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Progress in Neurobiology

Sydney Zarriello, Julian Tuazon, Sydney Corey, Samantha Schimmel, Mira Rajani, Anna Gorsky, Diego Incontri, Bruce D Hammock, Cesar V Borlongan
Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) degrades epoxides of fatty acids including epoxyeicosatrienoic acid isomers (EETs), which are produced as metabolites of the cytochrome P450 branch of the arachidonic acid pathway. EETs exert a variety of largely beneficial effects in the context of inflammation and vascular regulation. sEH inhibition is shown to be therapeutic in several cardiovascular and renal disorders, as well as in peripheral analgesia, via the increased availability of anti-inflammatory EETs. The success of sEH inhibitors in peripheral systems suggests their potential in targeting inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) disorders...
November 14, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Yu-Ting Lin, Kuei-Sen Hsu
Beyond its well-known role in reproduction, the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has been implicated in a broad spectrum of social and nonsocial behaviors. The biological actions of OXT are exerted through specific OXT receptors (OXTR) that belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors. OXTR is abundantly expressed in the hippocampus, and the past decade has witnessed tremendous progress in our understanding of the physiological significance of hippocampal OXTR signaling. In this review, we mainly focus on recent progress made in identifying the role of hippocampal OXTR signaling in regulating neuronal excitability, network oscillatory activity, synaptic plasticity and social recognition memory...
October 22, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Pascale Gisquet-Verrier, David C Riccio
The original concept of consolidation considers that memory requires time to be fixed. Since 2000, a comparable protein-dependent re-stabilization phase, called reconsolidation, has been assumed to take place after memory retrieval. This consolidation/reconsolidation hypothesis, has dominated the literature for more than 50 years, despite compelling evidence that is inconsistent with it. In this review, we present an historical overview and explain how, despite serious criticisms, this hypothesis has persisted for decades and become accepted as a dogma...
October 18, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Fawaz Alasmari, Sunil Goodwani, Robert E McCullumsmith, Youssef Sari
Emerging evidence demonstrates that alcohol dependence is associated with dysregulation of several neurotransmitters. Alterations in dopamine, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid release are linked to chronic alcohol exposure. The effects of alcohol on the glutamatergic system in the mesocorticolimbic areas have been investigated extensively. Several studies have demonstrated dysregulation in the glutamatergic systems in animal models exposed to alcohol. Alcohol exposure can lead to an increase in extracellular glutamate levels in mesocorticolimbic brain regions...
October 11, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Xianli Shen, Jose Luis Venero, Bertrand Joseph, Miguel Angel Burguillos
Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, can acquire various cell phenotypes based on their location and current role. This level of plasticity is required to fulfil the vast variety of functions that microglia perform. Adequate microglial functions are crucial for a healthy brain. However, microglial activation can also contribute to both degenerative/traumatic and proliferative diseases. We review current evidence supporting roles for caspases, a family of proteases, in the overall control of microglia, from the regulation of their activation, their biological functions, to their death...
October 2, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Fu-Xing Zhang, Shun-Nan Ge, Yu-Lin Dong, Juan Shi, Yu-Peng Feng, Yang Li, Yun-Qing Li, Jin-Lian Li
In nervous system, glutamate transmission is crucial for centripetal conveyance and cortical perception of sensory signals of different modalities, which necessitates vesicular glutamate transporters 1-3 (VGLUT 1-3), the three homologous membrane-bound protein isoforms, to load glutamate into the presysnaptic vesicles. These VGLUTs, especially VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, selectively label and define functionally distinct neuronal subpopulations at each relay level of the neural hierarchies comprising spinal and trigeminal sensory systems...
September 28, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Edmund T Rolls, Sylvia Wirth
Hippocampal spatial view neurons in primates respond to the place where a monkey is looking, with some modulation by place. In contrast, hippocampal neurons in rodents respond mainly to the place where the animal is located. We relate this difference to the development of a fovea in primates, and the highly developed primate visual system which enables identification of what is at the fovea, and a system for moving the eyes to view different parts of the environment. We show that the spatial view representation in primates is allocentric, and provide new animations using recorded neuronal activity to illustrate this...
September 13, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Anne Grünewald, Kishore R Kumar, Carolyn M Sue
New discoveries providing insights into mitochondrial bioenergetics, their dynamic interactions as well as their role in cellular homeostasis have dramatically advanced our understanding of the neurodegenerative process of Parkinson's disease (PD). Respiratory chain impairment is a key feature in sporadic PD patients and there is growing evidence that links proteins encoded by PD-associated genes to disturbances in mitochondrial function. Against the backdrop of latest advances in the development of PD treatments that target mitochondria, we aim to give an overview of the literature published in the last three decades on the significance of mitochondria in the pathogenesis of PD...
September 13, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Julie A Chowen, Alejandra Freire-Regatillo, Jesús Argente
The hypothalamus is the main integrating center for metabolic control. Our understanding of how hypothalamic circuits function to control appetite and energy expenditure has increased dramatically in recent years, due to the rapid rise in the incidence of obesity and the search for effective treatments. Increasing evidence indicates that these treatments will most likely differ between males and females. Indeed, sex differences in metabolism have been demonstrated at various levels, including in two of the most studied neuronal populations involved in metabolic control: the anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin neurons and the orexigenic neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related protein neurons...
