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Advances in Marine Biology

Gianmarco Ingrosso, Marco Abbiati, Fabio Badalamenti, Giorgio Bavestrello, Genuario Belmonte, Rita Cannas, Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi, Marco Bertolino, Stanislao Bevilacqua, Carlo Nike Bianchi, Marzia Bo, Elisa Boscari, Frine Cardone, Riccardo Cattaneo-Vietti, Alessandro Cau, Carlo Cerrano, Renato Chemello, Giovanni Chimienti, Leonardo Congiu, Giuseppe Corriero, Federica Costantini, Francesco De Leo, Luigia Donnarumma, Annalisa Falace, Simonetta Fraschetti, Adriana Giangrande, Maria Flavia Gravina, Giuseppe Guarnieri, Francesco Mastrototaro, Marco Milazzo, Carla Morri, Luigi Musco, Laura Pezzolesi, Stefano Piraino, Fiorella Prada, Massimo Ponti, Fabio Rindi, Giovanni Fulvio Russo, Roberto Sandulli, Adriana Villamor, Lorenzo Zane, Ferdinando Boero
Marine bioconstructions are biodiversity-rich, three-dimensional biogenic structures, regulating key ecological functions of benthic ecosystems worldwide. Tropical coral reefs are outstanding for their beauty, diversity and complexity, but analogous types of bioconstructions are also present in temperate seas. The main bioconstructions in the Mediterranean Sea are represented by coralligenous formations, vermetid reefs, deep-sea cold-water corals, Lithophyllum byssoides trottoirs, coral banks formed by the shallow-water corals Cladocora caespitosa or Astroides calycularis, and sabellariid or serpulid worm reefs...
2018: Advances in Marine Biology
Johanne Vad, Georgios Kazanidis, Lea-Anne Henry, Daniel O B Jones, Ole S Tendal, Sabine Christiansen, Theodore B Henry, J Murray Roberts
Sponges form an important component of benthic ecosystems from shallow littoral to hadal depths. In the deep ocean, beyond the continental shelf, sponges can form high-density fields, constituting important habitats supporting rich benthic communities. Yet these habitats remain relatively unexplored. The oil and gas industry has played an important role in advancing our knowledge of deep-sea environments. Since its inception in the 1960s, offshore oil and gas industry has moved into deeper waters. However, the impacts of these activities on deep-sea sponges and other ecosystems are only starting to become the subject of active research...
2018: Advances in Marine Biology
Alex D Rogers
Seamounts are one of the major biomes of the global ocean. The last 25 years of research has seen considerable advances in the understanding of these ecosystems. The interactions between seamounts and steady and variable flows have now been characterised providing a better mechanistic understanding of processes influencing biology. Processes leading to upwelling, including Taylor column formation and tidal rectification, have now been defined as well as those leading to draw down of organic matter from the ocean surface to seamount summit and flanks...
2018: Advances in Marine Biology
Patricia L M Lee, Gail Schofield, Rebecca I Haughey, Antonios D Mazaris, Graeme C Hays
Why females would mate with multiple partners and have multiple fathers for clutches or litters is a long-standing enigma. There is a broad dichotomy in hypotheses ranging from polyandry having benefits to simply being an unavoidable consequence of a high incidence of male-female encounters. If females simply give in to mating when it is too costly to avoid being harassed by males (convenience polyandry), then there should be a higher rate of mating as density increases. However, if females actively seek males because they benefit from multiple mating, then mating frequency, and consequently the incidence of multiple paternity of clutches, should be high throughout...
