journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Advances in Virus Research

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908596/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Carolyn M Malmstrom
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908595/water-mediated-transmission-of-plant-animal-and-human-viruses
#2
Nataša Mehle, Ion Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Denis Kutnjak, Maja Ravnikar
Viruses represent the most abundant and diverse of the biological entities in environmental waters, including the seas and probably also freshwater systems. They are important players in ecological networks in waters and influence global biochemical cycling and community composition dynamics. Among the many diverse viruses from terrestrial environments found in environmental waters, some are plant, animal, and/or human pathogens. The majority of pathogenic viral species found in waters are very stable and can survive outside host cells for long periods...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908594/from-spatial-metagenomics-to-molecular-characterization-of-plant-viruses-a-geminivirus-case-study
#3
Sohini Claverie, Pauline Bernardo, Simona Kraberger, Penelope Hartnady, Pierre Lefeuvre, Jean-Michel Lett, Serge Galzi, Denis Filloux, Gordon W Harkins, Arvind Varsani, Darren P Martin, Philippe Roumagnac
The number of plant viruses that are known likely remains only a vanishingly small fraction of all extant plant virus species. Consequently, the distribution and population dynamics of plant viruses within even the best-studied ecosystems have only ever been studied for small groups of virus species. Even for the best studied of these groups very little is known about virus diversity at spatial scales ranging from an individual host, through individual local host populations to global host populations. To date, metagenomics studies that have assessed the collective or metagenomes of viruses at the ecosystem scale have revealed many previously unrecognized viral species...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908593/viruses-in-polar-lake-and-soil-ecosystems
#4
Alberto Rastrojo, Antonio Alcamí
Viruses play an important role in the control of microbial communities, and it has been suggested that the influence of viruses in polar ecosystems, with low nutrients and under extreme environmental conditions, may be greater. Viral metagenomics allows the genetic characterization of complex viral communities without the need to isolate and grow viruses. Recent investigations in Antarctica and the Arctic are uncovering a great diversity of DNA viruses, including bacteriophages, circular single-stranded DNA viruses, algal-infecting phycodnaviruses, and virophages, adapted to these extreme environments...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908592/ecological-complexity-in-plant-virus-host-range-evolution
#5
Michael J McLeish, Aurora Fraile, Fernando García-Arenal
The host range of a plant virus is the number of species in which it can reproduce. Most studies of plant virus host range evolution have focused on the genetics of host-pathogen interactions. However, the distribution and abundance of plant viruses and their hosts do not always overlap, and these spatial and temporal discontinuities in plant virus-host interactions can result in various ecological processes that shape host range evolution. Recent work shows that the distributions of pathogenic and resistant genotypes, vectors, and other resources supporting transmission vary widely in the environment, producing both expected and unanticipated patterns...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908591/emerging-viruses-in-bees-from-molecules-to-ecology
#6
Dino P McMahon, Lena Wilfert, Robert J Paxton, Mark J F Brown
Emerging infectious diseases arise as a result of novel interactions between populations of hosts and pathogens, and can threaten the health and wellbeing of the entire spectrum of biodiversity. Bees and their viruses are a case in point. However, detailed knowledge of the ecological factors and evolutionary forces that drive disease emergence in bees and other host-pathogen communities is surprisingly lacking. In this review, we build on the fundamental insight that viruses evolve and adapt over timescales that overlap with host ecology...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908590/evolutionary-determinants-of-host-and-vector-manipulation-by-plant-viruses
#7
Kerry E Mauck, Quentin Chesnais, Lori R Shapiro
Plant viruses possess adaptations for facilitating acquisition, retention, and inoculation by vectors. Until recently, it was hypothesized that these adaptations are limited to virus proteins that enable virions to bind to vector mouthparts or invade their internal tissues. However, increasing evidence suggests that viruses can also manipulate host plant phenotypes and vector behaviors in ways that enhance their own transmission. Manipulation of vector-host interactions occurs through virus effects on host cues that mediate vector orientation, feeding, and dispersal behaviors, and thereby, the probability of virus transmission...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908589/plant-and-insect-viruses-in-managed-and-natural-environments-novel-and-neglected-transmission-pathways
#8
Roger A C Jones
The capacity to spread by diverse transmission pathways enhances a virus' ability to spread effectively and survive when circumstances change. This review aims to improve understanding of how plant and insect viruses spread through natural and managed environments by drawing attention to 12 novel or neglected virus transmission pathways whose contribution is underestimated. For plant viruses, the pathways reviewed are vertical and horizontal transmission via pollen, and horizontal transmission by parasitic plants, natural root grafts, wind-mediated contact, chewing insects, and contaminated water or soil...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908588/evaluating-the-importance-of-environmental-persistence-for-ranavirus-transmission-and-epidemiology
#9
Jesse L Brunner, Christian M Yarber
Viruses persist outside their hosts in a variety of forms, from naked virions to virus protected in sloughed tissues or carcasses, and for a range of times, all of which affect the likelihood and importance of transmission from the environment. This review synthesizes the literature on environmental persistence of viruses in the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae), which are large double-stranded DNA viruses of ectothermic, often aquatic or semiaquatic vertebrates. Ranaviruses have been associated with mass mortality events in natural and captive settings around the world, and with population and community-wide declines in Europe...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908587/viruses-in-marine-ecosystems-from-open-waters-to-coral-reefs
#10
Karen D Weynberg
Viruses infect all kingdoms of marine life from bacteria to whales. Viruses in the world's oceans play important roles in the mortality of phytoplankton, and as drivers of evolution and biogeochemical cycling. They shape host population abundance and distribution and can lead to the termination of algal blooms. As discoveries about this huge reservoir of genetic and biological diversity grow, our understanding of the major influences viruses exert in the global marine environment continues to expand. This chapter discusses the key discoveries that have been made to date about marine viruses and the current direction of this field of research...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551146/preface-to-volume-100-history-and-looking-forward
