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Advances in Cancer Research

Ann-Marie Broome
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Lance Dockery, Marie-Christine Daniel
This chapter reviews the use of dendronized systems as nanocarriers for the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs. Dendronized systems include dendrimers prepared through convergent methods as well as other systems containing dendrons (e.g., polymers, nanoparticles, liposomes). The preparation of such systems is detailed, followed by the various conjugation techniques used for the transport of chemotherapeutic drugs and their specific delivery to tumor cells. In addition, the ability of dendronized systems to provide passive and active targeting to tumors is discussed...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Al de Leon, Reshani Perera, Pinunta Nittayacharn, Michaela Cooley, Olive Jung, Agata A Exner
Ultrasound is the second most utilized imaging modality in the world because it is widely accessible, robust, and safe. Aside from its extensive use in diagnostic imaging, ultrasound has also been frequently utilized in therapeutic applications. Particularly, when combined with appropriate delivery systems, ultrasound provides a flexible platform for simultaneous real-time imaging and triggered release, enabling precise, on-demand drug delivery to target sites. This chapter will discuss the basics of ultrasound including its mechanism of action and how it can be used to trigger the release of encapsulated drug either through thermal or cavitation effects...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
C Tilden Hagan, Yusra B Medik, Andrew Z Wang
Cancer immunotherapy is a powerful, growing treatment approach to cancer that can be combined with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and oncosurgery. Modulating the immune system to enhance anticancer response by several strategies has yielded improved cancer survival. Despite this progress, the success rate for immunotherapy has been below expectations due to unpredictable efficacy and off-target side effects from systemic dosing. Nanotechnology offers numerous different materials and targeting properties to overcome many of these challenges in immunotherapy...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Linmei Li, Shiqiang Yan, Bingcheng Lin, Qihui Shi, Yao Lu
Cancer immunotherapy fights against cancer by modulating the immune response and is delivering encouraging results in clinical treatments. However, it is challenging to achieve durable response in all cancer patients during treatment due to the diversity and dynamic nature of immune system as well as inter- and intratumor heterogeneity. A comprehensive assessment of system immunity and tumor microenvironment is crucial for effective and safe cancer therapy, which can potentially be resolved by single-cell proteomic analysis...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Dean M Connor, Ann-Marie Broome
Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are very attractive and versatile nanoparticles since they have a remarkable capacity to absorb and scatter light, convert optical energy into heat via nonradiative electron relaxation dynamics, and surface chemistries that can be capitalized upon so that the nanoparticles act as drug carriers. Au NPs have excellent stability and biocompatibility, tailorable shapes and sizes, an easily functionalized surface, high drug-loading capacity, and low toxicity. The properties of Au NPs can be leveraged to develop more precisely targeted and effective cancer therapeutics...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Shiqun Shao, Min Xue
Supramolecular interactions, such as those observed between antibodies and antigens, have been employed in developing analytical methods for several decades. One major area of interest concerns cancer research, where intricate supramolecular designs have emerged to tackle difficult analytes in complex tumor systems. Our increasing knowledge toward supramolecular systems have elicited profound interest in creating more efficient analytical approaches, evidenced by the ever-growing body of literature in the field...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Dieter Haemmerich, Anjan Motamarry
Liposomes have been employed as cancer therapy clinically since the 1990s, with the primary benefit of reduced toxicity but no appreciable efficacy improvement. Thermosensitive liposomes (TSLs) are specifically formulated such that they release the encapsulated drug when exposed to hyperthermic temperatures in the fever range (~40-42°C) and have been investigated as cancer therapy for several decades, with first clinical trials initiated in the last decade. Combined with localized hyperthermia, TSLs allow precise drug delivery to a targeted region...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Akhil Srivastava, Narsireddy Amreddy, Mohammad Razaq, Rheal Towner, Yan Daniel Zhao, Rebaz A Ahmed, Anupama Munshi, Rajagopal Ramesh
Extensive research in genetics and genomics has revealed that lung cancer is a physiologically complex and genetically heterogeneous disease. Although molecular targets that can yield favorable response have been identified, those targets cannot be exploited due to the lack of suitable drug carriers. Furthermore, lung cancer often is diagnosed at an advanced stage when the disease has metastasized. Conventional treatments are not effective for treating metastatic lung cancer. Targeted therapeutics while beneficial has challenges that include poor tumor-targeting, off-target effects, and development of resistance to therapy...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Scott T Eblen
The extracellular-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 are evolutionarily conserved, ubiquitous serine-threonine kinases that are involved in regulating cellular signaling in both normal and pathological conditions. Their expression is critical for development and their hyperactivation is a major factor in cancer development and progression. Since their discovery as one of the major signaling mediators activated by mitogens and Ras mutation, we have learned much about their regulation, including their activation, binding partners and substrates...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Steven A Rosenzweig
Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs exemplifies the greatest hindrance to effective treatment of cancer patients. The molecular mechanisms responsible have been investigated for over 50 years and have revealed the lack of a single cause, but instead, multiple mechanisms including induced expression of membrane transporters that pump drugs out of cells (multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype), changes in the glutathione system, and altered metabolism. Treatment of cancer patients/cancer cells with chemotherapeutic agents and/or molecularly targeted drugs is accompanied by acquisition of resistance to the treatment administered...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Diana Fang, Eduardo N Maldonado
