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American Journal of Botany

Bryan T Drew, Sitong Liu, Jose M Bonifacino, Kenneth J Sytsma
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The subtribe Menthinae (Lamiaceae), with 35 genera and 750 species, is among the largest and most economically important subtribes within the mint family. Most genera of Menthinae are found exclusively in the New World, where the group has a virtually continuous distribution ranging from temperate North America to southern South America. In this study, we explored the presence, timing, and origin of amphitropical disjuncts within Menthinae. METHODS: Our analyses were based on a data set consisting of 89 taxa and the nuclear ribosomal DNA markers ITS and ETS...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Leigh A Johnson, J Mark Porter
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Following establishment after long-distance dispersal, species may experience stasis, accumulate changes leading to new species identity, diversify into multiple species, interact with related species to form novel species, and even become extirpated. We examined each species of temperate Polemoniaceae in South America via the literature and new analyses to better understand the fates of species in this family after their dispersal from North America. METHODS: We reviewed literature for the 15 species of Polemoniaceae in South America amphitropically disjunct from their relatives in North America...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Yuval Sapir, Mahua Ghara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
João Paulo Basso-Alves, Renato Goldenberg, Simone Pádua Teixeira
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Although the ovary position is considered a stable character in angiosperms, Melastomataceae species have perigynous flowers in which the ovary varies from superior to inferior. Thus, we investigated the ontogenetic process involved in variation of the ovary position in Melastomataceae. We focused on histogenesis of the floral apex in search of developmental patterns for each type of ovary position. METHODS: Six species in which the ovary varies from superior to inferior were chosen: Henriettea saldanhae, Leandra melastomoides, Miconia dodecandra, Microlicia euphorbioides, Rhynchanthera grandiflora, and Tibouchina clinopodifolia...
August 21, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Christina M Johnson, Aswati Subramanian, Sivakumar Pattathil, Melanie J Correll, John Z Kiss
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Plants will play an important role in the future of space exploration as part of bioregenerative life support. Thus, it is important to understand the effects of microgravity and spaceflight on gene expression in plant development. METHODS: We analyzed the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana using the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware during Space Shuttle mission STS-131. The bioinformatics methods used included RMA (robust multi-array average), MAS5 (Microarray Suite 5...
August 21, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Brett S Younginger, Daniel J Ballhorn
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Fungal endophytes have been shown to colonize all land plants, yet surprisingly little attention has been given to their community composition in ferns. We examined the diversity and temporal turnover of fungal endophytes in foliar tissue of the temperate western sword fern, Polystichum munitum, comparing taxa in newly emerged leaflets and in the same fronds after 1 mo of exposure in the field. METHODS: Utilizing next-generation sequencing, we sampled pinnae from P...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Carlos M Herrera, Mónica Medrano, Pilar Bazaga
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Epigenetic variation can play a role in local adaptation; thus, there should be associations among epigenetic variation, environmental variation, and functional trait variation across populations. This study examines these relationships in the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). METHODS: Plants from 10 subpopulations were characterized genetically (AFLP, SSR markers), epigenetically (MSAP markers), and phenotypically (20 functional traits)...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Botany
David A Wickell, Michael D Windham, Xiaofei Wang, Stuart J Macdonald, James B Beck
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Although asexual taxa are generally seen as evolutionary dead ends, asexuality appears to provide a short-term benefit in some taxa, including a wider geographic distribution compared to sexual relatives. However, this may be an illusion created by multiple, morphologically cryptic, asexual lineages, each occupying a relatively small area. In this study we investigate the role of multiple lineages in the biogeography of Myriopteris gracilis Fée (Pteridaceae), a North American apomictic triploid fern species with a particularly large range...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Ruwen Kaminski, Thomas Speck, Olga Speck
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Plant stems can be regarded as fiber-reinforced structures characterized by anatomical heterogeneity, mechanical anisotropy, and adaptability to changing internal and external constraints. Our study focused on adaptive spatiotemporal changes in morphology, anatomy, and mechanical properties during the ontogeny of Leonurus cardiaca L. (Lamiaceae) internodes, proving considerable functional adaptability. METHODS: Four-point bending tests and torsional tests were carried out on the same internodes to measure flexural and torsional stiffness...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Paula J Rudall, Elisabeth D Chen, Erin Cullen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Leaves of monocots are typically linear with parallel venation, though a few taxa have broad leaves. Studies of stomatal patterning and development in monocots required updating in the context of rapidly improving knowledge of both the phylogenetic and development-genetic context of monocots that facilitate studies of character evolution. METHODS: We used an existing microscope-slide collection to obtain data on stomatal structure across all the major monocot clades, including some species with relatively broad leaves...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Rebecca W Dolan, Myla F J Aronson, Andrew L Hipp
