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Progress in Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219248/spatial-representations-in-the-primate-hippocampus-and-their-functions-in-memory-and-navigation
#1
REVIEW
Edmund T Rolls, Sylvia Wirth
Hippocampal spatial view neurons in primates respond to the place where a monkey is looking, with some modulation by place. In contrast, hippocampal neurons in rodents respond mainly to the place where the animal is located. We relate this difference to the development of a fovea in primates, and the highly developed primate visual system which enables identification of what is at the fovea, and a system for moving the eyes to view different parts of the environment. We show that the spatial view representation in primates is allocentric, and provide new animations using recorded neuronal activity to illustrate this...
September 13, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219247/new-insights-into-the-complex-role-of-mitochondria-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Anne Grünewald, Kishore R Kumar, Carolyn M Sue
New discoveries providing insights into mitochondrial bioenergetics, their dynamic interactions as well as their role in cellular homeostasis have dramatically advanced our understanding of the neurodegenerative process of Parkinson's disease (PD). Respiratory chain impairment is a key feature in sporadic PD patients and there is growing evidence that links proteins encoded by PD-associated genes to disturbances in mitochondrial function. Against the backdrop of latest advances in the development of PD treatments that target mitochondria, we aim to give an overview of the literature published in the last three decades on the significance of mitochondria in the pathogenesis of PD...
September 13, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194984/neurobiological-characteristics-underlying-metabolic-differences-between-males-and-females
#3
REVIEW
Julie A Chowen, Alejandra Freire-Regatillo, Jesús Argente
The hypothalamus is the main integrating center for metabolic control. Our understanding of how hypothalamic circuits function to control appetite and energy expenditure has increased dramatically in recent years, due to the rapid rise in the incidence of obesity and the search for effective treatments. Increasing evidence indicates that these treatments will most likely differ between males and females. Indeed, sex differences in metabolism have been demonstrated at various levels, including in two of the most studied neuronal populations involved in metabolic control: the anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin neurons and the orexigenic neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related protein neurons...
September 5, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193820/small-cells-with-big-implications-microglia-and-sex-differences-in-brain-development-plasticity-and-behavioral-health
#4
REVIEW
Lars H Nelson, Angela I Saulsbery, Kathryn M Lenz
Brain sex differences are programmed largely by sex hormone secretions and direct sex chromosome effects in early life, and are subsequently modulated by early life experiences. The brain's resident immune cells, called microglia, actively contribute to brain development. Recent research has shown that microglia are sexually dimorphic, especially during early life, and may participate in sex-specific organization of the brain and behavior. Likewise, sex differences in immune cells and their signaling in the adult brain have been found, although in most cases their function remains unclear...
September 5, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171867/a-natural-history-of-skills
#5
REVIEW
Thomas Boraud, Arthur Leblois, Nicolas P Rougier
The dorsal pallium (a.k.a. cortex in mammals) makes a loop circuit with the basal ganglia and the thalamus known to control and adapt behavior but the who's who of the functional roles of these structures is still debated. Influenced by the Triune brain theory that was proposed in the early sixties, many current theories propose a hierarchical organization on the top of which stands the cortex to which the subcortical structures are subordinated. In particular, habits formation has been proposed to reflect a switch from conscious on-line control of behavior by the cortex, to a fully automated subcortical control...
August 29, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121237/elucidating-sex-differences-in-response-to-cerebral-ischemia-immunoregulatory-mechanisms-and-the-role-of-micrornas
#6
REVIEW
Georgia Kaidonis, Anand N Rao, Yi-Bing Ouyang, Creed M Stary
Cerebral ischemia remains a major cause of death and disability worldwide, yet therapeutic options remain limited. Differences in sex and age play an important role in the final outcome in response to cerebral ischemia in both experimental and clinical studies: males have a higher risk and worse outcome than females at younger ages and this trend reverses in older ages. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying sex dimorphism are complex and are still not well understood, studies suggest steroid hormones, sex chromosomes, differential cell death and immune pathways, and sex-specific microRNAs may contribute to the outcome following cerebral ischemia...
August 16, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077776/regeneration-of-peripheral-nerves-by-nerve-guidance-conduits-influence-of-design-biopolymers-cells-growth-factors-and-physical-stimuli
#7
REVIEW
M D Sarker, Saman Naghieh, Adam D McInnes, David J Schreyer, Xiongbiao Chen
Injuries to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) cause neuropathies that lead to weakness and paralysis, poor or absent sensation, unpleasant and painful neuropathies, and impaired autonomic function. In this regard, implanted artificial nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) used to bridge an injured site may provide appropriate biochemical and biophysical guidance cues required to stimulate regeneration across a nerve gap and restore the function of PNS. Advanced conduit design and fabrication techniques have made it possible to fabricate autograft-like structures in the NGCs with incredible precision...