Cancer metabolism is emerging as a chemotherapeutic target. Enhanced glycolysis and suppression of mitochondrial metabolism characterize the Warburg phenotype in cancer cells. The flux of respiratory substrates, ADP, and Pi into mitochondria and the release of mitochondrial ATP to the cytosol occur through voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) located in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Catabolism of respiratory substrates in the Krebs cycle generates NADH and FADH2 that enter the electron transport chain (ETC) to generate a proton motive force that maintains mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) and is utilized to generate ATP...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Mitchell E Menezes, Sarmistha Talukdar, Stephen L Wechman, Swadesh K Das, Luni Emdad, Devanand Sarkar, Paul B Fisher
The incidence of melanoma has continued to increase over the past 30 years. Hence, developing effective therapies to treat both primary and metastatic melanoma are essential. While advances in targeted therapy and immunotherapy have provided novel therapeutic options to treat melanoma, gene therapy may provide additional strategies for the treatment of metastatic melanoma clinically. This review focuses upon the challenges and opportunities that gene therapy provides for targeting melanoma. We begin with a discussion of the various gene therapy targets which are relevant to melanoma...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Jesse J McClure, Xiaoyang Li, C James Chou
Since the identification and cloning of human histone deacetylases (HDACs) and the rapid approval of vorinostat (Zolinza®) for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, the field of HDAC biology has met many initial successes. However, many challenges remain due to the complexity involved in the lysine posttranslational modifications, epigenetic transcription regulation, and nonepigenetic cellular signaling cascades. In this chapter, we will: review the discovery of the first HDAC inhibitor and present discussion regarding the future of next-generation HDAC inhibitors, give an overview of different classes of HDACs and their differences in lysine deacylation activity, discuss different classes of HDAC inhibitors and their HDAC isozyme preferences, and review HDAC inhibitors' preclinical studies, their clinical trials, their pharmacokinetic challenges, and future direction...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Mitchell E Menezes, Praveen Bhoopathi, Anjan K Pradhan, Luni Emdad, Swadesh K Das, Chunqing Guo, Xiang-Yang Wang, Devanand Sarkar, Paul B Fisher
Subtraction hybridization identified genes displaying differential expression as metastatic human melanoma cells terminally differentiated and lost tumorigenic properties by treatment with recombinant fibroblast interferon and mezerein. This approach permitted cloning of multiple genes displaying enhanced expression when melanoma cells terminally differentiated, called melanoma differentiation associated (mda) genes. One mda gene, mda-7, has risen to the top of the list based on its relevance to cancer and now inflammation and other pathological states, which based on presence of a secretory sequence, chromosomal location, and an IL-10 signature motif has been named interleukin-24 (MDA-7/IL-24)...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Liliya Tyutyunyk-Massey, Syed U Haqqani, Reshma Mandava, Kirubel Kentiba, Mallika Dammalapati, Nga Dao, Joshua Haueis, David Gewirtz, Joseph W Landry
Cancer chemotherapeutic drugs have greatly advanced our ability to successfully treat a variety of human malignancies. The different forms of stress produced by these agents in cancer cells result in both cell autonomous and cell nonautonomous effects. Desirable cell autonomous effects include reduced proliferative potential, cellular senescence, and cell death. More recently recognized cell nonautonomous effects, usually in the form of stimulating an antitumor immune response, have significant roles in therapeutic efficiency for a select number of chemotherapies...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Stephen L Wechman, Anjan K Pradhan, Rob DeSalle, Swadesh K Das, Luni Emdad, Devanand Sarkar, Paul B Fisher
Autophagy is a functionally conserved self-degradation process that facilitates the survival of eukaryotic life via the management of cellular bioenergetics and maintenance of the fidelity of genomic DNA. The first known autophagy inducer was Beclin-1. Beclin-1 is expressed in multicellular eukaryotes ranging throughout plants to animals, comprising a nonmonophyllic group, as shown in this report via aggressive BLAST searches. In humans, Beclin-1 is a haploinsuffient tumor suppressor as biallelic deletions have not been observed in patient tumors clinically...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Santanu Maji, Sanjay Panda, Sabindra K Samal, Omprakash Shriwas, Rachna Rath, Maurizio Pellecchia, Luni Emdad, Swadesh K Das, Paul B Fisher, Rupesh Dash
Cancer is a daunting global problem confronting the world's population. The most frequent therapeutic approaches include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and more recently immunotherapy. In the case of chemotherapy, patients ultimately develop resistance to both single and multiple chemotherapeutic agents, which can culminate in metastatic disease which is a major cause of patient death from solid tumors. Chemoresistance, a primary cause of treatment failure, is attributed to multiple factors including decreased drug accumulation, reduced drug-target interactions, increased populations of cancer stem cells, enhanced autophagy activity, and reduced apoptosis in cancer cells...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Monica A Valentovic
Cancer is one of the top three causes of death in the United States. The treatment regimen for controlling cancer includes a number of approaches depending on the classification of the tumor. Treatment may include radiation, surgery, and cancer chemotherapy agents as well as other interventions. Natural products have been identified for centuries to contain active pharmacologic activity and have been a starting point for numerous drugs which are currently on the market. Resveratrol (RES) is a natural product generated in plants in response to environmental stress and growing conditions...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Masoud H Manjili
In the past decades, a variety of strategies have been explored to cure cancer by means of immunotherapy, which is less toxic compared with chemotherapy or radiation therapy, and could establish memory for long-lasting protection against tumor recurrence. These endeavors have been successful in offering therapeutic antibodies, vaccines, or cellular immunotherapies, which resulted in prolonging survival of some cancer patients; however, complete cures have not been consistently achieved. The conception, design, and implementation of these promising immunotherapeutic strategies have been influenced by two schools of thought in immunology, which include the "self-nonself" (SNS) model and the "danger" model...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
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