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Advances in Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325373/host-parasite-relationships-and-life-histories-of-trypanosomes-in-australia
#1
C Cooper, P L Clode, C Peacock, R C A Thompson
Trypanosomes constitute a group of flagellate protozoan parasites responsible for a number of important, yet neglected, diseases in both humans and livestock. The most significantly studied include the causative agents of African sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma brucei) and Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) in humans. Much of our knowledge about trypanosome host-parasite relationships and life histories has come from these two human pathogens. Recent investigations into the diversity and life histories of wildlife trypanosomes in Australia highlight that there exists a great degree of biological and behavioural variation within and between trypanosomes...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325372/is-predominant-clonal-evolution-a-common-evolutionary-adaptation-to-parasitism-in-pathogenic-parasitic-protozoa-fungi-bacteria-and-viruses
#2
M Tibayrenc, F J Ayala
We propose that predominant clonal evolution (PCE) in microbial pathogens be defined as restrained recombination on an evolutionary scale, with genetic exchange scarce enough to not break the prevalent pattern of clonal population structure. The main features of PCE are (1) strong linkage disequilibrium, (2) the widespread occurrence of stable genetic clusters blurred by occasional bouts of genetic exchange ('near-clades'), (3) the existence of a "clonality threshold", beyond which recombination is efficiently countered by PCE, and near-clades irreversibly diverge...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325371/the-role-of-spatial-statistics-in-the-control-and-elimination-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-focus-on-human-african-trypanosomiasis-schistosomiasis-and-lymphatic-filariasis
#3
M C Stanton
Disease control and elimination programmes can benefit greatly from accurate information on the spatial variability of disease risk, particularly when risk is highly spatially heterogeneous. Due to advances in statistical methodology, coupled with the increased availability of geospatial technology, this information is becoming increasingly accessible. In this chapter we describe recent advancements in spatial methods associated with the analysis of disease data measured at the point-level and demonstrate their application to the control and elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325370/targeting-the-parasite-to-suppress-malaria-transmission
#4
R E Sinden
This article attempts to draw together current knowledge on the biology of Plasmodium and experience gained from past control campaigns to interpret and guide current efforts to discover and develop exciting new strategies targeting the parasite with the objective of interrupting transmission. Particular note is made of the advantages of targeting often unappreciated small, yet vital, bottleneck populations to enhance both the impact and the useful lifetime of hard-won interventions. A case is made for the standardization of methods to measure transmission blockade to permit the rational comparison of how diverse interventions (drugs, vaccines, insecticides, Genetically Modified technologies) targeting disparate aspects of parasite biology may impact upon the commonly used parameter of parasite prevalence in the human population...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325369/the-compatibility-between-biomphalaria-glabrata-snails-and-schistosoma-mansoni-an-increasingly-complex-puzzle
#5
G Mitta, B Gourbal, C Grunau, M Knight, J M Bridger, A Théron
This review reexamines the results obtained in recent decades regarding the compatibility polymorphism between the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the pathogen, Schistosoma mansoni, which is one of the agents responsible for human schistosomiasis. Some results point to the snail's resistance as explaining the incompatibility, while others support a "matching hypothesis" between the snail's immune receptors and the schistosome's antigens. We propose here that the two hypotheses are not exclusive, and that the compatible/incompatible status of a particular host/parasite couple probably reflects the balance of multiple molecular determinants that support one hypothesis or the other...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325368/chagas-disease-diagnostic-applications-present-knowledge-and-future-steps
#6
V Balouz, F Agüero, C A Buscaglia
Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a lifelong and debilitating illness of major significance throughout Latin America and an emergent threat to global public health. Being a neglected disease, the vast majority of Chagasic patients have limited access to proper diagnosis and treatment, and there is only a marginal investment into R&D for drug and vaccine development. In this context, identification of novel biomarkers able to transcend the current limits of diagnostic methods surfaces as a main priority in Chagas disease applied research...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212792/preface
#7
EDITORIAL
Andrew Thompson, Peter Deplazes, Alan Lymbery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212791/echinococcosis-control-and-prevention
#8
P S Craig, D Hegglin, M W Lightowlers, P R Torgerson, Q Wang
Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been eliminated or significantly reduced as a public health problem in several previously highly endemic regions. This has been achieved by the long-term application of prevention and control measures primarily targeted to deworming dogs, health education, meat inspection, and effective surveillance in livestock and human populations. Human CE, however, remains a serious neglected zoonotic disease in many resource-poor pastoral regions. The incidence of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) has increased in continental Europe and is a major public health problem in parts of Eurasia...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212790/the-echinococcoses-diagnosis-clinical-management-and-burden-of-disease
#9
P Kern, A Menezes da Silva, O Akhan, B Müllhaupt, K A Vizcaychipi, C Budke, D A Vuitton
The echinococcoses are chronic, parasitic diseases that are acquired after ingestion of infective taeniid tapeworm eggs from certain species of the genus Echinococcus. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) occurs worldwide, whereas, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is restricted to the northern hemisphere, and neotropical echinococcosis (NE) has only been identified in Central and South America. Clinical manifestations and disease courses vary profoundly for the different species of Echinococcus. CE presents as small to large cysts, and has commonly been referred to as 'hydatid disease', or 'hydatidosis'...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212789/laboratory-diagnosis-of-echinococcus-spp-in-human-patients-and-infected-animals
#10
M Siles-Lucas, A Casulli, F J Conraths, N Müller