#11
EDITORIAL
Thomas C Mettenleiter, Margaret Kielian, Marilyn J Roossinck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551145/viruses-of-plant-interacting-fungi
#12
Bradley I Hillman, Aulia Annisa, Nobuhiro Suzuki
Plant-associated fungi are infected by viruses at the incidence rates from a few % to over 90%. Multiple viruses often coinfect fungal hosts, and occasionally alter their phenotypes, but most of the infections are asymptomatic. Phenotypic alterations are grouped into two types: harmful or beneficial to the host fungi. Harmful interactions between viruses and hosts include hypovirulence and/or debilitation that are documented in a number of phytopathogenic fungi, exemplified by the chestnut blight, white root rot, and rapeseed rot fungi...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551144/morbillivirus-pathogenesis-and-virus-host-interactions
#13
Kristin Pfeffermann, Mareike Dörr, Florian Zirkel, Veronika von Messling
Despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines against measles and several animal morbilliviruses, they continue to cause regular outbreaks and epidemics in susceptible populations. Morbilliviruses are highly contagious and share a similar pathogenesis in their respective hosts. This review provides an overview of morbillivirus history and the general replication cycle and recapitulates Morbillivirus pathogenesis focusing on common and unique aspects seen in different hosts. It also summarizes the state of knowledge regarding virus-host interactions on the cellular level with an emphasis on viral interference with innate immune response activation, and highlights remaining knowledge gaps...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551143/african-swine-fever-virus-biology-and-vaccine-approaches
#14
Yolanda Revilla, Daniel Pérez-Núñez, Juergen A Richt
African swine fever (ASF) is an acute and often fatal disease affecting domestic pigs and wild boar, with severe economic consequences for affected countries. ASF is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and the island of Sardinia, Italy. Since 2007, the virus emerged in the republic of Georgia, and since then spread throughout the Caucasus region and Russia. Outbreaks have also been reported in Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Romania, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Poland, threatening neighboring West European countries...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551142/how-does-vaccinia-virus-interfere-with-interferon
#15
Geoffrey L Smith, Callum Talbot-Cooper, Yongxu Lu
Interferons (IFNs) are secreted glycoproteins that are produced by cells in response to virus infection and other stimuli and induce an antiviral state in cells bearing IFN receptors. In this way, IFNs restrict virus replication and spread before an adaptive immune response is developed. Viruses are very sensitive to the effects of IFNs and consequently have evolved many strategies to interfere with interferon. This is particularly well illustrated by poxviruses, which have large dsDNA genomes and encode hundreds of proteins...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551141/intracellular-antiviral-immunity
#16
Maria Bottermann, Leo C James
Innate immunity is traditionally thought of as the first line of defense against pathogens that enter the body. It is typically characterized as a rather weak defense mechanism, designed to restrict pathogen replication until the adaptive immune response generates a tailored response and eliminates the infectious agent. However, intensive research in recent years has resulted in better understanding of innate immunity as well as the discovery of many effector proteins, revealing its numerous powerful mechanisms to defend the host...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551140/changing-role-of-wild-birds-in-the-epidemiology-of-avian-influenza-a-viruses
#17
Rogier Bodewes, Thijs Kuiken
Waterbirds are the main reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (LPAIV), from which occasional spillover to poultry occurs. When circulating among poultry, LPAIV may become highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (HPAIV). In recent years, the epidemiology of HPAIV viruses has changed drastically. HPAIV H5N1 are currently endemic among poultry in a number of countries. In addition, global spread of HPAIV H5Nx viruses has resulted in major outbreaks among wild birds and poultry worldwide. Using data collected during these outbreaks, the role of migratory birds as a vector became increasingly clear...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551139/antiviral-immune-response-and-the-route-of-infection-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Juan A Mondotte, Maria-Carla Saleh
The use of Drosophila as a model organism has made an important contribution to our understanding of the function and regulation of innate immunity in insects. Indeed, insects can discriminate between different types of pathogens and mount specific and effective responses. Strikingly, the same pathogen can trigger a different immune response in the same organism, depending solely on the route of infection by which the pathogen is delivered. In this review, we recapitulate what is known about antiviral responses in Drosophila, and how they are triggered depending on the route and the mode used for the virus to infect its host...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551138/an-orchestra-of-reovirus-receptors-still-searching-for-the-conductor
#19
Danica M Sutherland, Pavithra Aravamudhan, Terence S Dermody
Viruses are constantly engaged in a molecular arms race with the host, where efficient and tactical use of cellular receptors benefits critical steps in infection. Receptor use dictates initiation, establishment, and spread of viral infection to new tissues and hosts. Mammalian orthoreoviruses (reoviruses) are pervasive pathogens that use multiple receptors to overcome protective host barriers to disseminate from sites of initial infection and cause disease in young mammals. In particular, reovirus invades the central nervous system (CNS) with serotype-dependent tropism and disease...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551137/the-role-of-immune-responses-in-hiv-mother-to-child-transmission
#20
Caitlin Milligan, Jennifer A Slyker, Julie Overbaugh
HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) represents a success story in the HIV/AIDS field given the significant reduction in number of transmission events with the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment and other prevention methods. Nevertheless, MTCT still occurs and better understanding of the basic biology and immunology of transmission will aid in future prevention and treatment efforts. MTCT is a unique setting given that the transmission pair is known and the infant receives passively transferred HIV-specific antibodies from the mother while in utero...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
journal
journal
23278
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"