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Acta Psychologica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433196/relational-information-moderates-approach-avoidance-instruction-effects-on-implicit-evaluation
#1
Pieter Van Dessel, Jan De Houwer, Colin Tucker Smith
Previous research demonstrated that instructions to approach one stimulus and avoid another stimulus can result in a spontaneous or implicit preference for the former stimulus. In the current study, we tested whether the effect of approach-avoidance instructions on implicit evaluation depends on the relational information embedded in these instructions. Participants received instructions that they would move towards a certain non-existing word and move away from another non-existing word (self-agent instructions) or that one non-existing word would move towards them and the other non-existing word would move away from them (stimulus-agent instructions)...
April 19, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431300/post-error-response-inhibition-in-high-math-anxious-individuals-evidence-from-a-multi-digit-addition-task
#2
M Isabel Núñez-Peña, Elisabet Tubau, Macarena Suárez-Pellicioni
The aim of the study was to investigate how high math-anxious (HMA) individuals react to errors in an arithmetic task. Twenty HMA and 19 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with a multi-digit addition verification task and were given response feedback. Post-error adjustment measures (response time and accuracy) were analyzed in order to study differences between groups when faced with errors in an arithmetical task. Results showed that both HMA and LMA individuals were slower to respond following an error than following a correct answer...
April 18, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427713/on-the-efficiency-of-instruction-based-rule-encoding
#3
Hannes Ruge, Tatjana Karcz, Tony Mark, Victoria Martin, Katharina Zwosta, Uta Wolfensteller
Instructions have long been considered a highly efficient route to knowledge acquisition especially compared to trial-and-error learning. We aimed at substantiating this claim by identifying boundary conditions for such an efficiency gain, including the influence of active learning intention, repeated instructions, and working memory load and span. Our experimental design allowed us to not only assess how well the instructed stimulus-response (S-R) rules were implemented later on, but also to directly measure prior instruction encoding processes...
April 18, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431299/not-that-neglected-base-rates-influence-related-and-unrelated-judgments
#4
Michał Białek
It is claimed that people are unable (or unwilling) to incorporate prior probabilities into posterior assessments, such as their estimation of the likelihood of a person with characteristics typical of an engineer actually being an engineer given that they are drawn from a sample including a very small number of engineers. This paper shows that base rates are incorporated in classifications (Experiment 1) and, moreover, that base rates also affect unrelated judgments, such as how well a provided description of a person fits a stereotypical engineer (Experiment 2)...
April 17, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411438/quantifying-a-threat-evidence-of-a-numeric-processing-bias
#5
Karina A Hamamouche, Laura Niemi, Sara Cordes
Humans prioritize the processing of threats over neutral stimuli; thus, not surprisingly, the presence of threats has been shown to alter performance on both perceptual and cognitive tasks. Yet whether the quantification process is disrupted in the presence of threat is unknown. In three experiments, we examined numerical estimation and discrimination abilities in adults in the context of threatening (spiders) and non-threatening (e.g., flowers) stimuli. Results of the numerical estimation task (Experiment 1) showed that participants underestimated the number of threatening relative to neutral stimuli...
April 12, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407872/further-investigation-of-distinct-components-of-stroop-interference-and-of-their-reduction-by-short-response-stimulus-intervals
#6
Maria Augustinova, Laetitia Silvert, Nicolas Spatola, Ludovic Ferrand
The aim of this paper is to extend the so-called semantic Stroop paradigm (Neely & Kahan, 2001) - which already successfully distinguishes between the contribution of the semantic vs. response conflict to Stroop interference - so that it can take account of and capture the separate contribution of task conflict. In line with this idea, the Stroop interference observed using the aforementioned paradigm with both short and long RSIs (500 vs. 2000ms) did indeed reflect the specific contribution of the task, semantic and response conflicts...
April 10, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407502/connections-are-not-enough-for-membership-letter-non-letter-distinction-persists-through-phonological-association-learning
#7
Andreas Schmitt, Cees van Leeuwen, Thomas Lachmann
In compound, hierarchical stimuli (also known as Navon figures), a Global Precedence Effect (GPE) can reliably be observed for both letters and non-letters. However, when presentation conditions sufficiently resemble those of reading, the GPE for letters has occasionally been found to disappear. We corroborate this effect in a study with a large group of participants. In addition, in-between two sessions, participants were trained in associating the non-letters with either phonological or non-phonological sounds...
