sex-allocation hypothesis remains scarce in gynomonoecious species. To characterize resource allocation to pistillate and perfect flowers and allocation of perfect flowers between gynomonoecious and hermaphroditic individuals, we examined the flexibility and whether female-biased allocation increases with plant size in the hermaphroditic-gynomonoecious herb Eremurus anisopterus...
March 24, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341629/persistent-homology-and-the-branching-topologies-of-plants
#15
Mao Li, Keith Duncan, Christopher N Topp, Daniel H Chitwood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341628/species-richness-and-endemism-in-the-native-flora-of-california
#16
Bruce G Baldwin, Andrew H Thornhill, William A Freyman, David D Ackerly, Matthew M Kling, Naia Morueta-Holme, Brent D Mishler
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: California's vascular flora is the most diverse and threatened in temperate North America. Previous studies of spatial patterns of Californian plant diversity have been limited by traditional metrics, non-uniform geographic units, and distributional data derived from floristic descriptions for only a subset of species. METHODS: We revisited patterns of sampling intensity, species richness, and relative endemism in California based on equal-area spatial units, the full vascular flora, and specimen-based distributional data...
March 24, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341626/phenotypic-effects-of-allotetraploidization-of-wild-arachis-and-their-implications-for-peanut-domestication
#17
Soraya C M Leal-Bertioli, Márcio C Moretzsohn, Silvio P Santos, Ana C M Brasileiro, Patrícia M Guimarães, David J Bertioli, Ana Claudia G Araujo
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Several species of Arachis have been cultivated for their edible seeds, historically and to the present day. The diploid species that have a history of cultivation show relatively small signatures of domestication. In contrast, the tetraploid species A. hypogaea evolved into highly domesticated forms and became a major world crop, the cultivated peanut. It seems likely that allotetraploidization (hybridity and/or tetraploidization) in some way enhanced attractiveness for cultivation...
March 24, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325832/physiological-effects-of-temperature-do-not-explain-prevalence-of-females-in-populations-of-gynodioecious-lobelia-siphilitica-growing-in-warmer-climates
#18
Maia F Bailey, Andrea L Case, Christina M Caruso
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Gynodioecy is a sexual polymorphism whereby female and hermaphroditic plants co-occur within populations. In many gynodioecious species, stressful abiotic environments are associated with higher frequencies of females. This association suggests that abiotic stress affects the relative fitness of females and hermaphrodites and, thus, the maintenance of gynodioecy. METHODS: To test whether abiotic stress affects the fitness of females and hermaphrodites, we grew open-pollinated Lobelia siphilitica families in temperature regimes characteristic of the southern portion of the species' range (where females are common) and the northern portion of the range (where females are rare)...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325831/landscape-genomic-insights-into-the-historic-migration-of-mountain-hemlock-in-response-to-holocene-climate-change
#19
Jeremy S Johnson, Keith D Gaddis, David M Cairns, Kranti Konganti, Konstantin V Krutovsky
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Untangling alternative historic dispersal pathways in long-lived tree species is critical to better understand how temperate tree species may respond to climatic change. However, disentangling these alternative pathways is often difficult. Emerging genomic technologies and landscape genetics techniques improve our ability to assess these pathways in natural systems. We address the question to what degree have microrefugial patches and long-distance dispersal been responsible for the colonization of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) on the Alaskan Kenai Peninsula...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325829/effects-of-seed-density-and-proximity-to-refuge-habitat-on-seed-predation-rates-for-a-rare-and-a-common-lupinus-species
#20
Eleanor A Pardini, Melissa V Patten, Tiffany M Knight
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Biotic interactions such as seed predation can play a role in explaining patterns of abundance among plant species. The effect of seed predation will depend on how the strength of predation differs across species and environments, and on the degree to which seed loss at one life-cycle phase increases fitness at another phase. Few studies have simultaneously quantified predispersal and postdispersal predation in co-occurring rare and common congeners, despite the value of estimating both for understanding causes of rarity...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Botany
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