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Acta Psychologica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732282/proficient-use-of-low-spatial-frequencies-facilitates-face-memory-but-shows-protracted-maturation-throughout-adolescence
#1
Judith C Peters, Chantal Kemner
Face perception is characterized by configural processing, which depends on visual information in the low spatial frequency (LSF) ranges. However, it is unclear whether LSF content is equally important for face memory. The present study investigated how face information in the low and high SF range plays a role in the configural encoding of faces for short-term and long-term recall. Moreover, we examined how SF-dependent face memorization develops in female adolescence, by comparing children (9-10-year-olds), adolescents (12-13-year-olds and 15-16-year-olds), and young adults (21-32-year-olds)...
July 18, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715694/associative-cueing-of-attention-through-implicit-feature-location-binding
#2
Giovanna Girardi, Daniele Nico
In order to assess associative learning between two task-irrelevant features in cueing spatial attention, we devised a task in which participants have to make an identity comparison between two sequential visual stimuli. Unbeknownst to them, location of the second stimulus could be predicted by the colour of the first or a concurrent sound. Albeit unnecessary to perform the identity-matching judgment the predictive features thus provided an arbitrary association favouring the spatial anticipation of the second stimulus...
July 14, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711672/the-flexible-engagement-of-monitoring-processes-in-non-focal-and-focal-prospective-memory-tasks-with-salient-cues
#3
Carmen Hefer, Anna-Lisa Cohen, Alexander Jaudas, Gesine Dreisbach
Prospective memory (PM) refers to the ability to remember to perform a delayed intention. Here, we aimed to investigate the ability to suspend such an intention and thus to confirm previous findings (Cohen, Gordon, Jaudas, Hefer, & Dreisbach, 2016) demonstrating the ability to flexibly engage in monitoring processes. In the current study, we presented a perceptually salient PM cue (bold and red) to rule out that previous findings were limited to non-salient and, thus, easy to ignore PM cues. Moreover, we used both a non-focal (Experiment 1) and a focal PM (Experiment 2) cue...
July 13, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710922/embedded-interruptions-and-task-complexity-influence-schema-related-cognitive-load-progression-in-an-abstract-learning-task
#4
Maria Wirzberger, Shirin Esmaeili Bijarsari, Günter Daniel Rey
Cognitive processes related to schema acquisition comprise an essential source of demands in learning situations. Since the related amount of cognitive load is supposed to change over time, plausible temporal models of load progression based on different theoretical backgrounds are inspected in this study. A total of 116 student participants completed a basal symbol sequence learning task, which provided insights into underlying cognitive dynamics. Two levels of task complexity were determined by the amount of elements within the symbol sequence...
July 12, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697480/social-perception-and-aging-the-relationship-between-aging-and-the-perception-of-subtle-changes-in-facial-happiness-and-identity
#5
Tao Yang, Tegan Penton, Şerife Leman Köybaşı, Michael J Banissy
Previous findings suggest that older adults show impairments in the social perception of faces, including the perception of emotion and facial identity. The majority of this work has tended to examine performance on tasks involving young adult faces and prototypical emotions. While useful, this can influence performance differences between groups due to perceptual biases and limitations on task performance. Here we sought to examine how typical aging is associated with the perception of subtle changes in facial happiness and facial identity in older adult faces...
July 8, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697479/false-memories-but-not-false-beliefs-affect-implicit-attitudes-for-food-preferences
#6
David Howe, Rachel J Anderson, Stephen A Dewhurst
Previous studies have found that false memories and false beliefs of childhood experiences can have attitudinal consequences. Previous studies have, however, focused exclusively on explicit attitude measures without exploring whether implicit attitudes are similarly affected. Using a false feedback/imagination inflation paradigm, false memories and beliefs of enjoying a certain food as a child were elicited in participants, and their effects were assessed using both explicit attitude measures (self-report questionnaires) and implicit measures (a Single-Target Implicit Association Test)...
July 7, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686882/distributed-practice-can-boost-evaluative-conditioning-by-increasing-memory-for-the-stimulus-pairs
#7
Jasmin Richter, Anne Gast
When presenting a neutral stimulus (CS) in close temporal and spatial proximity to a positive or negative stimulus (US) the former is often observed to adopt the valence of the latter, a phenomenon named evaluative conditioning (EC). It is already well established that under most conditions, contingency awareness is important for an EC effect to occur. In addition to that, some findings suggest that awareness of the stimulus pairs is not only relevant during the learning phase, but that it is also relevant whether memory for the pairings is still available during the measurement phase...
