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Advances in Cancer Research

Danny R Welch, Paul B Fisher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
M Yao, G Brummer, D Acevedo, N Cheng
The human body combats infection and promotes wound healing through the remarkable process of inflammation. Inflammation is characterized by the recruitment of stromal cell activity including recruitment of immune cells and induction of angiogenesis. These cellular processes are regulated by a class of soluble molecules called cytokines. Based on function, cell target, and structure, cytokines are subdivided into several classes including: interleukins, chemokines, and lymphokines. While cytokines regulate normal physiological processes, chronic deregulation of cytokine expression and activity contributes to cancer in many ways...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
V Te Boekhorst, P Friedl
Cancer cell migration is a plastic and adaptive process integrating cytoskeletal dynamics, cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell adhesion, as well as tissue remodeling. In response to molecular and physical microenvironmental cues during metastatic dissemination, cancer cells exploit a versatile repertoire of invasion and dissemination strategies, including collective and single-cell migration programs. This diversity generates molecular and physical heterogeneity of migration mechanisms and metastatic routes, and provides a basis for adaptation in response to microenvironmental and therapeutic challenge...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
L Ma
Noncoding RNAs are important regulatory molecules of cellular processes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that bind to complementary sequences in the 3' untranslated region of target mRNAs, leading to degradation of the target mRNAs and/or inhibition of their translation. Some miRNAs are essential for normal animal development; however, many other miRNAs are dispensable for development but play a critical role in pathological conditions, including tumorigenesis and metastasis. miRNA genes often reside at fragile chromosome sites and are deregulated in cancer...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
A de Mingo Pulido, B Ruffell
Metastatic disease is the major cause of fatalities in cancer patients, but few therapies are designed to target the metastatic process. Cancer cells must perform a number of steps to successfully establish metastatic foci, including local invasion, intravasation, survival, extravasation, and growth in ectopic tissue. Due to the nonrandom distribution of metastasis, it has long been recognized that the tissue microenvironment must be an important determinant of colonization. More recently it has been established in animal models that immune cells regulate the metastatic process, including a dominant role for monocytes and macrophages, and emerging roles for neutrophils and various lymphocyte populations...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
D R Welch, C A Manton, D R Hurst
Metastasis requires coordinated expression of multiple genetic cassettes, often via epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. BRMS1 blocks metastasis, but not orthotopic tumor growth in multiple tumor types, presumably via SIN3 chromatin remodeling complexes. Although there is an abundance of strong data supporting BRMS1 as a metastasis suppressor, the mechanistic data directly connecting molecular pathways with inhibition of particular steps in metastasis are not well defined. In this review, the data for BRMS1-mediated metastasis suppression in multiple tumor types are discussed along with the steps in metastasis that are inhibited...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
M Lee, N P S Crawford
Cancer is estimated to be responsible for 8 million deaths worldwide and over half a million deaths every year in the United States. The majority of cancer-related deaths in solid tumors is directly associated with the effects of metastasis. While the influence of germline factors on cancer risk and development has long been recognized, the contribution of hereditary variation to tumor progression and metastasis has only gained acceptance more recently. A variety of approaches have been used to define how hereditary variation influences tumor progression and metastasis...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
N Linde, G Fluegen, J A Aguirre-Ghiso
The majority of cancer deaths are due to metastases that can occur years or decades after primary tumor diagnosis and treatment. Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) surviving in a dormant state in target organs appear to explain the timing of this phenomenon. Knowledge on this process is important as it might provide a window of opportunity to prevent recurrences by eradicating dormant DTCs and/or by maintaining DTCs in a dormant state. Importantly, this research might offer markers of dormancy for early monitoring of metastatic relapse...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
M E Menezes, S K Das, I Minn, L Emdad, X-Y Wang, D Sarkar, M G Pomper, P B Fisher
Metastasis is the complex process by which primary tumor cells migrate and establish secondary tumors in an adjacent or distant location in the body. Early detection of metastatic disease and effective therapeutic options for targeting these detected metastases remain impediments to effectively treating patients with advanced cancers. If metastatic lesions are identified early, patients might maximally benefit from effective early therapeutic interventions. Further, monitoring patients whose primary tumors are effectively treated for potential metastatic disease onset is also highly valuable...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
S Talukdar, L Emdad, S K Das, D Sarkar, P B Fisher
Cancer is a multifactor and multistep process that is affected intrinsically by the genetic and epigenetic makeup of tumor cells and extrinsically by the host microenvironment and immune system. A key component of cancer involves a unique subpopulation of highly malignant cancerous cells referred to as cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are positioned at the apex of the tumor hierarchy with an ability to both self-renew and also generate non-CSC/differentiated progeny, which contribute to the majority of the tumor mass...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
M Mushtaq, H Viñas Gaza, E V Kashuba
