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Advances in Cancer Research

Richard R Drake, Liam A McDonnell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
R R Drake, T W Powers, E E Jones, E Bruner, A S Mehta, P M Angel
Glycosylated proteins account for a majority of the posttranslation modifications of cell surface, secreted, and circulating proteins. Within the tumor microenvironment, the presence of immune cells, extracellular matrix proteins, cell surface receptors, and interactions between stroma and tumor cells are all processes mediated by glycan binding and recognition reactions. Changes in glycosylation during tumorigenesis are well documented to occur and affect all of these associated adhesion and regulatory functions...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
M Dufresne, N H Patterson, N Lauzon, P Chaurand
In the last decade, imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has been the primary tool for biomolecular imaging. While it is possible to map a wide range of biomolecules using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization IMS ranging from high-molecular-weight proteins to small metabolites, more often than not only the most abundant easily ionisable species are detected. To better understand complex diseases such as cancer more specific and sensitive methods need to be developed to enable the detection of lower abundance molecules but also molecules that have yet to be imaged by IMS...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
L A McDonnell, P M Angel, S Lou, R R Drake
In the last decade mass spectrometry imaging has developed rapidly, in terms of multiple new instrumentation innovations, expansion of target molecules, and areas of application. Mass spectrometry imaging has already had a substantial impact in cancer research, uncovering biomolecular changes associated with disease progression, diagnosis, and prognosis. Many new approaches are incorporating the use of readily available formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cancer tissues from pathology centers, including tissue blocks, biopsy specimens, and tumor microarrays...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
G Arentz, P Mittal, C Zhang, Y-Y Ho, M Briggs, L Winderbaum, M K Hoffmann, P Hoffmann
Pathologists play an essential role in the diagnosis and prognosis of benign and cancerous tumors. Clinicians provide tissue samples, for example, from a biopsy, which are then processed and thin sections are placed onto glass slides, followed by staining of the tissue with visible dyes. Upon processing and microscopic examination, a pathology report is provided, which relies on the pathologist's interpretation of the phenotypical presentation of the tissue. Targeted analysis of single proteins provide further insight and together with clinical data these results influence clinical decision making...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
K T Huang, S Ludy, D Calligaris, I F Dunn, E Laws, S Santagata, N Y R Agar
Pituitary adenomas are relatively common intracranial neoplasms that are frequently treated with surgical resection. Rapid visualization of pituitary tissue remains a challenge as current techniques either produce little to no information on hormone-secreting function or are too slow to practically aid in intraoperative or even perioperative decision-making. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) represents a powerful method by which molecular maps of tissue samples can be created, yielding a two-dimensional representation of the expression patterns of small molecules and proteins from biologic samples...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
Z Takats, N Strittmatter, J S McKenzie
Ambient ionization mass spectrometry was developed as a sample preparation-free alternative to traditional MS-based workflows. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI)-MS methods were demonstrated to allow the direct analysis of a broad range of samples including unaltered biological tissue specimens. In contrast to this advantageous feature, nowadays DESI-MS is almost exclusively used for sample preparation intensive mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) in the area of cancer research. As an alternative to MALDI, DESI-MSI offers matrix deposition-free experiment with improved signal in the lower (<500m/z) range...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
B Balluff, M Hanselmann, R M A Heeren
One of the big clinical challenges in the treatment of cancer is the different behavior of cancer patients under guideline therapy. An important determinant for this phenomenon has been identified as inter- and intratumor heterogeneity. While intertumor heterogeneity refers to the differences in cancer characteristics between patients, intratumor heterogeneity refers to the clonal and nongenetic molecular diversity within a patient. The deciphering of intratumor heterogeneity is recognized as key to the development of novel therapeutics or treatment regimens...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
R Casadonte, R Longuespée, J Kriegsmann, M Kriegsmann
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) technology creates a link between the molecular assessment of numerous molecules and the morphological information about their special distribution. The application of MALDI IMS on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue microarrays (TMAs) is suitable for large-scale discovery analyses. Data acquired from FFPE TMA cancer samples in current research are very promising, and applications for routine diagnostics are under development...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
R J A Goodwin, J Bunch, D F McGinnity
Over the last decade mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been integrated in to many areas of drug discovery and development. It can have significant impact in oncology drug discovery as it allows efficacy and safety of compounds to be assessed against the backdrop of the complex tumour microenvironment. We will discuss the roles of MSI in investigating compound and metabolite biodistribution and defining pharmacokinetic -pharmacodynamic relationships, analysis that is applicable to all drug discovery projects...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
