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Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica

Agnieszka Janeczek, Marcin Zawadzki, Pawel Szpot, Artur Niedzwiedz
BACKGROUND: Cannabis from hemp (Cannabis sativa and C. indica) is one of the most common illegal drugs used by drug abusers. Indian cannabis contains around 70 alkaloids, and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC) is the most psychoactive substance. Animal intoxications occur rarely and are mostly accidental. According to the US Animal Poison Control Center, cannabis intoxication mostly affects dogs (96%). The most common cause of such intoxication is unintentional ingestion of a cannabis product, but it may also occur after the exposure to marijuana smoke...
July 11, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Hauke Gergeleit, Jutta Verspohl, Judith Rohde, Karl Rohn, Bernhard Ohnesorge, Astrid Bienert-Zeit
BACKGROUND: Diagnostics in equine sinusitis can be challenging and often require a combination of different imaging tools to ascertain its underlying aetiology. The bacterial flora of healthy and diseased paranasal sinuses, respectively, has only sporadically been assessed in horses. The objectives of this study were to determine whether assessment of microbiological features of secretions from the paranasal sinuses displays a useful diagnostic tool in equine sinusitis to distinguish between different aetiologies...
July 5, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Karina Schleimer, Houman Jalaie, Mamdouh Afify, Anna Woitok, Mohammad Esmaeil Barbati, Konrad Hoeft, Michael Jacobs, Rene H Tolba, Julia Steitz
BACKGROUND: In vascular surgery, novel synthetic prosthesis materials for patch-angioplasties, interpositions, bypasses and shunts are continuously under development and optimization. The characteristics of an ideal vascular prosthesis would display long-term patency, biocompatibility, durability, low porosity, lack of stich hole bleeding, ease of handling, kink resistance, infection resistance and reasonable costs. The aim of this study was to establish and report a reliable sheep model including potential pitfalls where those parameters could be analyzed...
July 5, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Jane Margaret Morrell, Andra Sabina Valeanu, Nils Lundeheim, Anders Johannisson
BACKGROUND: There is speculation that beef bull semen quality is inferior to that of dairy bulls although few scientific studies are available in the literature. The aim of this study was to evaluate sperm quality in beef bull semen and to determine which parameters could be indicative of fertility after insemination. Sperm quality, assessed by computer assisted sperm motility analysis and flow cytometric evaluation of membrane integrity, levels of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, acrosome status and DNA fragmentation index, was evaluated in beef and dairy bull semen...
July 4, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Axel Sannö, Thomas Rosendal, Anna Aspán, Annette Backhans, Magdalena Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Pure Eurasian wild boars and/or hybrids with domestic pigs are present in the wild on most continents. These wild pigs have been demonstrated to carry a large number of zoonotic and epizootic pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. Wild boar populations throughout Europe are growing and more and more wild boar meat is being consumed, the majority within the homes of hunters without having passed a veterinary inspection. The aim of this study was to investigate if factors such as population density, level of artificial feeding, time since establishment of a given population, and the handling of animal by-products from slaughtered animals could influence the presence of these pathogens in the wild boar...
July 3, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Therese Råsbäck, Thomas Rosendal, Michael Stampe, Axel Sannö, Anna Aspán, Katarina Järnevi, Elina Tast Lahti
BACKGROUND: Pigs are the most important reservoir for human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica. We investigated the herd prevalence of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in Swedish pig farms by analysing pen faecal samples using a cold enrichment of 1 week and thereafter subsequent plating onto chromogenic selective media (CAY agar). RESULTS: Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was found in 32 (30.5%) of the 105 sampled farms with finisher pigs. Bioserotype 4/O:3 was identified at all but one farm, where 2/O:9 was identified...
June 25, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Karin Alvåsen, Ian Dohoo, Anki Roth, Ulf Emanuelson
BACKGROUND: Longevity is an important trait for increasing the profitability of dairy production. Long cow longevity is also essential to reduce the environmental impact of milk production, and to maintain positive consumer attitude. Genetic selection for increased longevity has been effective, but the phenotypic trend of longevity in Swedish dairy cows has not been improved. The objective of this study was to identify herd characteristics and management routines that are associated with the average cow longevity in a herd...
