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Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica

M Sehmbi, C D Rowley, L Minuzzi, F Kapczinski, M Steiner, R B Sassi, N A Bock, B N Frey
OBJECTIVE: Although cognitive dysfunction persists through affective and euthymic states in bipolar disorder (BD), its neurobiological correlates remain undetermined. We explore whole-cortex intracortical myelin (ICM) and cognition in BD-I and controls. METHODS: T1 -weighted images (3T) optimized for ICM measurement were analyzed using a surface-based approach. MRI signal was sampled at cortical mid-depth. Cognitive performance was measured via standardized computerized battery and paper-and-pencil Trails B...
March 13, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
C R Krynicki, R Upthegrove, J F W Deakin, T R E Barnes
OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on the evidence base for the nature of the relationship between negative symptoms and depressive features in people with schizophrenia, and propose new models that reflect their complex relationship. METHOD: A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines. A total of 2210 articles were identified from EMBASE, PsychInfo and MEDLINE, and further two articles were hand-searched from references. Twenty-seven met inclusion criteria and were included in the review...
March 13, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
K Francis, A Dougali, K Sideri, C Kroupis, V Vasdekis, K Dima, A Douzenis
OBJECTIVE: Several lines of evidence point to a probable relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but studies have yielded inconsistent findings on the BDNF serum level in ASD. The study aimed to assess those levels in children with ASD and their families. METHOD: BDNF serum levels were measured in 45 ASD children without intellectual disability (ID) and allergies, age 30-42 months and age-matched normal controls...
March 13, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
B Solé, C M Bonnin, E Jiménez, C Torrent, I Torres, C Varo, E Valls, L Montejo, C Gómez-Ocaña, Y Tomioka, E Vieta, A Martinez-Aran, M Reinares
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine the heterogeneity of psychosocial outcomes in euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) patients and analyse the potential influence of distinct variables on functioning. METHOD: Using a hierarchical cluster exploratory analysis, 143 euthymic patients with diagnosis of BD were grouped according to their functional performance based on domains scores of the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). The resulting groups were compared on sociodemographic, clinical and neurocognitive variables to find factors associated with each functional cluster...
March 5, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
C T Thomsen, M E Benros, T Maltesen, L H Hastrup, P K Andersen, D Giacco, M Nordentoft
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether implementing patient-controlled admission (PCA) can reduce coercion and improve other clinical outcomes for psychiatric in-patients. METHODS: During 2013-2016, 422 patients in the PCA group were propensity score matched 1:5 with a control group (n = 2110) that received treatment as usual (TAU). Patients were followed up for at least one year using the intention to treat principle utilising nationwide registers. In a paired design, the outcomes of PCA patients during the year after signing a contract were compared with the year before...
March 4, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
A Nazarov, D Fikretoglu, A Liu, M Thompson, M A Zamorski
BACKGROUND: A link between moral injury (i.e., the psychological distress caused by perceived moral transgressions) and adverse mental health outcomes (AMHO) has been recently proposed. However, the prevalence of exposure to morally injurious events and the associated risk of experiencing AMHO remains understudied. METHOD: The impact of exposure to potentially morally injurious experiences (PMIEs) was explored in relation to past-year PTSD and MDD, using the 2013 Canadian Armed Forces Mental Health Survey dataset of Afghanistan mission deployed regular force and reserve personnel...
March 4, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
K L Musliner, S D Østergaard
OBJECTIVE: Conversion from unipolar depression (UD) to bipolar disorder (BD) is a clinically important event that should lead to treatment modifications. Unfortunately, recognition of this transition is often delayed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify predictors of diagnostic conversion from UD to BD. METHOD: Historical prospective cohort study based on 91 587 individuals diagnosed with UD in Danish hospital psychiatry between 1995 and 2016...
