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Advances in Parasitology

Maria-Gloria Basáñez, Roy M Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Parasitology
K S Rock, R J Quinnell, G F Medley, O Courtenay
The leishmaniases comprise a complex of diseases characterized by clinical outcomes that range from self-limiting to chronic, and disfiguring and stigmatizing to life threatening. Diagnostic methods, treatments, and vector and reservoir control options exist, but deciding the most effective interventions requires a quantitative understanding of the population level infection and disease dynamics. The effectiveness of any set of interventions has to be determined within the context of operational conditions, including economic and political commitment...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
R J Kastner, C M Stone, P Steinmann, M Tanner, F Tediosi
In the last few years, the concepts of disease elimination and eradication have again gained consideration from the global health community, with Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) on track to become the first parasitic disease to be eradicated. Given the many complex and interlinking issues involved in committing to a disease eradication initiative, such commitments must be based on a solid assessment of a broad range of factors. In this chapter, we discuss the value and implications of undertaking a systematic and fact-based analysis of the overall situation prior to embarking on an elimination or eradication programme...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
G F Medley, H C Turner, R F Baggaley, C Holland, T D Hollingsworth
Diagnostics play a crucial role in determining treatment protocols and evaluating success of mass drug administration (MDA) programmes used to control soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). The current diagnostic, Kato-Katz, relies on inexpensive, reusable materials and can be used in the field, but only trained microscopists can read slides. This diagnostic always underestimates the true prevalence of infection, and the accuracy worsens as the true prevalence falls. We investigate how more sensitive diagnostics would impact on the management and life cycle of MDA programmes, including number of mass treatment rounds, health impact, number of unnecessary treatments and probability of elimination...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
M G Basáñez, M Walker, H C Turner, L E Coffeng, S J de Vlas, W A Stolk
Human onchocerciasis (river blindness) is one of the few neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) whose control strategies have been informed by mathematical modelling. With the change in focus from elimination of the disease burden to elimination of Onchocerca volvulus, much remains to be done to refine, calibrate and validate existing models. Under the impetus of the NTD Modelling Consortium, the teams that developed EPIONCHO and ONCHOSIM have joined forces to compare and improve these frameworks to better assist ongoing elimination efforts...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
R M Anderson, H C Turner, S H Farrell, J E Truscott
Schistosomiasis is global in extent within developing countries, but more than 90% of the at-risk population lives in sub-Saharan Africa. In total, 261 million people are estimated to require preventive treatment. However, with increasing drug availability through donation, the World Health Organization has set a goal of increasing coverage to 75% of at-risk children in endemic countries and elimination in some regions. In this chapter, we discuss key biological and epidemiological processes involved in the schistosome transmission cycle and review the history of modelling schistosomiasis and the impact of mass drug administration, including both deterministic and stochastic approaches...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
J E Truscott, H C Turner, S H Farrell, R M Anderson
Infections caused by soil-transmitted helminthias (STHs) affect over a billion people worldwide, causing anaemia and having a large social and economic impact through poor educational outcomes. They are identified in the World Health Organization (WHO) 2020 goals for neglected tropical diseases as a target for renewed effort to ameliorate their global public health burden through mass drug administration (MDA) and water and hygiene improvement. In this chapter, we review the underlying biology and epidemiology of the three causative intestinal nematode species that are mostly considered under the STH umbrella term...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
A Pinsent, I M Blake, M G Basáñez, M Gambhir
The World Health Organization has targeted the elimination of blinding trachoma by the year 2020. To this end, the Global Elimination of Blinding Trachoma (GET, 2020) alliance relies on a four-pronged approach, known as the SAFE strategy (S for trichiasis surgery; A for antibiotic treatment; F for facial cleanliness and E for environmental improvement). Well-constructed and parameterized mathematical models provide useful tools that can be used in policy making and forecasting in order to help to control trachoma and understand the feasibility of this large-scale elimination effort...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Parasitology
C Britton, B Roberts, N D Marks
The availability of genome and transcriptome data for parasitic nematodes, including Haemonchus contortus, has highlighted the need to develop functional genomics tools. Comparative genomic analysis, particularly using data from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, can help predict gene function. Reliable approaches to study function directly in parasitic nematodes are currently lacking. However, gene knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) is being successfully used in schistosome and planarian species to define gene functions...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
R Laing, A Martinelli, A Tracey, N Holroyd, J S Gilleard, J A Cotton
One of the first genome sequencing projects for a parasitic nematode was that for Haemonchus contortus. The open access data from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute provided a valuable early resource for the research community, particularly for the identification of specific genes and genetic markers. Later, a second sequencing project was initiated by the University of Melbourne, and the two draft genome sequences for H. contortus were published back-to-back in 2013. There is a pressing need for long-range genomic information for genetic mapping, population genetics and functional genomic studies, so we are continuing to improve the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute assembly to provide a finished reference genome for H...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
