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Acta Psychologica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806576/allocentric-and-contra-aligned-spatial-representations-of-a-town-environment-in-blind-people
#1
Silvia Chiesa, Susanna Schmidt, Carla Tinti, Cesare Cornoldi
Evidence concerning the representation of space by blind individuals is still unclear, as sometimes blind people behave like sighted people do, while other times they present difficulties. A better understanding of blind people's difficulties, especially with reference to the strategies used to form the representation of the environment, may help to enhance knowledge of the consequences of the absence of vision. The present study examined the representation of the locations of landmarks of a real town by using pointing tasks that entailed either allocentric points of reference with mental rotations of different degrees, or contra-aligned representations...
August 11, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803165/exploring-the-determinants-of-confidence-in-the-bat-and-ball-problem
#2
Aba Szollosi, Bence Bago, Barnabas Szaszi, Balazs Aczel
People often fail to solve deceptively simple mathematical problems, a tendency popularly demonstrated by the bat-and-ball problem. The most prominent explanation of this finding is that, to spare cognitive effort, people substitute the difficult task with an easier one, without being aware of the substitution. Despite this latter assumption, recent studies have found decreased levels of post-decision confidence ratings when people gave the answer of an easier calculation, suggesting that people are sensitive to their errors...
August 10, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683927/cognitive-control-during-a-spatial-stroop-task-comparing-conflict-monitoring-and-prediction-of-response-outcome-theories
#3
Luís Pires, José Leitão, Chiara Guerrini, Mário R Simões
Cognitive control allows information processing and behaviour to vary adaptively from moment to moment depending on current goals. Two of the most prominent theories that have been proposed to account for the processing of cognitive control are the Conflict Monitoring Theory (CMT) and the Prediction of Response-Outcome Theory (PRO). According to both theories, the implementation of cognitive control during a trial in a conflict task reflects processing events that occurred in the preceding trial. Both CMT and PRO advocate that the detection of conflict situations leads to the recruitment of cognitive control, but they differ regarding the processing underpinnings of cognitive control during conflict resolution...
July 3, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666568/more-than-planned-implementation-intention-effects-in-non-planned-situations
#4
Maik Bieleke, Eve Legrand, Astrid Mignon, Peter M Gollwitzer
Forming implementation intentions (i.e., if-then planning) is a powerful self-regulation strategy that enhances goal attainment by facilitating the automatic initiation of goal-directed responses upon encountering critical situations. Yet, little is known about the consequences of forming implementation intentions for goal attainment in situations that were not specified in the if-then plan. In three experiments, we assessed goal attainment in terms of speed and accuracy in an object classification task, focusing on situations that were similar or dissimilar to critical situations and required planned or different responses...
June 27, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651787/a-role-for-proactive-control-in-rapid-instructed-task-learning
#5
Michael W Cole, Lauren M Patrick, Nachshon Meiran, Todd S Braver
Humans are often remarkably fast at learning novel tasks from instructions. Such rapid instructed task learning (RITL) likely depends upon the formation of new associations between long-term memory representations, which must then be actively maintained to enable successful task implementation. Consequently, we hypothesized that RITL relies more heavily on a proactive mode of cognitive control, in which goal-relevant information is actively maintained in preparation for anticipated high control demands. We tested this hypothesis using a recently developed cognitive paradigm consisting of 60 novel tasks involving RITL and 4 practiced tasks, with identical task rules and stimuli used across both task types...
June 23, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552168/an-experimental-investigation-of-breaking-learnt-habits-with-verbal-implementation-intentions
#6
Aukje A C Verhoeven, Merel Kindt, Colene L Zomer, Sanne de Wit
The interplay between inflexible habits and flexible goal-directed control can be modelled in lab-settings using the slips-of-action task. In this task, participants are required to selectively respond to still-valuable outcomes while suppressing responding towards no-longer valuable outcomes, thereby overriding learned stimulus-response associations. Here we examined in the slips-of-action task whether learnt habits can be changed using a planning technique - so-called implementation intentions - whereby people instruct themselves to enact a certain behaviour (or not) in the presence of a specific critical stimulus...