March 2, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
M Dold, L Bartova, J Mendlewicz, D Souery, A Serretti, S Porcelli, J Zohar, S Montgomery, S Kasper
OBJECTIVE: This multicenter, multinational, cross-sectional study aimed to investigate clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes associated with augmentation/combination treatment strategies in major depressive disorder (MDD). METHOD: Sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment features of 1410 adult MDD patients were compared between MDD patients treated with monotherapy and augmentation/combination medication using descriptive statistics, analyses of covariance (ancova), and Spearman's correlation analyses...
February 28, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
K Kragholm, M P Andersen, R N Mortensen, L F Bech, C Polcwiartek, C Rohde, C Torp-Pedersen, P Videbech, J Nielsen
OBJECTIVE: Data on special education in offspring exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in utero are lacking. We examined associations of in utero SSRI exposure with special education needs and delayed elementary school start. METHODS: A population-based case-cohort study using Danish nationwide birth and prescription registry data from 2005 to 2008. Follow-up ends during 2011-2015 to capture special education needs during and delayed entry to the first elementary school year...
February 25, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
A Lebedeva, A Sundström, L Lindgren, A Stomby, D Aarsland, E Westman, B Winblad, T Olsson, L Nyberg
OBJECTIVE: Depression is associated with accelerated aging and age-related diseases. However, mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. The aim of this study was to longitudinally assess the link between depressive symptoms, brain atrophy, and cortisol levels. METHOD: Participants from the Betula prospective cohort study (mean age = 59 years, SD = 13.4 years) underwent clinical, neuropsychological and brain 3T MRI assessments at baseline and a 4-year follow-up...
February 18, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
A Mustonen, T Ahokas, T Nordström, G K Murray, P Mäki, E Jääskeläinen, A Heiskala, J J Mcgrath, J G Scott, J Miettunen, S Niemelä
OBJECTIVE: Daily smoking has been associated with a greater risk of psychosis. However, we are still lacking studies to adjust for baseline psychotic experiences and other substance use. We examined associations between daily smoking and psychosis risk in a 15-year follow-up while accounting for these covariates in a prospective sample (N = 6081) from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. METHODS: Self-report questionnaires on psychotic experiences (PROD-screen), tobacco smoking and other substance use were completed when the cohort members were 15-16 years old...
February 18, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
W Zheng, Q-E Zhang, D-B Cai, X-H Yang, Y Qiu, G S Ungvari, C H Ng, M Berk, Y-P Ning, Y-T Xiang
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examined the efficacy and safety of adjunctive N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant drug, in treating major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. METHODS: The PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, CNKI, CBM, and WanFang databases were independently searched and screened by two researchers. Standardized mean differences (SMDs), risk ratios, and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed...
February 18, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
V Kovess-Masfety, S Saha, C C W Lim, S Aguilar-Gaxiola, A Al-Hamzawi, J Alonso, G Borges, G de Girolamo, P de Jonge, K Demyttenaere, S Florescu, J M Haro, C Hu, E G Karam, N Kawakami, S Lee, J P Lepine, F Navarro-Mateu, J C Stagnaro, M Ten Have, M C Viana, R C Kessler, J J McGrath
OBJECTIVES: Religiosity is often associated with better health outcomes. The aim of the study was to examine associations between psychotic experiences (PEs) and religiosity in a large, cross-national sample. METHODS: A total of 25 542 adult respondents across 18 countries from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys were assessed for PEs, religious affiliation and indices of religiosity, DSM-IV mental disorders and general medical conditions. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between PEs and religiosity with various adjustments...
February 16, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
P Verger, B Mmadi Mrenda, S Cortaredona, M Tournier, H Verdoux
OBJECTIVE: To identify temporal trajectories of anxiolytic benzodiazepine (A-BZD) use over 10 years among new A-BZD users aged 50 and older and describe treatment patterns and demographic and clinical characteristics associated with each trajectory. METHOD: A representative cohort of the French national health insurance fund users was tracked from 2006 through 2015. We used latent class mixed models to identify the trajectories. RESULTS: We observed four trajectories among new users (no A-BZD dispensing in 2005) plus one non-use trajectory...