August 2, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009872/the-sinister-face-of-heme-oxygenase-1-in-brain-aging-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Hyman M Schipper, Wei Song, Ayda Tavitian, Marisa Cressatti
Under stressful conditions, cellular heme catabolism to carbon monoxide, iron and biliverdin is mediated by the 32 kDa enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). A wide range of pro-oxidant and inflammatory stimuli act on diverse consensus sequences within the Hmox1 promoter to rapidly induce the gene. There is ample evidence attesting to the beneficial effects of HO-1 upregulation in brain. By converting pro-oxidant heme to the antioxidants, biliverdin and bilirubin, HO-1/biliverdin reductase may help restore a more favorable tissue redox microenvironment...
July 28, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003942/exosomes-and-their-implications-in-central-nervous-system-tumor-biology
#9
REVIEW
Oliver D Mrowczynski, Brad E Zacharia, James R Connor
Exosomes are 20-100 nm cellular derived vesicles that upon discovery, were thought to be a form of cellular recycling of intracellular contents. More recently, these vesicles are under investigation for their purported significant roles in intercellular communication in both healthy and diseased states. Herein, we focus on the secretion of exosomes associated with glioblastoma, as most exosome studies on brain tumors have been performed in this tumor type. However, we included exosomes secreted from other forms of brain tumors for comparison as available...
July 9, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981391/neuroactive-steroids-neurosteroidogenesis-and-sex
#10
REVIEW
Silvia Giatti, Luis M Garcia-Segura, George E Barreto, Roberto C Melcangi
The nervous system is a target and a source of steroids. Neuroactive steroids are steroids that target neurons and glial cells. They include hormonal steroids originated in the peripheral glands, steroids locally synthesized by the neurons and glial cells (neurosteroids) and synthetic steroids, some of them used in clinical practice. Here we review the mechanisms of synthesis, metabolism and action of neuroactive steroids, including the role of epigenetic modifications and the mitochondria in their sex specific actions...
July 4, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30173732/non-cell-autonomous-actions-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-implications-in-glial-synucleinopathies
#11
REVIEW
Somin Lim, Han-Joon Kim, Dong-Kyu Kim, Seung-Jae Lee
Many neurodegenerative diseases are derived from the combined consequences of genetic and environmental factors. One of the common features implicated in the neurodegenerative processes is aggregation of disease-specific neuronal proteins. These proteins are accumulated not only directly in neurons, but also indirectly involve glial cells. Whereas the focus of research has been directed towards the impacts of protein aggregation upon neurons, the influence that it exerts on glial cells has been relatively overlooked...
October 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114440/the-role-of-t-cells-in-the-pathogenesis-of-parkinson-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Zhichun Chen, Shengdi Chen, Jun Liu
Recent evidence has shown that neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, different components of the brain's immune system may exert diverse effects on neuroinflammatory events in PD. The adaptive immune response, especially the T cell response, can trigger type 1 pro-inflammatory activities and suppress type 2 anti-inflammatory activities, eventually resulting in deregulated neuroinflammation and subsequent dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Additionally, studies have increasingly shown that therapies targeting T cells can alleviate neurodegeneration and motor behavior impairment in animal models of PD...
October 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077775/oligodendrogliopathy-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-abnormal-protein-aggregates-the-forgotten-partner
#13
REVIEW
Isidro Ferrer
Oligodendrocytes are in contact with neurons, wrap axons with a myelin sheath that protects their structural integrity, and facilitate nerve conduction. Oligodendrocytes also form a syncytium with astrocytes which interacts with neurons, promoting reciprocal survival mediated by activity and by molecules involved in energy metabolism and trophism. Therefore, oligodendrocytes are key elements in the normal functioning of the central nervous system. Oligodendrocytes are affected following different insults to the central nervous system including ischemia, traumatism, and inflammation...
October 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077774/selective-basal-ganglia-vulnerability-to-energy-deprivation-experimental-and-clinical-evidences
#14
REVIEW
Nicola Tambasco, Michele Romoli, Paolo Calabresi
The basal ganglia (BG) include structures pivotal for motor and cognitive functions. Such structures are affected in neurodegenerative disorders and toxic or ischemic insults. The peculiar vulnerability of BG to toxic and ischemic damage has been the focus of preclinical research for all over the last century. This comprehensive review collects all evidences supporting a specific susceptibility of BG to energy deprivation, highlighting the pathways through which neuronal survival is jeopardized, and the consequent clinical correlates...