July 4, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683927/cognitive-control-during-a-spatial-stroop-task-comparing-conflict-monitoring-and-prediction-of-response-outcome-theories
#8
Luís Pires, José Leitão, Chiara Guerrini, Mário R Simões
Cognitive control allows information processing and behaviour to vary adaptively from moment to moment depending on current goals. Two of the most prominent theories that have been proposed to account for the processing of cognitive control are the Conflict Monitoring Theory (CMT) and the Prediction of Response-Outcome Theory (PRO). According to both theories, the implementation of cognitive control during a trial in a conflict task reflects processing events that occurred in the preceding trial. Both CMT and PRO advocate that the detection of conflict situations leads to the recruitment of cognitive control, but they differ regarding the processing underpinnings of cognitive control during conflict resolution...
July 3, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666568/more-than-planned-implementation-intention-effects-in-non-planned-situations
#9
Maik Bieleke, Eve Legrand, Astrid Mignon, Peter M Gollwitzer
Forming implementation intentions (i.e., if-then planning) is a powerful self-regulation strategy that enhances goal attainment by facilitating the automatic initiation of goal-directed responses upon encountering critical situations. Yet, little is known about the consequences of forming implementation intentions for goal attainment in situations that were not specified in the if-then plan. In three experiments, we assessed goal attainment in terms of speed and accuracy in an object classification task, focusing on situations that were similar or dissimilar to critical situations and required planned or different responses...
June 27, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651787/a-role-for-proactive-control-in-rapid-instructed-task-learning
#10
Michael W Cole, Lauren M Patrick, Nachshon Meiran, Todd S Braver
Humans are often remarkably fast at learning novel tasks from instructions. Such rapid instructed task learning (RITL) likely depends upon the formation of new associations between long-term memory representations, which must then be actively maintained to enable successful task implementation. Consequently, we hypothesized that RITL relies more heavily on a proactive mode of cognitive control, in which goal-relevant information is actively maintained in preparation for anticipated high control demands. We tested this hypothesis using a recently developed cognitive paradigm consisting of 60 novel tasks involving RITL and 4 practiced tasks, with identical task rules and stimuli used across both task types...
June 23, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552168/an-experimental-investigation-of-breaking-learnt-habits-with-verbal-implementation-intentions
#11
Aukje A C Verhoeven, Merel Kindt, Colene L Zomer, Sanne de Wit
The interplay between inflexible habits and flexible goal-directed control can be modelled in lab-settings using the slips-of-action task. In this task, participants are required to selectively respond to still-valuable outcomes while suppressing responding towards no-longer valuable outcomes, thereby overriding learned stimulus-response associations. Here we examined in the slips-of-action task whether learnt habits can be changed using a planning technique - so-called implementation intentions - whereby people instruct themselves to enact a certain behaviour (or not) in the presence of a specific critical stimulus...
May 26, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545630/the-role-of-motor-imagery-in-learning-via-instructions
#12
Marijke Theeuwes, Baptist Liefooghe, Maarten De Schryver, Jan De Houwer
Learning via instructions and learning through physical practice are complementary pathways to obtain skilled performance. Whereas an initial task representation can be formed on the basis of instructions, physically practicing novel instructions leads to a shift in processing mode from controlled processing toward more automatic processing. This shift in processing mode is supposedly caused by the formation of a pragmatic task representation, which includes task parameters needed to attain skilled task execution...
May 23, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511771/multiple-priming-instances-increase-the-impact-of-practice-based-but-not-verbal-code-based-stimulus-response-associations
#13
Christina U Pfeuffer, Karolina Moutsopoulou, Florian Waszak, Andrea Kiesel
Stimulus-response (S-R) associations, the basis of learning and behavioral automaticity, are formed by the (repeated) co-occurrence of stimuli and responses and render stimuli able to automatically trigger associated responses. The strength and behavioral impact of these S-R associations increases with the number of priming instances (i.e., practice). Here we investigated whether multiple priming instances of a special form of instruction, verbal coding, also lead to the formation of stronger S-R associations in comparison to a single instance of priming...