February 13, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
C-H Ma, S-S Chang, H-J Tsai, S S-F Gau, I-M Chen, S-C Liao, Y-L Chien, M H Hsieh, C-S Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of different antipsychotic treatments with hospitalization due to self-harm among patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: This retrospective cohort study was based on Taiwan's universal health insurance database. Patients aged 15-45 years with a newly diagnosed schizophrenic disorder in 2001-2012 were included. The study outcome was the first hospitalization due to self-harm or undetermined injury after the diagnosis of schizophrenic disorders...
February 11, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
K Wingenfeld, M Duesenberg, J Fleischer, S Roepke, I Dziobek, C Otte, O T Wolf
OBJECTIVE: Deficits in empathy, an important part of social cognition, have been described in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Importantly, psychosocial stress enhances emotional empathy in healthy participants. However, it remains unknown whether stress affects empathy in BPD. METHOD: We randomized 47 women with BPD and 47 healthy women to either the Trier Social Stress Test or a control condition. Subsequently, all participants underwent the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET), a measure of cognitive and emotional facets of empathy...
February 8, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
A Herane-Vives, V de Angel, A Papadopoulos, T Wise, K-C Chua, R Strawbridge, D Castillo, D Arnone, A H Young, A J Cleare
BACKGROUND: Atypical depression may show lowered rather than raised short-term cortisol levels. Atypical major depressive episodes (A-MDE) may also be more closely linked to environmental factors and show overlap with somatic symptom disorders. Hair specimens allow measuring long-term cortisol levels. METHODS: Twenty-seven A-MDE and 44 NA-MDE patients and 40 matched controls were tested. Measures of hair cortisol concentration [HCC] covering the previous 3 months and short-term cortisol parameters (six saliva specimens to assess the cortisol awakening response [CAR] and total daily cortisol output calculated as the area under the curve [AUCg]) were taken alongside measures of environmental factors and clinical variables...
February 4, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
M Guggenmos, M Scheel, M Sekutowicz, M Garbusow, M Sebold, C Sommer, K Charlet, A Beck, H-U Wittchen, U S Zimmermann, M N Smolka, A Heinz, P Sterzer, K Schmack
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the potential of computer-based models to decode diagnosis and lifetime consumption in alcohol dependence (AD) from grey-matter pattern information. As machine-learning approaches to psychiatric neuroimaging have recently come under scrutiny due to unclear generalization and the opacity of algorithms, our investigation aimed to address a number of methodological criticisms. METHOD: Participants were adult individuals diagnosed with AD (N = 119) and substance-naïve controls (N = 97) ages 20-65 who underwent structural MRI...
January 26, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
G Berman, D Muttuvelu, D Berman, J I Larsen, R W Licht, J Ledolter, R H Kardon
OBJECTIVE: To compare pupil responses in depressed patients with a seasonal pattern, depressed patients without a seasonal pattern and healthy controls as a function of daylight hours on the testing day. METHOD: Patients suffering from a major depressive episode were included in wintertime. The pupil light reflex was measured at inclusion and in the following summer using a binocular pupillometer. A protocol of low (1 lux) and high (400 lux) intensity red and blue lights was used to assess rod, cone and melanopsin-containing intrinsic photosensitive retinal ganglion cell input to the pupil reflex...
January 15, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
L Belbasis, C A Köhler, N Stefanis, B Stubbs, J van Os, E Vieta, M V Seeman, C Arango, A F Carvalho, E Evangelou
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to systematically appraise the meta-analyses of observational studies on risk factors and peripheral biomarkers for schizophrenia spectrum disorders. METHODS: We conducted an umbrella review to capture all meta-analyses and Mendelian randomization studies that examined associations between non-genetic risk factors and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. For each eligible meta-analysis, we estimated the summary effect size estimate, its 95% confidence and prediction intervals and the I2 metric...
December 30, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
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