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American Journal of Botany

Eric F Karlin, Peter E Smouse
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The traditional approach used in analyses of population genetic data for historical inference is to average across multiple marker loci, but averaging conflates the different evolutionary signals provided by stable vs. labile markers. METHODS: We used a battery of microsatellites with a wide range of mutation/substitution rates, grouping them into two sets (stable and hypervariable) to provide a more nuanced reconstruction of the population genetics and evolutionary history of the allotriploid peat moss Sphagnum × falcatulum across three disjunct regions...
January 15, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Won-Gyu Choi, Richard J Barker, Su-Hwa Kim, Sarah J Swanson, Simon Gilroy
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Spaceflight provides a unique environment in which to dissect plant stress response behaviors and to reveal potentially novel pathways triggered in space. We therefore analyzed the transcriptomes of Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown on board the International Space Station to find the molecular fingerprints of these space-related response networks. METHODS: Four ecotypes (Col-0, Ws-2, Ler-0 and Cvi-0) were grown on orbit and then their patterns of transcript abundance compared to ground-based controls using RNA sequencing...
January 15, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Frida I Piper, Günter Hoch, Alex Fajardo
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: It is unclear to what extent the co-occurrence of angiosperm and gymnosperm species in some marginal ecosystems is explained by reduced growth in angiosperms due to carbon (C) limitation and by high stress tolerance in gymnosperms associated with lack of vessels and resource conservation. METHODS: We examined growth patterns and traits associated with C balance in four evergreen angiosperm species (including one vesselless species, Drimys winteri) and three gymnosperm tree species of a cold-temperate rainforest in southern Chile...
January 15, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Susan C C Gordon, Shannon A Meadley-Dunphy, Kirsten M Prior, Megan E Frederickson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Phenological mismatch has received attention in plant-pollinator interactions, but less so in seed dispersal mutualisms. We investigated whether the seasonal availability of myrmecochorous seeds is well matched to the seasonal activity patterns of seed-dispersing ants. METHODS: We compared seasonal timing of seed removal by a keystone seed-dispersing ant, Aphaenogaster rudis, and fruit dehiscence of several species of plants whose seeds it disperses in a deciduous forest in southern Ontario, Canada...
January 15, 2019: American Journal of Botany
J Stephen Brewer
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Ecologists generally agree that weak interspecific competition for light contributes to high plant species diversity in ecosystems with nutrient-poor soils. However, the role of competition for light in such ecosystems that are also maintained by fire is poorly understood. I quantified intra- and interspecific competition for light in a fire-maintained nutrient-poor pine savanna by contrasting the effects of conspecific and heterospecific neighbors of the pale pitcher plant, Sarracenia alata...
January 14, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Bérenger Bourgeois, François Munoz, Guillaume Fried, Lucie Mahaut, Laura Armengot, Pierre Denelle, Jonathan Storkey, Sabrina Gaba, Cyrille Violle
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Despite long-term research efforts, a comprehensive perspective on the ecological and functional properties determining plant weediness is still lacking. We investigated here key functional attributes of arable weeds compared to non-weed plants, at large spatial scale. METHODS: We used an intensive survey of plant communities in cultivated and non-cultivated habitats to define a pool of plants occurring in arable fields (weeds) and one of plants occurring only in open non-arable habitats (non-weeds) in France...
January 11, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Xoaquín Moreira, Luis Abdala-Roberts, Ignacio M Pérez-Ramos, Johannes M H Knops, Mario B Pesendorfer, Walter D Koenig, Kailen A Mooney
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The influence of weather conditions on masting and the ecological advantages of this reproductive behavior have been the subject of much interest. Weather conditions act as cues influencing reproduction of individual plants, and similar responses expressed across many individuals lead to population-level synchrony in reproductive output. In turn, synchrony leads to benefits from economies of scale such as enhanced pollination success and seed predator satiation. However, there may also be individual-level benefits from reproductive responses to weather cues, which may explain the origin of masting in the absence of economies of scale...
January 11, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Jared Williams, Adam M Lambert, Randy Long, Kristin Saltonstall
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Hybridization between previously isolated species or lineages can stimulate invasiveness because of increased genetic diversity and inherited traits facilitating competitive and reproductive potential. We evaluated differences in stand characteristics and sexual and vegetative reproduction among native, introduced, and hybrid Phragmites australis lineages in the southwestern United States. We also assessed the degree of hybridization among lineages and backcrossing of hybrids with parental lineages...
January 11, 2019: American Journal of Botany
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Timothy M Shearman, J Morgan Varner, Kevin Robertson, J Kevin Hiers
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Aboveground biomass (AGB) of herbaceous vegetation is a primary source of fuel in frequent surface fires that maintain grasslands, savannas, and woodlands. Methods for nondestructively estimating AGB are required to understand the mechanisms by which fuels affect fire behavior and the effects of time since the last burn. We developed allometric equations to estimate AGB in wiregrass (Aristida beyrichiana/A. stricta), a dominant bunchgrass in Pinus palustris ecosystems and a key species for ecological restoration...
