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Acta Virologica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523930/inactivation-of-tobacco-mosaic-virus-using-gamma-irradiation-and-its-potential-modes-of-action
#1
R-D Jeong, H-S Choi
Gamma irradiation is a non-thermal processing technique used to disinfect harmful microorganisms in agriculture. This technology has been shown to be an effective method to control bacterial and fungal plant pathogens. However, its effect on viral plant pathogen is less understood. Gamma irradiation was evaluated for the inactivation of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). TMV infectivity has gradually decreased following irradiation in a dose-dependent manner and virus was completely inactivated at a dose over 40 kGy...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523929/genetic-diversity-of-banana-bunchy-top-virus-isolates-from-china
#2
Xue-Qin Rao, Zi-Lin Wu, Lin Zhou, Jie Sun, Hua-Ping Li
Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) (the genus Babuvirus, the family Nanoviridae) is a single-stranded circular DNA virus with a genome composed of six components designated as DNA-R, -U3, -S, -M, -C, and -N. This study analyzed the nucleotide identities of the DNA-R of 23 isolates from banana-producing provinces of China, including Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi, and Yunnan. Results showed that the nucleotide identity of DNA-R was 72.3-100%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these BBTV isolates were clustered in different subgroups within the Asian group (AG)...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523928/genetic-variability-of-the-s1-subunit-of-enteric-and-respiratory-bovine-coronavirus-isolates
#3
S Vilček, A Jacková, M Kolesárová, M Vlasáková
Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is considered an important pathogen in cattle worldwide. It is a causative agent of enteric and respiratory diseases of cattle. The S1 subunit of the viral S glycoprotein is responsible for virus binding to host-cell receptors, induction of neutralizing antibody and hemagglutinin activity. The entire S1 genomic region (2304 bp) of two enteric bovine coronavirus isolates from Austria, one respiratory and one enteric isolate from Slovakia were analyzed at the genetic level. The comparative analysis of those four isolates revealed 97...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523927/retinoid-bms411-4-5-5-dimethyl-8-phenyl-5-6-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl-carbonyl-amino-benzoic-acid-a-potential-inhibitor-of-ns5a-protein-of-hepatitis-c-virus-a-candidate-for-combined-therapy-of-hepatitis-c-infection
#4
S Ibrahim, M J Asad, R T Mahmood, F H Wattoo, S Akhter, D Shahwar
Hepatitis C infection is a serious health issue worldwide caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV). There is an urgent need of search for new direct acting antiviral drugs due to the rapid development of drug resistance. The HCV NS5A protein is involved in creating resistance against antiviral therapy and there are also many reports that vitamin A deficiency is associated with non-responsiveness to antiviral treatment in HCV infected patients. So the present in silico study was aimed to find the relation between vitamin A deficiency and the NS5A protein's function in antiviral resistance...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523926/quantitative-evaluation-of-insulin-resistance-markers-in-pakistani-patients-suffering-from-hcv-associated-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
S N Sabir, S Manzoor, F Parvaiz, M Saalim, E Ghani
The current study was designed to determine the role of the host genes involved in the development of chronic hepatitis C-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was carried out in patients in four different stages of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, including treatment-naïve HCV patients, HCV-positive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), non-responders and responders. The mRNA expression level of host genes, such as glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and different adipokines including adiponectin, leptin and resistin, was quantified and compared to healthy controls...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523925/genetic-and-pathologic-characteristics-of-infectious-bursal-disease-viruses-isolated-from-broiler-chickens-in-iran-during-2014-2015
#6
H Norouzian, G Farjanikish, H Hosseini
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus causes a highly contagious immunosuppressive disease in chickens. A total number of 12 pooled bursal samples were collected during 2014-2015 from broiler farms in different regions of Iran. Typical macroscopical and histopathological lesions of the bursa of Fabricius were found similar to reports by other researchers. A 474-bp part of hypervariable region of VP2 (hvVP2) was sequenced and analyzed. Ten isolates had the characteristic amino acid residues of very virulent IBD (vvIBD) viruses and the other two were identified as attenuated (vaccine) strains...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523924/comparison-of-transcriptional-profiles-of-interferons-cxcl10-and-rig-1-in-influenza-infected-a549-cells-stimulated-with-exogenous-interferons
#7
V Lachová, L Škorvanová, D Svetlíková, L Turianová, A Kostrábová, T Betáková
