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Advances in Cancer Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054424/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Kenneth D Tew, Francesco Galli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054423/selenoproteins-and-metastasis
#2
Michael P Marciel, Peter R Hoffmann
Cancer survival is largely impacted by the dissemination of cancer cells from the original tumor site to secondary tissues or organs through metastasis. Targets for antimetastatic therapies have recently become a focus of research, but progress will require a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving metastasis. Selenoproteins play important roles in many of the cellular activities underlying metastasis including cell adhesion, matrix degradation and migration, invasion into the blood and extravasation into secondary tissues, and subsequent proliferation into metastatic tumors along with the angiogenesis required for growth...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054422/selenoproteins-in-tumorigenesis-and-cancer-progression
#3
Sarah P Short, Christopher S Williams
Selenium is a micronutrient essential to human health and has long been associated with cancer prevention. Functionally, these effects are thought to be mediated by a class of selenium-containing proteins known as selenoproteins. Indeed, many selenoproteins have antioxidant activity which can attenuate cancer development by minimizing oxidative insult and resultant DNA damage. However, oxidative stress is increasingly being recognized for its "double-edged sword" effect in tumorigenesis, whereby it can mediate both negative and positive effects on tumor growth depending on the cellular context...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054421/selenocompounds-in-cancer-therapy-an-overview
#4
Desirée Bartolini, Luca Sancineto, Andreza Fabro de Bem, Kenneth D Tew, Claudio Santi, Rafael Radi, Pierangelo Toquato, Francesco Galli
In vitro and in vivo experimental models clearly demonstrate the efficacy of Se compounds as anticancer agents, contingent upon chemical structures and concentrations of test molecules, as well as on the experimental model under investigation that together influence cellular availability of compounds, their molecular dynamics and mechanism of action. The latter includes direct and indirect redox effects on cellular targets by the activation and altered compartmentalization of molecular oxygen, and the interaction with protein thiols and Se proteins...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054420/selenium-and-cancer-stem-cells
#5
Giuseppe Murdolo, Desirée Bartolini, Cristina Tortoioli, Marta Piroddi, Pierangelo Torquato, Francesco Galli
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that functions as "redox gatekeeper" and homeostasis factor of normal and cancer cells. Epidemiology and experimental studies, in the last years suggested that both inorganic and organic forms of Se may have favorable health effects. In this regard, a protective action of Se on cellular systems that may help preventing cancer cell differentiation has been demonstrated, while the hypothesis that Se compounds may cure cancer and its metastatic diffusion appears speculative and is still a matter of investigation...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054419/selenium-and-epigenetics-in-cancer-focus-on-dna-methylation
#6
Ewa Jabłońska, Edyta Reszka
Chemopreventive activity of selenium (Se) may influence epigenome. In this review, we have discussed two aspects of Se and epigenetics in cancer, related to (1) the association between Se and epigenetic regulation in cancer development and prevention; (2) epigenetic modification of selenoprotein-encoding genes in different cancers. In both issues, we focused on DNA methylation as the most investigated epigenetic mechanism. The existing evidence from experimental data in human cancer cell lines, rodents, and human studies in cancer-free subjects indicates that: high Se exposure leads to the inhibition of DNA methyltransferase expression/activity; the association between Se and global methylation remains unclear and requires further investigation with respect to the underlying mechanisms and possible nonlinear character of this relationship; Se affects methylation of specific tumor suppressor genes, possibly in a sex-dependent manner; and cancer phenotype is often characterized by altered methylation of selenoprotein-encoding genes, mainly glutathione peroxidase 3...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054418/selenium-and-breast-cancer-risk-focus-on-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms
#7
Camile C Fontelles, Thomas P Ong
Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient with promising breast cancer prevention and treatment potential. There is extensive preclinical evidence of Se mammary carcinogenesis inhibition. Evidence from epidemiological studies is, however, unclear and intervention studies are rare. Here, we examine Se chemoprotection, chemoprevention, and chemotherapy effects in breast cancer, focusing on associated cellular and molecular mechanisms. Se exerts its protective actions through multiple mechanisms that involve antioxidant activities, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of DNA damage, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and invasion...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054417/the-regulation-of-pathways-of-inflammation-and-resolution-in-immune-cells-and-cancer-stem-cells-by-selenium
#8
Bastihalli T Diwakar, Arvind M Korwar, Robert F Paulson, K Sandeep Prabhu
Cancer is a complex disease where cancer stem cells (CSCs) maintain unlimited replicative potential, but evade chemotherapy drugs through cellular quiescence. CSCs are able to give rise to bulk tumor cells that have the capability to override antiproliferative signals and evade apoptosis. Numerous pathways are dysregulated in tumor cells, where increased levels of prooxidant reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can lead to localized inflammation to exacerbate all three stages of tumorigenesis: initiation, progression, and metastasis...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054416/targeting-the-selenoprotein-thioredoxin-reductase-1-for-anticancer-therapy
#9
Elias S J Arnér
The cytosolic selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1, encoded in human by TXNRD1) is implied to have several different roles in relation to cancer. Its physiologic functions may protect normal cells from carcinogenesis, but may also promote cancer progression if carcinogenesis nonetheless occurs. With distinct links to Nrf2 signaling, ribonucleotide reductase-dependent production of deoxyribonucleotides and its support of several antioxidant systems counteracting oxidative stress, the metabolic pathways regulated, and affected by TrxR1, are altogether of crucial importance in cancer...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054415/selenium-dependent-glutathione-peroxidases-during-tumor-development
#10
Anna P Kipp