June 19, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Marcus Vinicius Candido, Pernilla Syrjä, Susanne Kilpinen, Thomas Spillmann
BACKGROUND: Gastric carcinoma (GC) is a rather rare pathological finding in dogs, with the exception of some breeds which seem predisposed. The etiopathogenesis is largely unknown in dogs, whereas in humans GC often develops from gastric mucosal metaplasia and dysplasia. This study investigates whether dogs of certain breeds are more often subject to gastroduodenoscopy (GDS), and diagnosed with GC, mucosal metaplasia or dysplasia. A retrospective clinical database search was performed at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the University of Helsinki, Finland...
June 18, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Ronja Mathiesen, Mariann Chriél, Tina Struve, Peter Mikael Helweg Heegaard
BACKGROUND: The significance of maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) for the resistance against a number of infections affecting the health of young mink offspring is not known. Here, we present a validated immunoassay for quantification of mink IgG in serum and milk, using a commercially available polyclonal goat anti-ferret IgG antibody cross-reactive with mink IgG as both the catching and the detection antibody, in a sandwich format enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using this ELISA, serum IgG concentrations was analyzed over time in both mothers and kits in order to establish a correlation between maternal IgG serum concentrations and those of the offspring...
June 18, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Mohamed Rhouma, Salma Bessalah, Imed Salhi, William Thériault, John Morris Fairbrother, Philippe Fravalo
Camels (Camelus dromedarius) are known to harbor multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria and to be involved in the transmission of various microorganisms to humans. Data on the occurrence of colistin resistant Escherichia coli as well as mobilized colistin resistance (mcr) genes in camels are lacking. We investigated the presence of colistin resistance and mcr (1-2) genes in E. coli from the feces of camels in Tunisia. Presumptive E. coli isolates from camel-calves in southern Tunisia were qualitatively screened for growth on Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 2 mg/L of colistin...
June 5, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Jacek Żmudzki, Zbigniew Arent, Artur Jabłoński, Agnieszka Nowak, Sylwia Zębek, Agnieszka Stolarek, Łukasz Bocian, Adam Brzana, Zygmunt Pejsak
BACKGROUND: Leptospira spp. infect humans and a wide range of domestic and wild animals, but certain species such as small rodents and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) play a particular role as reservoirs and transmission of leptospirosis as they easily adapt to many habitats including human environments. To investigate the significance of red foxes in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in Poland, a seroprevalence survey was conducted. During the 2014-2015 hunting season, blood samples of 2134 red foxes originating from the central-eastern part of Poland were collected...
May 31, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Kristiane Barington, Kristine Dich-Jørgensen, Henrik Elvang Jensen
A porcine model of second intention wound healing was established and gross and histological changes needed for accurate assessing the age of wounds were determined. Twenty-five pigs were anesthetized before incision of four wounds on each. The wounds were left to heal from 1 h to 35 days when the pigs were euthanized. In 14 pigs, biopsies were sampled from two wounds between days 2 and 18. By histological evaluation the following characteristics were found useful for determining the age of wounds: neutrophil:macrophage ratio, angiogenesis, hyperplasia of fibroblasts, presence of hemosiderophages and granulation tissue...
May 30, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Elena Regine Moldal, Mads Jens Kjelgaard-Hansen, Marijke Elisabeth Peeters, Ane Nødtvedt, Jolle Kirpensteijn
BACKGROUND: There are relatively few studies about the canine surgical stress response, a sequence of events orchestrated by the body in response to a surgical trauma which is sometimes, as shown in human surgery, deleterious to the patient. There is a need to identify objective markers to quantify this response in order to estimate tissue trauma and use the markers as potential early indicators of surgical complications. The study objective was to investigate the surgical stress response, measured by C-reactive protein (CRP), glucose and iron serum concentrations, to gonadectomy in female dogs, and to compare the response to ovariohysterectomy (OHE) with the response to ovariectomy (OVE)...
