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Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica

Adam Bayes, Gordon Parker
OBJECTIVE: We consider how to choose an antidepressant (AD) medication for treatment of clinical depression. METHOD: A narrative review was undertaken addressing antidepressant 'choice' considering a range of parameters either weighted by patients and clinicians or suggested in the scientific literature. Findings were synthesised and incorporated with clinical experience into a model to assist AD choice. RESULTS: Efficacy studies comparing ADs offer indicative guidance, while precision psychiatry prediction based on genetics, developmental trauma, neuroimaging, behavioral and cognitive biomarkers, currently have limited clinical utility...
December 23, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Claire E Clark, Natalie L Rasgon, David E Reed, Thalia K Robakis
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether past history of depression is associated with increased rates of gestational diabetes, and whether history of gestational diabetes is associated with increased rates of postpartum depression. RESEARCH DESIGN: Data for this case-control study consisted of de-identified chart records for 1439 women who received pregnancy care at a large university hospital between 1998 and 2017. RESULTS: A history of depression prior to pregnancy was associated with gestational diabetes requiring insulin, although not with subtler degrees of gestational hyperglycemia...
December 18, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
E Bøen, T Hjørnevik, B Hummelen, T Elvsåshagen, T Moberget, J E Holtedahl, A Babovic, P K Hol, S Karterud, U F Malt
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolar II disorder (BIP-II) is disputed but understudied. Here, we investigated brain glucose metabolism in these patient groups and healthy control subjects (HCs). METHODS: Sixty-five subjects, 22 BPD (19 females), 22 BIP-II (17 females), and 21 HC (14 females), were examined using 2-deoxy-2[18F]-fluoro-d-glucose positron-emission tomography (PET) scanning. Only patients without reciprocal comorbidity were recruited; BPD participants without bipolar spectrum pathology; BIP-II participants without cluster A/B personality pathology...
December 15, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Ross Brannigan, Mary Cannon, Antti Tanskanen, Matti O Huttunen, Finbarr P Leacy, Mary C Clarke
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to prenatal stress is a ubiquitous and non-specific risk factor for adverse outcomes in adulthood. In this study, we examined associations between exposure to subjective maternal stress during pregnancy and subsequent diagnosis of psychiatric disorders in offspring. METHOD: This study used the Helsinki Longitudinal Temperament Cohort, a prospective birth cohort of individuals born between July 1st, 1975 and June 30th, 1976 in Helsinki, Finland...
December 12, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Cora Schefft, Anne Guhn, Eva-Lotta Brakemeier, Philipp Sterzer, Stephan Köhler
OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis investigates the efficacy of inpatient psychotherapy in major depressive disorders compared to control conditions. METHODS: In total, 14 studies were entered into the meta-analysis with a total of 1.080 patients. Primary outcome were the standardized mean differences in self-rated depression outcomes. A priori planned subgroup analyses included the influence of different control conditions (a) no psychiatric inpatient treatment (e.g...
December 5, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Anees Bahji, Emily R Hawken, Amir A Sepehry, Casimiro A Cabrera, Gustavo Vazquez
OBJECTIVE: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the response, remission, and speed of response in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder in depressive episode (BDD) receiving an acute course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) were quantitatively analyzed. METHODS: Using the PRISMA guidelines, 1660 citations were identified through five electronic databases. 19 articles met final inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. RESULTS: The pooled response and remission rates with ECT in MDD were 74...
December 3, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
L E Wachtel
OBJECTIVE: To review the treatment courses of 22 autistic patients diagnosed with catatonia over a 12-year period, including treatment with benzodiazepines and electroconvulsive therapy. METHOD: Retrospective review of inpatient and outpatient records of 22 autistic youth presenting to a neurobehavioral service who were treated for catatonia. RESULTS: Six girls and 16 boys ranging from ages 8 to 26 years old presenting for neurobehavioral assessment were found to meet criteria for catatonia according to the DSM5 and were treated for such...
