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Advances in Virus Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433053/the-envelope-proteins-of-the-bunyavirales
#1
Pablo Guardado-Calvo, Félix A Rey
The Bunyavirales Order encompasses nine families of enveloped viruses containing a single-stranded negative-sense RNA genome divided into three segments. The small (S) and large (L) segments encode proteins participating in genome replication in the infected cell cytoplasm. The middle (M) segment encodes the viral glycoproteins Gn and Gc, which are derived from a precursor polyprotein by host cell proteases. Entry studies are available only for a few viruses in the Order, and in each case they were shown to enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433052/metabolomics-strategies-to-define-the-role-of-metabolism-in-virus-infection-and-pathogenesis
#2
Marianne Manchester, Anisha Anand
Metabolomics is an analytical profiling technique for measuring and comparing large numbers of metabolites present in biological samples. Combining high-throughput analytical chemistry and multivariate data analysis, metabolomics offers a window on metabolic mechanisms. Because they intimately utilize and often rewire host metabolism, viruses are an excellent choice to study by metabolomics techniques. Studies of the effects of viruses on metabolism during replication in vitro and infection in animal models or human subjects have provided novel insights into these networks and provided new targets for therapy and biomarker development...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433051/insect-specific-viruses-a-historical-overview-and-recent-developments
#3
Christopher M Roundy, Sasha R Azar, Shannan L Rossi, Scott C Weaver, Nikos Vasilakis
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have in recent years become a tremendous global health concern resulting in substantial human morbidity and mortality. With the widespread utilization of molecular technologies such as next-generation sequencing and the advancement of bioinformatics tools, a new age of viral discovery has commenced. Many of the novel agents being discovered in recent years have been isolated from mosquitoes and exhibit a highly restricted host range. Strikingly, these insect-specific viruses have been found to be members of viral families traditionally associated with human arboviral pathogens, including but not limited to the families Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, Reoviridae, and Bunyaviridae...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433050/zoonotic-potential-of-emerging-paramyxoviruses-knowns-and-unknowns
#4
Patricia A Thibault, Ruth E Watkinson, Andres Moreira-Soto, Jan F Drexler, Benhur Lee
The risk of spillover of enzootic paramyxoviruses and the susceptibility of recipient human and domestic animal populations are defined by a broad collection of ecological and molecular factors that interact in ways that are not yet fully understood. Nipah and Hendra viruses were the first highly lethal zoonotic paramyxoviruses discovered in modern times, but other paramyxoviruses from multiple genera are present in bats and other reservoirs that have unknown potential to spillover into humans. We outline our current understanding of paramyxovirus reservoir hosts and the ecological factors that may drive spillover, and we explore the molecular barriers to spillover that emergent paramyxoviruses may encounter...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057260/a-renaissance-in-nepovirus-research-provides-new-insights-into-their-molecular-interface-with-hosts-and-vectors
#5
REVIEW
M Fuchs, C Schmitt-Keichinger, H Sanfaçon
Nepoviruses supplied seminal landmarks to the historical trail of plant virology. Among the first agriculturally relevant viruses recognized in the late 1920s and among the first plant viruses officially classified in the early 1970s, nepoviruses also comprise the first species for which a soil-borne ectoparasitic nematode vector was identified. Early research on nepoviruses shed light on the genome structure and expression, biological properties of the two genomic RNAs, and mode of transmission. In recent years, research on nepoviruses enjoyed an extraordinary renaissance...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057259/modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-history-value-in-basic-research-and-current-perspectives-for-vaccine-development
#6
REVIEW
A Volz, G Sutter
Safety tested Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is licensed as third-generation vaccine against smallpox and serves as a potent vector system for development of new candidate vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Historically, MVA was developed by serial tissue culture passage in primary chicken cells of vaccinia virus strain Ankara, and clinically used to avoid the undesirable side effects of conventional smallpox vaccination. Adapted to growth in avian cells MVA lost the ability to replicate in mammalian hosts and lacks many of the genes orthopoxviruses use to conquer their host (cell) environment...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057258/nonsegmented-negative-sense-rna-viruses-structural-data-bring-new-insights-into-nucleocapsid-assembly
