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Acta Virologica

K Briestenská, M Janíková, P Kabát, D Csepányiová, J Zukal, J Pikula, V Kováčová, P Linhart, H Banďouchová, J Mistríková
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Acta Virologica
M Muhsen, P Lee
Homologous interference in vitro is defined as the ability of primary viral infection to prevent secondary homologous superinfection. Non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncp BVDV) has been classified according to the exaltation of Newcastle disease phenomenon (END) as END positive (E+) and END negative (E-) strains. Simultaneous inoculation of MDBK-SY cell monolayers with BVDV/E- virus and a three log higher amount of BVDV RK13/E+ virus, leads to acquisition of the BVDV/E- feature of blocking Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection in cells...
2018: Acta Virologica
X Luo, Y Liu, R Jia, H Shen, X Wang, M Wang, D Zhu, S Chen, M Liu, X Zhao, Y Wu, Q Yang, Z Yin, A Cheng
Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a newly emerging enveloped flavivirus. This study shows the ultrastructure of DTMUV using viral purification, negative staining and electron microscopy. Electron microscopic examinations revealed mature DTMUV particles with 50 to 75 nm in diameter and typical enveloped flavivirus structure that consists of the internal nucleocapsid, an inner layer of lipid bilayer and an external layer of E glycoprotein ectodomain. Particles appear to be mostly spherical. In particular, RNA core is deep colored and dense, both capsid and lipid bilayer are clearly visible, the capsid forms regular hexagon, and E glycoprotein ectodomain forms a fringe instead of visible spikes...
2018: Acta Virologica
W K Reeves, M M Miller, W E Gruner
The U.S. Air Force conducts vector and arbovirus surveillance worldwide. We report on two Rhabdoviridae detected at Holloman Air Force Base in Otero County, New Mexico including the nearly complete 11-kb genome of Merida virus, which was not previously known from the USA, and a novel virus tentatively named Dillard's Draw virus. Merida virus was previously only known from Mexico. Dillard's Draw virus represents a novel arbovirus most closely related to an avian pathogen from Australia and shares some genetic similarity to Durham virus from the eastern United States...
2018: Acta Virologica
S Ampuero, R Andaur, M Milano, M Moreno, L Lizama, C Larrañaga, U Urzúa
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants. Winter outbreaks in Chile result in 5% of infected children hospitalized, with 0.01% mortality. Increased evidence indicates that viral and host factors modulate the severity of infection. Using DNA microarrays, we characterized the genome-wide transcriptional response of lung mucoepidermoid cells (NCI-H292) at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post-infection (hpi) with a single dose of RSV/A. During the whole studied period, a bi-phasic gene expression profile was observed by a total of 330 differentially expressed genes...
2018: Acta Virologica
C J Goh, D Park, H Kim, F Sebastiani, Y Hahn
Transcriptome data obtained from a plant sample often contain a large number of reads that are derived from associated RNA virus genomes that were co-isolated during RNA preparation. These virus-derived reads can be assembled into a novel plant RNA genome sequence. Here, a basil (Ocimum basilicum) transcriptome dataset was analyzed to identify two new RNA viruses, which were named Ocimum basilicum RNA virus 1 (ObRV1) and Ocimum basilicum RNA virus 2 (ObRV2). A phylogenetic analysis of the ObRV1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) motif indicated that ObRV1 is a novel species of the genus Divavirus of the family Betaflexiviridae...
2018: Acta Virologica
W Shen, J Feng, Z Liu, D Diao, C H Liu, X Kong
The membrane-spanning domain (MSD) of the transmembrane subunit (TM) anchors the envelope glycoprotein (Env) on the lipid bilayer of the host cell membrane and virions. Its functions include membrane fusion efficiency and intracellular trafficking of the lentivirus envelope protein. Our study aimed to determine the MSD of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) glycoprotein 45 (gp45) and reveal structural characteristics of the BIV Env protein. We have predicted the region of the BIV MSD and obtained the sequence using bioinformatics software...
