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Acta Psychologica

Cameron T Gibbons, Polemnia G Amazeen, Jen J Jondac
The maintenance of upright posture involves constant adjustment to external and internal perturbations. This balancing act is often assumed to be an automatic process, but studies suggest that cognitive processes, particularly attention, are necessary for the control of posture. The current study examines the role of attention in balance using a dual-task paradigm. Twenty-four healthy young adults performed a sit-to-stand (STS) task on either a stable or unstable platform while performing a secondary cognitive task of counting backwards aloud...
November 6, 2018: Acta Psychologica
C Spaccasassi, D Romano, A Maravita
The peripersonal space (PPS) is the space surrounding our body, represented in a multisensory fashion by integrating stimuli of different modalities. Recently, it has been demonstrated that PPS is emotionally connoted, being sensitive to the different affective valence of the stimuli located inside it. However, how visuo-tactile interactions can be spatially shaped by intrinsic or acquired valence of stimuli is not clear. To investigate this, we conducted three experiments in which participants performed a visuo-tactile interaction task, while the intrinsic valence (Exp...
November 6, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Lauren D Grant, Daniel H Weissman
The congruency effect in distractor-interference tasks is typically smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. Current views posit that this congruency sequence effect (CSE) reflects control processes that come into play when an irrelevant distractor cues a different response than a relevant target. However, the CSE is counterintuitively larger in the prime-probe task when the prime is occasionally a second target than when the prime is more frequently a distractor. In the present study, we investigated whether this effect occurs because the appearance of an occasional prime target (a) constitutes a rare, unexpected event that triggers heightened control or (b) allows participants to use the same task set (i...
November 5, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Ayla Barutchu, Aparna Sahu, Glyn W Humphreys, Charles Spence
Failures in prospective memory (PM) - that is, the failure to remember intended future actions - can have adverse consequences. It is therefore important to study those processes that may help to minimize such cognitive failures. Although multisensory integration has been shown to enhance a wide variety of behaviors, including perception, learning, and memory, its effect on prospective memory, in particular, is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of multisensory processing on two simultaneously-performed memory tasks: An ongoing 2- or 3-back working memory (WM) task (20% target ratio), and a PM task in which the participants had to respond to a rare predefined letter (8% target ratio)...
November 1, 2018: Acta Psychologica
David L Bimler, Megan Snellock, Galina V Paramei
Aesthetic appraisal of artwork can present the observer with visual problems to solve in the process of grasping its meaning and 'visual rightness' (i.e. "good" structure; Locher, 2003), with an elaboration on perceptual, semantic and affective dimensions (e.g. Marković, 2011). Thus observer's expertise is a factor in aesthetic appraisal. To examine the influence of art training on the aesthetic response, and to clarify the nature of the Representational/Abstract distinction, 30 Experts and 33 Non-experts (Art and Psychology students, respectively) were asked to rate 24 paintings on six affective and affective-evaluative semantic differential scales...
October 31, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Faye Knickerbocker, Rebecca L Johnson, Emma L Starr, Anna M Hall, Daphne M Preti, Sarah Rose Slate, Jeanette Altarriba
While recent research has explored the effect that positive and negative emotion words (e.g., happy or sad) have on the eye-movement record during reading, the current study examined the effect of positive and negative emotion-laden words (e.g., birthday or funeral) on eye movements. Emotion-laden words do not express a state of mind but have emotional associations and connotations. The current results indicated that both positive and negative emotion-laden words have a processing advantage over neutral words, although the relative time-course of processing differs between words of positive and negative valence...
October 30, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Kristina Suchotzki, Adam Berlijn, Melina Donath, Matthias Gamer
The Sheffield Lie Test (SLT) has been frequently used in laboratory research investigating basic mechanisms of deception. Its applied potential as a lie detection tool has been contested. The current two experiments used a reaction time SLT and investigated whether it can discriminate between participants who committed a mock crime and participants who performed an everyday activity. Results of the first experiment revealed that guilty participants (n = 32) took longer and committed more errors when having to deceptively deny the mock crime and deceptively confirm having performed the everyday activity in contrast to truthfully admitting the mock crime and denying the everyday activity...
October 25, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Henry Otgaar, Jianqin Wang, Jan-Philipp Fränken, Mark L Howe
We examined the impact of social feedback and objective false evidence on belief in occurrence, belief in accuracy, and recollection of an autobiographical experience. Participants viewed six virtual scenes (e.g., park) and were tested on their belief/recollection. After 1-week, participants were randomly assigned to four groups. One group received social feedback that one scene was not experienced. A second group received objective false evidence that one of the scenes was not shown. A third group received both social feedback and objective false evidence and the control group did not receive any manipulation...
October 22, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Chiara Valzolgher, Mara Mazzurega, Massimiliano Zampini, Francesco Pavani
In our study, we aimed to reduce bodily self-consciousness using a multisensory illusion (MI), and tested whether this manipulation increases Self-objectification (the psychological attitude to perceive one's own body as an object). Participants observed their own body from a first-person perspective, through a head-mounted display, while receiving incongruent (or congruent) visuo-tactile stimulation on their abdomen or arms. Results showed stronger feelings of disownership, loss of agency and sensation of being out of ones' own body during incongruent compare to congruent stimulation...
October 20, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Stephen C Van Hedger, Howard C Nusbaum
By definition, individuals with absolute pitch (AP) can categorize with near perfect accuracy without a reference pitch. This definition implies a uniformity of performance across people; however, in reality AP is a complex, multidimensional ability, shaped by both early and recent auditory experiences. In the present study we assess whether AP possessors' accuracy for identifying isolated notes is more distributed when judging more challenging instrumental timbres and octaves, as well as whether variability in note categorization could be explained through individual differences in musical expertise, language background, or working memory...
