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Acta Psychologica

Robert Gaschler, Maike Kemper, Fang Zhao, Ina Pumpe, Charlotte-Barbara Ruderisch, Eva Röttger, Hilde Haider
Everyday multitasking often is characterized by predictable sequences. While such sequential regularities are present in setups using the Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT), many laboratory studies on dual-tasking performance use random sequences of stimuli in either of the two tasks. In the current study, following single-task training on the SRTT, participants completed trials where they were confronted with an additional visual-manual task with either a random (Experiment 1) or a partially predictable (Experiment 2) stimulus sequence...
September 15, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Thomas Dolk, Claudia Freigang, Johanna Bogon, Gesine Dreisbach
An increasing amount of studies indicates that experiencing increased task demands, triggered for example by conflicting stimulus features or low perceptual fluency, lead to processing adjustments. While these demand-triggered processing adjustments have been shown for different paradigms (e.g., response conflict tasks, perceptual disfluency, task switching, dual tasking), most of them are restricted to the visual modality. The present study investigated as to whether the challenge to understand speech signals in normal-hearing subjects would also lead to sequential processing adjustments if the processing fluency of the respective auditory signals changes from trial to trial...
September 14, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Laura Mora, Dorothy Cowie, Michael J Banissy, Gianna Cocchini
Face recognition has been the focus of multiple studies, but little is still known on how we represent the structure of one's own face. Most of the studies have focused on the topic of visual and haptic face recognition, but the metric representation of different features of one's own face is relatively unknown. We investigated the metric representation of the face in young adults by developing a proprioceptive pointing task to locate face landmarks in the first-person perspective. Our data revealed a large overestimation of width for all face features which resembles, in part, the size in somatosensory cortical representation...
September 13, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Sébastien Hélie, Benjamin O Turner, Denis Cousineau
Smith, Redford, Gent, and Washburn (2005) have proposed a new categorization paradigm called the visual-search categorization task to study how display size affects categorization performance. Their results show that, in a wide range of conditions, category knowledge collapses as soon as multiple stimuli are simultaneously displayed in a scene. This result is surprising and important considering that humans parse and categorize objects from complex scenes on a daily basis. However, Smith et al. only studied one kind of category structure...
September 13, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Yun Kyoung Shin, Robert W Proctor
Task parameters still affect reaction times even when all necessary information for executing an action is presented prior to a Go signal to execute the action. Hypotheses in terms of short-term memory capacity, residual activation, and a separate motor-programming stage have been suggested to explain what can and cannot be prepared prior to a delayed Go signal. To test these hypotheses, we used a delayed response task, in which participants were to initiate a movement at onset of an imperative Go signal following the target stimulus...
September 12, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Paulo Ventura, Isabel Leite, Tânia Fernandes
The composite paradigm is widely used to quantify holistic processing (HP) of faces: participants perform a sequential same-different task on one half (e.g., top) of a test-face relative to the corresponding half of a study-face. There is, however, debate regarding the appropriate design in this task. In the partial design, the irrelevant halves (e.g., bottom) of test- and study-faces are always different; an alignment effect indexes HP. In the complete design, besides alignment, congruency between the irrelevant and critical halves of the test-face is manipulated regarding the same/different response status of the study-face...
September 5, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Fabien D Legrand, Cedric Albinet, Anne Canivet, Fabien Gierski, Isabella Morrone, Chrystel Besche-Richard
While the effects of acute exercise on mood and cognitive functions have been separately documented over the last decade, recent findings have pointed to a possible connection between affective responses to exercise and cognitive performance. The main objective of this study was to test whether the effects of acute exercise on cognition were mediated by changes in feelings of energy. One-hundred-and-one undergraduate students were randomized into one of two experimental conditions: 15 min of jogging at "moderate" intensity, or 15 min of relaxation/concentration (control condition)...
September 5, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Eamonn Walsh, Alexandra Vormberg, Josie Hannaford, Matthew R Longo
Faces are complex, multidimensional, and meaningful visual stimuli. Recently, Araragi, Aotani, & Kitaoka (2012) demonstrated an intriguing face size illusion whereby an inverted face is perceived as larger than a physically identical upright face. Like the face, the human body is a highly familiar and important stimulus in our lives. Here, we investigated the specificity of the size underestimation of upright faces illusion, testing whether similar effects also hold for bodies, hands, and everyday objects...
September 5, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Loes Abrahams, Filip De Fruyt, Robert J Hartsuiker
This study investigated whether syntactic mimicry leads to prosocial effects and whether any such effects are modulated by personality traits. Participants and a confederate of the experimenters took turns describing simple scenes. Target scenes could be described using either a prepositional object or a double object dative structure and we tested whether the participants mimicked the structure used by the confederate (Experiments 1A and 2A), whether mimicry of the participant's sentence structure (Experiments 1B and 2B) made the participant act in a more prosocial manner, and whether any such effects vary with Big Five traits...
September 3, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Chae Eun Lim, Yang Seok Cho
Sequential modulation between two task congruencies has been examined to investigate the nature of the cognitive control mechanism underlying the congruency sequence effect (CSE). Previous results regarding what consecutive tasks must have in common to engender the cross-task CSE are inconsistent. The present study examined the roles of stimulus-response (S-R) mappings and response mode as critical factors in determining the scope of control. Two flanker-compatibility tasks having different stimulus and response sets alternated in turn, and the arbitrariness of S-R mappings alone (Experiment 1) or the arbitrariness of stimulus set and the distinctiveness of response modes (Experiment 2) were manipulated...