2018: Acta Virologica
W Chen, Z Liu, Q Zhang, Q Yan, S Jing
Antimicrobial peptides produced by epithelial and immune cells protect tissues from various infections. Whether enterovirus infection leads to stimulation of antimicrobial peptide expression is unknown. We examined antimicrobial peptide mRNA and protein production in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells infected with picornaviruses. The antiviral activity of increased antimicrobial peptide production was evaluated by using a recombinant peptide and corresponding gene overexpression. Enterovirus infection enhanced both the mRNA expression and secretion of human β-defensin (hBD) 3 in intestinal epithelial cells but did not increase expression of human neutrophil peptide 1-3 (HNP 1-3), HNP4, human defensin 5 (HD5), HD6, hBD1, hBD2, and hBD5...
2018: Acta Virologica
Y Prathibha, B Sreedevi, N Vinod Kumar, C H Srilatha
Marek's disease (MD) is one of the most important neoplastic diseases of poultry caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic avian herpes virus, which is responsible for great economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Inspite of the usage of HVT and bivalent vaccines in the poultry flocks, MD continues to be a major threat to the poultry industry in India. In the present study, MD outbreaks were reported in poultry farms from different regions of Andhra Pradesh, India. The postmortem examination of dead birds showed presence of lymphomas in different visceral organs suggestive of virulent oncogenic MDVs...
2018: Acta Virologica
V Mucha, J Hollý, E Varečková, F Kostolanský
Avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) are able to overcome the interspecies barrier and adapt to the new non-avian host. The process of adaptation requires the adaptive changes of IAV genome resulting in amino acid substitutions. The aim of this work was the description of amino acid substitutions in avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) occurring during their adaptation to equine host. Today, viruses of the equine influenza H3N8 subtype, first isolated in 1963, represent a single genetic lineage of IAV causing a respiratory disease in horses...
2018: Acta Virologica
W Chehadeh, O Albaksami, S E John, W Al-Nakib
The identification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mutations leading to drug resistance enables patient-specific adaptation of the treatment regimen and predicts the risk of transmission of drug-resistant HIV. In this study, we report for the first time the prevalence in Kuwait of non-polymorphic resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) in patients under first-line antiretroviral therapy. Viral RNA was extracted from plasma samples of 64 treatment-naïve (untreated) and 64 treatment-experienced patients...
2018: Acta Virologica
V Venkataravanappa, H C Prasanna, C N Lakshminarayana, M Krishna Reddy
The samples from eggplants showing mixed symptoms of little leaf and mosaic were collected from two districts (Mirzapur and Varanasi) of Uttar Pradesh, India. The total nucleic acid extracted from these samples was amplified by PCR using universal 16S rRNA primers specific to phytoplasma and primers specific to DNA-A-like sequence of begomovirus. A total of eighteen eggplant samples showing the symptoms of little leaf and mosaic tested positive for the presence of both begomovirus and phytoplasma. The phytoplasma associated with the mixed symptoms of mosaic and little leaf in the eggplant samples was identified as a member belonging to Clover proliferation group (16SrVI) (nucleotide sequence identity of 97...
2018: Acta Virologica
Y Guo, J Zhao, X Chang, W Yao, H Wang, W Wang, X Wang, S Zhang, Z Yang, S Xiao
Velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes encephalitis and severe neurological disorders in avian species. Sialic acid (SA) has been considered as a receptor for NDV infection and determining tissue tropism. The neurotropic mechanism of NDV in birds is completely unknown. Here we have investigated the role of viral receptor SA in neurotropism of NDV in chickens. We determined that α2,3- and α2,6-linked SA receptors were implicated in NDV encephalitis and viral binding to primary neuronal cells using immunohistofluorescence and virus-cell binding assay...
2018: Acta Virologica
R Xue, Y Tian, Y Zhang, M Zhang, Z Li, S Chen, Q Liu
Porcine rotavirus (PoRV) is one of the major causes of neonatal diarrhea in swine worldwide. Multiple serotypes of PoRV have been detected in diarrhea cases of suckling and weaning pigs. To date, the prevalence and molecular characterizations of PoRV circulating in swine in Shandong province of China remains largely unknown. Two hundred and twenty-six feces samples were collected from ten farms showing diarrhea in Shandong. All the samples were tested by RT-PCR for the presence of PoRV, TGEV, or PEDV. The results showed that all farms are positive for PEDV, and 60% and 10% of the farms are positive for PoRV and TGEV respectively...
