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Acta Psychologica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315594/goal-neglect-fluid-intelligence-and-processing-speed-manipulating-instruction-load-and-inter-stimulus-interval
#1
Matthew H Iveson, Sergio Della Sala, Mike Anderson, Sarah E MacPherson
Goal maintenance is the process where task rules and instructions are kept active to exert their control on behavior. When this process fails, an individual may ignore a rule while performing the task, despite being able to describe it after task completion. Previous research has suggested that the goal maintenance system is limited by the number of concurrent rules which can be maintained during a task, and that this limit is dependent on an individual's level of fluid intelligence. However, the speed at which an individual can process information may also limit their ability to use task rules when the task demands them...
March 15, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291524/more-than-just-channeling-the-role-of-subcortical-mechanisms-in-executive-functions-evidence-from-the-stroop-task
#2
William Saban, Shai Gabay, Eyal Kalanthroff
The literature has long emphasized the role of the cerebral cortex in executive functions. Recently, however, several researchers have suggested that subcortical areas might also be involved in executive functions. The current study explored the possibility that subcortical mechanisms have a functional role in adaptive resolution of Stroop interference. We asked 20 participants to complete a cued task-switching Stroop task with variable cue-target intervals (CTI). Using a stereoscope, we manipulated which eye was shown the relevant dimension and which was shown the irrelevant dimension...
March 10, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285149/strategy-difficulty-effects-in-young-and-older-adults-episodic-memory-are-modulated-by-inter-stimulus-intervals-and-executive-control-processes
#3
REVIEW
Lucile Burger, Kim Uittenhove, Patrick Lemaire, Laurence Taconnat
Efficient execution of strategies is crucial to memory performance and to age-related differences in this performance. Relative strategy complexity influences memory performance and aging effects on memory. Here, we aimed to further our understanding of the effects of relative strategy complexity by looking at the role of cognitive control functions and the time-course of the effects of relative strategy complexity. Thus, we manipulated inter-stimulus intervals (ISI) and assessed executive functions. Results showed that (a) performance as a function of the relative strategy difficulty of the current and previous trial was modulated by ISI, (b) these effects were modulated by inhibition capacities, and (c) significant age differences were found in the way ISI modulates relative strategy difficulty...
March 9, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284106/have-i-grooved-to-this-before-discriminating-practised-and-observed-actions-in-a-novel-context
#4
Dilini K Sumanapala, Laurel A Fish, Alex L Jones, Emily S Cross
Learning a new motor skill typically requires converting actions observed from a third-person perspective into fluid motor commands executed from a first-person perspective. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that during motor learning, the ability to discriminate between actions that have been observed and actions that have been executed is associated with learning aptitude, as assessed by a general measure of physical performance. Using a multi-day dance-training paradigm with a group of dance-naïve participants, we investigated whether actions that had been regularly observed could be discriminated from similar actions that had been physically practised over the course of three days, or a further set of similar actions that remained untrained...
March 8, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266312/beyond-comparison-the-influence-of-physical-size-on-number-estimation-is-modulated-by-notation-range-and-spatial-arrangement
#5
Tali Leibovich, Saja Al-Rubaiey Kadhim, Daniel Ansari
Can physical size affect number estimation? Previous studies have shown that physical size influences non-symbolic numerosity in comparison tasks (e.g. which of two dots is larger). The current study investigated the conditions under which physical size can affect numerosity estimation. We employed a line mapping task in order to avoid the context of comparison and the need to provide a verbal label to estimate a quantity. Adult participants were briefly presented with the digits 2-8 or groups of 2-8 dots in 3 different physical sizes and were asked to estimate the position of a presented numerosity on a vertical line from 0 to 10...
March 7, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266311/averted-body-postures-facilitate-orienting-of-the-eyes
#6
Bobby Azarian, George A Buzzell, Elizabeth G Esser, Alexander Dornstauder, Matthew S Peterson
It is well established that certain social cues, such as averted eye gaze, can automatically initiate the orienting of another's spatial attention. However, whether human posture can also reflexively cue spatial attention remains unclear. The present study directly investigated whether averted neutral postures reflexively cue the attention of observers in a normal population of college students. Similar to classic gaze-cuing paradigms, non-predictive averted posture stimuli were presented prior to the onset of a peripheral target stimulus at one of five SOAs (100ms-500ms)...
