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Advances in Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968732/genetics-of-schizophrenia-historical-insights-and-prevailing-evidence
#1
J van de Leemput, J L Hess, S J Glatt, M T Tsuang
Schizophrenia's (SZ's) heritability and familial transmission have been known for several decades; however, despite the clear evidence for a genetic component, it has been very difficult to pinpoint specific causative genes. Even so genetic studies have taught us a lot, even in the pregenomic era, about the molecular underpinnings and disease-relevant pathways. Recurring themes emerged revealing the involvement of neurodevelopmental processes, glutamate regulation, and immune system differential activation in SZ etiology...
2016: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968731/advances-in-dyslexia-genetics-new-insights-into-the-role-of-brain-asymmetries
#2
S Paracchini, R Diaz, J Stein
Dyslexia is a common condition affecting up to 10% school-aged children. There is strong evidence that genetics plays an important role in dyslexia and is expected to be complex in nature. Few specific susceptibility factors have been identified so far, but their functional characterization has provided novel insights into the biology of dyslexia. In particular, they point to an unexpected role of candidate genes for dyslexia in the biology of cilia, cellular organelles required in many processes including the establishment of left-right asymmetries early in development...
2016: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968730/the-functionality-and-evolution-of-eukaryotic-transcriptional-enhancers
#3
A D Buffry, C C Mendes, A P McGregor
Enhancers regulate precise spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression in eukaryotes and, moreover, evolutionary changes in these modular cis-regulatory elements may represent the predominant genetic basis for phenotypic evolution. Here, we review approaches to identify and functionally analyze enhancers and their transcription factor binding sites, including assay for transposable-accessible chromatin-sequencing (ATAC-Seq) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9, respectively...
2016: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968729/fungal-light-sensing-at-the-bench-and-beyond
#4
K K Fuller, J C Dunlap, J J Loros
Visible light is a pervasive environmental signal that orients most organisms in space and time. For a fungus, the detection of light is facilitated by diverse classes of photoreceptor proteins, which in turn coordinate growth, spore dispersal, stress resistance, primary metabolism, and toxin production. We will first provide a discussion on signal input, focusing on recent insights into how fungal photoreceptors detect and transmit information at the biochemical and molecular levels. We will then pivot our discussion to how light influences fungal behaviors that are of industrial, agricultural, or even medical relevance...
2016: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503359/transcriptomic-approaches-in-the-zebrafish-model-for-tuberculosis-insights-into-host-and-pathogen-specific-determinants-of-the-innate-immune-response
#5
E L Benard, J Rougeot, P I Racz, H P Spaink, A H Meijer
Mycobacterium marinum infection in zebrafish has become a well-established model of tuberculosis. Both embryonic and adult zebrafish infection studies have contributed to our knowledge of the development and function of tuberculous granulomas, which are typical of mycobacterial pathogenesis. In this review we discuss how transcriptome profiling studies have helped to characterize this infection process. We illustrate this using new RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data that reveals three main phases in the host response to M...
2016: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503358/the-zebrafish-as-model-for-deciphering-the-regulatory-architecture-of-vertebrate-genomes
#6
S Rastegar, U Strähle
Despite enormous progress to map cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), like enhancers and promoters in genomes, elucidation of the regulatory landscape of the developing embryo remains a challenge. The zebrafish embryo with its experimental virtues has a great potential to contribute to this endeavor. However, so far progress remained behind expectation. We discuss here available methods and their limitations and how the zebrafish embryo could contribute in the future to unravel the wiring of the vertebrate genome...
2016: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503357/transcriptional-regulation-during-zygotic-genome-activation-in-zebrafish-and-other-anamniote-embryos
#7
J Wragg, F Müller
Embryo development commences with the fusion of two terminally differentiated haploid gametes into the totipotent fertilized egg, which through a series of major cellular and molecular transitions generate a pluripotent cell mass. The activation of the zygotic genome occurs during the so-called maternal to zygotic transition and prepares the embryo for zygotic takeover from maternal factors, in the control of the development of cellular lineages during differentiation. Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies have allowed the dissection of the genomic and epigenomic processes mediating this transition...
2016: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503356/evolutionary-genetics-of-the-cavefish-astyanax-mexicanus
#8
D Casane, S Rétaux
Blind and depigmented fish belonging to the species Astyanax mexicanus are outstanding models for evolutionary genetics. During their evolution in the darkness of caves, they have undergone a number of changes at the morphological, physiological, and behavioral levels, but they can still breed with their river-dwelling conspecifics. The fertile hybrids between these two morphotypes allow forward genetic approaches, from the search of quantitative trait loci to the identification of the mutations underlying the evolution of troglomorphism...
2016: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503355/whole-organism-cellular-pathology-a-systems-approach-to-phenomics
#9
K C Cheng, S R Katz, A Y Lin, X Xin, Y Ding
Phenotype is defined as the state of an organism resulting from interactions between genes, environment, disease, molecular mechanisms, and chance. The purpose of the emerging field of phenomics is to systematically determine and measure phenotypes across biology for the sake of understanding. Phenotypes can affect more than one cell type and life stage, so ideal phenotyping would include the state of every cell type within the context of both tissue architecture and the whole organism at each life stage. In medicine, high-resolution anatomic assessment of phenotype is obtained from histology...