2018: Acta Virologica
L Zhu, P Wang, W Yuan, G Zhu
Plant-derived flavonoids contain large amount of compounds with pharmacological effects. In this study, we showed the compound Kaempferol to have robust antiviral activity against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) replication in vitro. Kaempferol at a concentration of 100 μmol/l completely inhibited viral replication in MDBK cells. It mainly affects the viral replication at the post-entry stages. The inhibition of Akt signaling is a potential mechanism underlying the antiviral effect of Kaempferol. In addition, at a concentration of 25 and 50 μmol/l Kaempferol could significantly reduce the expression of inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1α) in human promonocytic U937 cells-derived macrophages (dU937) in response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulation...
2018: Acta Virologica
L Mishchenko, A Dunich, O Taran, A Dashchenko, V Polischuk, O Kondratyuk
The aim of this study was to investigate biological and molecular properties of two Ukrainian tomato isolates of potato virus M (PVM), K-16 and Pol-14, to determine their phylogenetic relationships and the genetic variability of PVM isolates. Study of phylogenetic relationships of two Ukrainian tomato PVM isolates with 35 isolates represented in GenBank was conducted. It was found that the coat protein (CP) gene sequence identity between two Ukrainian PVM isolates is 94.3% at the nucleotide level and 100% at the amino acid level...
2018: Acta Virologica
M S Joshi, B V Tandale, M M Gore, S Bhalla, Y K Gurav, G N Sapkal, K P Kushwaha, A C Mishra, S D Chitambar
The etiological agent remained unidentified in a large number of patients hospitalized for acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in 2008-2009 in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, north India. All patients were found to present with fever and altered sensorium, while 28%, 19% and 13% showed hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and meningeal signs, respectively. Involvement mostly of children with abnormal hepatic features prompted us to undertake an exploratory study on viral hepatitis A to determine its association, if any, with hepatic derangements...
2018: Acta Virologica
D C Tuo, P Yan, G Y Zhao, X Y Li, P Zhou, W T Shen
Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV, the genus Potyvirus) is an emerging threat to papaya production. Here, agroinfection-compatible fluorescent protein-tagged PLDMV infectious cDNA clones driven by the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were successfully constructed using one-step Gibson assembly. The clones were directly transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens to prevent potential problems such as plasmid instability during propagation in Escherichia coli. Ninety-five percent of papaya seedlings infected with PLDMV-GFP or PLDMV-mCherry developed systemic symptoms typical of those caused by wild-type PLDMV...
2018: Acta Virologica
J-H Zhou, Y-N Wang, X-R Li, Y-S Liu, Q Pan, X Lan
The prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in domestic swine threats the public health, due to the risk of zoonotic transmission. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and genetic features of HEV in swine, in Gansu, which is geographically an important province in China. 377 fecal samples were collected from pig farms in Gansu province of China and tested for HEV RNA by RT-PCR. The prevalence rate is about 23% in pig farms of Gansu province. By RT-nPCR, 5' and 3' RACE methods, a whole genome with 7,284 nt in length, termed as swCH189, was obtained and investigated by nucleotide, codon and amino acid usage analyses...
2018: Acta Virologica
D Cocking, J Cinatl, D A Boltz, X Peng, W Johnson, M Muzzio, O Syarkevych, G Kostyuk, A Goy, L Mueller, V I Margitich
With only a single class of antiviral drugs existing for treatment of influenza (neuraminidase inhibitors), the search for novel effective compounds is urgently needed. We evaluated a low molecular mass compound, enisamium iodide (FAV00A), against influenza virus infections in primary differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells, and in ferrets. FAV00A (500 µg/ml) markedly inhibited influenza virus replication and reduced viral M-gene expression in NHBE cells. Treatment of ferrets with FAV00A (200 mg/kg once daily for 7 days) initiated 24 h after inoculation with 105 TCID50 of influenza A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2) virus resulted in a significant decrease in virus titers in the upper respiratory tract...
2018: Acta Virologica
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