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Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica

Mohsen Hanifeh, Minna Marjaana Rajamäki, Pernilla Syrjä, Laura Mäkitalo, Susanne Kilpinen, Thomas Spillmann
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 are zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidases involved in the breakdown and reconstitution of extracellular matrix under both physiological and pathological conditions. Mucosal MMP-2 and -9 activities have been reported to be upregulated in the intestine of humans with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and in animal models of IBD. However, their involvement in the pathogenesis of canine chronic enteropathies (CE) is unknown. This study investigated mucosal pro- and active MMP-2 and -9 activities in dogs with CE and healthy dogs using gelatin zymography, and also to determine the association of their activities in dogs with CE with the canine IBD activity index (CIBDAI), histopathologic findings, the clinical outcome, and hypoalbuminemia...
March 12, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Aage Kristian Olsen Alstrup, Nora Elisabeth Zois, Mette Simonsen, Ole Lajord Munk
BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of anaesthetized pig brains is a useful tool in neuroscience. Stable cerebral blood flow (CBF) is essential for PET, since variations can affect the distribution of several radiotracers. However, the effect of physiological factors regulating CBF is unresolved and therefore knowledge of optimal anaesthesia and monitoring of pigs in PET studies is sparse. The aim of this study was therefore to determine if and how physiological variables and the duration of anaesthesia affected CBF as measured by PET using [15 O]-water in isoflurane-N2 O anaesthetized domestic female pigs...
March 12, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Jinho Park, Du-Gyeong Han, Ji-Hyoung Ryu, Jeong-Byoung Chae, Joon-Seok Chae, Do-Hyeon Yu, Bae-Keun Park, Hyeon-Cheol Kim, Kyoung-Seong Choi
Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne infectious disease that affects both human and animal health. This study was performed to characterize and investigate the prevalence of infection with Anaplasma bovis in Holstein cattle originating from two regions in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Blood samples (n = 151; 80 from Namwon and 71 from Jeju Island) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, and the prevalence of A. bovis infection was compared before and after grazing. In Namwon, A. bovis infection was not detected, while in the Jeju Island, A...
March 12, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Kiona Sharon de Nies, Ralph Alexander Edwards, Niklas Bergknut, Martijn Beukers, Björn Petrus Meij
BACKGROUND: Spinal cysts are rare findings in veterinary medicine, but they are increasingly recognized due to the availability of advanced imaging techniques. Extradural meningeal cysts in French Bulldogs have not been reported previously and arachnoid cysts (diverticula) have not been reported at the caudal lumbar (L6-L7) region in dogs. CASE PRESENTATION: Two French Bulldogs, aged 5 and 8 years, were referred for evaluation of lower back pain and bilateral hind limb neurological deficits...
March 1, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Ugne Spancerniene, Juozas Grigas, Jurate Buitkuviene, Judita Zymantiene, Vida Juozaitiene, Milda Stankeviciute, Dainius Razukevicius, Dainius Zienius, Arunas Stankevicius
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the major causes of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of HEV genotype 3 has been associated with domestic pigs and wild boar. Controversial data are available on the circulation of the virus in animals that are used for human consumption, and to date, no gold standard has yet been defined for the diagnosis of HEV-associated hepatitis. To investigate the current HEV infection status in Lithuanian pigs and wild ungulates, the presence of viral RNA was analyzed by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) in randomly selected samples, and the viral RNA was subsequently genotyped...
February 23, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Morten Tryland, Kimberlee Beth Beckmen, Kathleen Ann Burek-Huntington, Eva Marie Breines, Joern Klein
BACKGROUND: The zoonotic Orf virus (ORFV; genus Parapoxvirus, Poxviridae family) occurs worldwide and is transmitted between sheep and goats, wildlife and man. Archived tissue samples from 16 Alaskan wildlife cases, representing mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus, n = 8), Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli, n = 3), muskox (Ovibos moschatus, n = 3), Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis, n = 1) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti, n = 1), were analyzed. RESULTS: Clinical signs and pathology were most severe in mountain goats, affecting most mucocutaneous regions, including palpebrae, nares, lips, anus, prepuce or vulva, as well as coronary bands...