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Globally, urban plant populations are becoming increasingly important, as these plants play a vital role in ameliorating effects of ecosystem disturbance and climate change. Urban environments act as filters to bioregional flora, presenting survival challenges to spontaneous plants. Yet, because of the paucity of inventory data on plants in landscapes both before and after urbanization, few studies have directly investigated this effect of urbanization. METHODS: We used historical, contemporary, and regional plant species inventories for Indianapolis, Indiana USA to evaluate how urbanization filters the bioregional flora based on species diversity, functional traits, and phylogenetic community structure...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Bruna de Cássia Menezes Ramos, Miguel Angel Rodríguez-Gironés, Daniela Rodrigues
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The ability of insect visitors to learn to manipulate complex flowers has important consequences for foraging efficiency and plant fitness. We investigated learning by two butterfly species, Danaus erippus and Heliconius erato, as they foraged on the complex flowers of Asclepias curassavica, as well as the consequences for pollination. METHODS: To examine learning with respect to flower manipulation, butterflies were individually tested during four consecutive days under insectary conditions...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Robert G Laport, Julienne Ng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Ling-Yun Wu, Bo Wang, Daniel J Schoen, Shuang-Quan Huang
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Documenting trait transitions among species with dimorphic flowers can help to test whether similar patterns of selection are responsible for divergence in floral traits among different species. Heterostyly is thought to promote outcrossing. Theory suggests that the evolutionary transition from heterostylous to homostylous flowers should be accompanied by a reduction in floral size in which pollen size and style length are expected to covary. Patterns of such correlated floral trait evolution have not, however, been widely examined...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Eliška Štubňová, Iva Hodálová, Jaromír Kučera, Lenka Mártonfiová, Marek Svitok, Marek Slovák
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Detailed knowledge about the karyological diversity of organisms undoubtedly represents one of the crucial steps toward a better understanding of their evolutionary trends and history. We investigated the cytotype and absolute genome size (AGS) patterns in the European mountain-dwelling genus Soldanella (Primulaceae) in light of its geographic distribution and ecological diversification. METHODS: Our chromosome number survey was based on 34 newly determined and 125 previously published chromosome counts...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Narjes Yousefi, Kristian Hassel, Kjell Ivar Flatberg, Petri Kemppainen, Emiliano Trucchi, A Jonathan Shaw, Magni Olsen Kyrkjeeide, Péter Szövényi, Hans K Stenøien
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Populations with phenotypic polymorphism in discrete characters may be good models for investigating genome evolution and speciation. Sphagnum magellanicum Brid. is found throughout the northern hemisphere, and despite considerable variation in morphological characters, it is considered one of the least taxonomically controversial peatmoss species. We have observed two main morphs of the species associated with different microhabitats. Here we investigated the genomic and environmental basis of this intraspecific morphological variation...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Sonia Merinero, Gregorio Aragón, Isabel Martínez
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Life history theory predicts that plants in unfavorable habitats for juvenile growth and survival will commence reproduction at smaller sizes and exhibit higher reproductive allocations than those in favorable habitats. The scope of life history theory will increase if these predictions apply to a broad range of organisms. Populations of organisms in contrasting habitats may experience different demographic rates. Thus, we compared the demography and life history traits of a lichen species in contrasting habitats...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Paulo H Labiak, Kenneth G Karol
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Comparative analyses of plastid genomes have suggested that gene order and content are relatively stable across the main groups of land plants, with significant changes rarely reported. We examine plastome organization and RNA editing in ferns and report changes that add valuable information on plastome evolution in land plants. METHODS: Using next-generation sequencing methods, we fully sequenced plastomes from three species of Schizaeaceae, and compared their plastomes with other groups of land plants to study changes in gene composition, plastome architecture, and putative RNA editing sites...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Kenneth G Karol, Paul M Skawinski, Richard M McCourt, Michelle E Nault, Reesa Evans, Martha E Barton, Matthew S Berg, Donna J Perleberg, John D Hall
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Although some species of Characeae, known as stoneworts, can be found on every continent except Antarctica, many species and some genera have limited geographic distributions. The genus Lychnothamnus, represented by a single extant species L. barbatus, was known only from scattered localities in Europe and Australasia until it was recently discovered in North America. METHODS: Morphological identifications were made from specimens collected in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA...
July 27, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Elizabeth F Waring, A Scott Holaday
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Global change in temperature and soil nitrogen availability could affect plant community composition, potentially giving an advantage to invasive species compared to native species. We addressed how high temperatures affected CO2 assimilation parameters for invasive Phalaris arundinacea and a sedge, Carex stricta, it displaces, in natural and controlled environments. METHODS: Photosynthetic parameters were measured in a wetland in Indiana, USA during the abnormally warm year of 2012...
July 25, 2017: American Journal of Botany
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