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Acta Psychologica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528198/on-national-flags-and-language-tags-effects-of-flag-language-congruency-in-bilingual-word-recognition
#1
Jonathan Grainger, Mathieu Declerck, Yousri Marzouki
French-English bilinguals performed a generalized lexical decision experiment with mixed lists of French and English words and pseudo-words. In Experiment 1, each word/pseudo-word was superimposed on the picture of the French or UK flag, and flag-word congruency was manipulated. The flag was not informative with respect to either the lexical decision response or the language of the word. Nevertheless, lexical decisions to word stimuli were faster following the congruent flag compared with the incongruent flag, but only for French (L1) words...
May 18, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525797/to-neglect-or-integrate-contingency-information-from-outside-the-task-frame-that-is-the-question-effects-of-depressed-mood
#2
R M Msetfi, N Byrom, R A Murphy
Evidence shows that there are individual differences in the extent to which people attend to and integrate information into their decisions about the predictive contingencies between events and outcomes. In particular, information about the absence of events or outcomes, presented outside the current task frame, is often neglected. This trend is particularly evident in depression, as well as other psychopathologies, though reasons for information neglect remain unclear. We investigated this phenomenon across two experiments (Experiment 1: N=157; Experiment 2: N=150) in which participants, scoring low and high in the Beck Depression Inventory, were asked to learn a simple predictive relationship between a visual cue and an auditory outcome...
May 16, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511771/multiple-priming-instances-increase-the-impact-of-practice-based-but-not-verbal-code-based-stimulus-response-associations
#3
Christina U Pfeuffer, Karolina Moutsopoulou, Florian Waszak, Andrea Kiesel
Stimulus-response (S-R) associations, the basis of learning and behavioral automaticity, are formed by the (repeated) co-occurrence of stimuli and responses and render stimuli able to automatically trigger associated responses. The strength and behavioral impact of these S-R associations increases with the number of priming instances (i.e., practice). Here we investigated whether multiple priming instances of a special form of instruction, verbal coding, also lead to the formation of stronger S-R associations in comparison to a single instance of priming...
May 13, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478953/communicated-beliefs-about-action-outcomes-the-role-of-initial-confirmation-in-the-adoption-and-maintenance-of-unsupported-beliefs
#4
Toby D Pilditch, Ruud Custers
As agents seeking to learn how to successfully navigate their environments, humans can both obtain knowledge through direct experience, and second-hand through communicated beliefs. Questions remain concerning how communicated belief (or instruction) interacts with first-hand evidence integration, and how the former can bias the latter. Previous research has revealed that people are more inclined to seek out confirming evidence when they are motivated to uphold the belief, resulting in confirmation bias. The current research explores whether merely communicated beliefs affect evidence integration over time when it is not of interest to uphold the belief, and all evidence is readily available...
May 4, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477841/after-effects-without-monitoring-costs-the-impact-of-prospective-memory-instructions-on-task-switching-performance
#5
Beat Meier, Alodie Rey-Mermet
In a prospective memory task, verbal instructions are used to define an appropriate target event as retrieval cue. This target event is typically part of an ongoing activity and is thus bivalent as it involves features relevant for both the prospective memory task and the ongoing task. Task switching research has demonstrated that responding to bivalent stimuli is costly and can slow down even subsequent performance. Thus, responding to prospective memory targets may also result in after-effects, expressed as slowed subsequent ongoing task performance...
May 3, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477457/on-the-spatial-specificity-of-audiovisual-crossmodal-exogenous-cuing-effects
#6
Jae Lee, Charles Spence
It is generally-accepted that the presentation of an auditory cue will direct an observer's spatial attention to the region of space from where it originates and therefore facilitate responses to visual targets presented there rather than from a different position within the cued hemifield. However, to date, there has been surprisingly limited evidence published in support of such within-hemifield crossmodal exogenous spatial cuing effects. Here, we report two experiments designed to investigate within- and between-hemifield spatial cuing effects in the case of audiovisual exogenous covert orienting...
