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Advances in Applied Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680127/fungi-in-deep-subsurface-environments
#1
Magnus Ivarsson, Stefan Bengtson, Henrik Drake, Warren Francis
The igneous crust of the oceans and the continents represents the major part of Earth's lithosphere and has recently been recognized as a substantial, yet underexplored, microbial habitat. While prokaryotes have been the focus of most investigations, microeukaryotes have been surprisingly neglected. However, recent work acknowledges eukaryotes, and in particular fungi, as common inhabitants of the deep biosphere, including the deep igneous provinces. The fossil record of the subseafloor igneous crust, and to some extent the continental bedrock, establishes fungi or fungus-like organisms as inhabitants of deep rock since at least the Paleoproterozoic, which challenges the present notion of early fungal evolution...
2018: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680126/fungal-genomes-and-genotyping
#2
Ricardo Araujo, Benedita Sampaio-Maia
The availability of complete fungal genomes is expanding rapidly and is offering an extensive and accurate view of this "kingdom." The scientific milestone of free access to more than 1000 fungal genomes of different species was reached, and new and stimulating projects have meanwhile been released. The "1000 Fungal Genomes Project" represents one of the largest sequencing initiative regarding fungal organisms trying to fill some gaps on fungal genomics. Presently, there are 329 fungal families with at least one representative genome sequenced, but there is still a large number of fungal families without a single sequenced genome...
2018: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680125/host-sensing-by-pathogenic-fungi
#3
Sarah L Sherrington, Pizga Kumwenda, Courtney Kousser, Rebecca A Hall
The ability to cause disease extends from the ability to grow within the host environment. The human host provides a dynamic environment to which fungal pathogens must adapt to in order to survive. The ability to grow under a particular condition (i.e., the ability to grow at mammalian body temperature) is considered a fitness attribute and is essential for growth within the human host. On the other hand, some environmental conditions activate signaling mechanisms resulting in the expression of virulence factors, which aid pathogenicity...
2018: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680124/spore-germination-of-pathogenic-filamentous-fungi
#4
Poppy C S Sephton-Clark, Kerstin Voelz
Fungi, algae, plants, protozoa, and bacteria are all known to form spores, especially hardy and ubiquitous propagation structures that are also often the infectious agents of diseases. Spores can survive for thousands of years, frozen in the permafrost (Kochkina et al., 2012), with the oldest viable spores extracted after 250 million years from salt crystals (Vreeland, Rosenzweig, & Powers, 2000). Their resistance to high levels of UV, desiccation, pressure, heat, and cold enables the survival of spores in the harshest conditions (Setlow, 2016)...
2018: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680123/twenty-five-years-of-investigating-the-universal-stress-protein-function-structure-and-applications
#5
Amy C Vollmer, Steven J Bark
Since the initial discovery of universal stress protein A (UspA) 25 years ago, remarkable advances in molecular and biochemical technologies have revolutionized our understanding of biology. Many studies using these technologies have focused on characterization of the uspA gene and Usp-type proteins. These studies have identified the conservation of Usp-like proteins across bacteria, archaea, plants, and even some invertebrate animals. Regulation of these proteins under diverse stresses has been associated with different stress-response genes including spoT and relA in the stringent response and the dosR two-component signaling pathways...