Type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are induced by viral infection. It was concluded that these IFN species are identical in regulation and biological functions. However, these two systems differ in the tissue expression of their receptors and their transcriptional regulation is fundamentally different as well as cellular signaling pathways that drive expression of each IFN. Here, we have investigated the transcriptional profile of endogenous IFNs after stimulation of cells with exogenous IFNs and subsequent infection of A549 cells with A/chicken/Germany/27 [H7N7] influenza virus...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523923/genetic-characterization-of-canine-parvovirus-from-dogs-in-pakistan
#8
M Z Shabbir, M U Sohail, U N Chaudhary, W Yaqub, I Rashid, M H Saleem, M Munir
Canine parvoviruses (CPV) exist as antigenic variants with varying frequencies and genetic variabilities across the globe. Given the endemicity and high prevalence in Pakistan, we characterized the CPVs originating from dogs-population to elucidate viral diversity and evolution. Fecal samples from clinically diseased pups (n = 17) of different breeds and age (2-6 months) were processed for hemagglutination assay (HA), and later for partial amplification of VP2 gene sequence and amino acid analysis. A total of 11 samples (64...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523922/comparative-genetic-diversity-of-potato-virus-y-populations-based-on-coat-protein-gene
#9
H Hosseini, M Mehrvar, M Zakiaghl, M Siampour
Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important plant pathogen with a wide host range including economically important crops of potato, tobacco, tomato, and pepper. The coat protein gene has been commonly used in studying molecular biology of plant viruses including PVY. In this study, we used a large dataset of CP sequences from isolates collected across the world to assess the detailed molecular evolution of PVY populations with a focus on the Iranian PVY population. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the world PVY population had two major lineages (O:C and N:NTN); each comprising several divergent sublineages...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523921/combination-of-h120-and-1-96-avian-infectious-bronchitis-virus-vaccine-strains-protect-chickens-against-challenge-with-is-1494-06-variant-2-like-infectious-bronchitis-virus
#10
M Habibi, V Karimi, A G Langeroudi, S A Ghafouri, M Hashemzadeh, R K Farahani, H Maghsoudloo, H Abdollahi, P Seifouri
Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is a worldwide chicken disease, caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) which infects all commercial poultry lines. The present study was done to evaluate protection caused by two different serotype vaccines (Massachusetts and 793/B) in order to evaluate protection against challenge with IS/1494/06-like virus (variant 2-like virus), which is prevalent in the Middle East. SPF chickens were divided into four groups (n = 20). First and second group as negative control group and non-vaccinated-challenged group received no vaccine...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523920/expression-of-bovine-rotavirus-vp8-and-preparation-of-igy-antibodies-against-recombinant-vp8
#11
H S Kim, B Lee, S Y Han, Y T Jung
Group A rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in cattle and swine. Although, vaccination against this virus is an effective strategy for prevention, additional strategy to control disease is necessary. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY)-based passive immunization could be a better option in preventing this disease. Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is group A rotavirus and possesses a genome of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA. The outer layer of capsid is composed of two proteins (VP7 and VP4), which induce virus neutralizing antibodies...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523919/editing-plants-for-virus-resistance-using-crispr-cas
#12
J C Green, J S Hu
This minireview summarizes recent advancements using the clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats-associated nuclease systems (CRISPR-Cas) derived from prokaryotes to breed plants resistant to DNA and RNA viruses. The CRISPR-Cas system represents a powerful tool able to edit and insert novel traits into plants precisely at chosen loci offering enormous advantages to classical breeding. Approaches to engineering plant virus resistance in both transgenic and non-transgenic plants are discussed. Iterations of the CRISPR-Cas system, FnCas9 and C2c2 capable of editing RNA in eukaryotic cells offer a particular advantage for providing resistance to RNA viruses which represent the great majority of known plant viruses...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523918/current-status-of-viral-diseases-in-indian-shrimp-aquaculture
#13
G M Tandel, K Riji John, M Rosalind George, M J Prince Jeyaseelan
The intensification of aquaculture has been unique in showing the overwhelming changes in global food production in the last 100 years. Presently, it is playing a vital role in the economies of several countries. Conversely, it is also to be noted that the progression of aquaculture has been the foundation of anthropogenic alteration of a gigantic hierarchy and hence not astonishingly, it resulted in spread and emergence of an increasing group of new unknown diseases. In India, Penaeus monodon, black tiger shrimp was previously the foremost-cultivated shrimp species...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161968/molecular-traces-of-a-putative-novel-insect-flavivirus-from-anopheles-hyrcanus-mosquito-species-in-hungary