March 7, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259727/vision-of-the-body-improves-inter-hemispheric-integration-of-tactile-motor-responses
#7
Luigi Tamè, Alex Carr, Matthew R Longo
Sensory input from and motor output to the two sides of the body needs to be continuously integrated between the two cerebral hemispheres. This integration can be measured through its cost in terms of processing speed. In simple detection tasks, reaction times (RTs) are faster when stimuli are presented to the side of the body ipsilateral to the body part used to respond. This advantage - the contralateral-ipsilateral difference (also known as the crossed-uncrossed difference: CUD) - is thought to reflect inter-hemispheric interactions needed for sensorimotor information to be integrated between the two hemispheres...
March 2, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259726/the-spatial-alignment-of-time-differences-in-alignment-of-deictic-and-sequence-time-along-the-sagittal-and-lateral-axes
#8
Esther J Walker, Benjamin K Bergen, Rafael Núñez
People use space in a variety of ways to structure their thoughts about time. The present report focuses on the different ways that space is employed when reasoning about deictic (past/future relationships) and sequence (earlier/later relationships) time. In the first study, we show that deictic and sequence time are aligned along the lateral axis in a manner consistent with previous work, with past and earlier events associated with left space and future and later events associated with right space. However, the alignment of time with space is different along the sagittal axis...
March 2, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259725/a-dual-systems-account-of-visual-perception-predicting-candy-consumption-from-distance-estimates
#9
Dario Krpan, Simone Schnall
A substantial amount of evidence shows that visual perception is influenced by forces that control human actions, ranging from motivation to physiological potential. However, studies have not yet provided convincing evidence that perception itself is directly involved in everyday behaviors such as eating. We suggest that this issue can be resolved by employing the dual systems account of human behavior. We tested the link between perceived distance to candies and their consumption for participants who were tired or depleted (impulsive system), versus those who were not (reflective system)...
March 2, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214432/degree-of-target-utilization-influences-the-location-of-movement-endpoint-distributions
#10
Andrew B Slifkin, Jeffrey R Eder
According to dominant theories of motor control, speed and accuracy are optimized when, on the average, movement endpoints are located at the target center and when the variability of the movement endpoint distributions is matched to the width of the target (viz., Meyer, Abrams, Kornblum, Wright, & Smith, 1988). The current study tested those predictions. According to the speed-accuracy trade-off, expanding the range of variability to the amount permitted by the limits of the target boundaries allows for maximization of movement speed while centering the distribution on the target center prevents movement errors that would have occurred had the distribution been off center...
February 16, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196753/temporal-and-spatial-occlusion-of-advanced-visual-information-constrains-movement-re-organization-in-one-handed-catching-behaviors
#11
J A Stone, I W Maynard, J S North, D Panchuk, K Davids
Dynamic interceptive actions are performed under severe spatial and temporal constraints. Here, behavioral processes underpinning anticipation in one-handed catching were examined using novel technology to implement a spatial and temporal occlusion design. Video footage of an actor throwing a ball was manipulated to create four temporal and five spatial occlusion conditions. Data from twelve participants' hand kinematics and gaze behaviors were recorded while attempting to catch a projected ball synchronized with the video footage...
February 11, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189707/statistical-numeracy-as-a-moderator-of-pseudo-contingency-effects-on-decision-behavior
#12
Hanna Fleig, Thorsten Meiser, Florence Ettlin, Jan Rummel
Pseudocontingencies denote contingency estimates inferred from base rates rather than from cell frequencies. We examined the role of statistical numeracy for effects of such fallible but adaptive inferences on choice behavior. In Experiment 1, we provided information on single observations as well as on base rates and tracked participants' eye movements. In Experiment 2, we manipulated the availability of information on cell frequencies and base rates between conditions. Our results demonstrate that a focus on base rates rather than cell frequencies benefits pseudocontingency effects...
February 9, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189706/choice-in-experiential-learning-true-preferences-or-experimental-artifacts
#13
Nathaniel J S Ashby, Emmanouil Konstantinidis, Eldad Yechiam
The rate of selecting different options in the decisions-from-feedback paradigm is commonly used to measure preferences resulting from experiential learning. While convergence to a single option increases with experience, some variance in choice remains even when options are static and offer fixed rewards. Employing a decisions-from-feedback paradigm followed by a policy-setting task, we examined whether the observed variance in choice is driven by factors related to the paradigm itself: Continued exploration (e...
