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Advances in Cancer Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551131/extracellular-regulated-kinases-signaling-from-ras-to-erk-substrates-to-control-biological-outcomes
#1
Scott T Eblen
The extracellular-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 are evolutionarily conserved, ubiquitous serine-threonine kinases that are involved in regulating cellular signaling in both normal and pathological conditions. Their expression is critical for development and their hyperactivation is a major factor in cancer development and progression. Since their discovery as one of the major signaling mediators activated by mitogens and Ras mutation, we have learned much about their regulation, including their activation, binding partners and substrates...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551130/acquired-resistance-to-drugs-targeting-tyrosine-kinases
#2
Steven A Rosenzweig
Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs exemplifies the greatest hindrance to effective treatment of cancer patients. The molecular mechanisms responsible have been investigated for over 50 years and have revealed the lack of a single cause, but instead, multiple mechanisms including induced expression of membrane transporters that pump drugs out of cells (multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype), changes in the glutathione system, and altered metabolism. Treatment of cancer patients/cancer cells with chemotherapeutic agents and/or molecularly targeted drugs is accompanied by acquisition of resistance to the treatment administered...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551129/vdac-regulation-a-mitochondrial-target-to-stop-cell-proliferation
#3
Diana Fang, Eduardo N Maldonado
Cancer metabolism is emerging as a chemotherapeutic target. Enhanced glycolysis and suppression of mitochondrial metabolism characterize the Warburg phenotype in cancer cells. The flux of respiratory substrates, ADP, and Pi into mitochondria and the release of mitochondrial ATP to the cytosol occur through voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) located in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Catabolism of respiratory substrates in the Krebs cycle generates NADH and FADH2 that enter the electron transport chain (ETC) to generate a proton motive force that maintains mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) and is utilized to generate ATP...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551128/prospects-of-gene-therapy-to-treat-melanoma
#4
Mitchell E Menezes, Sarmistha Talukdar, Stephen L Wechman, Swadesh K Das, Luni Emdad, Devanand Sarkar, Paul B Fisher
The incidence of melanoma has continued to increase over the past 30 years. Hence, developing effective therapies to treat both primary and metastatic melanoma are essential. While advances in targeted therapy and immunotherapy have provided novel therapeutic options to treat melanoma, gene therapy may provide additional strategies for the treatment of metastatic melanoma clinically. This review focuses upon the challenges and opportunities that gene therapy provides for targeting melanoma. We begin with a discussion of the various gene therapy targets which are relevant to melanoma...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551127/advances-and-challenges-of-hdac-inhibitors-in-cancer-therapeutics
#5
Jesse J McClure, Xiaoyang Li, C James Chou
Since the identification and cloning of human histone deacetylases (HDACs) and the rapid approval of vorinostat (Zolinza®) for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, the field of HDAC biology has met many initial successes. However, many challenges remain due to the complexity involved in the lysine posttranslational modifications, epigenetic transcription regulation, and nonepigenetic cellular signaling cascades. In this chapter, we will: review the discovery of the first HDAC inhibitor and present discussion regarding the future of next-generation HDAC inhibitors, give an overview of different classes of HDACs and their differences in lysine deacylation activity, discuss different classes of HDAC inhibitors and their HDAC isozyme preferences, and review HDAC inhibitors' preclinical studies, their clinical trials, their pharmacokinetic challenges, and future direction...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551126/role-of-mda-7-il-24-a-multifunction-protein-in-human-diseases
#6
Mitchell E Menezes, Praveen Bhoopathi, Anjan K Pradhan, Luni Emdad, Swadesh K Das, Chunqing Guo, Xiang-Yang Wang, Devanand Sarkar, Paul B Fisher
Subtraction hybridization identified genes displaying differential expression as metastatic human melanoma cells terminally differentiated and lost tumorigenic properties by treatment with recombinant fibroblast interferon and mezerein. This approach permitted cloning of multiple genes displaying enhanced expression when melanoma cells terminally differentiated, called melanoma differentiation associated (mda) genes. One mda gene, mda-7, has risen to the top of the list based on its relevance to cancer and now inflammation and other pathological states, which based on presence of a secretory sequence, chromosomal location, and an IL-10 signature motif has been named interleukin-24 (MDA-7/IL-24)...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551125/leveraging-epigenetics-to-enhance-the-cellular-response-to-chemotherapies-and-improve-tumor-immunogenicity
#7
Liliya Tyutyunyk-Massey, Syed U Haqqani, Reshma Mandava, Kirubel Kentiba, Mallika Dammalapati, Nga Dao, Joshua Haueis, David Gewirtz, Joseph W Landry