October 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30059718/system-biology-approach-intersecting-diet-and-cell-metabolism-with-pathogenesis-of-brain-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Fernando Gomez-Pinilla, Xia Yang
The surge in meals high in calories has prompted an epidemic of metabolic disorders around the world such that the elevated incidence of obese and diabetic individuals is alarming. New research indicates that metabolic disorders pose a risk for neurological and psychiatric conditions including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and depression, all of which have a metabolic component. These relationships are rooted to a dysfunctional interaction between molecular processes that regulate energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity...
October 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981394/thinking-about-the-nerve-impulse-a-critical-analysis-of-the-electricity-centered-conception-of-nerve-excitability
#16
REVIEW
Benjamin Drukarch, Hanna A Holland, Martin Velichkov, Jeroen J G Geurts, Pieter Voorn, Gerrit Glas, Henk W de Regt
Nerve impulse generation and propagation are often thought of as solely electrical events. The prevalence of this view is the result of long and intense study of nerve impulses in electrophysiology culminating in the introduction of the Hodgkin-Huxley model of the action potential in the 1950s. To this day, this model forms the physiological foundation for a broad area of neuroscientific research. However, the Hodgkin-Huxley model cannot account for non-electrical phenomena that accompany nerve impulse propagation, for which there is nevertheless ample evidence...
October 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981393/the-histology-physiology-neurochemistry-and-circuitry-of-the-substantia-gelatinosa-rolandi-lamina-ii-in-mammalian-spinal-cord
#17
REVIEW
Adalberto Merighi
The substantia gelatinosa Rolandi (SGR) was first described about two centuries ago. In the following decades an enormous amount of information has permitted us to understand - at least in part - its role in the initial processing of pain and itch. Here, I will first provide a comprehensive picture of the histology, physiology, and neurochemistry of the normal SGR. Then, I will analytically discuss the SGR circuits that have been directly demonstrated or deductively envisaged in the course of the intensive research on this area of the spinal cord, with particular emphasis on the pathways connecting the primary afferent fibers and the intrinsic neurons...
October 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981392/insights-into-the-pharmaceuticals-and-mechanisms-of-neurological-orphan-diseases-current-status-and-future-expectations
#18
REVIEW
Teodorico C Ramalho, Alexandre A de Castro, Tássia S Tavares, Maria C Silva, Daniela R Silva, Pedro H Cesar, Lucas A Santos, Elaine F F da Cunha, Eugenie Nepovimova, Kamil Kuca
Several rare or orphan diseases have been characterized that singly affect low numbers of people, but cumulatively reach ∼6%-10% of the population in Europe and in the United States. Human genetics has shown to be broadly effective when evaluating subjacent genetic defects such as orphan genetic diseases, but on the other hand, a modest progress has been achieved toward comprehending the molecular pathologies and designing new therapies. Chemical genetics, placed at the interface of chemistry and genetics, could be employed to understand the molecular mechanisms of subjacent illnesses and for the discovery of new remediation processes...
October 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733887/the-interactions-of-p53-with-tau-and-a%C3%A3-as-potential-therapeutic-targets-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Maja Jazvinšćak Jembrek, Neda Slade, Patrick R Hof, Goran Šimić
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by severe cognitive decline and personality changes as a result of synaptic and neuronal loss. The defining clinicopathological hallmarks of the disease are deposits of amyloid precursor protein (APP)-derived amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) in the brain parenchyma, and intracellular aggregates of truncated and hyperphosphorylated tau protein in neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). At the cellular and molecular levels, many intertwined pathological mechanisms that relate Aβ and tau pathology with a transcription factor p53 have been revealed...
September 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729299/the-intriguing-nature-of-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-linking-structure-with-polarity-and-function
#20
REVIEW
Ana Isabel Nascimento, Fernando Milhazes Mar, Mónica Mendes Sousa
Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are the first neurons of the sensory pathway. They are activated by a variety of sensory stimuli that are then transmitted to the central nervous system. An important feature of DRG neurons is their unique morphology where a single process -the stem axon- bifurcates into a peripheral and a central axonal branch, with different functions and cellular properties. Distinctive structural aspects of the two DRG neuron branches may have important implications for their function in health and disease...
September 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
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