February 9, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187309/eye-movement-during-retrieval-of-emotional-autobiographical-memories
#14
Mohamad El Haj, Jean-Louis Nandrino, Pascal Antoine, Muriel Boucart, Quentin Lenoble
This study assessed whether specific eye movement patterns are observed during emotional autobiographical retrieval. Participants were asked to retrieve positive, negative and neutral memories while their scan path was recorded by an eye-tracker. Results showed that positive and negative emotional memories triggered more fixations and saccades but shorter fixation duration than neutral memories. No significant differences were observed between emotional and neutral memories for duration and amplitude of saccades...
February 7, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161512/a-preference-for-some-types-of-complexity-comment-on-perceived-beauty-of-random-texture-patterns-a-preference-for-complexity
#15
Nicolas Gauvrit, Fernando Soler-Toscano, Alessandro Guida
In two experiments, Friedenberg and Liby (2016) studied how a diversity of complexity estimates such as density, number of blocks, GIF compression rate and edge length impact the perception of beauty of semi-random two-dimensional patterns. They concluded that aesthetics ratings are positively linked with GIF compression metrics and edge length, but not with the number of blocks. They also found an inverse U-shaped link between aesthetic judgments and density. These mixed results originate in the variety of metrics used to estimate what is loosely called "complexity" in psychology and indeed refers to conflicting notions...
February 2, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147264/slower-attentional-disengagement-but-faster-perceptual-processing-near-the-hand
#16
Tony Thomas, Meera Mary Sunny
Many recent studies have reported altered visual processing near the hands. However, there is no definitive agreement about the mechanisms responsible for this effect. One viewpoint is that the effect is predominantly attentional while others argue for the role of pre-attentive perceptual differences in the manifestation of the hand-proximity effect. However, in most of the studies pre-attentional and attentional effects have been conflated. We argue that it is important to dissociate the effect of hand proximity on perception and attention to better theorize and understand how visual processing is altered near the hands...
January 29, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135636/phasic-valence-and-arousal-do-not-influence-post-conflict-adjustments-in-the-simon-task
#17
David Dignath, Markus Janczyk, Andreas B Eder
According to theoretical accounts of cognitive control, conflict between competing responses is monitored and triggers post conflict behavioural adjustments. Some models proposed that conflict is detected as an affective signal. While the conflict monitoring theory assumed that conflict is registered as a negative valence signal, the adaptation by binding model hypothesized that conflict provides a high arousal signal. The present research induced phasic affect in a Simon task with presentations of pleasant and unpleasant pictures that were high or low in arousal...
January 27, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131034/distinct-mechanisms-in-the-numerosity-processing-of-random-and-regular-dots
#18
Wei Liu, Zhi-Jun Zhang, Ya-Jun Zhao, Bing-Chen Li, Miao Wang
This study investigated the mechanisms of the numerosity coding of random and regular dot distribution patterns. Experiment 1 revealed that connectedness significantly affected the numerosity perception of randomly distributed dots, and two adjacent dots were considered to be one numeral unit when connected via lines. The connectedness effect was much weaker on the numerosity perception of regularly distributed dots in vertical or horizontal queues and was absent in the perception of dots in diagonal queues...
January 25, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126490/an-attentional-mechanism-for-minimizing-cross-modal-distraction
#19
Lauren D Grant, Daniel H Weissman
Prior findings suggest that coping with distraction relies on cognitive control processes that increase attention to task-relevant processing and/or decrease attention to task-irrelevant processing. In line with this view, the size of the congruency effect in unimodal Stroop-like tasks, a popular measure of distraction, is typically reduced after more distracting incongruent trials relative to after less distracting congruent trials. It remains unclear, however, whether, and under what conditions, the control processes underlying this congruency sequence effect (CSE) minimize cross-modal distraction...
January 23, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088655/insurance-based-lie-detection-enhancing-the-verifiability-approach-with-a-model-statement-component
#20
Adam C Harvey, Aldert Vrij, Sharon Leal, Marcus Lafferty, Galit Nahari
PURPOSE: The Verifiability Approach (VA) is verbal lie detection tool that has shown promise when applied to insurance claims settings. This study examined the effectiveness of incorporating a Model Statement comprised of checkable information to the VA protocol for enhancing the verbal differences between liars and truth tellers. METHOD: The study experimentally manipulated supplementing (or withholding) the VA with a Model Statement. It was hypothesised that such a manipulation would (i) encourage truth tellers to provide more verifiable details than liars and (ii) encourage liars to report more unverifiable details than truth tellers (compared to the no model statement control)...
January 12, 2017: Acta Psychologica
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