February 21, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Hock Gan Heng, Chee Kin Lim, Sarah Steinbach, Meaghan Maureen Broman, Margaret Allan Miller
BACKGROUND: Ultrasonographic appearance of unorganized hyperechoic striations (UHS) has been observed in the canine gastric muscularis layer. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence, sonographic and postmortem histologic features, and to determine the clinical significance of canine gastric muscularis UHS. In the prospective study, 72 dogs were included. The presence of gastric muscularis UHS were reviewed to determine its distribution and location. In the retrospective study, 167 dogs that had both abdominal ultrasonography and necropsy were included...
February 9, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Ola Thomsson, Ulf Magnusson, Ann-Sofi Bergqvist, Lena Eliasson-Selling, Ylva Cecilia Björnsdotter Sjunnesson
Production systems with group housing of sows during a part of the lactation are used in certified organic production and can increase the occurrence of lactational estrus thus making batch-wise breeding difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of lactational estrus and time at return to estrus after weaning by following the performance of the sow (change in body weight, back fat and litter size) in three different management routines. The sows and their litters were moved from individual to multi-suckling pen at one (W1; n = 14), two (W2; n = 13), or 3 weeks (W3; n = 16) post farrowing...
February 8, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Mai Louise Grandsgaard Mikkelsen, Rikard Ambrus, Rune Rasmussen, James Edward Miles, Helle Harding Poulsen, Finn Borgbjerg Moltke, Thomas Eriksen
BACKGROUND: Vasopressors are frequently used to increase blood pressure in order to ensure sufficient cerebral perfusion and oxygenation (CPO) during hypotensive periods in anaesthetized patients. Efficacy depends both on the vasopressor and anaesthetic protocol used. Propofol-remifentanil total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) is common in human anaesthesia, and dexmedetomidine is increasingly used as adjuvant to facilitate better haemodynamic stability and analgesia. Little is known of its interaction with vasopressors and subsequent effects on CPO...
February 8, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
David Huyben, Sofia Boqvist, Volkmar Passoth, Lena Renström, Ulrika Allard Bengtsson, Olivier Andréoletti, Anders Kiessling, Torbjörn Lundh, Ivar Vågsholm
Yeasts can be used to convert organic food wastes to protein-rich animal feed in order to recapture nutrients. However, the reuse of animal-derived waste poses a risk for the transmission of infectious prions that can cause neurodegeneration and fatality in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of yeasts to reduce prion activity during the biotransformation of waste substrates-thereby becoming a biosafety hurdle in such a circular food system. During pre-screening, 30 yeast isolates were spiked with Classical Scrapie prions and incubated for 72 h in casein substrate, as a waste substitute...
February 8, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Maria Torsein, Ann Lindberg, Catarina Svensson, Sören Krogh Jensen, Charlotte Berg, Karin Persson Waller
BACKGROUND: A study of herd-level risk factors for calf mortality in large Swedish dairy herds showed low serum concentrations of α-tocopherol and β-carotene in 1-7 day old calves to be more common in high mortality herds. Therefore, we aimed to investigate if calf mortality risk at herd level is associated with concentrations of α-tocopherol and/or β-carotene at individual level in feed, colostrum, cow and calf serum, while controlling for herd level covariates. Inclusion criteria were affiliation to the Swedish official milk recording scheme, herd size of ≥ 120 milking cows/year, calf mortality risk (day 1-90) of at least 6% (high mortality; HM) or less than 1% (low mortality; LM) and located within one of two regions in southern Sweden...
February 1, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Josef D Järhult
A multidisciplinary approach is a prerequisite for One Health. Physicians are important players in the One Health team, yet they are often hard to convince of the benefits of the One Health approach. Here, the case for multidisciplinarity including physicians is made using the example of environmental resistance development to influenza antivirals. Neuraminidase inhibitors are the major class of anti-influenza pharmaceuticals, and extensively stockpiled globally as a cornerstone of pandemic preparedness, especially important in the first phase before vaccines can be mass-produced...
January 25, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Malin Öhlund, Malin Palmgren, Bodil Ström Holst
BACKGROUND: Overweight in cats is a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus and has also been associated with other disorders. Overweight and obesity are believed to be increasing problems in cats, as is currently seen in people, with important health consequences. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of overweight in cats from two different cohorts in a cross-sectional study design and to assess associations between overweight and diagnoses, and between overweight and demographic and environmental factors...
