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Progress in Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903061/lymphatic-drainage-system-of-the-brain-a-novel-target-for-intervention-of-neurological-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Bao-Liang Sun, Li-Hua Wang, Tuo Yang, Lei-Lei Mao, Jing-Yi Sun, Ming-Feng Yang, Hui Yuan, Robert A Colvin, Xiao-Yi Yang
The belief that the vertebrate brain functions normally without classical lymphatic drainage vessels has been held for many decades. On the contrary, new findings show that functional lymphatic drainage does exist in the brain. The brain lymphatic drainage system is composed of basement membrane-based perivascular pathway, a brain-wide glymphatic pathway, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage routes including sinus-associated meningeal lymphatic vessels and olfactory/cervical lymphatic routes. The brain lymphatic systems function physiological as a route of drainage for interstitial fluid (ISF) from brain parenchyma to nearby lymph nodes...
September 10, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899762/the-role-of-non-endothelial-cells-on-the-penetration-of-nanoparticles-through-the-blood-brain-barrier
#2
REVIEW
Rui Pedro Moura, Andreia Almeida, Bruno Sarmento
The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a well-established cell-based membrane that circumvents the central nervous system (CNS), protecting it from harmful substances. Due to its robustness and cell integrity, it is also an outstanding opponent when it comes to the delivery of several therapeutic agents to the brain, which requires the crossing through its highly-organized structure. This regulation and cell-cell communications occur mostly between astrocytes, pericytes and endothelial cells. Therefore, alternative ways to deliver drugs to the CNS, overcoming the BBB are required, to improve the efficacy of brain target drugs...
September 9, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870769/progressing-neurobiological-strategies-against-proteostasis-failure-challenges-in-neurodegeneration
#3
REVIEW
Ayeman Amanullah, Arun Upadhyay, Vibhuti Joshi, Ribhav Mishra, Nihar Ranjan Jana, Amit Mishra
Proteins are ordered useful cellular entities, required for normal health and organism's survival. The proteome is the absolute set of cellular expressed proteins, which regulates a wide range of physiological functions linked with all domains of life. In aging cells or under unfavorable cellular conditions, misfolding of proteins generates common pathological events linked with neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Current advances of proteome studies systematically generates some progress in our knowledge that how misfolding of proteins or their accumulation can contribute to the impairment or depletion of proteome functions...
September 1, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855100/modelling-iron-mismanagement-in-neurodegenerative-disease-in-vitro-paradigms-pitfalls-possibilities-practical-considerations
#4
REVIEW
Sinead Healy, Jill M McMahon, Una FitzGerald
Although aberrant metabolism and deposition of iron has been associated with aging and neurodegeneration, the contribution of iron to neuropathology is unclear. Well-designed model systems that are suited to studying the putative pathological effect of iron are likely to be essential if such unresolved details are to be clarified. In this review, we have evaluated the utility and effectiveness of the reductionist in vitro platform to study the molecular mechanisms putatively underlying iron perturbations of neurodegenerative disease...
August 27, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851546/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-integration-of-canonical-traumatic-brain-injury-secondary-injury-mechanisms-with-tau-pathology
#5
REVIEW
Jacqueline R Kulbe, Edward D Hall
In recent years, a new neurodegenerative tauopathy labeled Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), has been identified that is believed to be primarily a sequela of repeated mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), often referred to as concussion, that occurs in athletes participating in contact sports (e.g. boxing, football, football, rugby, soccer, ice hockey) or in military combatants, especially after blast-induced injuries. Since the identification of CTE, and its neuropathological finding of deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, mechanistic attention has been on lumping the disorder together with various other non-traumatic neurodegenerative tauopathies...
August 26, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842356/impact-of-micrornas-on-ischemic-stroke-from-pre-to-post-disease
#6
REVIEW
Guangwen Li, Kahlilia C Morris-Blanco, Mary S Lopez, Tuo Yang, Haiping Zhao, Raghu Vemuganti, Yumin Luo
Stroke is the number one cause of neurological dysfunction in adults and has a heavy socioeconomic burden worldwide. The etiological origins of ischemic stroke and resulting pathological processes are mediated by a multifaceted cascade of molecular mechanisms that are in part modulated by posttranscriptional activity. Accumulating evidence has revealed a role for microRNAs (miRNAs) as essential mediators of posttranscriptional gene silencing in both the physiology of brain development and pathology of ischemic stroke...
August 24, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802884/astrocytes-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-a-bridge-between-obesity-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Cynthia A Martin-Jiménez, Ángela García-Vega, Ricardo Cabezas, Gjumrakch Aliev, Valentina Echeverria, Janneth González, George E Barreto
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a subcellular organelle involved in protein folding and processing. ER stress constitutes a cellular process characterized by accumulation of misfolded proteins, impaired lipid metabolism and induction of inflammatory responses. ER stress has been suggested to be involved in several human pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases and obesity. Different studies have shown that both neurodegenerative diseases and obesity trigger similar cellular responses to ER stress. Moreover, both diseases are assessed in astrocytes as evidences suggest these cells as key regulators of brain homeostasis...