December 2, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Kari I Aaltonen, Erkki Isometsä, Reijo Sund, Sami Pirkola
OBJECTIVE: To examine longitudinally risk factors for suicide in depression, and gender differences in risk factors and suicide methods. METHOD: We linked data from (a) The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, (b) the Census Register of Statistics Finland, and (c) Statistics Finland's register on causes of deaths. All 56 826 first-hospitalized patients (25 188 men, 31 638 women) in Finland in 1991-2011 with a principal diagnosis of depressive disorder were followed up until death (2587 suicides) or end of the year 2014 (maximum 24 years)...
November 27, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Jaelim Cho, Richard D Hayes, Amelia Jewell, Giouliana Kadra, Hitesh Shetty, James H MacCabe, Johnny Downs
OBJECTIVE: Large-scale epidemiological studies have demonstrated a protective effect of clozapine on mortality in people with schizophrenia. Clozapine is reserved for use in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS), but evidence of clozapine's effect on mortality exclusively within TRS samples is inconclusive. Hence, we aimed to investigate the effect of clozapine use on all-cause mortality in TRS patients. METHODS: A historical patient cohort sample of 2,837 patients, who met criteria for TRS between 1st Jan 2008 and 1st Jan 2016, were selected from the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLAM) electronic health records (EHR)...
November 26, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Edward G Altman, Søren D Østergaard
The Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM) was originally published in 1997 as a self-rated measure aimed at assessing the severity of manic symptoms [1]. The published ASRM consists of the following five symptom items: i) elevated mood, ii) Increased self-esteem, iii) decreased need for sleep, iv) pressured speech, and v) psychomotor agitation, which are rated by the patients via endorsement of one of five statements ranging from 0 (symptom not present) to 4 (symptom present in severe degree) [1]. This article is protected by copyright...
November 21, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Thomas Fovet, Mathilde Horn, Pierre Thomas, Ali Amad
We read with great interest Dirkzwager and Nieuwbeerta's recent article, which showed that mental health improved during detention by analysing the data of a prospective cohort that included 1664 Dutch male prisoners (1). This is a timely topic, as in recent years, the high level of mental health problems among prisoners has often been highlighted and because the role of deinstitutionalisation is often discussed with prisons, which are sometimes presented as modern asylums (2). This article is protected by copyright...
November 19, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Kevin C Runions, Hugo A E Morandini, Pradeep Rao, Janice W Y Wong, Nathan J Kolla, Giulia Pace, Simone Mahfouda, Caroline S Hildebrandt, Richard Stewart, Florian D Zepf
OBJECTIVE: The role of serotonin (5-HT) in human aggression has been the subject a large number of studies, mostly with adults. Meta-analyses indicate a small but significant inverse relationship between central nervous 5-HT availability and aggression, but genetically-informed studies suggest two pathways: one to reactive aggression, the other to proactive aggression. METHOD: We conducted a systemic review on central nervous 5-HT function in children and adolescents, with attention to the function of aggression...
November 17, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Wessel A van Eeden, Albert M van Hemert, Ingrid V E Carlier, Brenda W Penninx, Erik J Giltay
BACKGROUND: Depression shows a large heterogeneity of symptoms between and within persons over time. However, most outcome studies have assessed depression as a single underlying latent construct, using the sum score on psychometric scales as an indicator for severity. This study assesses longitudinal symptom-specific trajectories and within-person variability of major depressive disorder over a 9-year period. METHODS: Data were derived from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)...
November 16, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Mohamed Ebada
I would like to comment on an interesting article by Kessing et al. entitled 'New drug candidates for depression - a nationwide population-based study'(1). It presents a long-term study aimed to screen the Danish population register for the possible association between the exposure to certain clinically approved drugs: such as statins, high-dose aspirin and non aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which possess anti-inflammatory or neuroprotective properties, and the rate of incident depression...
