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Advances in Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212792/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Andrew Thompson, Peter Deplazes, Alan Lymbery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212791/echinococcosis-control-and-prevention
#2
P S Craig, D Hegglin, M W Lightowlers, P R Torgerson, Q Wang
Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been eliminated or significantly reduced as a public health problem in several previously highly endemic regions. This has been achieved by the long-term application of prevention and control measures primarily targeted to deworming dogs, health education, meat inspection, and effective surveillance in livestock and human populations. Human CE, however, remains a serious neglected zoonotic disease in many resource-poor pastoral regions. The incidence of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) has increased in continental Europe and is a major public health problem in parts of Eurasia...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212790/the-echinococcoses-diagnosis-clinical-management-and-burden-of-disease
#3
P Kern, A Menezes da Silva, O Akhan, B Müllhaupt, K A Vizcaychipi, C Budke, D A Vuitton
The echinococcoses are chronic, parasitic diseases that are acquired after ingestion of infective taeniid tapeworm eggs from certain species of the genus Echinococcus. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) occurs worldwide, whereas, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is restricted to the northern hemisphere, and neotropical echinococcosis (NE) has only been identified in Central and South America. Clinical manifestations and disease courses vary profoundly for the different species of Echinococcus. CE presents as small to large cysts, and has commonly been referred to as 'hydatid disease', or 'hydatidosis'...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212789/laboratory-diagnosis-of-echinococcus-spp-in-human-patients-and-infected-animals
#4
M Siles-Lucas, A Casulli, F J Conraths, N Müller
Among the species composing the genus Echinococcus, four species are of human clinical interest. The most prevalent species are Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis, followed by Echinococcus vogeli and Echinococcus oligarthrus. The first two species cause cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) respectively. Both diseases have a complex clinical management, in which laboratory diagnosis could be an adjunctive to the imaging techniques. To date, several approaches have been described for the laboratory diagnosis and followup of CE and AE, including antibody, antigen and cytokine detection...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212788/immunology-of-alveolar-and%C3%A2-cystic-echinococcosis-ae-and-ce
#5
B Gottstein, P Soboslay, E Ortona, J Wang, A Siracusano, D Α Vuitton
Cystic and alveolar echinococcosis are severe chronic helminthic diseases caused by the cystic growth or the intrahepatic tumour-like growth of the metacestode of Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively. Both parasites have evolved sophisticated strategies to escape host immune responses, mainly by manipulating and directing this immune response towards anergy and/or tolerance. Recent research studies have revealed a number of respective immunoregulatory mechanisms related to macrophages and dendritic cell as well as T cell activities (regulatory T cells, Tregs)...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131367/preface
#6
EDITORIAL
Andrew Thompson, Peter Deplazes, Alan Lymbery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131366/biology-and-systematics-of-echinococcus
#7
R C A Thompson
The biology of Echinococcus, the causative agent of echinococcosis (hydatid disease) is reviewed with emphasis on the developmental biology of the adult and metacestode stages of the parasite. Major advances include determining the origin, structure and functional activities of the laminated layer and its relationship with the germinal layer; and the isolation, in vitro establishment and characterization of the multipotential germinal cells. Future challenges are to identify the mechanisms that provide Echinococcus with its unique developmental plasticity and the nature of activities at the parasite-host interface, particularly in the definitive host...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131365/global-distribution-of-alveolar-and-cystic-echinococcosis
#8
P Deplazes, L Rinaldi, C A Alvarez Rojas, P R Torgerson, M F Harandi, T Romig, D Antolova, J M Schurer, S Lahmar, G Cringoli, J Magambo, R C A Thompson, E J Jenkins
Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE) are severe helminthic zoonoses. Echinococcus multilocularis (causative agent of AE) is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere where it is typically maintained in a wild animal cycle including canids as definitive hosts and rodents as intermediate hosts. The species Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus ortleppi, Echinococcus canadensis and Echinococcus intermedius are the causative agents of CE with a worldwide distribution and a highly variable human disease burden in the different endemic areas depending upon human behavioural risk factors, the diversity and ecology of animal host assemblages and the genetic diversity within Echinococcus species which differ in their zoonotic potential and pathogenicity...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131364/ecology-and-life-cycle-patterns-of-echinococcus-species
#9
T Romig, P Deplazes, D Jenkins, P Giraudoux, A Massolo, P S Craig, M Wassermann, K Takahashi, M de la Rue
The genus Echinococcus is composed of eight generally recognized species and one genotypic cluster (Echinococcus canadensis cluster) that may in future be resolved into one to three species. For each species, we review existing information on transmission routes and life cycles in different geographical contexts and - where available - include basic biological information of parasites and hosts (e.g., susceptibility of host species). While some Echinococcus spp. are transmitted in life cycles that involve predominantly domestic animals (e...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131363/echinococcus-host-interactions-at-cellular-and-molecular-levels
#10
K Brehm, U Koziol
The potentially lethal zoonotic diseases alveolar and cystic echinococcosis are caused by the metacestode larval stages of the tapeworms Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus, respectively. In both cases, metacestode growth and proliferation occurs within the inner organs of mammalian hosts, which is associated with complex molecular host-parasite interactions that regulate nutrient uptake by the parasite as well as metacestode persistence and development. Using in vitro cultivation systems for parasite larvae, and informed by recently released, comprehensive genome and transcriptome data for both parasites, these molecular host-parasite interactions have been subject to significant research during recent years...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131362/phylogenetic-pattern-evolutionary-processes-and-species-delimitation-in-the-genus-echinococcus
#11
A J Lymbery