2018: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050668/microbial-transformation-of-iodine-from-radioisotopes-to-iodine-deficiency
#6
Chris M Yeager, Seigo Amachi, Russell Grandbois, Daniel I Kaplan, Chen Xu, Kathy A Schwehr, Peter H Santschi
Iodine is a biophilic element that is important for human health, both as an essential component of several thyroid hormones and, on the other hand, as a potential carcinogen in the form of radioiodine generated by anthropogenic nuclear activity. Iodine exists in multiple oxidation states (-1, 0, +1, +3, +5, and +7), primarily as molecular iodine (I2), iodide (I-), iodate [Formula: see text] , or organic iodine (org-I). The mobility of iodine in the environment is dependent on its speciation and a series of redox, complexation, sorption, precipitation, and microbial reactions...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050667/toward%C3%A2-genome-based-metabolic-engineering-in-bacteria
#7
Sabine Oesterle, Irene Wuethrich, Sven Panke
Prokaryotes modified stably on the genome are of great importance for production of fine and commodity chemicals. Traditional methods for genome engineering have long suffered from imprecision and low efficiencies, making construction of suitable high-producer strains laborious. Here, we review the recent advances in discovery and refinement of molecular precision engineering tools for genome-based metabolic engineering in bacteria for chemical production, with focus on the λ-Red recombineering and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 nuclease systems...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050666/the-contribution-of-bacteriophages-to-the-biology-and-virulence-of-pathogenic-clostridia
#8
Louis-Charles Fortier
Bacteriophages are key players in the evolution of most bacteria. Temperate phages have been associated with virulence of some of the deadliest pathogenic bacteria. Among the most notorious cases, the genes encoding the botulinum neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum types C and D and the α-toxin (TcnA) produced by Clostridium novyi are both encoded within prophage genomes. Clostridium difficile is another important human pathogen and the recent identification of a complete binary toxin locus (CdtLoc) carried on a C...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050665/uranium-bioreduction-and-biomineralization
#9
Rehemanjiang Wufuer, Yongyang Wei, Qinghua Lin, Huawei Wang, Wenjuan Song, Wen Liu, Daoyong Zhang, Xiangliang Pan, Geoffrey Michael Gadd
Following the development of nuclear science and technology, uranium contamination has been an ever increasing concern worldwide because of its potential for migration from the waste repositories and long-term contaminated environments. Physical and chemical techniques for uranium pollution are expensive and challenging. An alternative to these technologies is microbially mediated uranium bioremediation in contaminated water and soil environments due to its reduced cost and environmental friendliness. To date, four basic mechanisms of uranium bioremediation-uranium bioreduction, biosorption, biomineralization, and bioaccumulation-have been established, of which uranium bioreduction and biomineralization have been studied extensively...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050664/sodium-chloride-does-not-ensure-microbiological-safety-of-foods-cases-and-solutions
#10
Nam Hee Kim, Tae Jin Cho, Min Suk Rhee
Addition of salt or salt-containing water to food is one of the oldest and most effective preservation methods in history; indeed, salt-cured foods are generally recognized as microbiologically safe due to their high salinity. However, a number of microbiological risks remain. The microbiological hazards and risks associated with salt-cured foods must be addressed more in-depth as they are likely to be underestimated by previous studies. This review examined a number of scientific reports and articles about the microbiological safety of salt-cured foods, which included salted, brined, pickled, and/or marinated vegetables, meat, and seafood...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732554/microbial-ecology-and-process-technology-of-sourdough-fermentation
#11
REVIEW
Luc De Vuyst, Simon Van Kerrebroeck, Frédéric Leroy
From a microbiological perspective, sourdough is to be considered as a specific and stressful ecosystem, harboring yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), that is used for the production of baked goods. With respect to the metabolic impact of the sourdough microbiota, acidification (LAB), flavor formation (LAB and yeasts), and leavening (yeasts and heterofermentative LAB species) are most noticeable. Three distinct types of sourdough fermentation processes can be discerned based on the inocula applied, namely backslopped ones (type 1), those initiated with starter cultures (type 2), and those initiated with a starter culture followed by backslopping (type 3)...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732553/diversity-application-and-synthetic-biology-of-industrially-important-aspergillus-fungi
#12
REVIEW
Hee-Soo Park, Sang-Cheol Jun, Kap-Hoon Han, Seung-Beom Hong, Jae-Hyuk Yu
The filamentous fungal genus Aspergillus consists of over 340 officially recognized species. A handful of these Aspergillus fungi are predominantly used for food fermentation and large-scale production of enzymes, organic acids, and bioactive compounds. These industrially important Aspergilli primarily belong to the two major Aspergillus sections, Nigri and Flavi. Aspergillus oryzae (section Flavi) is the most commonly used mold for the fermentation of soybeans, rice, grains, and potatoes. Aspergillus niger (section Nigri) is used in the industrial production of various enzymes and organic acids, including 99% (1...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732552/current-interventions-for-controlling-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#13
REVIEW
Nam Hee Kim, Tae Jin Cho, Min Suk Rhee
