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Advances in Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413024/tissue-specific-diversity-and-functions-of-conventional-dendritic-cells
#1
REVIEW
Dalia Pakalniškytė, Barbara U Schraml
Dendritic cells (DCs) are versatile controllers of immunity, which sense infection or tissue damage and, accordingly, initiate innate and adaptive effector responses. In recent years, it has become evident that DCs exist as an independent hematopoietic lineage comprising several developmentally distinct and functionally specialized subsets that are strategically located in all organs to defend the organism against invading pathogens. Here, we review the diversity of DC subtypes found across tissues and discuss our current understanding of the tissue-specific functions of these cell types...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413023/a-chemoattractant-guided-walk-through-lymphopoiesis-from-hematopoietic-stem-cells-to-mature-b-lymphocytes
#2
REVIEW
Vivian Y Lim, Sandra Zehentmeier, Chris Fistonich, João P Pereira
B lymphocytes develop from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in specialized bone marrow niches composed of rare mesenchymal lineage stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs) and sinusoidal endothelial cells. These niches are defined by function and location: MSPCs are mostly perisinusoidal cells that together with a small subset of sinusoidal endothelial cells express stem cell factor, interleukin-7 (IL-7), IL-15, and the highest amounts of CXCL12 in bone marrow. Though rare, MSPCs are morphologically heterogeneous, highly reticular, and form a vast cellular network in the bone marrow parenchyma capable of interacting with large numbers of hematopoietic cells...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413022/humanized-immunoglobulin-mice-models-for-hiv-vaccine-testing-and-studying-the-broadly-neutralizing-antibody-problem
#3
REVIEW
Laurent Verkoczy
A vaccine that can effectively prevent HIV-1 transmission remains paramount to ending the HIV pandemic, but to do so, will likely need to induce broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) responses. A major technical hurdle toward achieving this goal has been a shortage of animal models with the ability to systematically pinpoint roadblocks to bnAb induction and to rank vaccine strategies based on their ability to stimulate bnAb development. Over the past 6 years, immunoglobulin (Ig) knock-in (KI) technology has been leveraged to express bnAbs in mice, an approach that has enabled elucidation of various B-cell tolerance mechanisms limiting bnAb production and evaluation of strategies to circumvent such processes...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413021/regulation-of-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-by-tgf%C3%AE
#4
REVIEW
Aoife Kelly, Stephanie A Houston, Eleanor Sherwood, Joshua Casulli, Mark A Travis
Immune regulation by cytokines is crucial in maintaining immune homeostasis, promoting responses to infection, resolving inflammation, and promoting immunological memory. Additionally, cytokine responses drive pathology in immune-mediated disease. A crucial cytokine in the regulation of all aspects of an immune response is transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ). Although best known as a crucial regulator of T cell responses, TGFβ plays a vital role in regulating responses mediated by virtually every innate and adaptive immune cell, including dendritic cells, B cells, NK cells, innate lymphoid cells, and granulocytes...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413020/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-and-b-cells
#5
REVIEW
Willi K Born, Yafei Huang, R Lee Reinhardt, Hua Huang, Deming Sun, Rebecca L O'Brien
γδ T cells constitute the third arm of a tripartite adaptive immune system in jawed vertebrates, besides αβ T cells and B cells. Like the other two lymphocyte-types, they express diverse antigen receptors, capable of specific ligand recognition. Functionally, γδ T cells represent a system of differentiated subsets, sometimes engaged in cross-regulation, which ultimately determines their effect on other components of the immune system, including B cells and antibodies. γδ T cells are capable of providing help to B cells in antibody production...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215281/emerging-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-i-related-functions-of-nlrc5
#6
S T Chelbi, A T Dang, G Guarda
Recent evidence demonstrates a key role for the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family member NLRC5 (NLR family, CARD domain containing protein 5) in the transcriptional regulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and related genes. Detailed information on NLRC5 target genes in various cell types and conditions is emerging. Thanks to its analogy to CIITA (class II major MHC transactivator), a NLR family member known for over 20 years to be the master regulator of MHC class II gene transcription, also the molecular mechanisms underlying NLRC5 function are being rapidly unraveled...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215280/molecular-mechanisms-of-somatic-hypermutation-and-class-switch-recombination