January 19, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Tobias Warnken, Julien Delarocque, Svenja Schumacher, Korinna Huber, Karsten Feige
BACKGROUND: Insulin dysregulation (ID) with basal or postprandial hyperinsulinemia is one of the key findings in horses and ponies suffering from the equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Assessment of ID can easily be performed in clinical settings by the use of oral glucose challenge tests. Oral glucose test (OGT) performed with 1 g/kg bodyweight (BW) glucose administered via naso-gastric tube allows the exact administration of a defined glucose dosage in a short time. However, reliable cut-off values have not been available so far...
January 19, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Kristin Opdal Seljetun, Elin Eliassen, Ritva Karinen, Lars Moe, Vigdis Vindenes
BACKGROUND: Accidental poisoning with anticoagulant rodenticides is not uncommon in dogs, but few reports of the elimination kinetics and half-lives in this species have been published. Our objectives were to develop and validate a new method for the quantification of anticoagulant rodenticides in canine blood and faeces using reversed phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and apply the method on a case of anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication...
January 17, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Håvard Nørstebø, Amira Rachah, Gunnar Dalen, Odd Rønningen, Anne Cathrine Whist, Olav Reksen
BACKGROUND: Having a poor teat-end condition is associated with increased mastitis risk, hence avoiding milking machine settings that have a negative effect on teat-end condition is important for successful dairy production. Milking-time testing (MTT) can be used in the evaluation of vacuum conditions during milking, but the method is less suited for herds using automatic milking systems (AMS) and relationships with teat end condition is poorly described. This study aimed to increase knowledge on interpretation of MTT in AMS and to assess whether milk-flow data obtained routinely by an AMS can be useful for the management of teat-end health...
January 11, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Sofia Boqvist, Karin Söderqvist, Ivar Vågsholm
This review discusses food safety aspects of importance from a One Health perspective, focusing on Europe. Using examples of food pathogen/food commodity combinations, spread of antimicrobial resistance in the food web and the risk of transmission of zoonotic pathogens in a circular system, it demonstrates how different perspectives are interconnected. The chosen examples all show the complexity of the food system and the necessity of using a One Health approach. Food safety resources should be allocated where they contribute most One Health benefits...
January 3, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Kjersti Selstad Utaaker, Nina Myhr, Rajinder Singh Bajwa, Himanshu Joshi, Anil Kumar, Lucy J Robertson
BACKGROUND: Various characteristics of goats mean they are highly suitable livestock for backyard rearing by people with limited resources. They are a popular livestock choice in India, where they are often kept to supplement an already scarce income. In these settings, hygiene and sanitation standards tend to be low, and weakens the interface between humans and animals, thus reducing the barrier between them and thereby increasing the likelihood that zoonotic and anthroponotic infections will occur...
December 22, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Giulio Grandi, Eva Osterman Lind, Roland Schaper, Erik Ågren, Manuela Schnyder
BACKGROUND: For the first time in Sweden, Angiostrongylus vasorum was detected on the island of Sydkoster in foxes and dogs in 2003. After sporadic detection of the parasite in foxes in southern Sweden, the first positive canine faecal sample on the mainland was found in 2011. Since then a total of 2882 faecal samples have been analysed with the Baermann test at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) during the years 2011-2015; 20 of them being positive. Contemporaneously, of over 525 fox necropsies, only three were found to be infected...
December 19, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Christian Sonne, Robert James Letcher, Bjørn Munro Jenssen, Jean-Pierre Desforges, Igor Eulaers, Emilie Andersen-Ranberg, Kim Gustavson, Bjarne Styrishave, Rune Dietz
Exposure to long-range transported industrial chemicals, climate change and diseases is posing a risk to the overall health and populations of Arctic wildlife. Since local communities are relying on the same marine food web as marine mammals in the Arctic, it requires a One Health approach to understand the holistic ecosystem health including that of humans. Here we collect and identify gaps in the current knowledge of health in the Arctic and present the veterinary perspective of One Health and ecosystem dynamics...
December 16, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
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