A Buck, M Aichler, K Huber, A Walch
Metabolomics is a rapidly evolving and a promising research field with the expectation to improve diagnosis, therapeutic treatment prediction, and prognosis of particular diseases. Among all techniques used to assess the metabolome in biological systems, mass spectrometry imaging is the method of choice to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze metabolite distribution in tissues with a high spatial resolution, thus providing molecular data in relation to cancer histopathology. The technique is ideally suited to study tissues molecular content and is able to provide molecular biomarkers or specific mass signatures which can be used in classification or the prognostic evaluation of tumors...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
K Schwamborn
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has become a valuable tool in cancer research. Even more, due to its capability to directly link molecular changes with histology, it holds the prospect to revolutionize tissue-based diagnostics. In order to learn to walk before running, however, information obtained through classical histology should not be neglected but rather used to its full capacity and integrated with mass spectrometry data to lead to a superior molecular histology synthesis. In order to achieve this, pathomorphological analyses have to be integrated into MSI analyses right from the beginning to avoid errors and pitfalls of MSI application possibly leading to incorrect or imprecise study outcomes...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
Marvella E Ford, Dennis K Watson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
L J Rice, C H Halbert
Although the association between social context and health has been demonstrated previously, much less is known about network interactions by gender, race/ethnicity, and sociodemographic characteristics. Given the variability in cancer outcomes among groups, research on these relationships may have important implications for addressing cancer health disparities. We examined the literature on social networks and cancer across the cancer continuum among adults. Relevant studies (N=16) were identified using two common databases: PubMed and Google Scholar...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
A Napoles, E Cook, T Ginossar, K D Knight, M E Ford
The underrepresentation of ethnically diverse populations in cancer clinical trials results in the inequitable distribution of the risks and benefits of this research. Using a case study approach, we apply a conceptual framework of factors associated with the participation of diverse population groups in cancer clinical trials developed by Dr. Jean Ford and colleagues to increase understanding of the specific strategies, and barriers and promoters addressed by these strategies, that resulted in marked success in accrual of racially and ethnically diverse populations in cancer clinical research...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
A Evans-Knowell, A C LaRue, V J Findlay
Breast cancer is a worldwide health issue as it represents the leading cause of cancer in women and the second-leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women, with an increasing incidence. Nothing speaks more clearly to the shocking breast cancer health disparities than the fact that African American (AA) women are as likely to get breast cancer as Caucasian American (CA) women, yet have a higher breast cancer death rate. It is becoming increasingly apparent that racial disparity in cancer exists due to molecular differences in tumor biology as well as, or in addition to, socioeconomic and standard of care issues (Albain, Unger, Crowley, Coltman, & Hershman, 2009)...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
M E Ford, G Magwood, E T Brown, K Cannady, M Gregoski, K D Knight, L L Peterson, R Kramer, A Evans-Knowell, D P Turner
The significantly higher breast cancer (BCa) mortality rates of African-American (AA) women compared to non-Hispanic (NHW) white women constitute a major US health disparity. Investigations have primarily focused on biological differences in tumors to explain more aggressive forms of BCa in AA women. The biology of tumors cannot be modified, yet lifestyle changes can mitigate their progression and recurrence. AA communities have higher percentages of obesity than NHWs and exhibit inefficient access to care, low socioeconomic status, and reduced education levels...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
R L Maguire, A C Vidal, S K Murphy, C Hoyo
Screening for uterine cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) followed by aggressive treatment has reduced invasive cervical cancer (ICC) incidence and mortality. However, ICC cases and carcinoma in situ (CIS) continue to be diagnosed annually in the United States, with minorities bearing the brunt of this burden. Because ICC peak incidence and mortality are 10-15 years earlier than other solid cancers, the number of potential years of life lost to this cancer is substantial. Screening for early signs of CIN is still the mainstay of many cervical cancer control programs...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
D P Turner
While the socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with cancer disparity have been well documented, the contribution of biological factors is an emerging field of research. Established disparity factors such as low income, poor diet, drinking alcohol, smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle may have molecular effects on the inherent biological makeup of the tumor itself, possibly altering cell signaling events and gene expression profiles to profoundly alter tumor development and progression. Our understanding of the molecular and biological consequences of poor lifestyle is lacking, but such information may significantly change how we approach goals to reduce cancer incidence and mortality rates within minority populations...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
Danny R Welch, Paul B Fisher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
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