May 26, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545630/the-role-of-motor-imagery-in-learning-via-instructions
#7
Marijke Theeuwes, Baptist Liefooghe, Maarten De Schryver, Jan De Houwer
Learning via instructions and learning through physical practice are complementary pathways to obtain skilled performance. Whereas an initial task representation can be formed on the basis of instructions, physically practicing novel instructions leads to a shift in processing mode from controlled processing toward more automatic processing. This shift in processing mode is supposedly caused by the formation of a pragmatic task representation, which includes task parameters needed to attain skilled task execution...
May 23, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780441/the-citation-effect-in-text-citations-moderately-increase-belief-in-trivia-claims
#8
Adam L Putnam, Riley J Phelps
Authors use in-text citations to provide support for their claims and to acknowledge work done by others. How much do such citations increase the believability of an author's claims? It is possible that readers (especially novices) might ignore citations as they read. Alternatively, citations ostensibly serve as evidence for a claim, which justifies using them as a basis for a judgment of truth. In six experiments, subjects saw true and false trivia claims of varying difficulty presented with and without in-text citations (e...
September 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756291/learning-terms-and-definitions-drawing-and-the-role-of-elaborative-encoding
#9
Jeffrey D Wammes, Melissa E Meade, Myra A Fernandes
Traditionally, students adopt the strategy of taking written notes when attending a class or learning from a textbook in educational settings. Informed by previous work showing that learning by doing improves memory performance, we examined whether drawing to-be-remembered definitions from university textbooks would improve later memory, relative to a more typical strategy of rote transcription. Participants were asked to either write out the definition, or to draw a picture representative of the definition...
September 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753484/directional-effect-in-double-conditionals-with-a-construction-task-the-semantic-hypothesis
#10
Orlando Espino, Tarek Morales, Alicia Bolaños-Medina
The goal of this paper is to test the main predictions of the semantic hypothesis about the directional effect in double conditionals (such as, 'A only if B/only if C, B') with a construction task. The semantic hypothesis claims that directional effect can be explained by the inherent directionality of the relation between the relatum and the target object of the premises. According to this hypothesis, a directional effect should occur if only one of the end-terms of the premises takes the role of relatum: a) if the end-term that plays the role of relatum is in the first premise, a forward directional effect is predicted (from A to C); and b) if the end-term that plays the role of relatum is in the second premise, a backward directional effect is predicted (from C to A)...
September 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750209/the-listener-automatically-uses-spatial-story-representations-from-the-speaker-s-cohesive-gestures-when-processing-subsequent-sentences-without-gestures
#11
Kazuki Sekine, Sotaro Kita
This study examined spatial story representations created by speaker's cohesive gestures. Participants were presented with three-sentence discourse with two protagonists. In the first and second sentences, gestures consistently located the two protagonists in the gesture space: one to the right and the other to the left. The third sentence (without gestures) referred to one of the protagonists, and the participants responded with one of the two keys to indicate the relevant protagonist. The response keys were either spatially congruent or incongruent with the gesturally established locations for the two participants...
September 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738243/both-facilitatory-and-inhibitory-impairments-underlie-age-related-differences-of-proactive-cognitive-control-across-the-adult-lifespan
#12
Pascal W M Van Gerven, Petra P M Hurks, Jos J Adam
We investigated two components of proactive cognitive control, response facilitation and response inhibition, in an adult lifespan sample (N=544, age range=18-91years) by administering two response-preparation tasks: a procue task, primarily involving facilitation, and an anticue task, involving both facilitation and inhibition. Cues in both tasks corresponded with the index and middle fingers of either the left or right hand. After a random preparation interval (PI) of 100-850ms following the onset of the cue signal, a single-target stimulus indicated the required response...
September 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735225/no-consistent-cooling-of-the-real-hand-in-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#13
Alyanne M de Haan, Haike E Van Stralen, Miranda Smit, Anouk Keizer, Stefan Van der Stigchel, H Chris Dijkerman
In the rubber hand illusion (RHI), participants view a rubber hand that is stroked synchronously with their real, hidden hand. This procedure results in experiencing an increased sense of ownership over the rubber hand and demonstrates how multisensory information (vision, touch) can influence the sense of body ownership. However, it has also been suggested that a (lack of) sense of ownership over an own body part may in turn influence bodily processes. This suggestion has previously been supported by the observation that a decrease in skin temperature in the real hand correlated with ownership over the rubber hand...
