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Progress in Neurobiology

Alexandra Ycaza Herrera, Jiaxi Wang, Mara Mather
Across three different domains, there are similar sex differences in how men and women process information. There tends to be a male advantage in attending to and remembering the gist (essential central information of a scene or situation), but a female advantage in attending to and remembering the details (non-essential peripheral information of a scene or situation). This is seen in emotional memory, where emotion enhances gist memory more for males than for females, but enhances detail memory more for females than for males...
May 14, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Lei Huang, Lubo Zhang
Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the adult as well as in the neonate. Extensive pre-clinical studies have shown promising therapeutic effects of neural stem cell-based treatments for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. There are two major strategies of neural stem cell-based therapies: transplanting exogenous neural stem cells and boosting self-repair of endogenous neural stem cells. Neural stem cell transplantation has been proved to improve functional recovery after brain injury through multiple by-stander mechanisms (e...
May 11, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Maja Jazvinšćak Jembrek, Neda Slade, Patrick R Hof, Goran Šimić
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by severe cognitive decline and personality changes as a result of synaptic and neuronal loss. The defining clinicopathological hallmarks of the disease are deposits of amyloid precursor protein (APP)-derived amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) in the brain parenchyma, and intracellular aggregates of truncated and hyperphosphorylated tau protein in neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). At the cellular and molecular levels, many intertwined pathological mechanisms that relate Aβ and tau pathology with a transcription factor p53 have been revealed...
May 4, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Gang Chen, Rehana K Leak, Qing Sun, John H Zhang, Jun Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Ana Isabel Nascimento, Fernando Milhazes Mar, Mónica Mendes Sousa
Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are the first neurons of the sensory pathway. They are activated by a variety of sensory stimuli that are then transmitted to the central nervous system. An important feature of DRG neurons is their unique morphology where a single process -the stem axon- bifurcates into a peripheral and a central axonal branch, with different functions and cellular properties. Distinctive structural aspects of the two DRG neuron branches may have important implications for their function in health and disease...
May 2, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Andrzej W Cwetsch, Bruno Pinto, Annalisa Savardi, Laura Cancedda
Accurate and timely expression of specific genes guarantees the healthy development and function of the brain. Indeed, variations in the correct amount or timing of gene expression lead to improper development and/or pathological conditions. Almost forty years after the first successful gene transfection in in vitro cell cultures, it is currently possible to regulate gene expression in an area-specific manner at any step of central nervous system development and in adulthood in experimental animals in vivo, even overcoming the very poor accessibility of the brain...
April 22, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Alberto Joven, András Simon
Large-scale regeneration in the adult central nervous system is a unique capacity of salamanders among tetrapods. Salamanders can replace neuronal populations, repair damaged nerve fibers and restore tissue architecture in retina, brain and spinal cord, leading to functional recovery. The underlying mechanisms have long been difficult to study due to the paucity of available genomic tools. Recent technological progress, such as genome sequencing, transgenesis and genome editing provide new momentum for systematic interrogation of regenerative processes in the salamander central nervous system...
April 11, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Chiara Bardella, Abeer R Al-Shammari, Luana Soares, Ian Tomlinson, Eric O'Neill, Francis G Szele
The adult subventricular zone (SVZ) stem cell niche has proven vital for discovering neurodevelopmental mechanisms and holds great potential in medicine for neurodegenerative diseases. Yet the SVZ holds a dark side - it can become tumorigenic. Glioblastomas can arise from the SVZ via cancer stem cells (CSCs). Glioblastoma and other brain cancers often have dismal prognoses since they are resistant to treatment. In this review we argue that the SVZ is susceptible to cancer because it contains stem cells, migratory progenitors and unusual inflammation...
April 11, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Kai-C Sonntag, Bin Song, Nayeon Lee, Jin Hyuk Jung, Young Cha, Pierre Leblanc, Carolyn Neff, Sek Won Kong, Bob S Carter, Jeffrey Schweitzer, Kwang-Soo Kim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, which affects about 0.3% of the general population. As the population in the developed world ages, this creates an escalating burden on society both in economic terms and in quality of life for these patients and for the families that support them. Although currently available pharmacological or surgical treatments may significantly improve the quality of life of many patients with PD, these are symptomatic treatments that do not slow or stop the progressive course of the disease...
April 11, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
R J M Riemens, D L van den Hove, M Esteller, R Delgado-Morales
Human pluripotent stem cell (PSC) technology and direct somatic cell reprogramming have opened up a promising new avenue in the field of neuroscience. These recent advances allow researchers to obtain virtually any cell type found in the human brain, making it possible to produce and study functional neurons in laboratory conditions for both scientific and medical purposes. Although distinct approaches have shown to be successful in directing neuronal cell fate in vitro, their refinement and optimization, as well as the search for alternative approaches, remains necessary to help realize the full potential of the eventually derived neuronal populations...
April 10, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Catherina G Becker, Thomas Becker, Jean-Philippe Hugnot
Spinal cord injury results in the loss of neurons and axonal connections. In mammals, including humans, this loss is permanent, but is repaired in other vertebrates, such as salamanders and fishes. Cells in the ependymal niche play a pivotal role for the outcome after injury. These cells initiate proliferation and generate new neurons of different types in regenerating species, but only glial cells, contributing to the glial scar, in mammals. Here we compare the cellular and molecular properties of ependymal zone cells and their environment across vertebrate classes...