#7
REVIEW
M Jamin, F Yabukarski
Viruses with a nonsegmented negative-sense RNA genome (NNVs) include important human pathogens as well as life-threatening zoonotic viruses. These viruses share a common RNA replication complex, including the genomic RNA and three proteins, the nucleoprotein (N), the phosphoprotein (P), and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L). During genome replication, the RNA polymerase complex first synthesizes positive-sense antigenomes, which in turn serve as template for the production of negative-sense progeny genomes...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057257/have-nec-coat-will-travel-structural-basis-of-membrane-budding-during-nuclear-egress-in-herpesviruses
#8
REVIEW
J M Bigalke, E E Heldwein
Herpesviruses are unusual among enveloped viruses because they bud twice yet acquire a single envelope. Furthermore, unlike other DNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus, herpesviruses do not exit it by passing through the nuclear pores or by rupturing the nuclear envelope. Instead, herpesviruses have a complex mechanism of nuclear escape whereby nascent capsids bud at the inner nuclear membrane to form perinuclear virions that subsequently fuse with the outer nuclear membrane, releasing capsids into the cytosol...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057256/biomedical-and-catalytic-opportunities-of-virus-like-particles-in-nanotechnology
#9
REVIEW
B Schwarz, M Uchida, T Douglas
Within biology, molecules are arranged in hierarchical structures that coordinate and control the many processes that allow for complex organisms to exist. Proteins and other functional macromolecules are often studied outside their natural nanostructural context because it remains difficult to create controlled arrangements of proteins at this size scale. Viruses are elegantly simple nanosystems that exist at the interface of living organisms and nonliving biological machines. Studied and viewed primarily as pathogens to be combatted, viruses have emerged as models of structural efficiency at the nanoscale and have spurred the development of biomimetic nanoparticle systems...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712629/preface
#10
EDITORIAL
John Ziebuhr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712628/the-nonstructural-proteins-directing-coronavirus-rna-synthesis-and-processing
#11
REVIEW
E J Snijder, E Decroly, J Ziebuhr
Coronaviruses are animal and human pathogens that can cause lethal zoonotic infections like SARS and MERS. They have polycistronic plus-stranded RNA genomes and belong to the order Nidovirales, a diverse group of viruses for which common ancestry was inferred from the common principles underlying their genome organization and expression, and from the conservation of an array of core replicase domains, including key RNA-synthesizing enzymes. Coronavirus genomes (~26-32 kilobases) are the largest RNA genomes known to date and their expansion was likely enabled by acquiring enzyme functions that counter the commonly high error frequency of viral RNA polymerases...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712627/coronavirus-spike-protein-and-tropism-changes
#12
REVIEW
R J G Hulswit, C A M de Haan, B-J Bosch
Coronaviruses (CoVs) have a remarkable potential to change tropism. This is particularly illustrated over the last 15 years by the emergence of two zoonotic CoVs, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)- and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV. Due to their inherent genetic variability, it is inevitable that new cross-species transmission events of these enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses will occur. Research into these medical and veterinary important pathogens-sparked by the SARS and MERS outbreaks-revealed important principles of inter- and intraspecies tropism changes...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712626/molecular-basis-of-coronavirus-virulence-and-vaccine-development
#13
REVIEW
L Enjuanes, S Zuñiga, C Castaño-Rodriguez, J Gutierrez-Alvarez, J Canton, I Sola
Virus vaccines have to be immunogenic, sufficiently stable, safe, and suitable to induce long-lasting immunity. To meet these requirements, vaccine studies need to provide a comprehensive understanding of (i) the protective roles of antiviral B and T-cell-mediated immune responses, (ii) the complexity and plasticity of major viral antigens, and (iii) virus molecular biology and pathogenesis. There are many types of vaccines including subunit vaccines, whole-inactivated virus, vectored, and live-attenuated virus vaccines, each of which featuring specific advantages and limitations...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712625/interaction-of-sars-and-mers-coronaviruses-with-the-antiviral-interferon-response
#14
REVIEW
E Kindler, V Thiel, F Weber
