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Progress in Neurobiology

José A Del Río, Isidre Ferrer, Rosalina Gavín
Several studies have indicated that certain misfolded amyloids composed of tau, β-amyloid or α-synuclein can be transferred from cell to cell, suggesting the contribution of mechanisms reminiscent of those by which infective prions spread through the brain. This process of a 'prion-like' spreading between cells is also relevant as a novel putative therapeutic target that could block the spreading of proteinaceous aggregates throughout the brain which may underlie the progressive nature of neurodegenerative diseases...
March 9, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Li-Ru Zhao, Alison Willing
Stroke represents a severe medical condition that causes stroke survivors to suffer from long-term and even lifelong disability. Over the past several decades, a vast majority of stroke research targets neuroprotection in the acute phase, while little work has been done to enhance stroke recovery at the later stage. Through reviewing current understanding of brain plasticity, stroke pathology, and emerging preclinical and clinical restorative approaches, this review aims to provide new insights to advance the research field for stroke recovery...
February 21, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Anne E J Hillen, J Peter H Burbach, Elly M Hol
Astrocytes contribute to the formation, function, and plasticity of synapses. Their processes enwrap the neuronal components of the tripartite synapse, and due to this close interaction they are perfectly positioned to modulate neuronal communication. The interaction between astrocytes and synapses is facilitated by cell adhesion molecules and matricellular proteins, which have been implicated in the formation and functioning of tripartite synapses. The importance of such neuron-astrocyte integration at the synapse is underscored by the emerging role of astrocyte dysfunction in synaptic pathologies such as autism and schizophrenia...
February 11, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Stjepana Kovac, Erwin-Josef Speckmann, Ali Gorji
Brain direct current (DC) potentials denote sustained shifts and slow deflections of cerebral potentials superimposed with conventional electroencephalography (EEG) waves and reflect alterations in the excitation level of the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures. Using galvanometers, such sustained displacement of the EEG baseline was recorded in the early days of EEG recordings. To stabilize the EEG baseline and eliminate artefacts, EEG was performed later by voltage amplifiers with high-pass filters that dismiss slow DC potentials...
February 8, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Amaly Nokkari, Hadi Abou-El-Hassan, Yehia Mechref, Stefania Mondello, Mark S Kindy, Ayad A Jaffa, Firas Kobeissy
Neurological disorders represent major health concerns in terms of comorbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite a tremendous increase in our understanding of the pathophysiological processes involved in disease progression and prevention, the accumulated knowledge so far resulted in relatively moderate translational benefits in terms of therapeutic interventions and enhanced clinical outcomes. Aiming at specific neural molecular pathways, different strategies have been geared to target the development and progression of such disorders...
January 16, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Pei Wang, Bo-Zong Shao, Zhiqiang Deng, Shi Chen, Zhenyu Yue, Chao-Yu Miao
Autophagy is a self-eating cellular catabolic pathway, through which long-lived proteins, damaged organelles and misfolded proteins are degraded and recycled for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and normal cellular functions. Autophagy plays an important homeostatic role in the regulation of cell survival. Accumulating evidence shows that autophagy is activated in various cell types in the brain such as neurons, glia cells, and brain microvascular cells upon ischemic stroke. However, the exact role and molecular mechanisms of autophagy process that is implicated in ischemic stroke have yet to be elucidated...
January 10, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
M E Johnson, M F Salvatore, S A Maiolo, L Bobrovskaya
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease worldwide. While the typical motor symptoms of PD are well known, the lesser known non-motor symptoms can also greatly impact the patient's quality of life. These symptoms often appear before motor impairment, therefore identifying biomarkers that may predict PD risk or pathology has been a major and challenging endeavour. Given that the loss of dopamine, and its rate-limiting enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) occurs in PD, the expression and accompanying post-translational changes in TH during PD progression could yield insight into the disruption of cellular signalling occurring in the CNS, and also in peripheral tissues wherein catecholamine function plays a role...
