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Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica

Mohamed Ebada
I would like to comment on an interesting article by Kessing et al. entitled 'New drug candidates for depression - a nationwide population-based study'(1). It presents a long-term study aimed to screen the Danish population register for the possible association between the exposure to certain clinically approved drugs: such as statins, high-dose aspirin and non aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which possess anti-inflammatory or neuroprotective properties, and the rate of incident depression...
November 9, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Klaus Munkholm, Maj Vinberg, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Claus Thorn Ekstrøm, Lars Vedel Kessing
OBJECTIVE: Diagnosis and management of bipolar disorder (BD) are limited by the absence of available laboratory tests. We aimed to combine data from different molecular levels and tissues into a composite diagnostic- and state biomarker. METHODS: Expression levels of 19 candidate genes in peripheral blood, plasma levels of BDNF, NT-3, IL-6 and IL-18, leukocyte counts and urinary markers of oxidative damage to DNA and RNA were measured in 37 adult rapid cycling patients with BD in different affective states during a 6-12-month period and in 40 age- and gender matched healthy individuals in a longitudinal, repeated measures design comprising a total of 211samples...
November 1, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Camilla K Svensson, Julie R Larsen, Louise Vedtofte, Mathilde S L Jakobsen, Hans R Jespersen, Michelle I Jakobsen, Kamuran Koyuncu, Ole Schjerning, Jimmi Nielsen, Claus T Ekstrøm, Christoph U Correll, Tina Vilsbøll, Anders Fink-Jensen
OBJECTIVE: Treatment with most antipsychotics is associated with an increased risk of weight gain and metabolic disturbances. In a randomized trial, we previously demonstrated that 16 weeks of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide treatment vs. placebo significantly reduced glucometabolic disturbances and body weight in prediabetic, overweight/obese schizophrenia-spectrum disorder patients treated with clozapine or olanzapine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the beneficial effects of the 16-week intervention were sustained beyond the intervention period...
October 29, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
M Vinberg, N M Ottesen, I Meluken, N Sørensen, O Pedersen, L V Kessing, K W Miskowiak
OBJECTIVE: Affective disorders seem associated with aberrant intestinal microbiota but whether this pattern also occurs in individuals at increased heritable risk is unknown. We investigated associations between gut microbiota profiles and affective disorders by comparing monozygotic (MZ) twins concordant (affected twins with unipolar or bipolar disorder in remission) and discordant to affective disorders (high-risk) with MZ twins without affective disorders (low-risk). METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 128 MZ twins and the microbiome was profiled using 16S rDNA sequencing of the V3-V4 region...
October 29, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Leo Sher, Sarah B Rutter, Antonia S New, Larry J Siever, Erin A Hazlett
OBJECTIVE: We examined gender differences and similarities in aggression, impulsivity, suicidal behavior, and psychiatric comorbidity in men and women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) compared with healthy controls. METHOD: A community sample of 511 participants (healthy controls: 81 men and 82 women; BPD patients: 145 men and 203 women) were rigorously characterized using structured diagnostic interviews and symptom severity assessments. RESULTS: In comparison to women with BPD, men were less educated, had higher total Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS), BIS - motoric impulsiveness and BIS - non-planning impulsiveness subscale, total Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ), and BPAQ - physical aggression subscale scores...
October 24, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Rita Santacroce, Giovanni Martinotti, Massimo di Giannantonio
In February 2018, a 14-year-old boy from Rome died by asphyxiation, strangling himself with a cable of his PlayStation. On September 6th, a same-aged free climber from Milan died similarly after hanging a climbing rope around his neck. In both cases, suicidal intention was ruled out after careful interviews with family and friends of the victims: the deaths were classified as accidental, and the parents of the two boys soon discovered that they had watched on the Internet videos related to the so-called "Blackout" or "Choking Game" (CG)...
October 22, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
L Ohlsson, A Gustafsson, E Lavant, K Suneson, L Brundin, Å Westrin, L Ljunggren, D Lindqvist
OBJECTIVE: Inflammation is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicidal behavior. According to the 'leaky gut hypothesis', increased intestinal permeability may contribute to this relationship via bacterial translocation across enterocytes. We measured plasma levels of gut permeability markers, in patients with a recent suicide attempt (rSA), MDD subjects with no history of a suicide attempt (nsMDD), and healthy controls (HC), and related these markers to symptom severity and inflammation...
October 22, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
I Dieset, R H Mørch, S Hope, E Z Hoseth, E J Reponen, J M Gran, M Aas, A E Michelsen, T Reichborn-Kjennerud, R Nesvåg, I Agartz, I Melle, P Aukrust, S Djurovic, T Ueland, O A Andreassen
OBJECTIVE: This study examines if YKL-40 is increased in individuals with psychotic disorders and if elevated YKL-40 levels at baseline is associated with subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. METHOD: A total of 1383 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or affective psychosis and 799 healthy controls were recruited in the period 2002-2015. Plasma YKL-40 and metabolic risk factors were measured and medication was recorded. Using national registry data, association between baseline risk factors and later development of type 2 diabetes was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models...
October 17, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
L Jacob, J M Haro, A Koyanagi
OBJECTIVE: The goal was to analyze the association of religiosity with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a UK nationally representative sample. METHODS: This study used cross-sectional data from 7403 people who participated in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS). Religion was assessed with the question 'Do you have a specific religion?' with 'yes' and 'no' answer options. Lifetime and past 12-month suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were assessed...