September 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732282/proficient-use-of-low-spatial-frequencies-facilitates-face-memory-but-shows-protracted-maturation-throughout-adolescence
#14
Judith C Peters, Chantal Kemner
Face perception is characterized by configural processing, which depends on visual information in the low spatial frequency (LSF) ranges. However, it is unclear whether LSF content is equally important for face memory. The present study investigated how face information in the low and high SF range plays a role in the configural encoding of faces for short-term and long-term recall. Moreover, we examined how SF-dependent face memorization develops in female adolescence, by comparing children (9-10-year-olds), adolescents (12-13-year-olds and 15-16-year-olds), and young adults (21-32-year-olds)...
September 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715694/associative-cueing-of-attention-through-implicit-feature-location-binding
#15
Giovanna Girardi, Daniele Nico
In order to assess associative learning between two task-irrelevant features in cueing spatial attention, we devised a task in which participants have to make an identity comparison between two sequential visual stimuli. Unbeknownst to them, location of the second stimulus could be predicted by the colour of the first or a concurrent sound. Albeit unnecessary to perform the identity-matching judgment the predictive features thus provided an arbitrary association favouring the spatial anticipation of the second stimulus...
September 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711672/the-flexible-engagement-of-monitoring-processes-in-non-focal-and-focal-prospective-memory-tasks-with-salient-cues
#16
Carmen Hefer, Anna-Lisa Cohen, Alexander Jaudas, Gesine Dreisbach
Prospective memory (PM) refers to the ability to remember to perform a delayed intention. Here, we aimed to investigate the ability to suspend such an intention and thus to confirm previous findings (Cohen, Gordon, Jaudas, Hefer, & Dreisbach, 2016) demonstrating the ability to flexibly engage in monitoring processes. In the current study, we presented a perceptually salient PM cue (bold and red) to rule out that previous findings were limited to non-salient and, thus, easy to ignore PM cues. Moreover, we used both a non-focal (Experiment 1) and a focal PM (Experiment 2) cue...
September 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710922/embedded-interruptions-and-task-complexity-influence-schema-related-cognitive-load-progression-in-an-abstract-learning-task
#17
Maria Wirzberger, Shirin Esmaeili Bijarsari, Günter Daniel Rey
Cognitive processes related to schema acquisition comprise an essential source of demands in learning situations. Since the related amount of cognitive load is supposed to change over time, plausible temporal models of load progression based on different theoretical backgrounds are inspected in this study. A total of 116 student participants completed a basal symbol sequence learning task, which provided insights into underlying cognitive dynamics. Two levels of task complexity were determined by the amount of elements within the symbol sequence...
September 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697480/social-perception-and-aging-the-relationship-between-aging-and-the-perception-of-subtle-changes-in-facial-happiness-and-identity
#18
Tao Yang, Tegan Penton, Şerife Leman Köybaşı, Michael J Banissy
Previous findings suggest that older adults show impairments in the social perception of faces, including the perception of emotion and facial identity. The majority of this work has tended to examine performance on tasks involving young adult faces and prototypical emotions. While useful, this can influence performance differences between groups due to perceptual biases and limitations on task performance. Here we sought to examine how typical aging is associated with the perception of subtle changes in facial happiness and facial identity in older adult faces...
September 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697479/false-memories-but-not-false-beliefs-affect-implicit-attitudes-for-food-preferences
#19
David Howe, Rachel J Anderson, Stephen A Dewhurst
Previous studies have found that false memories and false beliefs of childhood experiences can have attitudinal consequences. Previous studies have, however, focused exclusively on explicit attitude measures without exploring whether implicit attitudes are similarly affected. Using a false feedback/imagination inflation paradigm, false memories and beliefs of enjoying a certain food as a child were elicited in participants, and their effects were assessed using both explicit attitude measures (self-report questionnaires) and implicit measures (a Single-Target Implicit Association Test)...
September 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686882/distributed-practice-can-boost-evaluative-conditioning-by-increasing-memory-for-the-stimulus-pairs
#20
Jasmin Richter, Anne Gast
When presenting a neutral stimulus (CS) in close temporal and spatial proximity to a positive or negative stimulus (US) the former is often observed to adopt the valence of the latter, a phenomenon named evaluative conditioning (EC). It is already well established that under most conditions, contingency awareness is important for an EC effect to occur. In addition to that, some findings suggest that awareness of the stimulus pairs is not only relevant during the learning phase, but that it is also relevant whether memory for the pairings is still available during the measurement phase...
September 2017: Acta Psychologica
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