January 10, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Mithilesh Kumar Jha, Jong-Heon Kim, Gyun Jee Song, Won-Ha Lee, In-Kyu Lee, Ho-Won Lee, Seong Soo A An, SangYun Kim, Kyoungho Suk
Astrocytes, which are homeostatic cells of the central nervous system (CNS), display remarkable heterogeneity in their morphology and function. Besides their physical and metabolic support to neurons, astrocytes modulate the blood-brain barrier, regulate CNS synaptogenesis, guide axon pathfinding, maintain brain homeostasis, affect neuronal development and plasticity, and contribute to diverse neuropathologies via secreted proteins. The identification of astrocytic proteome and secretome profiles has provided new insights into the maintenance of neuronal health and survival, the pathogenesis of brain injury, and neurodegeneration...
March 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Graziella Di Cristo, Patricia N Awad, Shabnam Hamidi, Massimo Avoli
The K+ -Cl- co-transporter KCC2 is a neuron-specific, Cl- extruder that uses K+ gradient for maintaining low intracellular [Cl- ]. It is indeed well established that sustaining an outwardly-directed electrochemical Cl- gradient across the neuronal membrane is fundamental for a proper function of postsynaptic GABAA receptor signaling. In particular, studies in the last two decades have shown that KCC2 activity is important to maintain a hyperpolarizing GABAergic neurotransmission. Conversely, low KCC2 activity should lead to depolarizing, and under specific conditions, excitatory GABAergic transmission...
March 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Jianjun Lv, Wei Hu, Zhi Yang, Tian Li, Shuai Jiang, Zhiqiang Ma, Fulin Chen, Yang Yang
Claudin-5 is a tight junction (TJ) protein in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that has recently attracted increased attention. Numerous studies have demonstrated that claudin-5 regulates the integrity and permeability of the BBB. Increased claudin-5 expression plays a neuroprotective role in neurological diseases, particularly in cerebral ischemic stroke. Moreover, claudin-5 might be a potential marker for early hemorrhagic transformation detection in ischemic stroke. In light of the distinctive effects of claudin-5 on the nervous system, we present the elaborate network of roles that claudin-5 plays in ischemic stroke...
February 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Ke Peng, Sarah C Steele, Lino Becerra, David Borsook
Multiple frontal cortical brain regions have emerged as being important in pain processing, whether it be integrative, sensory, cognitive, or emotional. One such region, Brodmann Area 10 (BA 10), is the largest frontal brain region that has been shown to be involved in a wide variety of functions including risk and decision making, odor evaluation, reward and conflict, pain, and working memory. BA 10, also known as the anterior prefrontal cortex, frontopolar prefrontal cortex or rostral prefrontal cortex, is comprised of at least two cytoarchitectonic sub-regions, medial and lateral...
February 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
S Harzsch, J Krieger
Malacostracan crustaceans display a large diversity of sizes, morphs and life styles. However, only a few representatives of decapod taxa have served as models for analyzing crustacean olfaction, such as crayfish and spiny lobsters. Crustaceans bear multiple parallel chemosensory pathways represented by different populations of unimodal chemosensory and bimodal chemo- and mechanosensory sensilla on the mouthparts, the walking limbs and primarily on their two pairs of antennae. Here, we focus on the olfactory pathway associated with the unimodal chemosensory sensilla on the first antennal pair, the aesthetascs...
February 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Heinz Krestel, Claudio L Bassetti, Olivier Walusinski
Yawning is a clinical sign of the activity of various supra- and infratentorial brain regions including the putative brainstem motor pattern, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, probably the insula and limbic structures that are interconnected via a fiber network. This interaction can be seen in analogy to other cerebral functions arising from a network or zone such as language. Within this network, yawning fulfills its function in a stereotype, reflex-like manner; a phylogenetically old function, preserved across species barriers, with the purpose of arousal, communication, and maybe other functions including respiration...
