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Advances in Virus Research

John Ziebuhr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Virus Research
E J Snijder, E Decroly, J Ziebuhr
Coronaviruses are animal and human pathogens that can cause lethal zoonotic infections like SARS and MERS. They have polycistronic plus-stranded RNA genomes and belong to the order Nidovirales, a diverse group of viruses for which common ancestry was inferred from the common principles underlying their genome organization and expression, and from the conservation of an array of core replicase domains, including key RNA-synthesizing enzymes. Coronavirus genomes (~26-32 kilobases) are the largest RNA genomes known to date and their expansion was likely enabled by acquiring enzyme functions that counter the commonly high error frequency of viral RNA polymerases...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
R J G Hulswit, C A M de Haan, B-J Bosch
Coronaviruses (CoVs) have a remarkable potential to change tropism. This is particularly illustrated over the last 15 years by the emergence of two zoonotic CoVs, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)- and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV. Due to their inherent genetic variability, it is inevitable that new cross-species transmission events of these enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses will occur. Research into these medical and veterinary important pathogens-sparked by the SARS and MERS outbreaks-revealed important principles of inter- and intraspecies tropism changes...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
L Enjuanes, S Zuñiga, C Castaño-Rodriguez, J Gutierrez-Alvarez, J Canton, I Sola
Virus vaccines have to be immunogenic, sufficiently stable, safe, and suitable to induce long-lasting immunity. To meet these requirements, vaccine studies need to provide a comprehensive understanding of (i) the protective roles of antiviral B and T-cell-mediated immune responses, (ii) the complexity and plasticity of major viral antigens, and (iii) virus molecular biology and pathogenesis. There are many types of vaccines including subunit vaccines, whole-inactivated virus, vectored, and live-attenuated virus vaccines, each of which featuring specific advantages and limitations...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
E Kindler, V Thiel, F Weber
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) are the most severe coronavirus (CoV)-associated diseases in humans. The causative agents, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, are of zoonotic origin but may be transmitted to humans, causing severe and often fatal respiratory disease in their new host. The two coronaviruses are thought to encode an unusually large number of factors that allow them to thrive and replicate in the presence of efficient host defense mechanisms, especially the antiviral interferon system...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
G Tekes, H-J Thiel
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) belongs to the few animal virus diseases in which, in the course of a generally harmless persistent infection, a virus acquires a small number of mutations that fundamentally change its pathogenicity, invariably resulting in a fatal outcome. The causative agent of this deadly disease, feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), arises from feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). The review summarizes our current knowledge of the genome and proteome of feline coronaviruses (FCoVs), focusing on the viral surface (spike) protein S and the five accessory proteins...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
K Nakagawa, K G Lokugamage, S Makino
Coronaviruses have large positive-strand RNA genomes that are 5' capped and 3' polyadenylated. The 5'-terminal two-thirds of the genome contain two open reading frames (ORFs), 1a and 1b, that together make up the viral replicase gene and encode two large polyproteins that are processed by viral proteases into 15-16 nonstructural proteins, most of them being involved in viral RNA synthesis. ORFs located in the 3'-terminal one-third of the genome encode structural and accessory proteins and are expressed from a set of 5' leader-containing subgenomic mRNAs that are synthesized by a process called discontinuous transcription...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
R Madhugiri, M Fricke, M Marz, J Ziebuhr
Coronaviruses have exceptionally large RNA genomes of approximately 30 kilobases. Genome replication and transcription is mediated by a multisubunit protein complex comprised of more than a dozen virus-encoded proteins. The protein complex is thought to bind specific cis-acting RNA elements primarily located in the 5'- and 3'-terminal genome regions and upstream of the open reading frames located in the 3'-proximal one-third of the genome. Here, we review our current understanding of coronavirus cis-acting RNA elements, focusing on elements required for genome replication and packaging...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
B W Neuman, M J Buchmeier
Coronavirus particles serve three fundamentally important functions in infection. The virion provides the means to deliver the viral genome across the plasma membrane of a host cell. The virion is also a means of escape for newly synthesized genomes. Lastly, the virion is a durable vessel that protects the genome on its journey between cells. This review summarizes the available X-ray crystallography, NMR, and cryoelectron microscopy structural data for coronavirus structural proteins, and looks at the role of each of the major structural proteins in virus entry and assembly...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
F A Murphy
A historic review of the discovery of new viruses leads to reminders of traditions that have evolved over 118 years. One such tradition gives credit for the discovery of a virus to the investigator(s) who not only carried out the seminal experiments but also correctly interpreted the findings (within the technological context of the day). Early on, ultrafiltration played a unique role in "proving" that an infectious agent was a virus, as did a failure to find any microscopically visible agent, failure to show replication of the agent in the absence of viable cells, thermolability of the agent, and demonstration of a specific immune response to the agent so as to rule out duplicates and close variants...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
P Paul, C Münz
