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Acta Psychologica

Renske S Hoedemaker, Jessica Ernst, Antje S Meyer, Eva Belke
This study assessed the effects of semantic context in the form of self-produced and other-produced words on subsequent language production. Pairs of participants performed a joint picture naming task, taking turns while naming a continuous series of pictures. In the single-speaker version of this paradigm, naming latencies have been found to increase for successive presentations of exemplars from the same category, a phenomenon known as Cumulative Semantic Interference (CSI). As expected, the joint-naming task showed a within-speaker CSI effect, such that naming latencies increased as a function of the number of category exemplars named previously by the participant (self-produced items)...
November 28, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Óscar F Gonçalves, Gabriel Rêgo, Patrícia Oliveira-Silva, Jorge Leite, Sandra Carvalho, Felipe Fregni, Edson Amaro, Paulo S Boggio
Attention and mind wandering are often seen as anticorrelated. However, both attention and mind wandering are multi-component processes, and their relationship may be more complex than previously thought. In this study, we tested the interference of different types of thoughts as measured by a Thought Identification Task - TIT (on task thoughts, task related interference thoughts, external distractions, stimulus independent and task unrelated thoughts) on different components of the attention network system - ANT (alerting, orienting, executive)...
November 22, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Inês Faria, Ana Diniz, João Barreiros
Tapping tasks have been investigated throughout the years, with variations in features such as the complexity of the task, the use of one or both hands, the employ of auditory or visual stimuli, and the characteristics of the subjects. The evaluation of lateral asymmetries in tapping tasks in children offers an insight into the structure of rhythmic movements and handedness at early stages of development. The current study aims to investigate the ability of children (aged six and seven years-old) to maintain a rhythm, in a bimanual tapping task at two different target frequencies, as well as the manual asymmetries displayed while doing so...
November 19, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Rebecca Lawson, Franklin Chang, Andy J Wills
Traditionally it has been thought that the overall organisation of categories in the brain is taxonomic. To examine this assumption, we had adults sort 140-150 diverse, familiar objects from different basic-level categories. Almost all the participants (80/81) sorted the objects more thematically than taxonomically. Sorting was only weakly modulated by taxonomic priming, and people still produced many thematically structured clusters when explicitly instructed to sort taxonomically. The first clusters that people produced were rated as having equal taxonomic and thematic structure...
November 15, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Dinkar Sharma
The Stroop paradigm has been widely used to study attention whilst its use to explore implicit memory have been mixed. Using the non-colour word Stroop task we tested contrasting predictions from the proactive-control/task-conflict model (Kalanthroff, Avnit, Henik, Davelaar & Usher, 2015) that implicate response conflict and task conflict for the priming effects. Using the study-test procedure 60 native English speakers were tested to determine whether priming effects from words that had previously been studied would cause interference when presented in a colour naming task...
November 14, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Hideya Koshino
Working memory and attention are closely related. Recent research has shown that working memory can be viewed as internally directed attention. Working memory can affect attention in at least two ways. One is the effect of working memory load on attention, and the other is the effect of working memory contents on attention. In the present study, an interaction between working memory contents and perceptual load in distractor processing was investigated. Participants performed a perceptual load task in a standard form in one condition (Single task)...
November 10, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Gerly Tamm, Kairi Kreegipuu, Jaanus Harro, Nelson Cowan
It is unclear if positive, negative, or neutral emotional expressions have an advantage in short-term recognition. Moreover, it is unclear from previous studies of working memory for emotional faces whether effects of emotions comprise response bias or sensitivity. The aim of this study was to compare how schematic emotional expressions (sad, angry, scheming, happy, and neutral) are discriminated and recognized in an updating task (2-back recognition) in a representative sample of birth cohort of young adults...
November 8, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Donna Bryce, Daniel Bratzke
There is a known introspective limitation in the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) paradigm - people underestimate the dual-task costs on their second reaction time. The prevailing explanation for this is that conscious awareness of the second stimulus is delayed in time until the first task has been centrally processed. Here, we examined this effect in more detail, by comparing reaction time estimates after processing a PRP task, and after passively experiencing 'replays' of PRP trials. Even when participants had no dual-task processing demands, they did not accurately report the reaction time intervals using a visual analogue scale (the original reporting method of most introspective PRP experiments), but they did when placing markers that represent each event on a timeline...
November 5, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Sara Caviola, Giulia Gerotto, Irene C Mammarella
The literature on intervention programs to improve arithmetical abilities is fragmentary and few studies have examined training on the symbolic representation of numbers (i.e. Arabic digits). In the present research, three groups of 3rd- and 5th-grade schoolchildren were given training on mental additions: 76 were assigned to a computer-based strategic training (ST) group, 73 to a process-based training (PBT) group, and 71 to a passive control (PC) group. Before and after the training, the children were given a criterion task involving complex addition problems, a nearest transfer task on complex subtraction problems, two near transfer tasks on math fluency, and a far transfer task on numerical reasoning...
October 26, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Giti Bakhtiari, Anita Körner, Sascha Topolinski
The present studies examined a novel explanation for the in-out effect, the phenomenon that words with inward wanderings of consonantal articulation spots are preferred over words with outward wanderings. We hypothesized that processing fluency might account for the in-out effect instead of, or in addition to, the originally proposed mechanism of motor-associated motivational states. Inward words could be more fluently processed than outward words, which could lead to the preference effect. Corpus analyses (Studies 1a and 1b) revealed more inward than outward words in English and German, which could account for their differing fluency...