2018: Advances in Marine Biology
Jackie King, Gordon A McFarlane, Vladlena Gertseva, Jason Gasper, Sean Matson, Cindy A Tribuzio
For over 100 years, sharks have been encountered, as either directed catch or incidental catch, in commercial fisheries throughout the Northeast Pacific Ocean. A long-standing directed fishery for North Pacific Spiny Dogfish (Squalus suckleyi) has occurred and dominated shark landings and discards. Other fisheries, mainly for shark livers, have historically targeted species including Bluntnose Sixgill Shark (Hexanchus griseus) and Tope Shark (Galeorhinus galeus). While incidental catches of numerous species have occurred historically, only recently have these encounters been reliably enumerated in commercial and recreational fisheries...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
Michael Grassmann, Bryan McNeil, Jim Wharton
The role of public aquariums in promoting conservation has changed substantially over the decades, evolving from entertainment attractions to educational and research centres. In many facilities, larger sharks are an essential part of the collection and represent one of the biggest draws for the public. Displaying healthy elasmobranchs comes with many challenges, but improvements in husbandry techniques have enabled aquariums to have success with a variety of species. The establishment of organisations such as the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, and the completion of texts like the Elasmobranch Husbandry Manual, has helped set high standards of care for sharks in captivity and promoted international conservation efforts...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
Dovi Kacev, Timothy J Sippel, Michael J Kinney, Sebastián A Pardo, Christopher G Mull
Elasmobranchs play critically important ecological roles throughout the world's oceans, yet in many cases, their slow life histories and interactions with fisheries makes them particularly susceptible to exploitation. Management for these species requires robust scientific input, and mathematical models are the backbone of science-based management. In this chapter, we provide an introductory overview of the use of mathematical models to estimate shark abundance. First, we discuss life history models that are used to understand the basic biology of elasmobranchs...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
Dayv Lowry
Human interactions with sharks in the Northeast Pacific Ocean (NEP) have occurred for millennia but were largely limited to nearshore encounters as target and nontarget catch in fisheries. The arrival of Spanish explorers in the mid-1500s, followed by subsequent waves of explorers and colonizers from Europe and Russia, did little to change this relationship, until the mid-1800s. As technological advances conferred the ability to exploit marine fish further offshore and in deeper water, substantial fisheries developed and many of these encountered, and sometimes directly targeted, sharks...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
Peter A Mieras, Chris Harvey-Clark, Michael Bear, Gina Hodgin, Boone Hodgin
Historically sharks have been seen either as a source of income through harvesting, or as a nuisance and danger. The economic value of sharks has traditionally been measured as the total value of sharks caught for liver oil, fins, or meat for consumption. Sharks have also been killed to near extinction in cases where they were seen as a threat to fisheries on other species. This is illustrated by the mass extermination of Basking Sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) in British Columbia. They were seen as a nuisance to fishermen as they got entangled in gill nets during the salmon fishing season...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
Shawn E Larson, Dayv Lowry
Sharks are iconic, sometimes apex, predators found in every ocean. Because of their ecological role as predators and concern over the stability of their populations, there has been an increasing amount of work focused on shark conservation around the world in recent decades. The populations of sharks that reside in the Northeast Pacific (NEP) Ocean bordering the west coast of the United States reside in one of the most economically and ecologically important oceanic regions in the world. Volume 78 of Advances in Marine Biology (AMB) is a companion to Volume 77, which focused primarily on NEP shark biodiversity, organismal biology, and ecology...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
David A Ebert, Jennifer S Bigman, Julia M Lawson
The sharks, batoids, and chimaeras, collectively the class Chondrichthyes, are one of the most successful groups of fishes, with over 1250 species globally. Recent taxonomic revisions have increased their diversity by about 20% over the past 17 years (2000-2016). The Northeast Pacific Ocean is one of the top 20 most diverse regions/countries on the globe with 77 chondrichthyan species, a number less than a quarter that of the most species-rich area (Australia) but that has increased by 10% since 2000 to include three new species (two skates and a chimaera)...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
Shawn E Larson, Toby S Daly-Engel, Nicole M Phillips
Conservation genetics is an applied science that utilizes molecular tools to help solve problems in species conservation and management. It is an interdisciplinary specialty in which scientists apply the study of genetics in conjunction with traditional ecological fieldwork and other techniques to explore molecular variation, population boundaries, and evolutionary relationships with the goal of enabling resource managers to better protect biodiversity and identify unique populations. Several shark species in the northeast Pacific (NEP) have been studied using conservation genetics techniques, which are discussed here...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