#14
B Zana, G Kemenesi, L Antal, F Földes, M Oldal, K Bányai, F Jakab
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161967/genetic-diversity-of-the-nucleocapsid-protein-gene-of-hippeastrum-chlorotic-ringspot-virus-from-hymenocallis-littoralis-in-southern-china
#15
Q Li, Y Xu, M Zhu, Y Dong, J Hu, Y Li, Y Liu
Hymenocallis littoralis growing in southern China has been recently extensively damaged by virus-like symptoms of necrosis, chlorosis, and ringspot. Of 44 plant samples collected from Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong, and Fujian provinces in southern China, 32 were infected with hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRV). Phylogenetic analysis based on the N gene divided the virus samples into two branches suggesting a geographic distribution attributed to the initial stage of a founder effect. The N gene was under purifying selection pressure and most of the deleterious mutants had been removed...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161966/recombinant-expression-of-mimivirus-l725-orfan-gene-product
#16
H Sobhy, G Gotthard, E Chabrière, D Raoult, P Colson
Mimivirus was the first discovered amoebal giant virus. The Mimivirus virions are covered by a dense layer of approximately 130 nm-long fibers, the length and shape of which diverge from those of other viruses. Here, we aimed at expressing the L725 protein to further confirm and study its role as a fiber-associated protein. We report Escherichia coli expression of the L725 protein, which is encoded by a Mimivirus ORFan, was previously identified by proteomics in purified viral fibers and demonstrated to be a fiber-associated protein by RNA-silencing experiments...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161965/pvx-tolerant-potato-development-using-a-nucleic-acid-hydrolyzing-recombinant-antibody
#17
J-G Yang, K-H Hwang, E-J Kil, J Park, S Cho, Y-G Lee, C-K Auh, Y Rhee, S Lee
3D8 scFv, a catalytic recombinant antibody developed in the MRL mouse, exhibits nucleic acid-hydrolyzing activity. Previous studies have demonstrated that tobacco plants harboring 3D8 scFv antibodies showed broad-spectrum resistance to infection by both DNA and RNA viruses. In this study, potatoes were transformed with the 3D8 scFv gene and screened by potato virus X (PVX) challenge. Starting with the T0 and T1 potato lines, PVX-tolerant T1 potatoes were identified in the field and characterized by ELISA and RT-PCR analysis...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161964/in-vitro-evaluation-of-a-polytope-dna-construct-as-a-novel-dna-vaccine-strategy-against-human-cytomegalovirus-associated-diseases
#18
E Sabbaghian, F Roodbari, J Amani, A Rafiei
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes severe disease in fetus, newborn and immunocompromised individuals. Polytope DNA vaccine strategy allows us to choose conserved and immunodominant epitopes from different antigens that can stimulate cellular and humoral immune responses simultaneously. In this study, a synthetic chimeric gene fragment was subcloned in to DNA vaccine vector pcDNA3.1+. The recombinant vector was transferred in to suitable eukaryotic cell line HEK 293T and the expression level of polytope construct from HEK 293T-infected cells was determined by western blot...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161963/effects-of-heme-degradation-products-on-reactivation-of-latent-hiv-1
#19
P Shankaran, M Madlenakova, V Hajkova, D Jilich, I Svobodova, A Horinek, Y Fujikura, Z Melkova
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection can be currently controlled by combined antiretroviral therapy, but a sterilizing cure is not achievable as this therapy does not target persistent HIV-1 in latent reservoirs. Therefore, different latency reversal agents are intensively explored in various models. We have previously observed that heme arginate, a drug approved for human use, reveals a strong synergism with PKC inducers in reactivation of the latent provirus. Heme is physiologically decomposed by heme oxygenases into 3 degradation products: iron (Fe2+), carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin which is further converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161962/zooanthroponotic-transmission-of-rotavirus-in-haryana-state-of-northern-india
#20
P Choudhary, P Minakshi, K Ranjan, B Basanti
Rotaviruses are the major cause of severe gastroenteritis and mortality in young children and animals. Due to segmented nature of dsRNA genome and wide host range, vast genetic and antigenic diversity exists amongst different isolates of rotaviruses. A total of 230 fecal ovine and caprine samples collected from organized farms and villages in Haryana were screened for rotavirus detection. Samples were screened by latex agglutination test and RNA-PAGE followed by RT-PCR and nucleic acid sequencing. The latex agglutination test showed 25 newborn lamb and 4 kid fecal samples positive for rotavirus...
2017: Acta Virologica
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