#7
S P Methot, J M Di Noia
In order to promote an efficient humoral immune response, germinal center B cells modify both the antigen recognition and effector domains by programmed genetic alterations of their antibody genes. To do so, B cells use the enzyme activation-induced deaminase (AID), which transforms deoxycytidine into deoxyuridine at the immunoglobulin genes, triggering mutagenic DNA repair. Data accumulated during the past decade have significantly advanced our understanding of how AID activity is regulated and preferentially targeted to the immunoglobulin genes...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215279/about-training-and-memory-nk-cell-adaptation-to-viral-infections
#8
Q Hammer, C Romagnani
Viral infections continuously challenge and shape our immune system. Due to their fine antigen recognition ability, adaptive lymphocytes protect against pathogen reencounter by generating specific immunological memory. Innate cells such as macrophages also adapt to pathogen challenge and mount resistance to reinfection, a phenomenon termed trained immunity. As part of the innate immunity, natural killer (NK) cells can display rapid effector functions and play a crucial role in the control of viral infections, especially by the β-herpesvirus cytomegalovirus (CMV)...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215278/nucleic-acid-immunity
#9
G Hartmann
Organisms throughout biology need to maintain the integrity of their genome. From bacteria to vertebrates, life has established sophisticated mechanisms to detect and eliminate foreign genetic material or to restrict its function and replication. Tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of these mechanisms which keep foreign or unwanted nucleic acids from viruses or phages in check. Mechanisms reach from restriction-modification systems and CRISPR/Cas in bacteria and archaea to RNA interference and immune sensing of nucleic acids, altogether integral parts of a system which is now appreciated as nucleic acid immunity...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215277/macrophages-and-mitochondria-a-critical-interplay-between-metabolism-signaling-and-the-functional-activity
#10
J Tur, T Vico, J Lloberas, A Zorzano, A Celada
Macrophages are phagocytic cells that participate in a broad range of cellular functions and they are key regulators of innate immune responses and inflammation. Mitochondria are highly dynamic endosymbiotic organelles that play key roles in cellular metabolism and apoptosis. Mounting evidence suggests that mitochondria are involved in the interplay between metabolism and innate immune responses. The ability of these organelles to alter the metabolic profile of a cell, thereby allowing an appropriate response to each situation, is crucial for the correct establishment of immune responses...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769509/the-roles-of-the-secreted-phospholipase-a2-gene-family-in-immunology
#11
M Murakami, K Yamamoto, Y Miki, R Murase, H Sato, Y Taketomi
Within the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) family that hydrolyzes phospholipids to yield fatty acids and lysophospholipids, secreted PLA2 (sPLA2) enzymes comprise the largest group containing 11 isoforms in mammals. Individual sPLA2s exhibit unique tissue or cellular distributions and enzymatic properties, suggesting their distinct biological roles. Although PLA2 enzymes, particularly cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2α), have long been implicated in inflammation by driving arachidonic acid metabolism, the precise biological roles of sPLA2s have remained a mystery over the last few decades...
2016: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769508/b-lymphopoiesis-in-fetal-liver-guided-by-chemokines
#12
K Kajikhina, M Tsuneto, F Melchers
Early in embryonic development of mice, from day 12.5 after conception, myeloid-lymphoid bipotent progenitors, expressing receptors both for IL7 and CSF-1, migrate from embryonic blood into developing fetal liver. These progenitors also express multiple chemokine receptors, i.e., CCR7, CXCR3, CXCR4, and CXCR5, all on one cell. Their migration through LYVE-1+ vascular endothelium is guided by CCR7, recognizing the chemokine CCL19, and by CXCR3, recognizing CXCL10/11, chemokines which are both produced by the endothelium...
2016: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769507/endogenous-retroelements-and-the-host-innate-immune-sensors
#13
X Mu, S Ahmad, S Hur
The ability to distinguish between self and nonself is the fundamental basis of the immune system in all organisms. The conceptual distinction between self and nonself, however, breaks down when it comes to endogenous retroviruses and other retroelements. While some retroelements retain the virus-like features including the capacity to replicate and reinvade the host genome, most have become inactive through mutations or host epigenetic silencing. And yet, accumulating evidence suggests that endogenous retroelements, both active and inactive, play important roles not only in pathogenesis of immune disorders, but also in proper functioning of the immune system...
