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Acta Psychologica

Mel W Khaw, David Freedberg
Perceptual judgments are said to be reference-dependent as they change on the basis of recent experiences. Here we quantify sequence effects within two types of aesthetic judgments: (i) individual ratings of single images (during self-paced trials) and (ii) continuous ratings of image sequences. As in the case of known contrast effects, trial-by-trial aesthetic responses are negatively correlated with judgments made toward the preceding image. During continuous judgment, a different type of bias is observed...
May 18, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Alexander B Swan, Dustin P Calvillo, Russell Revlin
When faced with a decision, people generally show a bias toward heuristic processing, even if it leads to the incorrect decision, such as in the base-rate neglect task. The crucial question is whether people know that they are biased. Recently, the three-stage model (Pennycook, Fugelsang, & Koehler, 2015) suggested that detecting this bias (conflict detection) is imperfect and a consistent source of bias because some people do not recognize that they are making biased decisions. In Experiment 1, participants completed a base-rate neglect task as replication of Pennycook et al...
May 15, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Tobias Talanow, Ulrich Ettinger
Executive functions (EFs) comprise the updating, shifting and inhibition dimensions. According to the Unity and Diversity Model, the inhibition dimension is fully accounted for by a general EFs factor. This suggests that training of inhibition should transfer, in part, to updating and shifting. Therefore, we tested the effectiveness of a three-week inhibition training (high-conflict Stroop task) and explored near transfer effects to an untrained inhibition task (antisaccade task) and far transfer effects to untrained tasks demanding task-set shifting (number-letter-task), working memory updating (n-back task) and planning abilities (Stockings of Cambridge task)...
May 14, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Heather Winskel, Tae-Hoon Kim, Jeung-Ryeul Cho
The aim was to investigate whether native English speakers (Experiment 1) and native Korean speakers (Experiment 2) processed familiar letters in an analytic manner in comparison to unfamiliar letters or symbols. Participants performed a two-alternative-forced-choice identification task with Roman, Korean Hangul and Thai Navon compound letters (large letters made up of small letters). The English speakers were familiar with Roman script but not Korean or Thai, whereas the Korean speakers were familiar with Korean and Roman script but not Thai...
May 12, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Mario Del Líbano, Manuel G Calvo, Andrés Fernández-Martín, Guillermo Recio
This study investigated (a) how prototypical happy faces (with happy eyes and a smile) can be discriminated from blended expressions with a smile but non-happy eyes, depending on type and intensity of the eye expression; and (b) how smile discrimination differs for human perceivers versus automated face analysis, depending on affective valence and morphological facial features. Human observers categorized faces as happy or non-happy, or rated their valence. Automated analysis (FACET software) computed seven expressions (including joy/happiness) and 20 facial action units (AUs)...
May 11, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Luis Aguado, Natalia Martínez-García, Andrea Solís-Olce, Teresa Dieguez-Risco, José Antonio Hinojosa
Contextual influences on responses to facial expressions of emotion were studied using a context-target paradigm that allowed distinguishing the effects of affective congruency (context and target of same/different valence: positive or negative) and emotional congruency (context and target representing the same/different emotion: anger, fear, happiness). Sentences describing anger, fear or happiness-inducing events and faces expressing each of these emotions were used as contexts and targets, respectively. While between-valence comparisons (context and target of similar/different valence) revealed affective congruency effects, within-valence comparisons (context and target of similar valence and same/different emotion) revealed emotional congruency effects...
May 8, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Alexandre Williot, Isabelle Blanchette
The ability to detect threatening stimuli is an important skill for police officers. No research has yet examined whether implementing different information processing strategies can improve threat detection in police officers and police trainees. The first aim of our study was to compare the effect of strategies accentuating the processing of the emotional or the semantic dimension of stimuli on attention towards threatening and neutral information. The second aim was to consider the impact of PTSD symptoms on threat detection, as a function of processing strategies, in police officers and trainees...
May 1, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Andrew M Colman, Briony D Pulford, Eva M Krockow
In the finite-horizon repeated Prisoner's Dilemma, a compelling backward induction argument shows that rational players will defect in every round, following the uniquely optimal Nash equilibrium path. It is frequently asserted that cooperation gradually declines when a Prisoner's Dilemma is repeated multiple times by the same players, but the evidence for this is unconvincing, and a classic experiment by Rapoport and Chammah in the 1960s reported that cooperation eventually recovers if the game is repeated hundreds of times...
May 1, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Bene Bassetti, Annie Clarke, Danijela Trenkic
Calendar calculations - e.g., calculating the nth month after a certain month - are an important component of temporal cognition, and can vary cross-linguistically. English speakers rely on a verbal list representation-processing system. Chinese speakers - whose calendar terms are numerically transparent - rely on a more efficient numerical system. Does knowing a numerically transparent calendar lexicon facilitate calendar calculations in an opaque second language? Late Chinese-English bilinguals and English native speakers performed a Month and a Weekday Calculation Task in English...
April 30, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Michał Folwarczny, Magdalena C Kaczmarek, Dariusz Doliński, Remigiusz Szczepanowski
This research investigated the cognitive mechanisms that underlie impairments in human reasoning triggered by the emotional see-saw technique. It has previously been stated that such manipulation is effective as it presumably induces a mindless state and cognitive deficits in compliant individuals. Based on the dual-system architecture of reasoning (system 2) and affective decision-making (system 1), we challenged the previous theoretical account by indicating that the main source of compliance is impairment of the meta-reasoning system when rapid affective changes occur...