2016: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503354/gal4-driver-transgenic-zebrafish-powerful-tools-to-study-developmental-biology-organogenesis-and-neuroscience
#10
K Kawakami, K Asakawa, M Hibi, M Itoh, A Muto, H Wada
Targeted expression by the Gal4-UAS system is a powerful genetic method to analyze the functions of genes and cells in vivo. Although the Gal4-UAS system has been extensively used in genetic studies in Drosophila, it had not been applied to genetic studies in vertebrates until the mid-2000s. This was mainly due to the lack of an efficient transgenesis tool in model vertebrates, such as the P-transposable element of Drosophila, that can create hundreds or thousands of transgene insertions in different loci on the genome and thereby enables the generation of transgenic lines expressing Gal4 in various tissues and cells via enhancer trapping...
2016: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503353/genomic-and-transcriptomic-approaches-to-study-cancer-in-small-aquarium-fish-models
#11
J Regneri, B Klotz, M Schartl
Zebrafish and medaka that develop tumors have become valuable tools for experimental cancer research. With the advent of microarrays and new sequencing technologies it has become feasible to perform whole genome, exome, and transcriptome analyses in these fish models. Analyses that compare the two fish models with each other and with data from human tumors have revealed a plethora of important insights. An unexpected high degree of comparability of molecular features of fish and human tumors has been detected...
2016: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503352/studying-the-evolution-of-the-vertebrate-circadian-clock-the-power-of-fish-as-comparative-models
#12
N S Foulkes, D Whitmore, D Vallone, C Bertolucci
The utility of any model species cannot be judged solely in terms of the tools and approaches it provides for genetic analysis. A fundamental consideration is also how its biology has been shaped by the environment and the ecological niche which it occupies. By comparing different species occupying very different habitats we can learn how molecular and cellular mechanisms change during evolution in order to optimally adapt to their environment. Such knowledge is as important as understanding how these mechanisms work...
2016: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27131332/preface
#13
EDITORIAL
Raymond J St Leger, Brian Lovett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27131331/from-so-simple-a-beginning-the-evolution-of-behavioral-manipulation-by-fungi
#14
D P Hughes, J P M Araújo, R G Loreto, L Quevillon, C de Bekker, H C Evans
Parasites can manipulate the behavior of their hosts in ways that increase either their direct fitness or transmission to new hosts. The Kingdom Fungi have evolved a diverse array of strategies to manipulate arthropod behavior resulting in some of the most complex and impressive examples of behavioral manipulation by parasites. Here we provide an overview of these different interactions and discuss them from an evolutionary perspective. We discuss parasite manipulation within the context of Niko Tinbergen's four questions (function, phylogeny, causation, and ontogeny) before detailing the proximate mechanisms by which fungi control arthropod behavior and the evolutionary pathways to such adaptations...
2016: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27131330/molecular-genetics-of-secondary-chemistry-in-metarhizium-fungi
#15
B G G Donzelli, S B Krasnoff
As with many microbes, entomopathogenic fungi from the genus Metarhizium produce a plethora of small molecule metabolites, often referred to as secondary metabolites. Although these intriguing compounds are a conspicuous feature of the biology of the producing fungi, their roles in pathogenicity and other interactions with their hosts and competing microbes are still not well understood. In this review, secondary metabolites that have been isolated from Metarhizium are cataloged along with the history of their discovery and structural elucidation and the salient biological activities attributed to them...
2016: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27131329/entomopathogenic-fungi-new-insights-into-host-pathogen-interactions
#16
T M Butt, C J Coates, I M Dubovskiy, N A Ratcliffe
Although many insects successfully live in dangerous environments exposed to diverse communities of microbes, they are often exploited and killed by specialist pathogens. Studies of host-pathogen interactions (HPI) provide valuable insights into the dynamics of the highly aggressive coevolutionary arms race between entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) and their arthropod hosts. The host defenses are designed to exclude the pathogen or mitigate the damage inflicted while the pathogen responds with immune evasion and utilization of host resources...
2016: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27131328/disease%C3%A2-dynamics-in-ants-a-critical-review-of-the-ecological-relevance-of-using-generalist-fungi-to-study-infections-in-insect-societies
#17
R G Loreto, D P Hughes
It is assumed that social life can lead to the rapid spread of infectious diseases and outbreaks. In ants, disease outbreaks are rare and the expression of collective behaviors is invoked to explain the absence of epidemics in natural populations. Here, we address the ecological approach employed by many studies that have notably focused (89% of the studies) on two genera of generalist fungal parasites (Beauveria and Metarhizium). We ask whether these are the most representative models to study the evolutionary ecology of ant-fungal parasite interactions...
2016: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27131327/insect-immunity-to-entomopathogenic-fungi
#18
H-L Lu, R J St Leger
The study of infection and immunity in insects has achieved considerable prominence with the appreciation that their host defense mechanisms share many fundamental characteristics with the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies on the highly tractable model organism Drosophila in particular have led to a detailed understanding of conserved innate immunity networks, such as Toll. However, most of these studies have used opportunistic human pathogens and may not have revealed specialized immune strategies that have arisen through evolutionary arms races with natural insect pathogens...
2016: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27131326/molecular-genetics-of-beauveria-bassiana-infection-of-insects
#19
A Ortiz-Urquiza, N O Keyhani
Research on the insect pathogenic filamentous fungus, Beauveria bassiana has witnessed significant growth in recent years from mainly physiological studies related to its insect biological control potential, to addressing fundamental questions regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms of fungal development and virulence. This has been in part due to a confluence of robust genetic tools and genomic resources for the fungus, and recognition of expanded ecological interactions with which the fungus engages...
2016: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27131325/genetically-engineering-entomopathogenic-fungi
#20
H Zhao, B Lovett, W Fang
Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes...
2016: Advances in Genetics
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