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Advances in Cancer Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882226/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Carlo M Croce, Paul B Fisher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882225/animal-models-to-study-microrna-function
#2
Arpita S Pal, Andrea L Kasinski
The discovery of the microRNAs, lin-4 and let-7 as critical mediators of normal development in Caenorhabditis elegans and their conservation throughout evolution has spearheaded research toward identifying novel roles of microRNAs in other cellular processes. To accurately elucidate these fundamental functions, especially in the context of an intact organism, various microRNA transgenic models have been generated and evaluated. Transgenic C. elegans (worms), Drosophila melanogaster (flies), Danio rerio (zebrafish), and Mus musculus (mouse) have contributed immensely toward uncovering the roles of multiple microRNAs in cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, pathways that are severely altered in human diseases such as cancer...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882224/the-enigma-of-mirna-regulation-in-cancer
#3
Anjan K Pradhan, Luni Emdad, Swadesh K Das, Devanand Sarkar, Paul B Fisher
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are small 19-22 nucleotide long, noncoding, single-stranded, and multifunctional RNAs that regulate a diverse assortment of gene and protein functions that impact on a vast network of pathways. Lin-4, a noncoding transcript discovered in 1993 and named miRNA, initiated the exploration of research into these intriguing molecules identified in almost all organisms. miRNAs interfere with translation or posttranscriptional regulation of their target gene and regulate multiple biological actions exerted by these target genes...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882223/micrornas-and-epigenetics
#4
Catia Moutinho, Manel Esteller
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression mainly at the posttranscriptional level. Similar to protein-coding genes, their expression is also controlled by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Disruption of these control processes leads to abnormal expression of miRNAs in cancer. In this chapter, we discuss the supportive links between miRNAs and epigenetics in the context of carcinogenesis. miRNAs can be epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation and/or specific histone modifications...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882222/role-of-the-trna-derived-small-rnas-in-cancer-new-potential-biomarkers-and-target-for-therapy
#5
Veronica Balatti, Yuri Pekarsky, Carlo M Croce
Noncoding RNAs are untranslated RNA molecules that can be divided into two main types: infrastructural, including transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and regulatory, including long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) and small ncRNAs (sRNA). Among small ncRNA, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in cancer is well documented. Recently, other small ncRNAs have been described. In particular, tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNA) have been found to be frequently dysregulated in cancer. Since tsRNAs can be considered unique sequences and are able to bind both Argonaute proteins (like miRNAs) and Piwi proteins (like piRNAs), their dysregulation could play a critical role in cancer by interfering with gene expression regulation at different levels...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882221/micrornas-in-cancer-susceptibility
#6
Bríd M Ryan
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a small RNA species without protein-coding potential. However, they are key modulators of protein translation. Many studies have linked miRNAs with cancer initiation, progression, diagnosis, and prognosis, and recent studies have also linked them with cancer etiology and susceptibility, especially through single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This review discusses some of the recent advances in miRNA-SNP literature-including SNPs in miRNA genes, miRNA target sites, and the processing machinery...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882220/cancer-hallmarks-and-micrornas-the-therapeutic-connection
#7
Katrien Van Roosbroeck, George A Calin
Human cancers are characterized by a number of hallmarks, including sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, activated invasion and metastasis, replicative immortality, angiogenesis, resistance to cell death, and evasion of immune destruction. As microRNAs (miRNAs) are deregulated in virtually all human cancers, they show involvement in each of the cancer hallmarks as well. In this chapter, we describe the involvement of miRNAs in cancer from a cancer hallmarks and targeted therapeutics point of view...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882219/micrornas-and-cancer-a-long-story-for-short-rnas
#8
Alessandra Drusco, Carlo M Croce
More than six decades ago Watson and Crick published the chemical structure of DNA. This discovery revolutionized our approach to medical science and opened new perspectives for the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases including cancer. Since then, progress in molecular biology, together with the rapid advance of technologies, allowed to clone hundreds of protein-coding genes that were found mutated in all types of cancer. Normal and aberrant gene functions, interactions, and mechanisms of mutations were studied to identify the intricate network of pathways leading to cancer...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110658/preface
#9
EDITORIAL
Richard R Drake, Liam A McDonnell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110657/maldi-mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-n-linked-glycans-in-cancer-tissues
#10
REVIEW
R R Drake, T W Powers, E E Jones, E Bruner, A S Mehta, P M Angel
Glycosylated proteins account for a majority of the posttranslation modifications of cell surface, secreted, and circulating proteins. Within the tumor microenvironment, the presence of immune cells, extracellular matrix proteins, cell surface receptors, and interactions between stroma and tumor cells are all processes mediated by glycan binding and recognition reactions. Changes in glycosylation during tumorigenesis are well documented to occur and affect all of these associated adhesion and regulatory functions...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110656/assessing-the-potential-of-metal-assisted-imaging-mass-spectrometry-in-cancer-research
#11
REVIEW
M Dufresne, N H Patterson, N Lauzon, P Chaurand
In the last decade, imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has been the primary tool for biomolecular imaging. While it is possible to map a wide range of biomolecules using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization IMS ranging from high-molecular-weight proteins to small metabolites, more often than not only the most abundant easily ionisable species are detected. To better understand complex diseases such as cancer more specific and sensitive methods need to be developed to enable the detection of lower abundance molecules but also molecules that have yet to be imaged by IMS...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110655/mass-spectrometry-imaging-in-cancer-research-future-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