September 5, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Lars H Nelson, Angela I Saulsbery, Kathryn M Lenz
Brain sex differences are programmed largely by sex hormone secretions and direct sex chromosome effects in early life, and are subsequently modulated by early life experiences. The brain's resident immune cells, called microglia, actively contribute to brain development. Recent research has shown that microglia are sexually dimorphic, especially during early life, and may participate in sex-specific organization of the brain and behavior. Likewise, sex differences in immune cells and their signaling in the adult brain have been found, although in most cases their function remains unclear...
September 5, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Thomas Boraud, Arthur Leblois, Nicolas P Rougier
The dorsal pallium (a.k.a. cortex in mammals) makes a loop circuit with the basal ganglia and the thalamus known to control and adapt behavior but the who's who of the functional roles of these structures is still debated. Influenced by the Triune brain theory that was proposed in the early sixties, many current theories propose a hierarchical organization on the top of which stands the cortex to which the subcortical structures are subordinated. In particular, habits formation has been proposed to reflect a switch from conscious on-line control of behavior by the cortex, to a fully automated subcortical control...
August 29, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Jean-Stéphane Joly, Vincent Tropepe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Benjamin W Lindsey, Zachary J Hall, Aurélie Heuzé, Jean-Stéphane Joly, Vincent Tropepe, Jan Kaslin
Neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) are the primary source of new neurons in the brain and serve critical roles in tissue homeostasis and plasticity throughout life. Within the vertebrate brain, NSPCs are located within distinct neurogenic niches differing in their location, cellular composition, and proliferative behaviour. Heterogeneity in the NSPC population is hypothesized to reflect varying capacities for neurogenesis, plasticity and repair between different neurogenic zones. Since the discovery of adult neurogenesis, studies have predominantly focused on the behaviour and biological significance of adult NSPCs (aNSPCs) in rodents...
November 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Kelsey V Adams, Cindi M Morshead
The brain was long considered an organ that underwent very little change after development. It is now well established that the mammalian central nervous system contains neural stem cells that generate progeny that are capable of making new neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes throughout life. The field has advanced rapidly as it strives to understand the basic biology of these precursor cells, and explore their potential to promote brain repair. The purpose of this review is to present current knowledge about the diversity of neural stem cells in vitro and in vivo, and highlight distinctions between neural stem cell populations, throughout development, and within the niche...
November 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Alberto Joven, András Simon
Large-scale regeneration in the adult central nervous system is a unique capacity of salamanders among tetrapods. Salamanders can replace neuronal populations, repair damaged nerve fibers and restore tissue architecture in retina, brain and spinal cord, leading to functional recovery. The underlying mechanisms have long been difficult to study due to the paucity of available genomic tools. Recent technological progress, such as genome sequencing, transgenesis and genome editing provide new momentum for systematic interrogation of regenerative processes in the salamander central nervous system...
November 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Chiara Bardella, Abeer R Al-Shammari, Luana Soares, Ian Tomlinson, Eric O'Neill, Francis G Szele
The adult subventricular zone (SVZ) stem cell niche has proven vital for discovering neurodevelopmental mechanisms and holds great potential in medicine for neurodegenerative diseases. Yet the SVZ holds a dark side - it can become tumorigenic. Glioblastomas can arise from the SVZ via cancer stem cells (CSCs). Glioblastoma and other brain cancers often have dismal prognoses since they are resistant to treatment. In this review we argue that the SVZ is susceptible to cancer because it contains stem cells, migratory progenitors and unusual inflammation...
November 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Catherina G Becker, Thomas Becker, Jean-Philippe Hugnot
Spinal cord injury results in the loss of neurons and axonal connections. In mammals, including humans, this loss is permanent, but is repaired in other vertebrates, such as salamanders and fishes. Cells in the ependymal niche play a pivotal role for the outcome after injury. These cells initiate proliferation and generate new neurons of different types in regenerating species, but only glial cells, contributing to the glial scar, in mammals. Here we compare the cellular and molecular properties of ependymal zone cells and their environment across vertebrate classes...
November 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Sooyeon Yoo, Seth Blackshaw
Over the past two decades, evidence has accumulated that neurogenesis can occur in both the juvenile and adult mammalian hypothalamus. Levels of hypothalamic neurogenesis can be regulated by dietary, environmental and hormonal signals. Since the hypothalamus has a central role in controlling a broad range of homeostatic physiological processes, these findings may have far ranging behavioral and medical implications. However, many questions in the field remain unresolved, including the cells of origin of newborn hypothalamic neurons and the extent to which these cells actually regulate hypothalamic-controlled behaviors...
November 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Somin Lim, Han-Joon Kim, Dong-Kyu Kim, Seung-Jae Lee
Many neurodegenerative diseases are derived from the combined consequences of genetic and environmental factors. One of the common features implicated in the neurodegenerative processes is aggregation of disease-specific neuronal proteins. These proteins are accumulated not only directly in neurons, but also indirectly involve glial cells. Whereas the focus of research has been directed towards the impacts of protein aggregation upon neurons, the influence that it exerts on glial cells has been relatively overlooked...
October 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Zhichun Chen, Shengdi Chen, Jun Liu
Recent evidence has shown that neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, different components of the brain's immune system may exert diverse effects on neuroinflammatory events in PD. The adaptive immune response, especially the T cell response, can trigger type 1 pro-inflammatory activities and suppress type 2 anti-inflammatory activities, eventually resulting in deregulated neuroinflammation and subsequent dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Additionally, studies have increasingly shown that therapies targeting T cells can alleviate neurodegeneration and motor behavior impairment in animal models of PD...
October 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
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