February 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Scott M Schafer, Stephan Geuter, Tor D Wager
Placebo treatments are pharmacologically inert, but are known to alleviate symptoms across a variety of clinical conditions. Associative learning and cognitive expectations both play important roles in placebo responses, however we are just beginning to understand how interactions between these processes lead to powerful effects. Here, we review the psychological principles underlying placebo effects and our current understanding of their brain bases, focusing on studies demonstrating both the importance of cognitive expectations and those that demonstrate expectancy-independent associative learning...
January 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Anna Bencsik, Philippe Lestaevel, Irina Guseva Canu
The present critical review analyzes the question of how nanoparticles from continuously growing industrial production and use of nanomaterials may impact human brain health. Available evidence suggests incomplete effectiveness of protective barriers of the brain against nanoparticles translocation to the brain. This raises concerns of potential effects of manufactured nanoparticles on brain functions, given that nanoparticle's potential to induce oxidative stress, inflammation, death by apoptosis, or changes in the level of expression of certain neurotransmitters...
January 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
G Taccola, D Sayenko, P Gad, Y Gerasimenko, V R Edgerton
Preclinical and clinical neurophysiological and neurorehabilitation research has generated rather surprising levels of recovery of volitional sensory-motor function in persons with chronic motor paralysis following a spinal cord injury. The key factor in this recovery is largely activity-dependent plasticity of spinal and supraspinal networks. This key factor can be triggered by neuromodulation of these networks with electrical and pharmacological interventions. This review addresses some of the systems-level physiological mechanisms that might explain the effects of electrical modulation and how repetitive training facilitates the recovery of volitional motor control...
January 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Friedemann Pulvermüller
Neurocognitive and neurolinguistics theories make explicit statements relating specialized cognitive and linguistic processes to specific brain loci. These linking hypotheses are in need of neurobiological justification and explanation. Recent mathematical models of human language mechanisms constrained by fundamental neuroscience principles and established knowledge about comparative neuroanatomy offer explanations for where, when and how language is processed in the human brain. In these models, network structure and connectivity along with action- and perception-induced correlation of neuronal activity co-determine neurocognitive mechanisms...
January 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Sergio B Socias, Florencia Gonzalez-Lizarraga, Cesar L Avila, Cecilia Vera, Leonardo Acuña, Julia E Sepulveda-Diaz, Elaine Del-Bel, Rita Raisman-Vozari, Rosana N Chehin
Neurodegenerative diseases are chronic and progressive disorders that affect specific regions of the brain, causing gradual disability and suffering that results in a complete inability of patients to perform daily functions. Amyloid aggregation of specific proteins is the most common biological event that is responsible for neuronal death and neurodegeneration in various neurodegenerative diseases. Therapeutic agents capable of interfering with the abnormal aggregation are required, but traditional drug discovery has fallen short...
December 11, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
Lu-Sha Tong, Zhen-Ni Guo, Yi-Bo Ou, Yan-Nan Yu, Xiao-Cheng Zhang, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang, Min Lou
Stroke therapy has entered a new era highlighted by the use of endovascular therapy in addition to intravenous thrombolysis. However, the efficacy of current therapeutic regimens might be reduced by their associated adverse events. For example, over-reperfusion and futile recanalization may lead to large infarct, brain swelling, hemorrhagic complication and neurological deterioration. The traditional pathophysiological understanding on ischemic stroke can hardly address these occurrences. Accumulating evidence suggests that a functional cerebral venous drainage, the major blood reservoir and drainage system in brain, may be as critical as arterial infusion for stroke evolution and clinical sequelae...
December 2, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
Bo Li, Katherine Concepcion, Xianmei Meng, Lubo Zhang
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia remains the primary cause of acute neonatal brain injury, leading to a high mortality rate and long-term neurological deficits, such as behavioral, social, attentional, cognitive and functional motor deficits. An ever-increasing body of evidence shows that the immune response to acute cerebral hypoxia-ischemia is a major contributor to the pathophysiology of neonatal brain injury. Hypoxia-ischemia provokes an intravascular inflammatory cascade that is further augmented by the activation of resident immune cells and the cerebral infiltration of peripheral immune cells response to cellular damages in the brain parenchyma...
December 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
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