Autophagy is an important cellular catabolic process conserved from yeast to man. Double-membrane vesicles deliver their cargo to the lysosome for degradation. Hence, autophagy is one of the key mechanisms mammalian cells deploy to rid themselves of intracellular pathogens including viruses. However, autophagy serves many more functions during viral infection. First, it regulates the immune response through selective degradation of immune components, thus preventing possibly harmful overactivation and inflammation...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
R A C Jones
Knowledge of how climate change is likely to influence future virus disease epidemics in cultivated plants and natural vegetation is of great importance to both global food security and natural ecosystems. However, obtaining such knowledge is hampered by the complex effects of climate alterations on the behavior of diverse types of vectors and the ease by which previously unknown viruses can emerge. A review written in 2011 provided a comprehensive analysis of available data on the effects of climate change on virus disease epidemics worldwide...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
K M Law, N Satija, A M Esposito, B K Chen
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gives rise to a chronic infection that progressively depletes CD4(+) T lymphocytes. CD4(+) T lymphocytes play a central coordinating role in adaptive cellular and humoral immune responses, and to do so they migrate and interact within lymphoid compartments and at effector sites to mount immune responses. While cell-free virus serves as an excellent prognostic indicator for patient survival, interactions of infected T cells or virus-scavenging immune cells with uninfected T cells can greatly enhance viral spread...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
M D Baron, A Diallo, R Lancelot, G Libeau
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively through the developing world. Because of its disproportionately large impact on the livelihoods of low-income livestock keepers, and the availability of effective vaccines and good diagnostics, the virus is being targeted for global control and eventual eradication. In this review we examine the origin of the virus and its current distribution, and the factors that have led international organizations to conclude that it is eradicable...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
Gerhard Steger, Jean-Pierre Perreault
Mature viroids consist of a noncoding, covalently closed circular RNA that is able to autonomously infect respective host plants. Thus, they must utilize proteins of the host for most biological functions such as replication, processing, transport, and pathogenesis. Therefore, viroids can be regarded as minimal parasites of the host machinery. They have to present to the host machinery the appropriate signals based on either their sequence or their structure. Here, we summarize such sequence and structural features critical for the biological functions of viroids...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
Teresa Hellberg, Lars Paßvogel, Katharina S Schulz, Barbara G Klupp, Thomas C Mettenleiter
Herpesvirus particles mature in two different cellular compartments. While capsid assembly and packaging of the genomic linear double-stranded DNA occur in the nucleus, virion formation takes place in the cytoplasm by the addition of numerous tegument proteins as well as acquisition of the viral envelope by budding into cellular vesicles derived from the trans-Golgi network containing virally encoded glycoproteins. To gain access to the final maturation compartment, herpesvirus nucleocapsids have to cross a formidable barrier, the nuclear envelope (NE)...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
David C Bloom
Alphaherpesviruses infect a variety of species from sea turtles to man and can cause significant disease in mammals including humans and livestock. These viruses are characterized by a lytic and latent state in nerve ganglia, with the ability to establish a lifelong latent infection that is interrupted by periodic reactivation. Previously, it was accepted that latency was a dominant state and that only during relatively infrequent reactivation episodes did latent genomes within ganglia become transcriptionally active...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
Jill M Perreira, Paul Meraner, Abraham L Brass
Over the last several years a wealth of transformative human-virus interaction discoveries have been produced using loss-of-function functional genomics. These insights have greatly expanded our understanding of how human pathogenic viruses exploit our cells to replicate. Two technologies have been at the forefront of this genetic revolution, RNA interference (RNAi) and random retroviral insertional mutagenesis using haploid cell lines (haploid cell screening), with the former technology largely predominating...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
Benjamas Aiamkitsumrit, Neil T Sullivan, Michael R Nonnemacher, Vanessa Pirrone, Brian Wigdahl
During the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection, a number of cell types throughout the body are infected, with the majority of cells representing CD4+ T cells and cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. Both types of cells express, to varying levels, the primary receptor molecule, CD4, as well as one or both of the coreceptors, CXCR4 and CCR5. Viral tropism is determined by both the coreceptor utilized for entry and the cell type infected. Although a single virus may have the capacity to infect both a CD4+ T cell and a cell of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, the mechanisms involved in both the entry of the virus into the cell and the viral egress from the cell during budding and viral release differ depending on the cell type...
2015: Advances in Virus Research
Maxime Boutier, Maygane Ronsmans, Krzysztof Rakus, Joanna Jazowiecka-Rakus, Catherine Vancsok, Léa Morvan, Ma Michelle D Peñaranda, David M Stone, Keith Way, Steven J van Beurden, Andrew J Davison, Alain Vanderplasschen
The order Herpesvirales encompasses viruses that share structural, genetic, and biological properties. However, members of this order infect hosts ranging from molluscs to humans. It is currently divided into three phylogenetically related families. The Alloherpesviridae family contains viruses infecting fish and amphibians. There are 12 alloherpesviruses described to date, 10 of which infect fish. Over the last decade, cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infecting common and koi carp has emerged as the archetype of fish alloherpesviruses...
2015: Advances in Virus Research
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