May 3, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477456/the-relation-between-working-memory-and-language-comprehension-in-signers-and-speakers
#7
Karen Emmorey, Marcel R Giezen, Jennifer A F Petrich, Erin Spurgeon, Lucinda O'Grady Farnady
This study investigated the relation between linguistic and spatial working memory (WM) resources and language comprehension for signed compared to spoken language. Sign languages are both linguistic and visual-spatial, and therefore provide a unique window on modality-specific versus modality-independent contributions of WM resources to language processing. Deaf users of American Sign Language (ASL), hearing monolingual English speakers, and hearing ASL-English bilinguals completed several spatial and linguistic serial recall tasks...
May 3, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477455/facial-biases-on-vocal-perception-and-memory
#8
Marilyn G Boltz
Does a speaker's face influence the way their voice is heard and later remembered? This question was addressed through two experiments where in each, participants listened to middle-aged voices accompanied by faces that were either age-appropriate, younger or older than the voice or, as a control, no face at all. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated each voice on various acoustical dimensions and speaker characteristics. The results showed that facial displays influenced perception such that the same voice was heard differently depending on the age of the accompanying face...
May 3, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477454/using-the-model-statement-to-elicit-information-and-cues-to-deceit-in-interpreter-based-interviews
#9
Aldert Vrij, Sharon Leal, Samantha Mann, Gary Dalton, Eunkyung Jo, Alla Shaboltas, Maria Khaleeva, Juliana Granskaya, Kate Houston
We examined how the presence of an interpreter during an interview affects eliciting information and cues to deceit, while using a method that encourages interviewees to provide more detail (model statement, MS). A total of 199 Hispanic, Korean and Russian participants were interviewed either in their own native language without an interpreter, or through an interpreter. Interviewees either lied or told the truth about a trip they made during the last twelve months. Half of the participants listened to a MS at the beginning of the interview...
May 3, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456098/intentional-switching-in-auditory-selective-attention-exploring-age-related-effects-in-a-spatial-setup-requiring-speech-perception
#10
Josefa Oberem, Iring Koch, Janina Fels
Using a binaural-listening paradigm, age-related differences in the ability to intentionally switch auditory selective attention between two speakers, defined by their spatial location, were examined. Therefore 40 normal-hearing participants (20 young, Ø 24.8years; 20 older Ø 67.8years) were tested. The spatial reproduction of stimuli was provided by headphones using head-related-transfer-functions of an artificial head. Spoken number words of two speakers were presented simultaneously to participants from two out of eight locations on the horizontal plane...
April 26, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454893/transfer-of-learned-category-response-associations-is-modulated-by-instruction
#11
Cai S Longman, Fraser Milton, Andy J Wills, Frederick Verbruggen
Although instructions often emphasize categories (e.g., odd number→left hand response) rather than specific stimuli (e.g., 3→left hand response), learning is often interpreted in terms of stimulus-response (S-R) bindings or, less frequently, stimulus-classification (S-C) bindings with little attention being paid to the importance of category-response (C-R) bindings. In a training-transfer paradigm designed to investigate the early stages of category learning, participants were required to classify stimuli according to the category templates presented prior to each block (Experiments 1-4)...
April 25, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453952/where-is-the-locus-of-the-lowercase-advantage-during-sentence-reading
#12
Manuel Perea, Eva Rosa, Ana Marcet
While most models of visual word identification and reading posit that a word's visual codes are rapidly transformed onto case-invariant representations (i.e., table and TABLE would equally activate the word unit corresponding to "table"), a number of experiments have shown a lowercase advantage in various word identification and reading tasks. In the present experiment, we examined the locus of this lowercase advantage by comparing the pattern of eye movements when reading sentences in lowercase vs. uppercase...
April 25, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433196/relational-information-moderates-approach-avoidance-instruction-effects-on-implicit-evaluation
#13
Pieter Van Dessel, Jan De Houwer, Colin Tucker Smith
Previous research demonstrated that instructions to approach one stimulus and avoid another stimulus can result in a spontaneous or implicit preference for the former stimulus. In the current study, we tested whether the effect of approach-avoidance instructions on implicit evaluation depends on the relational information embedded in these instructions. Participants received instructions that they would move towards a certain non-existing word and move away from another non-existing word (self-agent instructions) or that one non-existing word would move towards them and the other non-existing word would move away from them (stimulus-agent instructions)...