October 24, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Sarah A Bacso, Harvey H C Marmurek
Testing of to-be-learned material facilitates subsequent learning of new material. We investigated this forward effect of testing in two experiments using the whole/part and part/whole transfer paradigms with categorized word lists. Learning was assessed for recall of individual words, higher order categories, and category clustering. In each experiment participants learned two lists in which the number of tests on the first list was varied. The first list contained either twice as many items as the second list (whole/part paradigm) or half as many items as the second list (part/whole paradigm)...
October 14, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Dana A Hayward, Jelena Ristic
Recent studies show that spatial attention is uniquely engaged by the selection history of a stimulus. One example of this process is Automated Symbolic Orienting, which is thought to reflect overlearned spatial links between a behaviorally relevant stimulus and a target event. However, since automated symbolic effects have been found to vary with temporal expectancies about when a target might occur, it is possible that this spatial effect may also depend on processing resources associated with voluntary temporal attention...
October 12, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Andrea Albonico, Manuela Malaspina, Emanuela Bricolo, Marialuisa Martelli, Roberta Daini
Selective attention, i.e. the ability to concentrate one's limited processing resources on one aspect of the environment, is a multifaceted concept that includes different processes like spatial attention and its subcomponents of orienting and focusing. Several studies, indeed, have shown that visual tasks performance is positively influenced not only by attracting attention to the target location (orientation component), but also by the adjustment of the size of the attentional window according to task demands (focal component)...
October 12, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Ravini Jayawardena, Heather Winskel
The current study aimed to test the applicability of the modified receptive field (MRF) theory (Tydgat & Grainger, 2009) with English native speakers (Experiment 1) and Sinhalese native speakers (Experiment 2), who were skilled readers of both Sinhala and Roman scripts. A two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) procedure to measure identification accuracy for all positions in a string of five characters, which consisted of Roman script letters, Sinhala letters or symbols was conducted. For Roman script, the English and Sinhalese speakers displayed analogous results as in previous studies for Roman letters and symbols (i...
September 23, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Nadine Nett, Arndt Bröder, Christian Frings
Research on the distractor response binding (DRB) effect (Frings, Rothermund, & Wentura, 2007) suggests that distractors are integrated with target responses into an event file or stimulus-response (SR) episode. The whole event file is retrieved when the distractor is repeated and as a consequence distractors can retrieve previous responses. Nett, Bröder, and Frings (2015) argued that even decisions under uncertainty are integrated into event files and can later on be retrieved by distractors. However, their paradigm did not allow disentangling the retrieval of decisions from the retrieval of motor programs...
September 22, 2016: Acta Psychologica
H A Cavus, Rachel M Msetfi
When there is no contingency between actions and outcomes, but outcomes occur frequently, people tend to judge that they have control over those outcomes, a phenomenon known as the outcome density (OD) effect. Recent studies show that the OD effect depends on the duration of the temporal interval between action-outcome conjunctions, with longer intervals inducing stronger effects. However, under some circumstances OD effect is reduced, for example when participants are mildly depressed. We reasoned that working memory (WM) plays an important role in learning of context; with reduced WM capacity to process contextual information during intertrial intervals (ITIs) during contingency learning might lead to reduced OD effects (limited capacity hypothesis)...
September 20, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Peter Leinen, Stefan Panzer, Charles H Shea
Two experiments utilizing a spatial-temporal movement sequence were designed to determine if the memory of the sequence is lateralized in the left or right hemisphere. In Experiment 1, dominant right-handers were randomly assigned to one of two acquisition groups: a left-hand starter and a right-hand starter group. After an acquisition phase, reaction time (RT) was measured in a recognition test by providing the learned sequential pattern in the left or right visual half-field for 150ms. In a retention test and two transfer tests the dominant coordinate system for sequence production was evaluated...
September 17, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Peter S Whitehead, Gene A Brewer, Nowed Patwary, Chris Blais
Recent theories have proposed that contingency learning occurs independent of control processes. These parallel processing accounts propose that behavioral effects originally thought to be products of control processes are in fact products solely of contingency learning. This view runs contrary to conflict-mediated Hebbian-learning models that posit control and contingency learning are parts of an interactive system. In this study we replicate the contingency learning effect and modify it to further test the veracity of the parallel processing accounts in comparison to conflict-mediated Hebbian-learning models...
September 16, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Titia Gebuis, Roi Cohen Kadosh, Wim Gevers
It is widely accepted that human and nonhuman species possess a specialized system to process large approximate numerosities. The theory of an evolutionarily ancient approximate number system (ANS) has received converging support from developmental studies, comparative experiments, neuroimaging, and computational modelling, and it is one of the most dominant and influential theories in numerical cognition. The existence of an ANS system is significant, as it is believed to be the building block of numerical development in general...
September 15, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Wan-Yun Yu, Jie-Li Tsai
Previous psycholinguistic studies have demonstrated that people tend to direct fixations toward the visual object to which spoken input refers during language comprehension. However, it is still unclear how the visual scene, especially the semantic consistency between object and background, affects the word-object mapping process during comprehension. Two visual world paradigm experiments were conducted to investigate how the scene consistency dynamically influenced the language-driven eye movements in a speech comprehension and a scene comprehension task...
September 15, 2016: Acta Psychologica
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