L A McDonnell, P M Angel, S Lou, R R Drake
In the last decade mass spectrometry imaging has developed rapidly, in terms of multiple new instrumentation innovations, expansion of target molecules, and areas of application. Mass spectrometry imaging has already had a substantial impact in cancer research, uncovering biomolecular changes associated with disease progression, diagnosis, and prognosis. Many new approaches are incorporating the use of readily available formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cancer tissues from pathology centers, including tissue blocks, biopsy specimens, and tumor microarrays...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110654/applications-of-mass-spectrometry-imaging-to-cancer
#13
REVIEW
G Arentz, P Mittal, C Zhang, Y-Y Ho, M Briggs, L Winderbaum, M K Hoffmann, P Hoffmann
Pathologists play an essential role in the diagnosis and prognosis of benign and cancerous tumors. Clinicians provide tissue samples, for example, from a biopsy, which are then processed and thin sections are placed onto glass slides, followed by staining of the tissue with visible dyes. Upon processing and microscopic examination, a pathology report is provided, which relies on the pathologist's interpretation of the phenotypical presentation of the tissue. Targeted analysis of single proteins provide further insight and together with clinical data these results influence clinical decision making...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110653/rapid-mass-spectrometry-imaging-to-assess-the-biochemical-profile-of-pituitary-tissue-for-potential-intraoperative-usage
#14
REVIEW
K T Huang, S Ludy, D Calligaris, I F Dunn, E Laws, S Santagata, N Y R Agar
Pituitary adenomas are relatively common intracranial neoplasms that are frequently treated with surgical resection. Rapid visualization of pituitary tissue remains a challenge as current techniques either produce little to no information on hormone-secreting function or are too slow to practically aid in intraoperative or even perioperative decision-making. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) represents a powerful method by which molecular maps of tissue samples can be created, yielding a two-dimensional representation of the expression patterns of small molecules and proteins from biologic samples...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110652/ambient-mass-spectrometry-in-cancer-research
#15
REVIEW
Z Takats, N Strittmatter, J S McKenzie
Ambient ionization mass spectrometry was developed as a sample preparation-free alternative to traditional MS-based workflows. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI)-MS methods were demonstrated to allow the direct analysis of a broad range of samples including unaltered biological tissue specimens. In contrast to this advantageous feature, nowadays DESI-MS is almost exclusively used for sample preparation intensive mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) in the area of cancer research. As an alternative to MALDI, DESI-MSI offers matrix deposition-free experiment with improved signal in the lower (<500m/z) range...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110651/mass-spectrometry-imaging-for-the-investigation-of-intratumor-heterogeneity
#16
REVIEW
B Balluff, M Hanselmann, R M A Heeren
One of the big clinical challenges in the treatment of cancer is the different behavior of cancer patients under guideline therapy. An important determinant for this phenomenon has been identified as inter- and intratumor heterogeneity. While intertumor heterogeneity refers to the differences in cancer characteristics between patients, intratumor heterogeneity refers to the clonal and nongenetic molecular diversity within a patient. The deciphering of intratumor heterogeneity is recognized as key to the development of novel therapeutics or treatment regimens...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110650/maldi-ims-and-cancer-tissue-microarrays
#17
REVIEW
R Casadonte, R Longuespée, J Kriegsmann, M Kriegsmann
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) technology creates a link between the molecular assessment of numerous molecules and the morphological information about their special distribution. The application of MALDI IMS on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue microarrays (TMAs) is suitable for large-scale discovery analyses. Data acquired from FFPE TMA cancer samples in current research are very promising, and applications for routine diagnostics are under development...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110649/mass-spectrometry-imaging-in-oncology-drug-discovery
#18
REVIEW
R J A Goodwin, J Bunch, D F McGinnity
Over the last decade mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been integrated in to many areas of drug discovery and development. It can have significant impact in oncology drug discovery as it allows efficacy and safety of compounds to be assessed against the backdrop of the complex tumour microenvironment. We will discuss the roles of MSI in investigating compound and metabolite biodistribution and defining pharmacokinetic -pharmacodynamic relationships, analysis that is applicable to all drug discovery projects...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110648/in-situ-metabolomics-in-cancer-by-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#19
REVIEW
A Buck, M Aichler, K Huber, A Walch
Metabolomics is a rapidly evolving and a promising research field with the expectation to improve diagnosis, therapeutic treatment prediction, and prognosis of particular diseases. Among all techniques used to assess the metabolome in biological systems, mass spectrometry imaging is the method of choice to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze metabolite distribution in tissues with a high spatial resolution, thus providing molecular data in relation to cancer histopathology. The technique is ideally suited to study tissues molecular content and is able to provide molecular biomarkers or specific mass signatures which can be used in classification or the prognostic evaluation of tumors...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110647/the-importance-of-histology-and-pathology-in-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#20
REVIEW
K Schwamborn
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has become a valuable tool in cancer research. Even more, due to its capability to directly link molecular changes with histology, it holds the prospect to revolutionize tissue-based diagnostics. In order to learn to walk before running, however, information obtained through classical histology should not be neglected but rather used to its full capacity and integrated with mass spectrometry data to lead to a superior molecular histology synthesis. In order to achieve this, pathomorphological analyses have to be integrated into MSI analyses right from the beginning to avoid errors and pitfalls of MSI application possibly leading to incorrect or imprecise study outcomes...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
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