Human retinoblastoma gene RB1 is the first tumor suppressor gene (TSG) isolated by positional cloning in 1986. RB is extensively studied for its ability to regulate cell cycle by binding to E2F1 and inhibiting the transcriptional activity of the latter. In human embryonic stem cells (ESCs), only a minute trace of RB is found in complex with E2F1. Increased activity of RB triggers differentiation, cell cycle arrest, and cell death. On the other hand, inactivation of the entire RB family (RB1, RBL1, and RBL2) in human ESC induces G2/M arrest and cell death...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
L Emdad, S K Das, B Hu, T Kegelman, D-C Kang, S-G Lee, D Sarkar, P B Fisher
Since its original discovery in 2002, AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC has emerged as a primary regulator of several diseases including cancer, inflammatory diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC has emerged as a key contributory molecule in almost every aspect of cancer progression, including uncontrolled cell growth, evasion of apoptosis, increased cell migration and invasion, angiogenesis, chemoresistance, and metastasis. Additionally, recent studies highlight a seminal role of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC in neurodegenerative diseases and obesity...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
J N Nichol, D Dupéré-Richer, T Ezponda, J D Licht, W H Miller
Epigenetics, the modification of chromatin without changing the DNA sequence itself, determines whether a gene is expressed, and how much of a gene is expressed. Methylation of lysine 27 on histone 3 (H3K27me), a modification usually associated with gene repression, has established roles in regulating the expression of genes involved in lineage commitment and differentiation. Not surprisingly, alterations in the homeostasis of this critical mark have emerged as a recurrent theme in the pathogenesis of many cancers...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
C A French
BET proteins have recently become recognized for their role in a broad range of cancers and are defined by the presence of two acetyl-histone reading bromodomains and an ET domain. This family of proteins includes BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT. BRD4 is the most-studied BET protein in cancer, and normally serves as an epigenetic reader that links active chromatin marks to transcriptional elongation through activation of RNA polymerase II. The role of BRD3 and BRD4 first became known in cancer as mutant oncoproteins fused to the p300-recruiting NUT protein in a rare aggressive subtype of squamous cell cancer known as NUT midline carcinoma (NMC)...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
A Porciuncula, C Hajdu, G David
The role of senescence as a tumor suppressor is well established; however, recent evidence has revealed novel paracrine functions for senescent cells in relation to their microenvironment, most notably protumorigenic roles in certain contexts. Senescent cells are capable of altering the inflammatory microenvironment through the senescence-associated secretory phenotype, which could have important consequences for tumorigenesis. The role of senescent cells in a highly inflammatory cancer like pancreatic cancer is still largely undefined, apart from the fact that senescence abrogation increases tumorigenesis in vivo...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
J Small, V Barton, B Peterson, A J Alberg
Keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) (also referred to as nonmelanoma skin cancer) is by far the most common form of human cancer. A personal history of KC is well established to be associated with increased risk of recurrent KC and malignant melanoma, a less common yet more fatal form of skin cancer. More surprising is that a substantial body of epidemiologic evidence now indicates that a personal history of KC is significantly associated with an overall elevated risk of noncutaneous malignancies. This association is not limited to one or a few types of cancer but applies across many different types of malignancy...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
D Germain
By being both the source of ATP and the mediator of apoptosis, the mitochondria are key regulators of cellular life and death. Not surprisingly alterations in the biology of the mitochondria have implications in a wide array of diseases including cancer and age-related diseases such as neurodegeneration. To protect the mitochondria against damage the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) orchestrates several pathways, including the protein quality controls, the antioxidant machinery, oxidative phosphorylation, mitophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
R Kumar, D-Q Li
Since the initial recognition of a mechanistic role of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) in breast cancer invasion, PAK1 has emerged as one of the widely overexpressed or hyperactivated kinases in human cancer at-large, allowing the PAK family to make in-roads in cancer biology, tumorigenesis, and cancer therapeutics. Much of our current understanding of the PAK family in cancer progression relates to a central role of the PAK family in the integration of cancer-promoting signals from cell membrane receptors as well as function as a key nexus-modifier of complex, cytoplasmic signaling network...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
N Bansal, G David, E Farias, S Waxman
Revolutionizing treatment strategies is an urgent clinical need in the fight against cancer. Recently the scientific community has recognized chromatin-associated proteins as promising therapeutic candidates. However, there is a need to develop more targeted epigenetic inhibitors with less toxicity. Sin3 family is one such target which consists of evolutionary conserved proteins with two paralogues Sin3A and Sin3B. Sin3A/B are global transcription regulators that provide a versatile platform for diverse chromatin-modifying activities...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
C A Zahnow, M Topper, M Stone, T Murray-Stewart, H Li, S B Baylin, R A Casero
Epigenetic silencing and inappropriate activation of gene expression are frequent events during the initiation and progression of cancer. These events involve a complex interplay between the hypermethylation of CpG dinucleotides within gene promoter and enhancer regions, the recruitment of transcriptional corepressors and the deacetylation and/or methylation of histone tails. These epigenetic regulators act in concert to block transcription or interfere with the maintenance of chromatin boundary regions. However, DNA/histone methylation and histone acetylation states are reversible, enzyme-mediated processes and as such, have emerged as promising targets for cancer therapy...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
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