April 25, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448839/stimulus-response-links-and-the-backward-crosstalk-effect-a-comparison-of-forced-and-free-choice-tasks
#14
Christoph Naefgen, André F Caissie, Markus Janczyk
In dual-tasks, characteristics of Task 2 responses can already affect performance in the preceding Task 1. This is called the backward crosstalk effect (BCE). To account for the BCE, it has been suggested that the appearance of the Task 2 stimulus automatically projects activation onto the corresponding response through (transient or direct) stimulus-response (S-R) links. One way to investigate this claim is to compare the size of the BCE for tasks where S-R links are differently strong. To this end, we here compared BCEs for forced- vs...
April 24, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431300/post-error-response-inhibition-in-high-math-anxious-individuals-evidence-from-a-multi-digit-addition-task
#15
M Isabel Núñez-Peña, Elisabet Tubau, Macarena Suárez-Pellicioni
The aim of the study was to investigate how high math-anxious (HMA) individuals react to errors in an arithmetic task. Twenty HMA and 19 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with a multi-digit addition verification task and were given response feedback. Post-error adjustment measures (response time and accuracy) were analyzed in order to study differences between groups when faced with errors in an arithmetical task. Results showed that both HMA and LMA individuals were slower to respond following an error than following a correct answer...
April 18, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427713/on-the-efficiency-of-instruction-based-rule-encoding
#16
Hannes Ruge, Tatjana Karcz, Tony Mark, Victoria Martin, Katharina Zwosta, Uta Wolfensteller
Instructions have long been considered a highly efficient route to knowledge acquisition especially compared to trial-and-error learning. We aimed at substantiating this claim by identifying boundary conditions for such an efficiency gain, including the influence of active learning intention, repeated instructions, and working memory load and span. Our experimental design allowed us to not only assess how well the instructed stimulus-response (S-R) rules were implemented later on, but also to directly measure prior instruction encoding processes...
April 18, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431299/not-that-neglected-base-rates-influence-related-and-unrelated-judgments
#17
Michał Białek
It is claimed that people are unable (or unwilling) to incorporate prior probabilities into posterior assessments, such as their estimation of the likelihood of a person with characteristics typical of an engineer actually being an engineer given that they are drawn from a sample including a very small number of engineers. This paper shows that base rates are incorporated in classifications (Experiment 1) and, moreover, that base rates also affect unrelated judgments, such as how well a provided description of a person fits a stereotypical engineer (Experiment 2)...
April 17, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411438/quantifying-a-threat-evidence-of-a-numeric-processing-bias
#18
Karina A Hamamouche, Laura Niemi, Sara Cordes
Humans prioritize the processing of threats over neutral stimuli; thus, not surprisingly, the presence of threats has been shown to alter performance on both perceptual and cognitive tasks. Yet whether the quantification process is disrupted in the presence of threat is unknown. In three experiments, we examined numerical estimation and discrimination abilities in adults in the context of threatening (spiders) and non-threatening (e.g., flowers) stimuli. Results of the numerical estimation task (Experiment 1) showed that participants underestimated the number of threatening relative to neutral stimuli...
April 12, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407872/further-investigation-of-distinct-components-of-stroop-interference-and-of-their-reduction-by-short-response-stimulus-intervals
#19
Maria Augustinova, Laetitia Silvert, Nicolas Spatola, Ludovic Ferrand
The aim of this paper is to extend the so-called semantic Stroop paradigm (Neely & Kahan, 2001) - which already successfully distinguishes between the contribution of the semantic vs. response conflict to Stroop interference - so that it can take account of and capture the separate contribution of task conflict. In line with this idea, the Stroop interference observed using the aforementioned paradigm with both short and long RSIs (500 vs. 2000ms) did indeed reflect the specific contribution of the task, semantic and response conflicts...
April 10, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407502/connections-are-not-enough-for-membership-letter-non-letter-distinction-persists-through-phonological-association-learning
#20
Andreas Schmitt, Cees van Leeuwen, Thomas Lachmann
In compound, hierarchical stimuli (also known as Navon figures), a Global Precedence Effect (GPE) can reliably be observed for both letters and non-letters. However, when presentation conditions sufficiently resemble those of reading, the GPE for letters has occasionally been found to disappear. We corroborate this effect in a study with a large group of participants. In addition, in-between two sessions, participants were trained in associating the non-letters with either phonological or non-phonological sounds...
April 10, 2017: Acta Psychologica
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