August 9, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782588/impact-of-aging-immune-system-on-neurodegeneration-and-potential-immunotherapies
#8
REVIEW
Zhanfeng Liang, Yang Zhao, Linhui Ruan, Linnan Zhu, Kunlin Jin, Qichuan Zhuge, Dong-Ming Su, Yong Zhao
The interaction between the nervous and immune systems during aging is an area of avid interest, but many aspects remain unclear. This is due, not only to the complexity of the aging process, but also to a mutual dependency and reciprocal causation of alterations and diseases between both the nervous and immune systems. Aging of the brain drives whole body systemic aging, including aging-related changes of the immune system. In turn, the immune system aging, particularly immunosenescence and T cell aging initiated by thymic involution that are sources of chronic inflammation in the elderly (termed inflammaging), potentially induces brain aging and memory loss in a reciprocal manner...
August 4, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779869/functional-integration-of-complex-mirna-networks-in-central-and-peripheral-lesion-and-axonal-regeneration
#9
REVIEW
M Ghibaudi, M Boido, A Vercelli
New players are emerging in the game of peripheral and central nervous system injury since their physiopathological mechanisms remain partially elusive. These mechanisms are characterized by several molecules whose activation and/or modification following a trauma is often controlled at transcriptional level. In this scenario, microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) have been identified as main actors in coordinating important molecular pathways in nerve or spinal cord injury (SCI). miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs whose functionality at network level is now emerging as a new level of complexity...
August 2, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743465/nanomaterial-applications-for-neurological-diseases-and-central-nervous-system-injury
#10
REVIEW
Lijie Huang, Jiangnan Hu, Shengwei Huang, Brian Wang, Felix Siaw-Debrah, Mark Nyanzu, Yu Zhang, Qichuan Zhuge
The effectiveness of noninvasive treatment for neurological disease is generally limited by the poor entry of therapeutic agents into the central nervous system (CNS). Most CNS drugs cannot permeate into the brain parenchyma because of the blood-brain barrier thus, overcoming this problem has become one of the most significant challenges in the development of neurological therapeutics. Nanotechnology has emerged as an innovative alternative for treating neurological diseases. In fact, rapid advances in nanotechnology have provided promising solutions to this challenge...
July 22, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743464/stem-cell-therapy-for-abrogating-stroke-induced-neuroinflammation-and-relevant-secondary-cell-death-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
Connor Stonesifer, Sydney Corey, Shaila Ghanekar, Zachary Diamandis, Sandra A Acosta, Cesar V Borlongan
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide. A key secondary cell death mechanism mediating neurological damage following the initial episode of ischemic stroke is the upregulation of endogenous neuroinflammatory processes to levels that destroy hypoxic tissue local to the area of insult, induce apoptosis, and initiate a feedback loop of inflammatory cascades that can expand the region of damage. Stem cell therapy has emerged as an experimental treatment for stroke, and accumulating evidence supports the therapeutic efficacy of stem cells to abrogate stroke-induced inflammation...
July 22, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734837/neural-reuse-of-action-perception-circuits-for-language-concepts-and-communication
#12
REVIEW
Friedemann Pulvermüller
Neurocognitive and neurolinguistics theories make explicit statements relating specialized cognitive and linguistic processes to specific brain loci. These linking hypotheses are in need of neurobiological explanation. Recent mathematical models of human language mechanisms constrained by fundamental neuroscience principles and established knowledge about comparative neuroanatomy offer explanations for where, when and how language is processed in the human brain. In these models, network structure and connectivity along with action- and perception-induced correlation of neuronal activity co-determine neurocognitive mechanisms...
July 19, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734836/criticality-in-the-brain-a-synthesis-of-neurobiology-models-and-cognition
#13
REVIEW
Luca Cocchi, Leonardo L Gollo, Andrew Zalesky, Michael Breakspear
Cognitive function requires the coordination of neural activity across many scales, from neurons and circuits to large-scale networks. As such, it is unlikely that an explanatory framework focused upon any single scale will yield a comprehensive theory of brain activity and cognitive function. Modelling and analysis methods for neuroscience should aim to accommodate multiscale phenomena. Emerging research now suggests that multi-scale processes in the brain arise from so-called critical phenomena that occur very broadly in the natural world...