Cancer chemotherapeutic drugs have greatly advanced our ability to successfully treat a variety of human malignancies. The different forms of stress produced by these agents in cancer cells result in both cell autonomous and cell nonautonomous effects. Desirable cell autonomous effects include reduced proliferative potential, cellular senescence, and cell death. More recently recognized cell nonautonomous effects, usually in the form of stimulating an antitumor immune response, have significant roles in therapeutic efficiency for a select number of chemotherapies...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405978/new-insights-into-beclin-1-evolution-and-pan-malignancy-inhibitor-activity
#8
Stephen L Wechman, Anjan K Pradhan, Rob DeSalle, Swadesh K Das, Luni Emdad, Devanand Sarkar, Paul B Fisher
Autophagy is a functionally conserved self-degradation process that facilitates the survival of eukaryotic life via the management of cellular bioenergetics and maintenance of the fidelity of genomic DNA. The first known autophagy inducer was Beclin-1. Beclin-1 is expressed in multicellular eukaryotes ranging throughout plants to animals, comprising a nonmonophyllic group, as shown in this report via aggressive BLAST searches. In humans, Beclin-1 is a haploinsuffient tumor suppressor as biallelic deletions have not been observed in patient tumors clinically...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405977/bcl-2-antiapoptotic-family-proteins-and-chemoresistance-in-cancer
#9
Santanu Maji, Sanjay Panda, Sabindra K Samal, Omprakash Shriwas, Rachna Rath, Maurizio Pellecchia, Luni Emdad, Swadesh K Das, Paul B Fisher, Rupesh Dash
Cancer is a daunting global problem confronting the world's population. The most frequent therapeutic approaches include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and more recently immunotherapy. In the case of chemotherapy, patients ultimately develop resistance to both single and multiple chemotherapeutic agents, which can culminate in metastatic disease which is a major cause of patient death from solid tumors. Chemoresistance, a primary cause of treatment failure, is attributed to multiple factors including decreased drug accumulation, reduced drug-target interactions, increased populations of cancer stem cells, enhanced autophagy activity, and reduced apoptosis in cancer cells...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405976/evaluation-of-resveratrol-in-cancer-patients-and-experimental-models
#10
Monica A Valentovic
Cancer is one of the top three causes of death in the United States. The treatment regimen for controlling cancer includes a number of approaches depending on the classification of the tumor. Treatment may include radiation, surgery, and cancer chemotherapy agents as well as other interventions. Natural products have been identified for centuries to contain active pharmacologic activity and have been a starting point for numerous drugs which are currently on the market. Resveratrol (RES) is a natural product generated in plants in response to environmental stress and growing conditions...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405975/a-theoretical-basis-for-the-efficacy-of-cancer-immunotherapy-and-immunogenic-tumor-dormancy-the-adaptation-model-of-immunity
#11
Masoud H Manjili
In the past decades, a variety of strategies have been explored to cure cancer by means of immunotherapy, which is less toxic compared with chemotherapy or radiation therapy, and could establish memory for long-lasting protection against tumor recurrence. These endeavors have been successful in offering therapeutic antibodies, vaccines, or cellular immunotherapies, which resulted in prolonging survival of some cancer patients; however, complete cures have not been consistently achieved. The conception, design, and implementation of these promising immunotherapeutic strategies have been influenced by two schools of thought in immunology, which include the "self-nonself" (SNS) model and the "danger" model...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405974/recent-advances-in-nanoparticle-based-cancer-drug-and-gene-delivery
#12
Narsireddy Amreddy, Anish Babu, Ranganayaki Muralidharan, Janani Panneerselvam, Akhil Srivastava, Rebaz Ahmed, Meghna Mehta, Anupama Munshi, Rajagopal Ramesh
Effective and safe delivery of anticancer agents is among the major challenges in cancer therapy. The majority of anticancer agents are toxic to normal cells, have poor bioavailability, and lack in vivo stability. Recent advancements in nanotechnology provide safe and efficient drug delivery systems for successful delivery of anticancer agents via nanoparticles. The physicochemical and functional properties of the nanoparticle vary for each of these anticancer agents, including chemotherapeutics, nucleic acid-based therapeutics, small molecule inhibitors, and photodynamic agents...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405973/unconventional-approaches-to-modulating-the-immunogenicity-of-tumor-cells
#13
Laurence Booth, Jane L Roberts, John Kirkwood, Andrew Poklepovic, Paul Dent
For several years, it has been known that histone deacetylase inhibitors have the potential to alter the immunogenicity of tumor cells exposed to checkpoint inhibitory immunotherapy antibodies. HDAC inhibitors can rapidly reduce expression of PD-L1 and increase expression of MHCA in various tumor types that subsequently facilitate the antitumor actions of checkpoint inhibitors. Recently, we have discovered that drug combinations which cause a rapid and intense autophagosome formation also can modulate the expression of HDAC proteins that control tumor cell immunogenicity via their regulation of PD-L1 and MHCA...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054424/preface