This review examined scientific reports and articles published from 2007 to 2016 regarding the major environmental sources of pathogenic Escherichia coli and the routes by which they enter the human gastrointestinal tract. The literature describes novel techniques used to combat pathogenic E. coli transmitted to humans from livestock and agricultural products, food-contact surfaces in processing environments, and food products themselves. Although prevention before contamination is always the best "intervention," many studies aim to identify novel chemical, physical, and biological techniques that inactivate or eliminate pathogenic E...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438269/stone-eating-fungi-mechanisms-in-bioweathering-and-the-potential-role-of-laccases-in-black-slate-degradation-with-the-basidiomycete-schizophyllum-commune
#14
REVIEW
Julia Kirtzel, Daniela Siegel, Katrin Krause, Erika Kothe
Many enzymes, such as laccases, are involved in the saprotrophic lifestyle of fungi and the effects of those may be linked to enhanced bioweathering on stone surfaces. To test this hypothesis, we studied the decomposition of kerogen-enriched lithologies, especially with black slate containing up to 20% of Corg. Indeed, a formation of ditches with attached hyphal material could be observed. To address enzymes involved, proteomics was performed and one group of enzymes, the multicopper oxidase family members of laccases, was specifically investigated...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438268/fungal-biorecovery-of-gold-from-e-waste
#15
REVIEW
Saskia Bindschedler, Thi Quynh Trang Vu Bouquet, Daniel Job, Edith Joseph, Pilar Junier
Waste electric and electronic devices (e-waste) represent a source of valuable raw materials of great interest, and in the case of metals, e-waste might become a prized alternative source. Regarding gold, natural ores are difficult to mine due to their refractory nature and the richest ores have almost all been exploited. Additionally, some gold mining areas are present in geopolitically unstable regions. Finally, the gold mining industry produces toxic compounds, such as cyanides. As a result, the gold present in e-waste represents a nonnegligible resource (urban mining)...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438267/the-arsenic-detoxification-system-in-corynebacteria-basis-and-application-for-bioremediation-and-redox-control
#16
REVIEW
Luis M Mateos, Almudena F Villadangos, Alfonso G de la Rubia, Alvaro Mourenza, Laura Marcos-Pascual, Michal Letek, Brandán Pedre, Joris Messens, Jose A Gil
Arsenic (As) is widespread in the environment and highly toxic. It has been released by volcanic and anthropogenic activities and causes serious health problems worldwide. To survive arsenic-rich environments, soil and saprophytic microorganisms have developed molecular detoxification mechanisms to survive arsenic-rich environments, mainly by the enzymatic conversion of inorganic arsenate (As(V)) to arsenite (As(III)) by arsenate reductases, which is then extruded by arsenite permeases. One of these Gram-positive bacteria, Corynebacterium glutamicum, the workhorse of biotechnological research, is also resistant to arsenic...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438266/physiological-role-of-two-component-signal-transduction-systems-in-food-associated-lactic-acid-bacteria
#17
REVIEW
Vicente Monedero, Ainhoa Revilla-Guarinos, Manuel Zúñiga
Two-component systems (TCSs) are widespread signal transduction pathways mainly found in bacteria where they play a major role in adaptation to changing environmental conditions. TCSs generally consist of sensor histidine kinases that autophosphorylate in response to a specific stimulus and subsequently transfer the phosphate group to their cognate response regulators thus modulating their activity, usually as transcriptional regulators. In this review we present the current knowledge on the physiological role of TCSs in species of the families Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae of the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB)...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189156/microbial-phosphite-oxidation-and-its-potential-role-in-the-global-phosphorus-and-carbon-cycles
#18
REVIEW
I A Figueroa, J D Coates
Phosphite [Formula: see text] is a highly soluble, reduced phosphorus compound that is often overlooked in biogeochemical analyses. Although the oxidation of phosphite to phosphate is a highly exergonic process (E(o)(')=-650mV), phosphite is kinetically stable and can account for 10-30% of the total dissolved P in various environments. There is also evidence that phosphite was more prevalent under the reducing conditions of the Archean period and may have been involved in the development of early life. Its role as a phosphorus source for a variety of extant microorganisms has been known since the 1950s, and the pathways involved in assimilatory phosphite oxidation have been well characterized...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189155/contamination-control-for-scientific-drilling-operations
#19
REVIEW
J Kallmeyer
Drilling is an integral part of subsurface exploration. Because almost all drilling operations require the use of a drill fluid, contamination by infiltration of drill fluid into the recovered core material cannot be avoided. Because it is impossible to maintain sterile conditions during drilling the drill fluid will contain surface microbes and other contaminants. As contamination cannot be avoided, it has to be tracked to identify those parts of the drill core that were not infiltrated by the drill fluid...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189154/iron-and-fungal-physiology-a-review-of-biotechnological-opportunities
#20
REVIEW
L Comensoli, S Bindschedler, P Junier, E Joseph
Iron is an essential inorganic micronutrient. Because of its low toxicity only a few studies have dealt with the importance of iron in fungal physiology. Most of the studies published so far focus on iron sequestration by animal fungal pathogens, iron uptake by mycorrhizal fungi, or iron redox activities by fungal wood degraders. However, a general overview on the relationship between fungal physiology and iron is still lacking. In this review we present a summary of the types of physiological activities that participate in iron homeostasis in fungi and how these activities can be used for the development of original biotechnological applications in relationship to iron-containing matrices...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
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