April 26, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Farzaneh Badinlou, Reza Kormi-Nouri, Monika Knopf
Research into memory has found that declarative knowledge provides rich information about the world and improved memory performance. The present research investigates the effects of knowledge-based cues on memory for action events and on the enactment effect. Cued recall of action phrases was examined in four groups of 8-14-year-olds (410 children in total). The object cues (i.e., real vs. imaginary objects) and semantic relational cues (i.e., well-integrated vs. poorly integrated items) were manipulated in three encoding conditions: verbal tasks, experimenter-performed tasks, and subject-performed tasks...
April 25, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Elena Stephan, Miriam Faust, Katy Borodkin
Our work examines the role of psychological distancing in responses to art. We argued that the context of a foreign (vs native) language may distance the individual away from the pragmatic everyday perception style and enhance appreciation of paintings. We established the distinction between the sets of abstract and representational paintings in terms of perceptual-cognitive features and affective responses (Study 1). Then, we examined the influence of language context on appreciation of paintings. When examined separately, abstract paintings were better appreciated within a foreign (than native) language context (Study 2a), whereas appreciation of representational paintings was not significantly enhanced by a foreign language (Study 2b)...
April 25, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Candice Frances, Albert Costa, Cristina Baus
The information we obtain from how speakers sound-for example their accent-affects how we interpret the messages they convey. A clear example is foreign accented speech, where reduced intelligibility and speaker's social categorization (out-group member) affect memory and the credibility of the message (e.g., less trustworthiness). In the present study, we go one step further and ask whether evaluations of messages are also affected by regional accents-accents from a different region than the listener. In the current study, we report results from three experiments on immediate memory recognition and immediate credibility assessments as well as the illusory truth effect...
April 25, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Juliane Scheil, Baptist Liefooghe
Research on motor imagery proposes that overt actions during motor imagery can be avoided by proactively signaling subthreshold motor commands to the effectors and by invoking motor-command inhibition. A recent study by Rieger, Dahm, and Koch (2017) found evidence in support of motor command inhibition, which indicates that MI cannot be completed on the sole basis of subthreshold motor commands. However, during motor imagery, participants know in advance when a covert response is to be made and it is thus surprising such additional motor-command inhibition is needed...
April 23, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Eva Specker, Helmut Leder, Raphael Rosenberg, Lisa Mira Hegelmaier, Hanna Brinkmann, Jan Mikuni, Hideaki Kawabata
The present study investigates the hypothesis that brightness of colors is associated with positivity, postulating that this is an automatic and universal effect. The Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) was used in all studies. Study 1 used color patches varying on brightness, Study 2 used achromatic stimuli to eliminate the potential confounding effects of hue and saturation. Study 3 replicated Study 2 in a different cultural context (Japan vs. Austria), both studies also included a measure of explicit association...
April 23, 2018: Acta Psychologica
John J Buchanan, Inchon Park, Jing Chen, Ranjana K Mehta, Austin McCulloch, Joohyun Rhee, David L Wright
The influence of monitoring-pressure and verbal feedback on the performance of the intrinsically stable bimanual coordination patterns of in-phase and anti-phase was examined. The two bimanual patterns were produced under three conditions: 1) no-monitoring, 2) monitoring-pressure (viewed by experts), and 3) monitoring-pressure (viewed by experts) combined with verbal feedback emphasizing poor performance. The bimanual patterns were produced at self-paced movement frequencies. Anti-phase coordination was always less stable than in-phase coordination across all three conditions...
April 23, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Adam B Blake, Alan D Castel
A current debate in metamemory research considers the roles of fluency (Rhodes & Castel, 2008) and belief cues (Mueller, Dunlosky, & Tauber, 2015) in the construction of judgments of learning (JOLs). Under the fluency hypothesis, the processing fluency drives the construction of JOLs. The belief-based hypothesis instead asserts a strong influence of belief. The current study directly influences participants' beliefs to observe the effects on metacognitive judgments of learning. Experiment 1A attempted to variably strengthen participants' beliefs about the font-size effect: participants were informed of research implying a superiority of large-fonts in memory and between study cycles were given differing levels of feedback on the relationship between font-size and their performance...
April 20, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Ariel Starr, Michael S Vendetti, Silvia A Bunge
Analogical reasoning is considered a key driver of cognitive development and is a strong predictor of academic achievement. However, it is difficult for young children, who are prone to focusing on perceptual and semantic similarities among items rather than relational commonalities. For example, in a classic A:B::C:? propositional analogy task, children must inhibit attention towards items that are visually or semantically similar to C, and instead focus on finding a relational match to the A:B pair. Competing theories of reasoning development attribute improvements in children's performance to gains in either executive functioning or semantic knowledge...
April 15, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Dmitri Lavro, Danny Levin, Christoph Klein, Andrea Berger
After making an error, we usually slow down before our next response. This phenomenon is known as the posterror slowing (PES) effect. It has been interpreted to be an indicator of posterror behavioral adjustments and, therefore, has been linked to cognitive control. However, contradictory findings regarding PES and posterror accuracy cast doubt on such a relation. To determine whether behavior is adjusted after making an error, we investigated other features of behavior, such as the distribution of response times (RT) in a mental arithmetic task...
April 13, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Noémi Földes, Andrea M Philipp, Arnaud Badets, Iring Koch
The ideomotor principle states that actions are represented by their anticipated sensory effects. This notion is often tested using the response-effect compatibility (REC) paradigm, where participants' responses are followed either by a compatible or incompatible response effect (e.g., an effect on the right side after a right-hand response is considered R-E compatible due to the spatial overlap, whereas an effect on the left side after the right-hand response is considered incompatible). Shorter reaction times are typically observed in the compatible condition compared to the incompatible condition (i...
April 6, 2018: Acta Psychologica
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