2016: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769506/pleiotropic-roles-of-type-1-interferons-in-antiviral-immune-responses
#14
J R Teijaro
Since Isaac's and Lindenmann's seminal experiments over 50 years ago demonstrating a soluble factor generated from heat killed virus-stimulated chicken embryos could inhibit live influenza virus replication, the term interferon has been synonymous with inhibition of virus replication. While the antiviral properties of type 1 interferon (IFN-I) are undeniable, recent studies have reported expanding and somewhat unexpected roles of IFN-I signaling during both acute and persistent viral infections. IFN-I signaling can promote morbidity and mortality through induction of aberrant inflammatory responses and recruitment of inflammatory innate immune cell populations during acute respiratory viral infections...
2016: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769505/context-and-tissue-specific-regulation-of-immunity-and-tolerance-by-regulatory-t-cells
#15
A Ulges, E Schmitt, C Becker, T Bopp
The immune system has evolved to defend the organism against an almost infinite number of pathogens in a locally confined and antigen-specific manner while at the same time preserving tolerance to harmless antigens and self. Regulatory T (Treg) cells essentially contribute to an immunoregulatory network preventing excessive immune responses and immunopathology. There is emerging evidence that Treg cells not only operate in secondary lymphoid tissue but also regulate immune responses directly at the site of inflammation...
2016: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235684/advances-in-pet-detection-of-the-antitumor-t-cell-response
#16
M N McCracken, R Tavaré, O N Witte, A M Wu
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful noninvasive imaging technique able to measure distinct biological processes in vivo by administration of a radiolabeled probe. Whole-body measurements track the probe accumulation providing a means to measure biological changes such as metabolism, cell location, or tumor burden. PET can also be applied to both preclinical and clinical studies providing three-dimensional information. For immunotherapies (in particular understanding T cell responses), PET can be utilized for spatial and longitudinal tracking of T lymphocytes...
2016: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235683/germinal-center-b-cell-associated-nuclear-protein-ganp-involved-in-rna-metabolism-for-b-cell-maturation
#17
N Sakaguchi, K Maeda
Germinal center B-cell-associated nuclear protein (GANP) is upregulated in germinal center B cells against T-cell-dependent antigens in mice and humans. In mice, GANP depletion in B cells impairs antibody affinity maturation. Conversely, its transgenic overexpression augments the generation of high-affinity antigen-specific B cells. GANP associates with AID in the cytoplasm, shepherds AID into the nucleus, and augments its access to the rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) variable (V) region of the genome in B cells, thereby precipitating the somatic hypermutation of V region genes...
2016: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235682/deep-profiling-human-t-cell-heterogeneity-by-mass-cytometry
#18
Y Cheng, E W Newell
Advances of mass cytometry and high-dimensional single-cell data analysis have brought cellular immunological research into a new generation. By coupling these two powerful technology platforms, immunologists now have more tools to resolve the tremendous diversity of immune cell subsets, and their heterogeneous functionality. Since the first introduction of mass cytometry, many reports have been published using this novel technology to study a range of cell types. At the outset, studies of human hematopoietic stem cell and peripheral CD8(+) T cells using mass cytometry have shad the light of future experimental approach in interrogating immune cell phenotypic and functional diversity...
2016: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235681/factors-that-regulate-the-generation-of-antibody-secreting-plasma-cells
#19
Y-H Yu, K-I Lin
The generation of antigen-specific neutralizing antibodies and memory B cells is one of the most important immune protections of the host and is the basis for successful vaccination strategies. The protective antibodies, secreted by preexisting long-lived plasma cells and reactivated antigen-experienced memory B cells, constitute the main humoral immune defense. Distinct from the primary antibody response, the humoral memory response is generated much faster and with greater magnitude, and it produces antibodies with higher affinity and variable isotypes...
2016: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235680/malondialdehyde-epitopes-as-targets-of-immunity-and-the-implications-for-atherosclerosis
#20
N Papac-Milicevic, C J-L Busch, C J Binder
Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidation-specific epitopes (OSEs) constitute a novel class of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) generated during high oxidative stress but also in the physiological process of apoptosis. To deal with the potentially harmful consequences of such epitopes, the immune system has developed several mechanisms to protect from OSEs and to orchestrate their clearance, including IgM natural antibodies and both cellular- and membrane-bound receptors. Here, we focus on malondialdehyde (MDA) epitopes as prominent examples of OSEs that trigger both innate and adaptive immune responses...
2016: Advances in Immunology
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