Five out of eight human glutathione peroxidases (GPxes) are selenoproteins and thus their expression depends on the selenium (Se) supply. Most Se-dependent GPxes are downregulated in tumor cells, while only GPx2 is considerably upregulated. Whether expression profiles of GPxes predict tumor development and patient survival is controversially discussed. Also, results from in vitro and in vivo studies modulating the expression of GPx isoforms provide evidence for both anti- and procarcinogenic mechanisms. GPxes are able to reduce hydroperoxides, which otherwise would damage DNA, possibly resulting in DNA mutations, modulate redox-sensitive signaling pathways affecting proliferation, differentiation, and cellular metabolism or initiate cell death...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054414/the-epidemiology-of-selenium-and-human-cancer
#11
Marco Vinceti, Tommaso Filippini, Silvia Cilloni, Catherine M Crespi
The relation between selenium and cancer has been one of the most hotly debated topics in human health over the last decades. Early observational studies reported an inverse relation between selenium exposure and cancer risk. Subsequently, randomized controlled trials showed that selenium supplementation does not reduce the risk of cancer and may even increase it for some types, including advanced prostate cancer and skin cancer. An increased risk of diabetes has also been reported. These findings have been consistent in the most methodologically sound trials, suggesting that the early observational studies were misleading...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882226/preface
#12
EDITORIAL
Carlo M Croce, Paul B Fisher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882225/animal-models-to-study-microrna-function
#13
Arpita S Pal, Andrea L Kasinski
The discovery of the microRNAs, lin-4 and let-7 as critical mediators of normal development in Caenorhabditis elegans and their conservation throughout evolution has spearheaded research toward identifying novel roles of microRNAs in other cellular processes. To accurately elucidate these fundamental functions, especially in the context of an intact organism, various microRNA transgenic models have been generated and evaluated. Transgenic C. elegans (worms), Drosophila melanogaster (flies), Danio rerio (zebrafish), and Mus musculus (mouse) have contributed immensely toward uncovering the roles of multiple microRNAs in cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, pathways that are severely altered in human diseases such as cancer...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882224/the-enigma-of-mirna-regulation-in-cancer
#14
Anjan K Pradhan, Luni Emdad, Swadesh K Das, Devanand Sarkar, Paul B Fisher
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are small 19-22 nucleotide long, noncoding, single-stranded, and multifunctional RNAs that regulate a diverse assortment of gene and protein functions that impact on a vast network of pathways. Lin-4, a noncoding transcript discovered in 1993 and named miRNA, initiated the exploration of research into these intriguing molecules identified in almost all organisms. miRNAs interfere with translation or posttranscriptional regulation of their target gene and regulate multiple biological actions exerted by these target genes...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882223/micrornas-and-epigenetics
#15
Catia Moutinho, Manel Esteller
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression mainly at the posttranscriptional level. Similar to protein-coding genes, their expression is also controlled by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Disruption of these control processes leads to abnormal expression of miRNAs in cancer. In this chapter, we discuss the supportive links between miRNAs and epigenetics in the context of carcinogenesis. miRNAs can be epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation and/or specific histone modifications...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882222/role-of-the-trna-derived-small-rnas-in-cancer-new-potential-biomarkers-and-target-for-therapy
#16
Veronica Balatti, Yuri Pekarsky, Carlo M Croce
Noncoding RNAs are untranslated RNA molecules that can be divided into two main types: infrastructural, including transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and regulatory, including long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) and small ncRNAs (sRNA). Among small ncRNA, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in cancer is well documented. Recently, other small ncRNAs have been described. In particular, tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNA) have been found to be frequently dysregulated in cancer. Since tsRNAs can be considered unique sequences and are able to bind both Argonaute proteins (like miRNAs) and Piwi proteins (like piRNAs), their dysregulation could play a critical role in cancer by interfering with gene expression regulation at different levels...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882221/micrornas-in-cancer-susceptibility
#17
Bríd M Ryan
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a small RNA species without protein-coding potential. However, they are key modulators of protein translation. Many studies have linked miRNAs with cancer initiation, progression, diagnosis, and prognosis, and recent studies have also linked them with cancer etiology and susceptibility, especially through single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This review discusses some of the recent advances in miRNA-SNP literature-including SNPs in miRNA genes, miRNA target sites, and the processing machinery...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882220/cancer-hallmarks-and-micrornas-the-therapeutic-connection
#18
Katrien Van Roosbroeck, George A Calin
Human cancers are characterized by a number of hallmarks, including sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, activated invasion and metastasis, replicative immortality, angiogenesis, resistance to cell death, and evasion of immune destruction. As microRNAs (miRNAs) are deregulated in virtually all human cancers, they show involvement in each of the cancer hallmarks as well. In this chapter, we describe the involvement of miRNAs in cancer from a cancer hallmarks and targeted therapeutics point of view...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882219/micrornas-and-cancer-a-long-story-for-short-rnas
#19
Alessandra Drusco, Carlo M Croce
More than six decades ago Watson and Crick published the chemical structure of DNA. This discovery revolutionized our approach to medical science and opened new perspectives for the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases including cancer. Since then, progress in molecular biology, together with the rapid advance of technologies, allowed to clone hundreds of protein-coding genes that were found mutated in all types of cancer. Normal and aberrant gene functions, interactions, and mechanisms of mutations were studied to identify the intricate network of pathways leading to cancer...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110658/preface
#20
EDITORIAL
Richard R Drake, Liam A McDonnell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
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