April 9, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Telma Bezerra Soares, Luís Loureiro, Ana Carvalho, Maria Elisabete C D Real Oliveira, Alberto Dias, Bruno Sarmento, Marlene Lúcio
Age related neurodegenerative disorders (ARND) are presented as the most debilitating and challenging diseases associated with the central nervous system. Despite the advent of active molecules with a positive role on neurodegenerative mechanisms, many of the current therapeutic strategies remain ineffective in treating or preventing ARND. Lipid nanocarriers have emerged as efficient delivery systems with the capability to cross biological barriers, especially the blood brain barrier (BBB). Also, when associated to natural compounds, lipid nanocarriers have demonstrated to be an interesting alternative to ARND therapies with multiple beneficial effects...
April 8, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Sooyeon Yoo, Seth Blackshaw
Over the past two decades, evidence has accumulated that neurogenesis can occur in both the juvenile and adult mammalian hypothalamus. Levels of hypothalamic neurogenesis can be regulated by dietary, environmental and hormonal signals. Since the hypothalamus has a central role in controlling a broad range of homeostatic physiological processes, these findings may have far ranging behavioral and medical implications. However, many questions in the field remain unresolved, including the cells of origin of newborn hypothalamic neurons and the extent to which these cells actually regulate hypothalamic-controlled behaviors...
April 6, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Thiruma V Arumugam, Sang-Ha Baik, Priyanka Balaganapathy, Christopher G Sobey, Mark P Mattson, Dong-Gyu Jo
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and death, with the outcome largely determined by the amount of hypoxia-related neuronal death in the affected brain regions. Cerebral ischemia and hypoxia activate the Notch1 signaling pathway and four prominent interacting pathways (NF-κB, p53, HIF-1α and Pin1) that converge on a conserved DNA-associated nuclear multi-protein complex, which controls the expression of genes that can determine the fate of neurons. When neurons experience a moderate level of ischemic insult, the nuclear multi-protein complex up-regulates adaptive stress response genes encoding proteins that promote neuronal survival, but when ischemia is more severe the nuclear multi-protein complex induces genes encoding proteins that trigger and execute a neuronal death program...
March 21, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
José A Del Río, Isidre Ferrer, Rosalina Gavín
Several studies have indicated that certain misfolded amyloids composed of tau, β-amyloid or α-synuclein can be transferred from cell to cell, suggesting the contribution of mechanisms reminiscent of those by which infective prions spread through the brain. This process of a 'prion-like' spreading between cells is also relevant as a novel putative therapeutic target that could block the spreading of proteinaceous aggregates throughout the brain which may underlie the progressive nature of neurodegenerative diseases...
March 9, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Mithilesh Kumar Jha, Jong-Heon Kim, Gyun Jee Song, Won-Ha Lee, In-Kyu Lee, Ho-Won Lee, Seong Soo A An, SangYun Kim, Kyoungho Suk
Astrocytes, which are homeostatic cells of the central nervous system (CNS), display remarkable heterogeneity in their morphology and function. Besides their physical and metabolic support to neurons, astrocytes modulate the blood-brain barrier, regulate CNS synaptogenesis, guide axon pathfinding, maintain brain homeostasis, affect neuronal development and plasticity, and contribute to diverse neuropathologies via secreted proteins. The identification of astrocytic proteome and secretome profiles has provided new insights into the maintenance of neuronal health and survival, the pathogenesis of brain injury, and neurodegeneration...
March 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Sergio B Socias, Florencia González-Lizárraga, Cesar L Avila, Cecilia Vera, Leonardo Acuña, Julia E Sepulveda-Diaz, Elaine Del-Bel, Rita Raisman-Vozari, Rosana N Chehin
Neurodegenerative diseases are chronic and progressive disorders that affect specific regions of the brain, causing gradual disability and suffering that results in a complete inability of patients to perform daily functions. Amyloid aggregation of specific proteins is the most common biological event that is responsible for neuronal death and neurodegeneration in various neurodegenerative diseases. Therapeutic agents capable of interfering with the abnormal aggregation are required, but traditional drug discovery has fallen short...
March 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Graziella Di Cristo, Patricia N Awad, Shabnam Hamidi, Massimo Avoli
The K+ -Cl- co-transporter KCC2 is a neuron-specific, Cl- extruder that uses K+ gradient for maintaining low intracellular [Cl- ]. It is indeed well established that sustaining an outwardly-directed electrochemical Cl- gradient across the neuronal membrane is fundamental for a proper function of postsynaptic GABAA receptor signaling. In particular, studies in the last two decades have shown that KCC2 activity is important to maintain a hyperpolarizing GABAergic neurotransmission. Conversely, low KCC2 activity should lead to depolarizing, and under specific conditions, excitatory GABAergic transmission...
March 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Li-Ru Zhao, Alison Willing
Stroke represents a severe medical condition that causes stroke survivors to suffer from long-term and even lifelong disability. Over the past several decades, a vast majority of stroke research targets neuroprotection in the acute phase, while little work has been done to enhance stroke recovery at the later stage. Through reviewing current understanding of brain plasticity, stroke pathology, and emerging preclinical and clinical restorative approaches, this review aims to provide new insights to advance the research field for stroke recovery...
February 21, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Anne E J Hillen, J Peter H Burbach, Elly M Hol
Astrocytes contribute to the formation, function, and plasticity of synapses. Their processes enwrap the neuronal components of the tripartite synapse, and due to this close interaction they are perfectly positioned to modulate neuronal communication. The interaction between astrocytes and synapses is facilitated by cell adhesion molecules and matricellular proteins, which have been implicated in the formation and functioning of tripartite synapses. The importance of such neuron-astrocyte integration at the synapse is underscored by the emerging role of astrocyte dysfunction in synaptic pathologies such as autism and schizophrenia...
February 11, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
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