January 10, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Stacey D Smith, Ruthie Angelovici, Karolina Heyduk, Hiroshi A Maeda, Gaurav D Moghe, J Chris Pires, Joshua R Widhalm, Jennifer H Wisecaver
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Jessica A Savage
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: New growth in the spring requires resource mobilization in the vascular system at a time when xylem and phloem function are often reduced in seasonally cold climates. As a result, the timing of leaf out and/or flowering could depend on when the vascular system resumes normal function in the spring. This study investigated whether flowering time is influenced by vascular phenology in plants that flower precociously before they have leaves. METHODS: Flower, leaf, and vascular phenology were monitored in pairs of precocious and non-precocious congeners...
January 10, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Lei Li, Spencer C H Barrett, Zhiping Song, Jiakuan Chen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Sex-specific differences in reproductive investment contribute to sexual dimorphism in dioecious plants. Along environmental gradients, males and females may plastically adjust reproductive allocation differently because of contrasting reproductive costs. In dioecious macrophytes, variation in water depth is likely to influence reproductive allocation but has not been investigated in detail. METHODS: Vallisneria spinulosa was grown in aquatic mesocosms at water depths of 50, 100 and 150 cm for 14 weeks...
January 10, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Dawson M White, Melissa B Islam, Roberta J Mason-Gamer
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: This investigation establishes the first DNA-sequence-based phylogenetic hypothesis of species relationships in the coca family (Erythroxylaceae) and presents its implications for the intrageneric taxonomy and neotropical biogeography of Erythroxylum. We also identify the closest wild relatives and evolutionary relationships of the cultivated coca taxa. METHODS: We focused our phylogenomic inference on the largest taxonomic section in the genus Erythroxylum (Archerythroxylum O...
January 10, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Øystein H Opedal, Elena Albertsen, Rocío Pérez-Barrales, W Scott Armbruster, Christophe Pélabon
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Turnover in biotic communities across heterogeneous landscapes is expected to lead to variation in interactions among plants, their mutualists, and their antagonists. Across a fragmented landscape in northern Costa Rica, populations of the euphorb vine Dalechampia scandens vary widely in mating systems and associated blossom traits. Previous work suggested that populations are well adapted to the local reliability of pollination by apid and megachilid bees. We tested whether variation in the intensity of predispersal seed predation by seed weevils in the genus Nanobaris also contributes to the observed variation in blossom traits...
January 9, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Y Franchesco Molina-Henao, Robin Hopkins
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Successful establishment of neopolyploids, and therefore polyploid speciation, is thought to be contingent on environmental niche shifts from their progenitors. We explore this niche shift hypothesis in the obligate outcrosser Arabidopsis arenosa complex, which includes diploid and recently formed autotetraploid populations. METHODS: To characterize the climatic niches for both cytotypes in Arabidopsis arenosa, we first gathered climatic data from localities with known ploidy types...
January 4, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Claudio Casola, A Michelle Lawing
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Radka Sudová, Petr Kohout, Zuzana Kolaříková, Jana Rydlová, Jana Voříšková, Jan Suda, Stanislav Španiel, Heinz Müller-Schärer, Patrik Mráz
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Genome duplication is associated with multiple changes at different levels, including interactions with pollinators and herbivores. Yet little is known whether polyploidy may also shape belowground interactions. METHODS: To elucidate potential ploidy-specific interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), we compared mycorrhizal colonization and assembly of AMF communities in roots of diploid and tetraploid Centaurea stoebe s.l. (Asteraceae) co-occurring in a Central European population...
December 14, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Catherine A Rushworth, Michael D Windham, Rose A Keith, Tom Mitchell-Olds
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Ecological differentiation (ED) between sexual and asexual organisms may permit the maintenance of reproductive polymorphism. Several studies of sexual/asexual ED in plants have shown that the geographic ranges of asexuals extend beyond those of sexuals, often in areas of higher latitude or elevation. But very little is known about ED at fine scales, wherein coexistence of sexuals and asexuals may be permitted by differential niche occupation. METHODS: We used 149 populations of sexual and apomictic lineages in the genus Boechera (rock cress) collected across a portion of this mustard's vast range...
December 13, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Oscar J Rocha, Carlos Gómez, James L Hamrick, Dorset W Trapnell, Peter E Smouse, Gabriel Macaya
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Flowering initiation, duration and magnitude, and degree of flowering synchrony within a population can affect the reproductive fitness of individuals. We examined the flowering phenology within a population of the tropical dry forest Guanacaste tree (Enterolobium cyclocarpum) to gauge the impact of phenological variation among trees on fruit production and progeny vigor. METHODS: We monitored the flowering phenology of 93 trees weekly during 2005, 2006, and 2007, using a scale based on the percentage of the crown with open flowers...
December 13, 2018: American Journal of Botany
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