April 10, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384496/approximate-number-sense-correlates-with-math-performance-in-gifted-adolescents
#8
Jinjing Jenny Wang, Justin Halberda, Lisa Feigenson
Nonhuman animals, human infants, and human adults all share an Approximate Number System (ANS) that allows them to imprecisely represent number without counting. Among humans, people differ in the precision of their ANS representations, and these individual differences have been shown to correlate with symbolic mathematics performance in both children and adults. For example, children with specific math impairment (dyscalculia) have notably poor ANS precision. However, it remains unknown whether ANS precision contributes to individual differences only in populations of people with lower or average mathematical abilities, or whether this link also is present in people who excel in math...
April 3, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376345/the-effect-of-modeled-absolute-timing-variability-and-relative-timing-variability-on-observational-learning
#9
Lawrence E M Grierson, James W Roberts, Arthur M Welsher
There is much evidence to suggest that skill learning is enhanced by skill observation. Recent research on this phenomenon indicates a benefit of observing variable/erred demonstrations. In this study, we explore whether it is variability within the relative organization or absolute parameterization of a movement that facilitates skill learning through observation. To do so, participants were randomly allocated into groups that observed a model with no variability, absolute timing variability, relative timing variability, or variability in both absolute and relative timing...
April 1, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376344/differential-effects-of-phasic-and-tonic-alerting-on-the-efficiency-of-executive-attention
#10
Dariusz Asanowicz, Anna Marzecová
The study examined how alerting and executive attention interact in a task involving conflict resolution. We proposed a tentative scenario in which an initial exogenous phasic alerting phase is followed by an endogenous tonic alerting phase, and hypothesized that these two processes may have distinct effects on conflict resolution. Phasic alerting was expected to increase the conflict, whereas tonic alerting was expected to decrease the conflict. Three experiments were conducted using different variants of the flanker task with visual alerting cues and varied cue-target intervals (SOA), to differentiate between effects of phasic alerting (short SOA) and tonic alerting (long SOA)...
April 1, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371671/eye-movement-patterns-during-nonsymbolic-and-symbolic-numerical-magnitude-comparison-and-their-relation-to-math-calculation-skills
#11
Gavin R Price, Eric D Wilkey, Darren J Yeo
A growing body of research suggests that the processing of nonsymbolic (e.g. sets of dots) and symbolic (e.g. Arabic digits) numerical magnitudes serves as a foundation for the development of math competence. Performance on magnitude comparison tasks is thought to reflect the precision of a shared cognitive representation, as evidence by the presence of a numerical ratio effect for both formats. However, little is known regarding how visuo-perceptual processes are related to the numerical ratio effect, whether they are shared across numerical formats, and whether they relate to math competence independently of performance outcomes...
March 31, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366273/different-mechanisms-can-account-for-the-instruction-induced-proportion-congruency-effect
#12
Kobe Desender
When performing a conflict task, performance is typically worse on trials with conflict between two responses (i.e., incongruent trials) compared to when there is no conflict (i.e., congruent trials), a finding known as the congruency effect. The congruency effect is reduced when the proportion of incongruent trials is high, relative to when most of the trials are congruent (i.e., the proportion congruency effect). In the current work, it was tested whether different kinds of instructions can be used to induce a proportion congruency effect, while holding the actual proportion of congruent trials constant...
March 31, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365407/reaching-reveals-that-best-versus-rest-processing-contributes-to-biased-decision-making
#13
Nathan J Wispinski, Grace Truong, Todd C Handy, Craig S Chapman
The study of human decision making has revealed many contexts in which decisions are systematically biased. These biases are particularly evident in risky decisions, characterized by choice outcomes that are probabilistic. One recently explored bias is the extreme-outcome rule: the tendency for participants to overvalue both the best and worst outcome when they learn about choice probabilities through trial and error (aka experience). Here we aimed to test whether the extreme-outcome rule arises in part from a disproportionate subjective weight on extreme values...
March 30, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351001/sample-size-bias-in-retrospective-estimates-of-average-duration
#14
Andrew R Smith, Shanon Rule, Paul C Price
People often estimate the average duration of several events (e.g., on average, how long does it take to drive from one's home to his or her office). While there is a great deal of research investigating estimates of duration for a single event, few studies have examined estimates when people must average across numerous stimuli or events. The current studies were designed to fill this gap by examining how people's estimates of average duration were influenced by the number of stimuli being averaged (i.e., the sample size)...