An accurate and stable alpha taxonomy requires a clear conception of what constitutes a species and agreed criteria for delimiting different species. An evolutionary or general lineage concept defines a species as a single lineage of organisms with a common evolutionary trajectory, distinguishable from other such lineages. Delimiting evolutionary species is a two-step process. In the first step, phylogenetic reconstruction identifies putative species as groups of organisms that are monophyletic (share a common ancestor) and exclusive (more closely related to each other than to organisms outside the group)...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131361/historical-aspects-of-echinococcosis
#12
J Eckert, R C A Thompson
Echinococcosis is a zoonosis whose history dates back to antiquity. This article provides an overview on the general history of echinococcosis, including the elucidation of Echinococcus life cycles and the long controversy on the aetiology of the cystic and alveolar forms of echinococcosis (CE and AE), lasting about 100years since the middle of the 19th century. Furthermore, selected historical aspects of some fields of echinococcosis research are discussed and compared with our current knowledge, such as geographic distribution and epidemiology of CE (Echinococcus granulosus) and AE (Echinococcus multilocularis), clinical aspects and pathology, diagnosis in humans and animals, treatment (with focus on chemotherapy), control and basic research...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756460/preface
#13
EDITORIAL
Maria-Gloria Basáñez, Roy M Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756459/progress-in-the-mathematical-modelling-of-visceral-leishmaniasis
#14
K S Rock, R J Quinnell, G F Medley, O Courtenay
The leishmaniases comprise a complex of diseases characterized by clinical outcomes that range from self-limiting to chronic, and disfiguring and stigmatizing to life threatening. Diagnostic methods, treatments, and vector and reservoir control options exist, but deciding the most effective interventions requires a quantitative understanding of the population level infection and disease dynamics. The effectiveness of any set of interventions has to be determined within the context of operational conditions, including economic and political commitment...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756458/lessons-learned-from-developing-an-eradication-investment-case-for-lymphatic-filariasis
#15
R J Kastner, C M Stone, P Steinmann, M Tanner, F Tediosi
In the last few years, the concepts of disease elimination and eradication have again gained consideration from the global health community, with Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) on track to become the first parasitic disease to be eradicated. Given the many complex and interlinking issues involved in committing to a disease eradication initiative, such commitments must be based on a solid assessment of a broad range of factors. In this chapter, we discuss the value and implications of undertaking a systematic and fact-based analysis of the overall situation prior to embarking on an elimination or eradication programme...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756457/the-role-of-more-sensitive-helminth-diagnostics-in-mass-drug-administration-campaigns-elimination-and-health-impacts
#16
G F Medley, H C Turner, R F Baggaley, C Holland, T D Hollingsworth
Diagnostics play a crucial role in determining treatment protocols and evaluating success of mass drug administration (MDA) programmes used to control soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). The current diagnostic, Kato-Katz, relies on inexpensive, reusable materials and can be used in the field, but only trained microscopists can read slides. This diagnostic always underestimates the true prevalence of infection, and the accuracy worsens as the true prevalence falls. We investigate how more sensitive diagnostics would impact on the management and life cycle of MDA programmes, including number of mass treatment rounds, health impact, number of unnecessary treatments and probability of elimination...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756456/river-blindness-mathematical-models-for-control-and-elimination
#17
M G Basáñez, M Walker, H C Turner, L E Coffeng, S J de Vlas, W A Stolk
Human onchocerciasis (river blindness) is one of the few neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) whose control strategies have been informed by mathematical modelling. With the change in focus from elimination of the disease burden to elimination of Onchocerca volvulus, much remains to be done to refine, calibrate and validate existing models. Under the impetus of the NTD Modelling Consortium, the teams that developed EPIONCHO and ONCHOSIM have joined forces to compare and improve these frameworks to better assist ongoing elimination efforts...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756455/studies-of-the-transmission-dynamics-mathematical-model-development%C3%A2-and-the-control-of-schistosome-parasites-by-mass-drug-administration-in-human-communities
#18
R M Anderson, H C Turner, S H Farrell, J E Truscott
Schistosomiasis is global in extent within developing countries, but more than 90% of the at-risk population lives in sub-Saharan Africa. In total, 261 million people are estimated to require preventive treatment. However, with increasing drug availability through donation, the World Health Organization has set a goal of increasing coverage to 75% of at-risk children in endemic countries and elimination in some regions. In this chapter, we discuss key biological and epidemiological processes involved in the schistosome transmission cycle and review the history of modelling schistosomiasis and the impact of mass drug administration, including both deterministic and stochastic approaches...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756454/soil-transmitted-helminths-mathematical-models-of-transmission-the-impact-of-mass-drug-administration-and-transmission-elimination-criteria
#19
J E Truscott, H C Turner, S H Farrell, R M Anderson
Infections caused by soil-transmitted helminthias (STHs) affect over a billion people worldwide, causing anaemia and having a large social and economic impact through poor educational outcomes. They are identified in the World Health Organization (WHO) 2020 goals for neglected tropical diseases as a target for renewed effort to ameliorate their global public health burden through mass drug administration (MDA) and water and hygiene improvement. In this chapter, we review the underlying biology and epidemiology of the three causative intestinal nematode species that are mostly considered under the STH umbrella term...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756453/mathematical-modelling-of-trachoma-transmission-control-and-elimination
#20
A Pinsent, I M Blake, M G Basáñez, M Gambhir
The World Health Organization has targeted the elimination of blinding trachoma by the year 2020. To this end, the Global Elimination of Blinding Trachoma (GET, 2020) alliance relies on a four-pronged approach, known as the SAFE strategy (S for trichiasis surgery; A for antibiotic treatment; F for facial cleanliness and E for environmental improvement). Well-constructed and parameterized mathematical models provide useful tools that can be used in policy making and forecasting in order to help to control trachoma and understand the feasibility of this large-scale elimination effort...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
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