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Acta Psychologica

Catherine Davies, Helene Kreysa
Variation in referential form has traditionally been accounted for by theoretical frameworks focusing on linguistic and discourse features. Despite the explosion of interest in eye tracking methods in psycholinguistics, the role of visual scanning behaviour in informative reference production is yet to be comprehensively investigated. Here we examine the relationship between speakers' fixations to relevant referents and the form of the referring expressions they produce. Overall, speakers were fully informative across simple and (to a lesser extent) more complex displays, providing appropriately modified referring expressions to enable their addressee to locate the target object...
June 16, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Kiel Christianson, Peiyun Zhou, Cassie Palmer, Adina Raizen
Previous studies suggest that taboo words are special in regards to language processing. Findings from the studies have led to the formation of two theories, global resource theory and binding theory, of taboo word processing. The current study investigates how readers process taboo words embedded in sentences during silent reading. In two experiments, measures collected include eye movement data, accuracy and reaction time measures for recalling probe words within the sentences, and individual differences in likelihood of being offended by taboo words...
June 12, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Souta Hidaka, Satomi Higuchi, Wataru Teramoto, Yoichi Sugita
Studies of crossmodal interactions in motion perception have reported activation in several brain areas, including those related to motion processing and/or sensory association, in response to multimodal (e.g., visual and auditory) stimuli that were both in motion. Recent studies have demonstrated that sounds can trigger illusory visual apparent motion to static visual stimuli (sound-induced visual motion: SIVM): A visual stimulus blinking at a fixed location is perceived to be moving laterally when an alternating left-right sound is also present...
June 7, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Christopher J Wilson, Alessandro Soranzo, Marco Bertamini
Spatial cueing of attention occurs when attention is oriented by the onset of a stimulus or by other information that creates a bias towards a particular location. The presence of a cue that orients attention can also interfere with participants' reporting of what they see. It has been suggested that this type of interference is stronger in the presence of socially-relevant cues, such as human faces or avatars, and is therefore indicative of a specialised role for perspective calculation within the social domain...
June 1, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Sarah N Kraeutner, Theresa C Gaughan, Sarah N Eppler, Shaun G Boe
Implicit sequence learning (ISL) occurs without conscious awareness and is critical for skill acquisition. The extent to which ISL occurs is a function of exposure (i.e., total training time and/or sequence to noise ratio) to a repeated sequence, and thus the cognitive mechanism underlying ISL is the formation of stimulus-response associations. As the majority of ISL studies employ paradigms whereby individuals unknowingly physically practice a repeated sequence, the cognitive mechanism underlying ISL through motor imagery (MI), the mental rehearsal of movement, remains unknown...
May 31, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Frank Mast, Christian Frings, Charles Spence
The interplay between top-down and bottom-up factors in attentional selection has been a topic of extensive research and controversy amongst scientists over the past two decades. According to the influential contingent capture hypothesis, a visual stimulus needs to match the feature(s) implemented into the current attentional control sets in order to be automatically selected. Recently, however, evidence has been presented that attentional control sets affect not only visual but also crossmodal selection. The aim of the present study was therefore to establish contingent capture as a general principle of multisensory selection...
May 30, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Baptist Liefooghe
Mental flexibility not only enables us to switch between tasks but also to select the tasks we want to perform. The latter scenario is central to voluntary task switching, in which participants are free to select on each trial which task to perform. The present study argues that voluntary task switching also includes and additional component, namely task-choice response selection. Task-choice response selection refers to the whole chain of processes involved in the overt report or indication of the task that was selected by emitting an arbitrary response...
May 29, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Helmut Leder, Juergen Goller, Michael Forster, Lena Schlageter, Matthew A Paul
Assessing facial attractiveness is a ubiquitous, inherent, and hard-wired phenomenon in everyday interactions. As such, it has highly adapted to the default way that faces are typically processed: viewing faces in upright orientation. By inverting faces, we can disrupt this default mode, and study how facial attractiveness is assessed. Faces, rotated at 90 (tilting to either side) and 180°, were rated on attractiveness and distinctiveness scales. For both orientations, we found that faces were rated more attractive and less distinctive than upright faces...
May 26, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Carmelo M Vicario, Werner Sommer, Karolina A Kuran, Robert D Rafal
Although a direct link has been established between self-experienced disgust and salivary secretion, it is unclear whether this physiological index is modulated by the social experience of disgust (i.e., exposure to the facial expression of disgust). We tested this issue in a pilot study by collecting salivary samples in a group of 20 healthy humans watching pictures of faces expressing disgust. Moreover, we tried to replicate previous evidence by testing saliva secretion in response to pictures of unpalatable (i...
May 26, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Aukje A C Verhoeven, Merel Kindt, Colene L Zomer, Sanne de Wit
The interplay between inflexible habits and flexible goal-directed control can be modelled in lab-settings using the slips-of-action task. In this task, participants are required to selectively respond to still-valuable outcomes while suppressing responding towards no-longer valuable outcomes, thereby overriding learned stimulus-response associations. Here we examined in the slips-of-action task whether learnt habits can be changed using a planning technique - so-called implementation intentions - whereby people instruct themselves to enact a certain behaviour (or not) in the presence of a specific critical stimulus...