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) are the most severe coronavirus (CoV)-associated diseases in humans. The causative agents, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, are of zoonotic origin but may be transmitted to humans, causing severe and often fatal respiratory disease in their new host. The two coronaviruses are thought to encode an unusually large number of factors that allow them to thrive and replicate in the presence of efficient host defense mechanisms, especially the antiviral interferon system...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712624/feline-coronaviruses-pathogenesis-of-feline-infectious-peritonitis
#15
REVIEW
G Tekes, H-J Thiel
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) belongs to the few animal virus diseases in which, in the course of a generally harmless persistent infection, a virus acquires a small number of mutations that fundamentally change its pathogenicity, invariably resulting in a fatal outcome. The causative agent of this deadly disease, feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), arises from feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). The review summarizes our current knowledge of the genome and proteome of feline coronaviruses (FCoVs), focusing on the viral surface (spike) protein S and the five accessory proteins...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712623/viral-and-cellular-mrna-translation-in-coronavirus-infected-cells
#16
REVIEW
K Nakagawa, K G Lokugamage, S Makino
Coronaviruses have large positive-strand RNA genomes that are 5' capped and 3' polyadenylated. The 5'-terminal two-thirds of the genome contain two open reading frames (ORFs), 1a and 1b, that together make up the viral replicase gene and encode two large polyproteins that are processed by viral proteases into 15-16 nonstructural proteins, most of them being involved in viral RNA synthesis. ORFs located in the 3'-terminal one-third of the genome encode structural and accessory proteins and are expressed from a set of 5' leader-containing subgenomic mRNAs that are synthesized by a process called discontinuous transcription...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712622/coronavirus-cis-acting-rna-elements
#17
REVIEW
R Madhugiri, M Fricke, M Marz, J Ziebuhr
Coronaviruses have exceptionally large RNA genomes of approximately 30 kilobases. Genome replication and transcription is mediated by a multisubunit protein complex comprised of more than a dozen virus-encoded proteins. The protein complex is thought to bind specific cis-acting RNA elements primarily located in the 5'- and 3'-terminal genome regions and upstream of the open reading frames located in the 3'-proximal one-third of the genome. Here, we review our current understanding of coronavirus cis-acting RNA elements, focusing on elements required for genome replication and packaging...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712621/supramolecular-architecture-of-the-coronavirus-particle
#18
REVIEW
B W Neuman, M J Buchmeier
Coronavirus particles serve three fundamentally important functions in infection. The virion provides the means to deliver the viral genome across the plasma membrane of a host cell. The virion is also a means of escape for newly synthesized genomes. Lastly, the virion is a durable vessel that protects the genome on its journey between cells. This review summarizes the available X-ray crystallography, NMR, and cryoelectron microscopy structural data for coronavirus structural proteins, and looks at the role of each of the major structural proteins in virus entry and assembly...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112283/historical-perspective-what-constitutes-discovery-of-a-new-virus
#19
REVIEW
F A Murphy
A historic review of the discovery of new viruses leads to reminders of traditions that have evolved over 118 years. One such tradition gives credit for the discovery of a virus to the investigator(s) who not only carried out the seminal experiments but also correctly interpreted the findings (within the technological context of the day). Early on, ultrafiltration played a unique role in "proving" that an infectious agent was a virus, as did a failure to find any microscopically visible agent, failure to show replication of the agent in the absence of viable cells, thermolability of the agent, and demonstration of a specific immune response to the agent so as to rule out duplicates and close variants...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112282/autophagy-and-mammalian-viruses-roles-in-immune-response-viral-replication-and-beyond
#20
REVIEW
P Paul, C Münz
Autophagy is an important cellular catabolic process conserved from yeast to man. Double-membrane vesicles deliver their cargo to the lysosome for degradation. Hence, autophagy is one of the key mechanisms mammalian cells deploy to rid themselves of intracellular pathogens including viruses. However, autophagy serves many more functions during viral infection. First, it regulates the immune response through selective degradation of immune components, thus preventing possibly harmful overactivation and inflammation...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
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