Mary E Matta, Cindy A Tribuzio, David A Ebert, Kenneth J Goldman, Christopher M Gburski
In addition to being an academic endeavour, the practical purpose of conducting age and growth studies on fishes is to provide biological data to stock assessment scientists and fisheries managers so they may better understand population demographics and manage exploitation rates. Age and size data are used to build growth models, which are a critical component of stock assessments. Though age determination of elasmobranchs in the northeast Pacific Ocean (NEP) began in the 1930s, the field has evolved substantially in recent years, allowing scientists to incorporate age data into assessments for more species than ever before...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
Jonathan C P Reum, Gregory D Williams, Chris J Harvey
Stable isotopes are used to address a wide range of ecological questions and can help researchers and managers better understand the movement and trophic ecology of sharks. Here, we review how shark studies from the Northeast Pacific Ocean (NEP) have employed stable isotopes to estimate trophic level and diet composition and infer movement and habitat-use patterns. To date, the number of NEP shark studies that have used stable isotopes is limited, suggesting that the approach is underutilized. To aid shark researchers in understanding the strengths and limitations of the approach, we provide a brief overview of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope trophic discrimination properties (e...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
Joseph J Bizzarro, Aaron B Carlisle, Wade D Smith, Enric Cortés
Although there is a general perception of sharks as large pelagic, apex predators, most sharks are smaller, meso- and upper-trophic level predators that are associated with the seafloor. Among 73 shark species documented in the eastern North Pacific (ENP), less than half reach maximum lengths >200cm, and 78% occur in demersal or benthic regions of the continental shelf or slope. Most small (≤200cm) species (e.g., houndsharks) and demersal, nearshore juveniles of larger species (e.g., requiem sharks) consume small teleosts and decapod crustaceans, whereas large species in pelagic coastal and oceanic environments feed on large teleosts and squids...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
Dayv Lowry, Shawn E Larson
Sharks are iconic, sometimes apex, predators found in every ocean and, as a result, they have featured prominently in the mythology, history, and fisheries of diverse human cultures around the world. Because of their regional significance to fisheries and ecological role as predators, and as a result of concern over long-term stability of their populations, there has been an increasing amount of work focused on shark conservation in recent decades. This volume highlights the biodiversity and biological attributes of, and conservation efforts targeted at, populations of sharks that reside in the Northeast Pacific Ocean bordering the west coast of the United States and Canada, one of the most economically and ecologically important oceanic regions in the world...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
Barbara E Curry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
E M Montgomery, J-F Hamel, A Mercier
Egg pigmentation is proposed to serve numerous ecological, physiological, and adaptive functions in egg-laying animals. Despite the predominance and taxonomic diversity of egg layers, syntheses reviewing the putative functions and drivers of egg pigmentation have been relatively narrow in scope, centring almost exclusively on birds. Nonvertebrate and aquatic species are essentially overlooked, yet many of them produce maternally provisioned eggs in strikingly varied colours, from pale yellow to bright red or green...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
L Yebra, T Kobari, A R Sastri, F Gusmão, S Hernández-León
Several new approaches for measuring zooplankton growth and production rates have been developed since the publication of the ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea) Zooplankton Methodology Manual (Harris et al., 2000). In this review, we summarize the advances in biochemical methods made in recent years. Our approach explores the rationale behind each method, the design of calibration experiments, the advantages and limitations of each method and their suitability as proxies for in situ rates of zooplankton community growth and production...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
F Espinosa, G A Rivera-Ingraham
Patellogastropods, also known as true limpets, are distributed throughout the world and constitute key species in coastal ecosystems. Some limpet species achieve remarkable sizes, which in the most extreme cases can surpass 35cm in shell length. In this review, we focus on giant limpets, which are defined as those with a maximum shell size surpassing 10cm. According to the scientific literature, there are a total of 14 species across five genera that reach these larger sizes. Four of these species are threatened or in danger of extinction...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
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