#14
EDITORIAL
Kenneth D Tew, Francesco Galli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054423/selenoproteins-and-metastasis
#15
Michael P Marciel, Peter R Hoffmann
Cancer survival is largely impacted by the dissemination of cancer cells from the original tumor site to secondary tissues or organs through metastasis. Targets for antimetastatic therapies have recently become a focus of research, but progress will require a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving metastasis. Selenoproteins play important roles in many of the cellular activities underlying metastasis including cell adhesion, matrix degradation and migration, invasion into the blood and extravasation into secondary tissues, and subsequent proliferation into metastatic tumors along with the angiogenesis required for growth...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054422/selenoproteins-in-tumorigenesis-and-cancer-progression
#16
Sarah P Short, Christopher S Williams
Selenium is a micronutrient essential to human health and has long been associated with cancer prevention. Functionally, these effects are thought to be mediated by a class of selenium-containing proteins known as selenoproteins. Indeed, many selenoproteins have antioxidant activity which can attenuate cancer development by minimizing oxidative insult and resultant DNA damage. However, oxidative stress is increasingly being recognized for its "double-edged sword" effect in tumorigenesis, whereby it can mediate both negative and positive effects on tumor growth depending on the cellular context...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054421/selenocompounds-in-cancer-therapy-an-overview
#17
Desirée Bartolini, Luca Sancineto, Andreza Fabro de Bem, Kenneth D Tew, Claudio Santi, Rafael Radi, Pierangelo Toquato, Francesco Galli
In vitro and in vivo experimental models clearly demonstrate the efficacy of Se compounds as anticancer agents, contingent upon chemical structures and concentrations of test molecules, as well as on the experimental model under investigation that together influence cellular availability of compounds, their molecular dynamics and mechanism of action. The latter includes direct and indirect redox effects on cellular targets by the activation and altered compartmentalization of molecular oxygen, and the interaction with protein thiols and Se proteins...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054420/selenium-and-cancer-stem-cells
#18
Giuseppe Murdolo, Desirée Bartolini, Cristina Tortoioli, Marta Piroddi, Pierangelo Torquato, Francesco Galli
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that functions as "redox gatekeeper" and homeostasis factor of normal and cancer cells. Epidemiology and experimental studies, in the last years suggested that both inorganic and organic forms of Se may have favorable health effects. In this regard, a protective action of Se on cellular systems that may help preventing cancer cell differentiation has been demonstrated, while the hypothesis that Se compounds may cure cancer and its metastatic diffusion appears speculative and is still a matter of investigation...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054419/selenium-and-epigenetics-in-cancer-focus-on-dna-methylation
#19
Ewa Jabłońska, Edyta Reszka
Chemopreventive activity of selenium (Se) may influence epigenome. In this review, we have discussed two aspects of Se and epigenetics in cancer, related to (1) the association between Se and epigenetic regulation in cancer development and prevention; (2) epigenetic modification of selenoprotein-encoding genes in different cancers. In both issues, we focused on DNA methylation as the most investigated epigenetic mechanism. The existing evidence from experimental data in human cancer cell lines, rodents, and human studies in cancer-free subjects indicates that: high Se exposure leads to the inhibition of DNA methyltransferase expression/activity; the association between Se and global methylation remains unclear and requires further investigation with respect to the underlying mechanisms and possible nonlinear character of this relationship; Se affects methylation of specific tumor suppressor genes, possibly in a sex-dependent manner; and cancer phenotype is often characterized by altered methylation of selenoprotein-encoding genes, mainly glutathione peroxidase 3...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054418/selenium-and-breast-cancer-risk-focus-on-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms
#20
Camile C Fontelles, Thomas P Ong
Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient with promising breast cancer prevention and treatment potential. There is extensive preclinical evidence of Se mammary carcinogenesis inhibition. Evidence from epidemiological studies is, however, unclear and intervention studies are rare. Here, we examine Se chemoprotection, chemoprevention, and chemotherapy effects in breast cancer, focusing on associated cellular and molecular mechanisms. Se exerts its protective actions through multiple mechanisms that involve antioxidant activities, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of DNA damage, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and invasion...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
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