May 30, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Liv Østevik, Kathrine Rudlang, Tuva Holt Jahr, Mette Valheim, Bradley Lyndon Njaa
BACKGROUND: An aural cholesteatoma, more appropriately named tympanokeratoma, is an epidermoid cyst of the middle ear described in several species, including dogs, humans and Mongolian gerbils. The cyst lining consists of stratified, keratinizing squamous epithelium with central accumulation of a keratin debris. This case report describes vestibular ganglioneuritis and perineuritis in a dog with chronic otitis, bilateral tympanokeratomas and presumed extension of otic infection to the central nervous system...
May 22, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Karin Löfqvist, Mads Kjelgaard-Hansen, Michelle Brønniche Møller Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Cranial cruciate ligament rupture is a prevalent injury in dogs, and tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) is one of the preferred surgical techniques. Surgical site infection is a possible complication following TPLO and measurement of serum acute phase proteins is suggested to be a way to early recognize and distinguish postoperative infectious complications from normal postoperative inflammatory conditions. In this study we investigate the changes in concentrations of the systemic inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) in dogs and evaluate if deviations from the changes expectedly induced by the surgical procedure are useful in early detection of post-surgical infections...
May 21, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Kristin Marie Valand Herstad, Helene Thorsen Rønning, Anne Marie Bakke, Lars Moe, Ellen Skancke
BACKGROUND: Dogs are fed various diets, which also include components of animal origin. In humans, a high-fat/low-fibre diet is associated with higher faecal levels of bile acids, which can influence intestinal health. It is unknown how an animal-based diet high in fat and low in fibre influences the faecal bile acid levels and intestinal health in dogs. This study investigated the effects of high intake of minced beef on the faecal bile acid profile in healthy, adult, client-owned dogs (n = 8) in a 7-week trial...
May 11, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Ciprian Ober, Cosmin Pestean, Lucia Bel, Marian Taulescu, Joshua Milgram, Adrian Todor, Rodica Ungur, Mirela Leșu, Liviu Oana
Femoral head and neck ostectomy (FHNO) is a salvage surgical procedure intended to eliminate hip joint laxity associated pain in the immature dog, or pain due to secondary osteoarthritis in the mature dog. The outcome of the procedure is associated with the size of the dog but the cause of a generally poorer outcome in larger breeds has not been determined. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term results of FHNO associated with unsatisfactory functional outcome by means of clinical examination and computed tomography (CT) scanning...
May 10, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Soile Anja Eliisa Pakkanen, Annemarie de Vries, Marja Riitta Raekallio, Anna Kristina Mykkänen, Mari Johanna Palviainen, Satu Marja Sankari, Outi Maritta Vainio
BACKGROUND: Romifidine, an α-2 adrenoceptor agonist, is a widely-used sedative in equine medicine. Besides the desired sedative and analgesic actions, α-2 adrenoceptor agonists have side effects like alterations of plasma concentrations of glucose and certain stress-related hormones and metabolites in various species. Vatinoxan (previously known as MK-467), in turn, is an antagonist of α-2 adrenoceptors. Because vatinoxan does not cross the blood brain barrier in significant amounts, it has only minor effect on sedation induced by α-2 adrenoceptor agonists...
May 9, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Gete Hestvik, Henrik Uhlhorn, Roland Mattsson, Eva Westergren, Fredrik Södersten, Sara Åkerström, Dolores Gavier-Widén
BACKGROUND: Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. It has a wide host range, which includes mammals, birds and invertebrates. F. tularensis has often been isolated from various species of small rodents, but the pathology in naturally infected wild rodent species has rarely been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we describe the pathology of tularemia in two naturally infected wild yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis). To visualize F...
May 2, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Gian Enrico Magi, Francesca Mariotti, Sara Berardi, Andrea Piccinini, Cecilia Vullo, Angela Palumbo Piccionello, Giacomo Rossi
BACKGROUND: Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare clinical syndrome in veterinary medicine characterized by severe intestinal dysmotility without evidence of mechanical occlusion of the intestinal lumen. The exact pathogenesis of CIPO is unknown. CASE PRESENTATION: A 1-year-old male Miniature Bull Terrier dog was presented with a history of chronic weight loss, regurgitation, lethargy, vomiting and diarrhea. The dog was submitted for exploratory laparotomy...
April 24, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
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