Among the species composing the genus Echinococcus, four species are of human clinical interest. The most prevalent species are Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis, followed by Echinococcus vogeli and Echinococcus oligarthrus. The first two species cause cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) respectively. Both diseases have a complex clinical management, in which laboratory diagnosis could be an adjunctive to the imaging techniques. To date, several approaches have been described for the laboratory diagnosis and followup of CE and AE, including antibody, antigen and cytokine detection...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212788/immunology-of-alveolar-and%C3%A2-cystic-echinococcosis-ae-and-ce
#11
B Gottstein, P Soboslay, E Ortona, J Wang, A Siracusano, D Α Vuitton
Cystic and alveolar echinococcosis are severe chronic helminthic diseases caused by the cystic growth or the intrahepatic tumour-like growth of the metacestode of Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively. Both parasites have evolved sophisticated strategies to escape host immune responses, mainly by manipulating and directing this immune response towards anergy and/or tolerance. Recent research studies have revealed a number of respective immunoregulatory mechanisms related to macrophages and dendritic cell as well as T cell activities (regulatory T cells, Tregs)...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131367/preface
#12
EDITORIAL
Andrew Thompson, Peter Deplazes, Alan Lymbery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131366/biology-and-systematics-of-echinococcus
#13
REVIEW
R C A Thompson
The biology of Echinococcus, the causative agent of echinococcosis (hydatid disease) is reviewed with emphasis on the developmental biology of the adult and metacestode stages of the parasite. Major advances include determining the origin, structure and functional activities of the laminated layer and its relationship with the germinal layer; and the isolation, in vitro establishment and characterization of the multipotential germinal cells. Future challenges are to identify the mechanisms that provide Echinococcus with its unique developmental plasticity and the nature of activities at the parasite-host interface, particularly in the definitive host...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131365/global-distribution-of-alveolar-and-cystic-echinococcosis
#14
REVIEW
P Deplazes, L Rinaldi, C A Alvarez Rojas, P R Torgerson, M F Harandi, T Romig, D Antolova, J M Schurer, S Lahmar, G Cringoli, J Magambo, R C A Thompson, E J Jenkins
Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE) are severe helminthic zoonoses. Echinococcus multilocularis (causative agent of AE) is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere where it is typically maintained in a wild animal cycle including canids as definitive hosts and rodents as intermediate hosts. The species Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus ortleppi, Echinococcus canadensis and Echinococcus intermedius are the causative agents of CE with a worldwide distribution and a highly variable human disease burden in the different endemic areas depending upon human behavioural risk factors, the diversity and ecology of animal host assemblages and the genetic diversity within Echinococcus species which differ in their zoonotic potential and pathogenicity...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131364/ecology-and-life-cycle-patterns-of-echinococcus-species
#15
REVIEW
T Romig, P Deplazes, D Jenkins, P Giraudoux, A Massolo, P S Craig, M Wassermann, K Takahashi, M de la Rue
The genus Echinococcus is composed of eight generally recognized species and one genotypic cluster (Echinococcus canadensis cluster) that may in future be resolved into one to three species. For each species, we review existing information on transmission routes and life cycles in different geographical contexts and - where available - include basic biological information of parasites and hosts (e.g., susceptibility of host species). While some Echinococcus spp. are transmitted in life cycles that involve predominantly domestic animals (e...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131363/echinococcus-host-interactions-at-cellular-and-molecular-levels
#16
REVIEW
K Brehm, U Koziol
The potentially lethal zoonotic diseases alveolar and cystic echinococcosis are caused by the metacestode larval stages of the tapeworms Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus, respectively. In both cases, metacestode growth and proliferation occurs within the inner organs of mammalian hosts, which is associated with complex molecular host-parasite interactions that regulate nutrient uptake by the parasite as well as metacestode persistence and development. Using in vitro cultivation systems for parasite larvae, and informed by recently released, comprehensive genome and transcriptome data for both parasites, these molecular host-parasite interactions have been subject to significant research during recent years...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131362/phylogenetic-pattern-evolutionary-processes-and-species-delimitation-in-the-genus-echinococcus
#17
REVIEW
A J Lymbery
An accurate and stable alpha taxonomy requires a clear conception of what constitutes a species and agreed criteria for delimiting different species. An evolutionary or general lineage concept defines a species as a single lineage of organisms with a common evolutionary trajectory, distinguishable from other such lineages. Delimiting evolutionary species is a two-step process. In the first step, phylogenetic reconstruction identifies putative species as groups of organisms that are monophyletic (share a common ancestor) and exclusive (more closely related to each other than to organisms outside the group)...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131361/historical-aspects-of-echinococcosis
#18
REVIEW
J Eckert, R C A Thompson
Echinococcosis is a zoonosis whose history dates back to antiquity. This article provides an overview on the general history of echinococcosis, including the elucidation of Echinococcus life cycles and the long controversy on the aetiology of the cystic and alveolar forms of echinococcosis (CE and AE), lasting about 100years since the middle of the 19th century. Furthermore, selected historical aspects of some fields of echinococcosis research are discussed and compared with our current knowledge, such as geographic distribution and epidemiology of CE (Echinococcus granulosus) and AE (Echinococcus multilocularis), clinical aspects and pathology, diagnosis in humans and animals, treatment (with focus on chemotherapy), control and basic research...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756460/preface
#19
EDITORIAL
Maria-Gloria Basáñez, Roy M Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756459/progress-in-the-mathematical-modelling-of-visceral-leishmaniasis
#20
REVIEW
K S Rock, R J Quinnell, G F Medley, O Courtenay
The leishmaniases comprise a complex of diseases characterized by clinical outcomes that range from self-limiting to chronic, and disfiguring and stigmatizing to life threatening. Diagnostic methods, treatments, and vector and reservoir control options exist, but deciding the most effective interventions requires a quantitative understanding of the population level infection and disease dynamics. The effectiveness of any set of interventions has to be determined within the context of operational conditions, including economic and political commitment...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
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