July 19, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918824/new-perspectives-on-healthy-aging
#14
EDITORIAL
Kunlin Jin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322920/stem-cell-transplantation-therapy-for-multifaceted-therapeutic-benefits-after-stroke
#15
REVIEW
Ling Wei, Zheng Z Wei, Michael Qize Jiang, Osama Mohamad, Shan Ping Yu
One of the exciting advances in modern medicine and life science is cell-based neurovascular regeneration of damaged brain tissues and repair of neuronal structures. The progress in stem cell biology and creation of adult induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has significantly improved basic and pre-clinical research in disease mechanisms and generated enthusiasm for potential applications in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases including stroke. Endogenous neural stem cells and cultured stem cells are capable of self-renewal and give rise to virtually all types of cells essential for the makeup of neuronal structures...
October 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110083/preconditioning-in-neuroprotection-from-hypoxia-to-ischemia
#16
REVIEW
Sijie Li, Adam Hafeez, Fatima Noorulla, Xiaokun Geng, Guo Shao, Changhong Ren, Guowei Lu, Heng Zhao, Yuchuan Ding, Xunming Ji
Sublethal hypoxic or ischemic events can improve the tolerance of tissues, organs, and even organisms from subsequent lethal injury caused by hypoxia or ischemia. This phenomenon has been termed hypoxic or ischemic preconditioning (HPC or IPC) and is well established in the heart and the brain. This review aims to discuss HPC and IPC with respect to their historical development and advancements in our understanding of the neurochemical basis for their neuroprotective role. Through decades of collaborative research and studies of HPC and IPC in other organ systems, our understanding of HPC and IPC-induced neuroprotection has expanded to include: early- (phosphorylation targets, transporter regulation, interfering RNA) and late- (regulation of genes like EPO, VEGF, and iNOS) phase changes, regulators of programmed cell death, members of metabolic pathways, receptor modulators, and many other novel targets...
October 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27321753/mitochondrial-function-in-hypoxic-ischemic-injury-and-influence-of-aging
#17
REVIEW
P Benson Ham, Raghavan Raju
Mitochondria are a major target in hypoxic/ischemic injury. Mitochondrial impairment increases with age leading to dysregulation of molecular pathways linked to mitochondria. The perturbation of mitochondrial homeostasis and cellular energetics worsens outcome following hypoxic-ischemic insults in elderly individuals. In response to acute injury conditions, cellular machinery relies on rapid adaptations by modulating posttranslational modifications. Therefore, post-translational regulation of molecular mediators such as hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator α (PGC-1α), c-MYC, SIRT1 and AMPK play a critical role in the control of the glycolytic-mitochondrial energy axis in response to hypoxic-ischemic conditions...
October 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26891883/estrogens-as-neuroprotectants-estrogenic-actions-in-the-context-of-cognitive-aging-and-brain-injury
#18
REVIEW
E B Engler-Chiurazzi, C M Brown, J M Povroznik, J W Simpkins
There is ample empirical evidence to support the notion that the biological impacts of estrogen extend beyond the gonads to other bodily systems, including the brain and behavior. Converging preclinical findings have indicated a neuroprotective role for estrogen in a variety of experimental models of cognitive function and brain insult. However, the surprising null or even detrimental findings of several large clinical trials evaluating the ability of estrogen-containing hormone treatments to protect against age-related brain changes and insults, including cognitive aging and brain injury, led to hesitation by both clinicians and patients in the use of exogenous estrogenic treatments for nervous system outcomes...
October 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26603930/alternative-mitochondrial-electron-transfer-for-the-treatment-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-and-cancers-methylene-blue-connects-the-dots
#19
REVIEW
Shao-Hua Yang, Wenjun Li, Nathalie Sumien, Michael Forster, James W Simpkins, Ran Liu
Brain has exceptional high requirement for energy metabolism with glucose as the exclusive energy source. Decrease of brain energy metabolism and glucose uptake has been found in patients of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases, providing a clear link between neurodegenerative disorders and energy metabolism. On the other hand, cancers, including glioblastoma, have increased glucose uptake and rely on aerobic glycolysis for energy metabolism. The switch of high efficient oxidative phosphorylation to low efficient aerobic glycolysis pathway (Warburg effect) provides macromolecule for biosynthesis and proliferation...
October 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634086/towards-building-a-more-complex-view-of-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-recent-advances-in-understanding-its-role
#20
REVIEW
Masoud Ghodrati, Seyed-Mahdi Khaligh-Razavi, Sidney R Lehky
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) has often been treated in the past as a linear filter that adds little to retinal processing of visual inputs. Here we review anatomical, neurophysiological, brain imaging, and modeling studies that have in recent years built up a much more complex view of LGN. These include effects related to nonlinear dendritic processing, cortical feedback, synchrony and oscillations across LGN populations, as well as involvement of LGN in higher level cognitive processing. Although recent studies have provided valuable insights into early visual processing including the role of LGN, a unified model of LGN responses to real-world objects has not yet been developed...
September 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
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