October 19, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Klaus Landwehr
Flanks were added to Titchener's (1901) T-illusion figure to test its susceptibility to context stimuli. The addition of a second divided line yielded H-type figures, and the addition of a second undivided line, +-type figures. The lengths of the Ts' undivided lines was expected to be overestimated relative to the lengths of the divided lines, when all lines were about equally long, and the illusion was expected to become smaller when one or two gaps had been introduced between the lines. Results conformed to the predictions...
October 18, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Anna Carolina A Portugal, Armando S Afonso, Ariane L Caldas, Wayson Maturana, Izabela Mocaiber, Walter Machado-Pinheiro
Stroop-like and stop-signal tasks are commonly used to evaluate "inhibition", a multifaceted concept fundamental to better understanding of executive functions. Both tasks demand inhibitory processes for their execution; the first requires inhibition of an irrelevant attribute, while the second involves the inhibition of a prepotent motor response. Impulsivity and decision-making represent two other factors that could be associated to executive control and to inhibitory dyscontrol. In this study we developed a behavioral protocol combining the Stroop-matching (a variation of the classic Stroop task) and the stop-signal tasks to investigate possible interactions between the inhibitory mechanisms involved in both tasks...
October 18, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Ardi Roelofs
Mental processes take a measurable amount of time, which was discovered by Donders one hundred fifty years ago. He reports process durations in his classic study with the a-, b-, and c-methods (i.e., simple, choice, go/no-go) using a speech repetition task. His reaction time pattern was a < c < b. He reasoned that the c - a difference gives the discrimination duration, and the b - c difference the choice duration. A few years later, Wundt criticized the c-method by arguing that it does involve a choice (i...
October 18, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Anne Courbalay, Thomas Deroche, Didier Pradon, Armando M Oliveira, Michel-Ange Amorim
OBJECTIVE: Although audio and visual information constitute relevant channels to communicate pain, it remains unclear to what extent observers combine and weight these sources of information when estimating others' pain. The present study aimed to examine this issue through the theoretical framework of the Information Integration Theory. The combination and weighting processes were addressed in view of familiarity with others' pain. METHOD: Twenty-six participants familiar with pain (novice podiatry clinicians) and thirty non-specialists were asked to estimate the level of pain associated with different displayed locomotor behaviors...
October 15, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Simone Schaeffner, Iring Koch, Andrea M Philipp
Sensory-motor modality compatibility is defined as the similarity between the sensory modality and the modality of response-related effects. Previous dual-task and task-switching studies have shown higher performance costs for coordinating relatively incompatible sensory-motor modality mappings (i.e., auditory-manual and visual-vocal) compared to more compatible mappings (i.e., auditory-vocal and visual-manual). Until now, however, little attention has been paid to potential variability in effects of modality compatibility depending on different processing codes...
October 9, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Paz Suárez-Coalla, Nagore González-Martín, Fernando Cuetos
The impact of central on peripheral writing processes has been studied mainly in adults and children whose first language is a deep orthographic system. The results suggest that the influence varies according to age, but it also could depend on the orthographic system. The objective of the present work was to address the possible impact of the central (orthographic retrieval) on peripheral (motor execution) processes during writing acquisition in a transparent orthography. To achieve the objective, seventy-five Spanish children performed a copying and a spelling-to-dictation task, where orthographic consistency, lexical frequency and word length were manipulated...
October 9, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Ian D Colley, Manuel Varlet, Jennifer MacRitchie, Peter E Keller
Music presents a complex case of movement timing, as one to several dozen musicians coordinate their actions at short time-scales. This process is often directed by a conductor who provides a visual beat and guides the ensemble through tempo changes. The current experiment tested the ways in which audio-motor coordination is influenced by visual cues from a conductor's gestures, and how this influence might manifest in two ways: movements used to produce sound related to the music, and movements of the upper-body that do not directly affect sound output...
October 8, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Emma Mosley, Sylvain Laborde, Emma Kavanagh
The aim of this study was to assess the predictive role of coping related variables (trait emotional intelligence and reinvestment, challenge and threat appraisals and cardiac vagal activity) on cardiac vagal activity and working memory under low pressure (LP) and high pressure (HP) conditions. Participants (n = 49) completed trait questionnaires, the Decision Specific Reinvestment Scale, the Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. They realized the automated span task, which tests working memory, under counterbalanced LP and HP conditions...
October 8, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Jun An, Wen Wen, Zhen Wu, Xiaoang Wan
We examined the age-related variation in one type of inter-trial effect of visual search, the distractor previewing effect (DPE), in affectively neutral and affectively charged contexts. In Experiment 1, children, adolescents, and young adults were faster to identify the shape of a color target when the color of the current distractors had already been previewed than when the target had been previewed in the preceding target-absent trial, indicative of a color-based DPE. The results revealed a greater DPE in children than in adolescents and young adults, but it can be attributed to children's slower RTs than the other two groups...
October 1, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Becky Wong, Rebecca Bull, Daniel Ansari
The extent to which task and notation influence the processing of numerical magnitude is under theoretical and empirical debate. To date, behavioural studies have yielded a mixed body of evidence. Using the case of written number words in English and Chinese, we re-examined this issue. Thirty-nine bilingual participants who showed a balanced profile of language dominance in English and Chinese completed three tasks of numerical processing (Magnitude Comparison, Numerical Matching, and Language Matching) with pure English, pure Chinese, and mixed notation number words...
October 1, 2018: Acta Psychologica
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