August 28, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Clea Desebrock, Jie Sui, Charles Spence
Considerable evidence now shows that making a reference to the self in a task modulates attention, perception, memory, and decision-making. Furthermore, the self-reference effect (SRE) cannot be reduced to domain-general factors (e.g., reward value) and is supported by distinct neural circuitry. However, it remains unknown whether self-associations modulate response execution as well. This was tested in the present study. Participants carried out a perceptual-matching task, and movement time (MT) was measured separately from reaction-time (RT; drawing on methodology from the literature on intelligence)...
August 25, 2018: Acta Psychologica
L A Meerhoff, J Bruneau, A Vu, A-H Olivier, J Pettré
Modelling crowd behavior is essential for the management of mass events and pedestrian traffic. Current microscopic approaches consider the individual's behavior to predict the effect of individual actions in local interactions on the collective scale of the crowd motion. Recent developments in the use of virtual reality as an experimental tool have offered an opportunity to extend the understanding of these interactions in controlled and repeatable settings. Nevertheless, based on kinematics alone, it remains difficult to tease out how these interactions unfold...
August 24, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Cuizhen Liu, Rongjun Yu
Social comparison has been found to affect humans in many aspects including outcome evaluation, emotional reaction, and decision-making. Here, two experiments were conducted using a gambling task involving monetary gains and losses (absolute outcome: win/loss), whereby participants' outcome was either better or worse than the outcome of a paired player (relative outcome: better/worse). The results of experiment 1 showed that participants switched more frequently after absolute losses compared with absolute gains, consistent with previous studies showing a win-stay lose-shift heuristic in repeated decision-making...
August 24, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Takahiro Sekiguchi
This study examined which type of short-term memory (STM), phonological or visual, is involved in and more important for representing contents of task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs). Three experiments consistently showed that TUTs were less likely to be reported during phonological STM tasks than either visual STM or control tasks. In contrast, the number of TUT responses did not considerably differ between visual STM tasks and control tasks even for TUTs with many visual images. This difference cannot be explained by the differential involvement of executive control processes because task difficulty was controlled for in the multi-level logistic regression analysis...
August 24, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Toby Prike, Michelle M Arnold, Paul Williamson
Biases in the assessment and integration of evidence are likely contributors to anomalistic (e.g., paranormal, extra-terrestrial) beliefs because of the non-evidence based nature of these beliefs. However, little research has examined the relationship between anomalistic beliefs and evidence integration biases. The current study addressed this gap by examining the relationship between anomalistic belief and four such biases; bias against disconfirmatory evidence (BADE), bias against confirmatory evidence (BACE), liberal acceptance bias, and the jumping to conclusions bias (JTC)...
August 23, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Jiuqing Cheng, Claudia González-Vallejo
The study examined the two-factor structure of decision difficulty proposed by Cheng and González-Vallejo (2017) in new domains, and the role of numeracy in relation to these factors. Using the measurement methodology of 'mouse' (cursor) movements, participants' temporal and spatial measures were recorded when making decisions in the domains of intertemporal, gamble, and consumer choices. Task manipulations designed to affect difficulty included the sign of the payoffs (gains vs. losses), the similarity of the attribute values being compared, and attribute importance...
August 21, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Dario Krpan, Simone Schnall
Research on motivated perception has yielded conflicting findings: Whereas Balcetis and Dunning (2010) showed that people approaching (vs. avoiding) rewarding objects (e.g. food) see them as closer, Krpan and Schnall (2014a) found the opposite. Furthermore, whereas Balcetis (2016) suggested that people who perceive rewarding objects as closer (vs. farther) should subsequently consume more, Krpan and Schnall (2017) showed that they actually ate less. We introduce affect as the missing link to explain these conflicting findings...
August 17, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Megan England, Elena Nicoladis
In pantomiming the use of tools, it is possible to use a body part as the object (BPO) or imagine the object (IO). The present four studies test how conceptualizing the functions of objects may underlie BPO production in a non-clinical adult population. We showed that familiar vs. unfamiliar tools (Study 1) and visual experience only vs. visual + motor experience with novel tools (Study 2) made no difference in BPO production. In Study 3, participants showed a trend for higher BPO production for tools presented in two-dimensional pictures rather than in reality...
August 16, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Vassilis Thanopoulos, Eleni Psarou, Argiro Vatakis
Past studies have shown that when a voluntary action produces a sensory effect, the action and the effect will be perceived as being closer in time. This subjective temporal 'attraction' is known as intentional binding (IB). Induction of IB is dependent on the intentionality of one's actions, the predictability of the effect, and the causality between the action and the effect. Previous investigations of IB have utilized abstract stimuli (e.g., flashes and beeps) with adaptation so as to associate the abstract action-effect link...
August 14, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Eunhee Bae, Shinyoung Jung, Suk Won Han
A salient, but task-irrelevant stimulus has long been known to capture attention in an automatic, involuntary manner. However, the automaticity of involuntary attention has recently been challenged. While some studies showed that the effect of involuntary attention depended on top-down attentional resources, other studies did not. To reconcile this conflict, we suggest to consider that attentional effect is not homogenous. Specifically, we hypothesized that the dependence of involuntary attention on top-down attention interacts with the presence/absence of the target location uncertainty and distractor interference...
August 14, 2018: Acta Psychologica
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