R B Gasser, E M Schwarz, P K Korhonen, N D Young
Parasitic roundworms (nematodes) cause substantial mortality and morbidity in animals globally. The barber's pole worm, Haemonchus contortus, is one of the most economically significant parasitic nematodes of small ruminants worldwide. Although this and related nematodes can be controlled relatively well using anthelmintics, resistance against most drugs in common use has become a major problem. Until recently, almost nothing was known about the molecular biology of H. contortus on a global scale. This chapter gives a brief background on H...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
C E Lanusse, L I Alvarez, A L Lifschitz
Progress made in understanding pharmacokinetic behaviour and pharmacodynamic mechanisms of drug action/resistance has allowed deep insights into the pharmacology of the main chemical classes, including some of the few recently discovered anthelmintics. The integration of pharmaco-parasitological research approaches has contributed considerably to the optimization of drug activity, which is relevant to preserve existing and novel active compounds for parasite control in livestock. A remarkable amount of pharmacology-based knowledge has been generated using the sheep abomasal nematode Haemonchus contortus as a model...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
T G Geary
Haemonchus contortus is an important pathogen of small ruminants and is therefore a crucially important target for anthelmintic chemotherapy. Its large size and fecundity have been exploited for the development of in vitro screens for anthelmintic discovery that employ larval and adult stages in several formats. The ability of the parasite to develop to the young adult stage in Mongolian jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) provides a useful small animal model that can be used to screen compounds prior to their evaluation in infected sheep...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
A C Kotze, R K Prichard
Haemonchus contortus has shown a great ability to develop resistance to anthelmintic drugs. In many instances, resistance has appeared less than 10years after the introduction of a new drug class. Field populations of this species now show resistance to all major anthelmintic drug classes, including benzimidazoles (BZs), imidazothiazoles and macrocyclic lactones. In addition, resistance to the recently introduced amino-acetonitrile derivative class (monepantel) has already been reported. The existence of field populations showing resistance to all three major drug classes, and the early appearance of resistance to monepantel, threatens the sustainability of sheep and goat production systems worldwide...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
A J Nisbet, E N Meeusen, J F González, D M Piedrafita
Sheep are capable of developing protective immunity to Haemonchus contortus through repeated exposure to this parasite, although this immune protection is the result of a complex interaction among age, gender, physiological status, pregnancy, lactation, nutrition and innate and adaptive immunity in the host animal. There are multiple effectors of the protective immune response, which differ depending on the developmental stage of the parasite being targeted, and our understanding of the effector mechanisms has developed considerably in the 2000s...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
H Hoste, J F J Torres-Acosta, J Quijada, I Chan-Perez, M M Dakheel, D S Kommuru, I Mueller-Harvey, T H Terrill
Interactions between host nutrition and feeding behaviour are central to understanding the pathophysiological consequences of infections of the digestive tract with parasitic nematodes. The manipulation of host nutrition provides useful options to control gastrointestinal nematodes as a component of an integrated strategy. Focussed mainly on the Haemonchus contortus infection model in small ruminants, this chapter (1) illustrates the relationship between quantitative (macro- and micro-nutrients) and qualitative (plant secondary metabolites) aspects of host nutrition and nematode infection, and (2) shows how basic studies aimed at addressing some generic questions can help to provide solutions, despite the considerable diversity of epidemiological situations and breeding systems...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
R B Besier, L P Kahn, N D Sargison, J A Van Wyk
Haemonchus contortus is a highly pathogenic, blood-feeding nematode of small ruminants, and a significant cause of mortalities worldwide. Haemonchosis is a particularly significant threat in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions, where warm and moist conditions favour the free-living stages, but periodic outbreaks occur more widely during periods of transient environmental favourability. The clinical diagnosis of haemonchosis is based mostly on the detection of anaemia in association with a characteristic epidemiological picture, and confirmed at postmortem by the finding of large numbers of H...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
D S Zarlenga, E P Hoberg, W Tuo
Diagnosis is often equated with identification or detection when discussing parasitic diseases. Unfortunately, these are not necessarily mutually exclusive activities; diseases and infections are generally diagnosed and organisms are identified. Diagnosis is commonly predicated upon some clinical signs; in an effort to determine the causative agent, identification of genera and species is subsequently performed. Both identification and diagnosis play critical roles in managing an infection, and involve the interplay of direct and indirect methods of detection, particularly in light of the complex and expanding problem of drug-resistance in parasites...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
R B Besier, L P Kahn, N D Sargison, J A Van Wyk
The parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus occurs commonly in small ruminants, and it is an especially significant threat to the health and production of sheep and goats in tropical and warm temperate zones. The main signs of disease (haemonchosis) relate to its blood-feeding activity, leading to anaemia, weakness and frequently to deaths, unless treatment is provided. Due to the high biotic potential, large burdens of H. contortus may develop rapidly when environmental conditions favour the free-living stages, and deaths may occur with little prior warning...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
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