November 9, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
K Munkholm, M Vinberg, B K Pedersen, H E Poulsen, C T Ekstrøm, L V Kessing
OBJECTIVE: Diagnosis and management of bipolar disorder (BD) are limited by the absence of available laboratory tests. We aimed to combine data from different molecular levels and tissues into a composite diagnostic and state biomarker. METHODS: Expression levels of 19 candidate genes in peripheral blood, plasma levels of BDNF, NT-3, IL-6 and IL-18, leukocyte counts, and urinary markers of oxidative damage to DNA and RNA were measured in 37 adult rapid-cycling patients with BD in different affective states during a 6- to 12-month period and in 40 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals in a longitudinal, repeated measures design comprising a total of 211 samples...
November 1, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
C K Svensson, J R Larsen, L Vedtofte, M S L Jakobsen, H R Jespersen, M I Jakobsen, K Koyuncu, O Schjerning, J Nielsen, C T Ekstrøm, C U Correll, T Vilsbøll, A Fink-Jensen
OBJECTIVE: Treatment with most antipsychotics is associated with an increased risk of weight gain and metabolic disturbances. In a randomized trial, we previously demonstrated that 16 weeks of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide treatment vs. placebo significantly reduced glucometabolic disturbances and body weight in prediabetic, overweight/obese schizophrenia-spectrum disorder patients treated with clozapine or olanzapine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the beneficial effects of the 16-week intervention were sustained beyond the intervention period...
October 29, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
M Vinberg, N M Ottesen, I Meluken, N Sørensen, O Pedersen, L V Kessing, K W Miskowiak
OBJECTIVE: Affective disorders seem associated with aberrant intestinal microbiota but whether this pattern also occurs in individuals at increased heritable risk is unknown. We investigated associations between gut microbiota profiles and affective disorders by comparing monozygotic (MZ) twins concordant (affected twins with unipolar or bipolar disorder in remission) and discordant to affective disorders (high-risk) with MZ twins without affective disorders (low-risk). METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 128 MZ twins and the microbiome was profiled using 16S rDNA sequencing of the V3-V4 region...
October 29, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Leo Sher, Sarah B Rutter, Antonia S New, Larry J Siever, Erin A Hazlett
OBJECTIVE: We examined gender differences and similarities in aggression, impulsivity, suicidal behavior, and psychiatric comorbidity in men and women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) compared with healthy controls. METHOD: A community sample of 511 participants (healthy controls: 81 men and 82 women; BPD patients: 145 men and 203 women) were rigorously characterized using structured diagnostic interviews and symptom severity assessments. RESULTS: In comparison to women with BPD, men were less educated, had higher total Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS), BIS - motoric impulsiveness and BIS - non-planning impulsiveness subscale, total Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ), and BPAQ - physical aggression subscale scores...
October 24, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Rita Santacroce, Giovanni Martinotti, Massimo di Giannantonio
In February 2018, a 14-year-old boy from Rome died by asphyxiation, strangling himself with a cable of his PlayStation. On September 6th, a same-aged free climber from Milan died similarly after hanging a climbing rope around his neck. In both cases, suicidal intention was ruled out after careful interviews with family and friends of the victims: the deaths were classified as accidental, and the parents of the two boys soon discovered that they had watched on the Internet videos related to the so-called "Blackout" or "Choking Game" (CG)...
October 22, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
L Ohlsson, A Gustafsson, E Lavant, K Suneson, L Brundin, Å Westrin, L Ljunggren, D Lindqvist
OBJECTIVE: Inflammation is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicidal behavior. According to the 'leaky gut hypothesis', increased intestinal permeability may contribute to this relationship via bacterial translocation across enterocytes. We measured plasma levels of gut permeability markers, in patients with a recent suicide attempt (rSA), MDD subjects with no history of a suicide attempt (nsMDD), and healthy controls (HC), and related these markers to symptom severity and inflammation...
October 22, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
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