October 17, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
J Santabárbara, R Lopez-Anton, C de la Cámara, E Lobo, P Gracia-García, B Villagrasa, J Bueno-Notivol, G Marcos, A Lobo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether clinically significant anxiety is an independent risk factor for dementia, taking into account both depression among potentially confounding factors and the competing risk of death. METHOD: During the Zaragoza Dementia and Depression (ZARADEMP) study, a random sample of community dwellers aged 55 years or older was assessed (n = 4803), and a two-wave, 4.5-year follow-up was completed. Geriatric Mental State (GMS)-AGECAT criteria were used to diagnose anxiety and DSM-IV criteria were applied to diagnose incident dementia...
October 10, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
A Kautzky, M Dold, L Bartova, M Spies, G S Kranz, D Souery, S Montgomery, J Mendlewicz, J Zohar, C Fabbri, A Serretti, R Lanzenberger, D Dikeos, D Rujescu, S Kasper
OBJECTIVES: Clinical variables were investigated in the 'treatment resistant depression (TRD)- III' sample to replicate earlier findings by the European research consortium 'Group for the Study of Resistant Depression' (GSRD) and enable cross-sample prediction of treatment outcome in TRD. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES: TRD was defined by a Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score ≥22 after at least two antidepressive trials. Response was defined by a decline in MADRS score by ≥50% and below a threshold of 22...
October 5, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
S Schindler, L Schmidt, M Stroske, M Storch, A Anwander, R Trampel, M Strauß, U Hegerl, S Geyer, P Schönknecht
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine, in vivo, whether the hypothalamus volume is reduced in patients with mood disorders. METHODS: The cross-sectional study included 20 unmedicated (MDDu) and 20 medicated patients with major depressive disorder, 21 patients with bipolar disorder, and 23 controls. Twenty of the controls were matched to the MDDu. Seven Tesla, T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired and processed using methods specifically developed for high-precision volumetry of the hypothalamus...
September 19, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
K Kubo, W W Fleischhacker, T Suzuki, N Yasui-Furukori, M Mimura, H Uchida
OBJECTIVE: To examine characteristics of placebo responders and seek optimal criteria of early improvement with placebo for predicting subsequent placebo response in patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: Data of 672 patients with schizophrenia randomized to placebo in nine double-blind antipsychotic trials were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between placebo response at week 6 (i.e., a ≥ 25% reduction in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] score) and gender, age, study locations, baseline PANSS total or Marder 5-Factor scores, and per cent PANSS score reduction at week 1...
September 9, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
L V Kessing, H C Rytgaard, T A Gerds, M Berk, C T Ekstrøm, P K Andersen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether continued use of non-aspirin NSAID, low-dose aspirin, high-dose aspirin, statins, allopurinol and angiotensin agents decreases the rate of incident depression using Danish nationwide population-based registers. METHODS: All persons in Denmark who purchased the exposure medications of interest between 1995 and 2015 and a random sample of 30% of the Danish population was included in the study. Two different outcome measures were included, (i) a diagnosis of depressive disorder at a psychiatric hospital as in-patient or out-patient and (ii) a combined measure of a diagnosis of depression or use of antidepressants...
September 4, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Ellis Onwordi, Oliver Howes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
G Rücker, G Schwarzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
F Vallières, R Ceannt, F Daccache, R Abou Daher, J Sleiman, B Gilmore, S Byrne, M Shevlin, J Murphy, P Hyland
OBJECTIVE: Support for ICD-11 post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD) is growing; however, few studies include refugees or examine the clinical utility of PTSD/CPTSD classifications. This study sought to provide the first evaluations of (i) the factor structure of ICD-11 PTSD/CPTSD amongst refugees in the Middle East; and (ii) the clinical utility of the International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ) to identify PTSD/CPTSD in a humanitarian context. METHOD: Participants were 112 treatment-seeking Syrian refugees living in Lebanon...
December 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
S Rafiq, C Campodonico, F Varese
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have observed that dissociative experiences are frequently reported by individuals with severe mental illness (SMI), especially amongst patients that report a history of adverse/traumatic life experiences. This review examined the magnitude and consistency of the relationship between childhood adversity (sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, bullying, natural disasters and mass violence) and dissociation across three SMI diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and personality disorders...
December 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
S Fischer, S King, A Papadopoulos, M Hotopf, A H Young, A J Cleare
OBJECTIVE: Around 30-50% of patients with depression and anxiety disorders fail to respond to standard psychological therapy. Given that cortisol affects cognition, patients with altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning may benefit less from such treatments. To investigate this, reliable pretreatment cortisol measures are needed. METHOD: N = 89 outpatients with depression and anxiety disorders were recruited before undergoing therapy within an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) service...
December 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Linda van Diermen, Kaat Hebbrecht, Didier Schrijvers, Bernard C G Sabbe, Erik Fransen, Tom K Birkenhäger
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential role of the Maudsley Staging Method (MSM) in the prediction of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) outcome in severely depressed adults. METHOD: Between August 2015 and August 2017, 73 consecutive patients with a major depressive episode (DSM-IV-TR) scheduled for ECT were recruited. Prior to their first ECT session, the MSM was completed to assess the level of therapy resistance. To determine the reduction in depression severity and response and remission rates, symptom severity was assessed at baseline and within one week after the last ECT session using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS17)...
December 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
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