May 13, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478953/communicated-beliefs-about-action-outcomes-the-role-of-initial-confirmation-in-the-adoption-and-maintenance-of-unsupported-beliefs
#14
Toby D Pilditch, Ruud Custers
As agents seeking to learn how to successfully navigate their environments, humans can both obtain knowledge through direct experience, and second-hand through communicated beliefs. Questions remain concerning how communicated belief (or instruction) interacts with first-hand evidence integration, and how the former can bias the latter. Previous research has revealed that people are more inclined to seek out confirming evidence when they are motivated to uphold the belief, resulting in confirmation bias. The current research explores whether merely communicated beliefs affect evidence integration over time when it is not of interest to uphold the belief, and all evidence is readily available...
May 4, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477841/after-effects-without-monitoring-costs-the-impact-of-prospective-memory-instructions-on-task-switching-performance
#15
Beat Meier, Alodie Rey-Mermet
In a prospective memory task, verbal instructions are used to define an appropriate target event as retrieval cue. This target event is typically part of an ongoing activity and is thus bivalent as it involves features relevant for both the prospective memory task and the ongoing task. Task switching research has demonstrated that responding to bivalent stimuli is costly and can slow down even subsequent performance. Thus, responding to prospective memory targets may also result in after-effects, expressed as slowed subsequent ongoing task performance...
May 3, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477457/on-the-spatial-specificity-of-audiovisual-crossmodal-exogenous-cuing-effects
#16
Jae Lee, Charles Spence
It is generally-accepted that the presentation of an auditory cue will direct an observer's spatial attention to the region of space from where it originates and therefore facilitate responses to visual targets presented there rather than from a different position within the cued hemifield. However, to date, there has been surprisingly limited evidence published in support of such within-hemifield crossmodal exogenous spatial cuing effects. Here, we report two experiments designed to investigate within- and between-hemifield spatial cuing effects in the case of audiovisual exogenous covert orienting...
May 3, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477455/facial-biases-on-vocal-perception-and-memory
#17
Marilyn G Boltz
Does a speaker's face influence the way their voice is heard and later remembered? This question was addressed through two experiments where in each, participants listened to middle-aged voices accompanied by faces that were either age-appropriate, younger or older than the voice or, as a control, no face at all. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated each voice on various acoustical dimensions and speaker characteristics. The results showed that facial displays influenced perception such that the same voice was heard differently depending on the age of the accompanying face...
May 3, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477454/using-the-model-statement-to-elicit-information-and-cues-to-deceit-in-interpreter-based-interviews
#18
Aldert Vrij, Sharon Leal, Samantha Mann, Gary Dalton, Eunkyung Jo, Alla Shaboltas, Maria Khaleeva, Juliana Granskaya, Kate Houston
We examined how the presence of an interpreter during an interview affects eliciting information and cues to deceit, while using a method that encourages interviewees to provide more detail (model statement, MS). A total of 199 Hispanic, Korean and Russian participants were interviewed either in their own native language without an interpreter, or through an interpreter. Interviewees either lied or told the truth about a trip they made during the last twelve months. Half of the participants listened to a MS at the beginning of the interview...
May 3, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456098/intentional-switching-in-auditory-selective-attention-exploring-age-related-effects-in-a-spatial-setup-requiring-speech-perception
#19
Josefa Oberem, Iring Koch, Janina Fels
Using a binaural-listening paradigm, age-related differences in the ability to intentionally switch auditory selective attention between two speakers, defined by their spatial location, were examined. Therefore 40 normal-hearing participants (20 young, Ø 24.8years; 20 older Ø 67.8years) were tested. The spatial reproduction of stimuli was provided by headphones using head-related-transfer-functions of an artificial head. Spoken number words of two speakers were presented simultaneously to participants from two out of eight locations on the horizontal plane...
April 26, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454893/transfer-of-learned-category-response-associations-is-modulated-by-instruction
#20
Cai S Longman, Fraser Milton, Andy J Wills, Frederick Verbruggen
Although instructions often emphasize categories (e.g., odd number→left hand response) rather than specific stimuli (e.g., 3→left hand response), learning is often interpreted in terms of stimulus-response (S-R) bindings or, less frequently, stimulus-classification (S-C) bindings with little attention being paid to the importance of category-response (C-R) bindings. In a training-transfer paradigm designed to investigate the early stages of category learning, participants were required to classify stimuli according to the category templates presented prior to each block (Experiments 1-4)...
April 25, 2017: Acta Psychologica
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