May 26, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Farah Mutiasari Djalal, Gert Storms, Eef Ameel, Tom Heyman
The present study investigates category intension in school-aged children and adults at two different levels of abstraction (i.e., superordinate and basic level) for two category types (i.e., artefacts and natural kinds). We addressed two critical questions: what kind of features do children and adults generate to define semantic categories and which features predict category membership judgment best at each abstraction level? Overall, participants generated relatively more entity features for natural kinds categories, compared to artefact categories, as well as for basic level categories, compared to superordinate categories...
May 23, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Marijke Theeuwes, Baptist Liefooghe, Maarten De Schryver, Jan De Houwer
Learning via instructions and learning through physical practice are complementary pathways to obtain skilled performance. Whereas an initial task representation can be formed on the basis of instructions, physically practicing novel instructions leads to a shift in processing mode from controlled processing toward more automatic processing. This shift in processing mode is supposedly caused by the formation of a pragmatic task representation, which includes task parameters needed to attain skilled task execution...
May 23, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Jonathan Grainger, Mathieu Declerck, Yousri Marzouki
French-English bilinguals performed a generalized lexical decision experiment with mixed lists of French and English words and pseudo-words. In Experiment 1, each word/pseudo-word was superimposed on the picture of the French or UK flag, and flag-word congruency was manipulated. The flag was not informative with respect to either the lexical decision response or the language of the word. Nevertheless, lexical decisions to word stimuli were faster following the congruent flag compared with the incongruent flag, but only for French (L1) words...
May 18, 2017: Acta Psychologica
R M Msetfi, N Byrom, R A Murphy
Evidence shows that there are individual differences in the extent to which people attend to and integrate information into their decisions about the predictive contingencies between events and outcomes. In particular, information about the absence of events or outcomes, presented outside the current task frame, is often neglected. This trend is particularly evident in depression, as well as other psychopathologies, though reasons for information neglect remain unclear. We investigated this phenomenon across two experiments (Experiment 1: N=157; Experiment 2: N=150) in which participants, scoring low and high in the Beck Depression Inventory, were asked to learn a simple predictive relationship between a visual cue and an auditory outcome...
May 16, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Christina U Pfeuffer, Karolina Moutsopoulou, Florian Waszak, Andrea Kiesel
Stimulus-response (S-R) associations, the basis of learning and behavioral automaticity, are formed by the (repeated) co-occurrence of stimuli and responses and render stimuli able to automatically trigger associated responses. The strength and behavioral impact of these S-R associations increases with the number of priming instances (i.e., practice). Here we investigated whether multiple priming instances of a special form of instruction, verbal coding, also lead to the formation of stronger S-R associations in comparison to a single instance of priming...
May 13, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Toby D Pilditch, Ruud Custers
As agents seeking to learn how to successfully navigate their environments, humans can both obtain knowledge through direct experience, and second-hand through communicated beliefs. Questions remain concerning how communicated belief (or instruction) interacts with first-hand evidence integration, and how the former can bias the latter. Previous research has revealed that people are more inclined to seek out confirming evidence when they are motivated to uphold the belief, resulting in confirmation bias. The current research explores whether merely communicated beliefs affect evidence integration over time when it is not of interest to uphold the belief, and all evidence is readily available...
May 4, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Beat Meier, Alodie Rey-Mermet
In a prospective memory task, verbal instructions are used to define an appropriate target event as retrieval cue. This target event is typically part of an ongoing activity and is thus bivalent as it involves features relevant for both the prospective memory task and the ongoing task. Task switching research has demonstrated that responding to bivalent stimuli is costly and can slow down even subsequent performance. Thus, responding to prospective memory targets may also result in after-effects, expressed as slowed subsequent ongoing task performance...
May 3, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Jae Lee, Charles Spence
It is generally-accepted that the presentation of an auditory cue will direct an observer's spatial attention to the region of space from where it originates and therefore facilitate responses to visual targets presented there rather than from a different position within the cued hemifield. However, to date, there has been surprisingly limited evidence published in support of such within-hemifield crossmodal exogenous spatial cuing effects. Here, we report two experiments designed to investigate within- and between-hemifield spatial cuing effects in the case of audiovisual exogenous covert orienting...
May 3, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Karen Emmorey, Marcel R Giezen, Jennifer A F Petrich, Erin Spurgeon, Lucinda O'Grady Farnady
This study investigated the relation between linguistic and spatial working memory (WM) resources and language comprehension for signed compared to spoken language. Sign languages are both linguistic and visual-spatial, and therefore provide a unique window on modality-specific versus modality-independent contributions of WM resources to language processing. Deaf users of American Sign Language (ASL), hearing monolingual English speakers, and hearing ASL-English bilinguals completed several spatial and linguistic serial recall tasks...
May 3, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Marilyn G Boltz
Does a speaker's face influence the way their voice is heard and later remembered? This question was addressed through two experiments where in each, participants listened to middle-aged voices accompanied by faces that were either age-appropriate, younger or older than the voice or, as a control, no face at all. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated each voice on various acoustical dimensions and speaker characteristics. The results showed that facial displays influenced perception such that the same voice was heard differently depending on the age of the accompanying face...
May 3, 2017: Acta Psychologica
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