March 25, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349876/location-versus-task-relevance-the-impact-of-differing-internal-focus-of-attention-instructions-on-motor-performance
#15
Valerie Pelleck, Steven R Passmore
Impaired performance while executing a motor task is attributed to a disruption of normal automatic processes when an internal focus of attention is used. What remains unclear is whether the specificity of internally focused task instructions may impact task performance. The present study assessed the implications of changing the attentional focus of novice and skilled golfers by measuring behavioural, neurophysiological and kinematic changes during a golf putting task. Over six blocks of ten putting trials each, attention was directed either externally (towards the target) or internally in one of two ways: 1) proximal (keeping the elbows extended and the hands gripping the putter); or 2) distal (keeping the weight evenly distributed between both legs) to the critical elements of the task...
March 24, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342397/conflict-adaptation-in-positive-and-negative-mood-applying-a-success-failure-manipulation
#16
Stefanie Schuch, Jana Zweerings, Patricia Hirsch, Iring Koch
Conflict adaptation is a cognitive mechanism denoting increased cognitive control upon detection of conflict. This mechanism can be measured by the congruency sequence effect, indicating the reduction of congruency effects after incongruent trials (where response conflict occurs) relative to congruent trials (without response conflict). Several studies have reported increased conflict adaptation under negative, as compared to positive, mood. In these studies, sustained mood states were induced by film clips or music combined with imagination techniques; these kinds of mood manipulations are highly obvious, possibly distorting the actual mood states experienced by the participants...
March 22, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335990/trial-type-mixing-substantially-reduces-the-response-set-effect-in-the-stroop-task
#17
Nabil Hasshim, Benjamin A Parris
The response set effect refers to the finding that an irrelevant incongruent colour-word produces greater interference when it is one of the response options (referred to as a response set trial), compared to when it is not (a non-response set trial). Despite being a key effect for models of selective attention, the magnitude of the effect varies considerably across studies. We report two within-subjects experiments that tested the hypothesis that presentation format modulates the magnitude of the response set effect...
March 20, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315594/goal-neglect-fluid-intelligence-and-processing-speed-manipulating-instruction-load-and-inter-stimulus-interval
#18
Matthew H Iveson, Sergio Della Sala, Mike Anderson, Sarah E MacPherson
Goal maintenance is the process where task rules and instructions are kept active to exert their control on behavior. When this process fails, an individual may ignore a rule while performing the task, despite being able to describe it after task completion. Previous research has suggested that the goal maintenance system is limited by the number of concurrent rules which can be maintained during a task, and that this limit is dependent on an individual's level of fluid intelligence. However, the speed at which an individual can process information may also limit their ability to use task rules when the task demands them...
March 15, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291524/more-than-just-channeling-the-role-of-subcortical-mechanisms-in-executive-functions-evidence-from-the-stroop-task
#19
William Saban, Shai Gabay, Eyal Kalanthroff
The literature has long emphasized the role of the cerebral cortex in executive functions. Recently, however, several researchers have suggested that subcortical areas might also be involved in executive functions. The current study explored the possibility that subcortical mechanisms have a functional role in adaptive resolution of Stroop interference. We asked 20 participants to complete a cued task-switching Stroop task with variable cue-target intervals (CTI). Using a stereoscope, we manipulated which eye was shown the relevant dimension and which was shown the irrelevant dimension...
March 10, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285149/strategy-difficulty-effects-in-young-and-older-adults-episodic-memory-are-modulated-by-inter-stimulus-intervals-and-executive-control-processes
#20
REVIEW
Lucile Burger, Kim Uittenhove, Patrick Lemaire, Laurence Taconnat
Efficient execution of strategies is crucial to memory performance and to age-related differences in this performance. Relative strategy complexity influences memory performance and aging effects on memory. Here, we aimed to further our understanding of the effects of relative strategy complexity by looking at the role of cognitive control functions and the time-course of the effects of relative strategy complexity. Thus, we manipulated inter-stimulus intervals (ISI) and assessed executive functions. Results showed that (a) performance as a function of the relative strategy difficulty of the current and previous trial was modulated by ISI, (b) these effects were modulated by inhibition capacities, and (c) significant age differences were found in the way ISI modulates relative strategy difficulty...
March 9, 2017: Acta Psychologica
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