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Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319685/linking-actions-and-objects-context-specific-learning-of-novel-weight-priors
#1
Kevin M Trewartha, J Randall Flanagan
Distinct explicit and implicit memory processes support weight predictions used when lifting objects and making perceptual judgments about weight, respectively. The first time that an object is encountered weight is predicted on the basis of learned associations, or priors, linking size and material to weight. A fundamental question is whether the brain maintains a single, global representation of priors, or multiple representations that can be updated in a context specific way. A second key question is whether the updating of priors, or the ability to scale lifting forces when repeatedly lifting unusually weighted objects requires focused attention...
March 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319684/what-do-we-do-with-what-we-learn-statistical-learning-of-orthographic-regularities-impacts-written-word-processing
#2
Fabienne Chetail
Individuals rapidly become sensitive to recurrent patterns present in the environment and this occurs in many situations. However, evidence of a role for statistical learning of orthographic regularities in reading is mixed, and its role has peripheral status in current theories of visual word recognition. Additionally, exactly which regularities readers learn to be sensitive to is still unclear. To address these two issues, three experiments were conducted with artificial scripts. In Experiments 1a and 1b, participants were exposed to a flow of artificial words (five characters) for a few minutes, with either two or four bigrams occurring very frequently...
March 16, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314178/orthographic-learning-fast-and-slow-lexical-competition-effects-reveal-the-time-course-of-word-learning-in-developing-readers
#3
Niina Tamura, Anne Castles, Kate Nation
Children learn new words via their everyday reading experience but little is known about how this learning happens. We addressed this by focusing on the conditions needed for new words to become familiar to children, drawing a distinction between lexical configuration (the acquisition of word knowledge) and lexical engagement (the emergence of interactive processes between newly learned words and existing words). In Experiment 1, 9-11-year-olds saw unfamiliar words in one of two storybook conditions, differing in degree of focus on the new words but matched for frequency of exposure...
March 14, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292667/minds-in-motion-in-memory-enhanced-spatial-memory-driven-by-the-perceived-animacy-of-simple-shapes
#4
Benjamin van Buren, Brian J Scholl
Even simple geometric shapes are seen as animate and goal-directed when they move in certain ways. Previous research has revealed a great deal about the cues that elicit such percepts, but much less about the consequences for other aspects of perception and cognition. Here we explored whether simple shapes that are perceived as animate and goal-directed are prioritized in memory. We investigated this by asking whether subjects better remember the locations of displays that are seen as animate vs. inanimate, controlling for lower-level factors...
March 11, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292666/hierarchical-organization-in-the-temporal-structure-of-infant-direct-speech-and-song
#5
Simone Falk, Christopher T Kello
Caregivers alter the temporal structure of their utterances when talking and singing to infants compared with adult communication. The present study tested whether temporal variability in infant-directed registers serves to emphasize the hierarchical temporal structure of speech. Fifteen German-speaking mothers sang a play song and told a story to their 6-months-old infants, or to an adult. Recordings were analyzed using a recently developed method that determines the degree of nested clustering of temporal events in speech...
March 11, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288369/phrasal-prosody-constrains-syntactic-analysis-in-toddlers
#6
Alex de Carvalho, Isabelle Dautriche, Isabelle Lin, Anne Christophe
This study examined whether phrasal prosody can impact toddlers' syntactic analysis. French noun-verb homophones were used to create locally ambiguous test sentences (e.g., using the homophone as a noun: [le bébésouris] [a bien mangé] - [the baby mouse] [ate well] or using it as a verb: [le bébé] [sourità sa maman] - [the baby] [smiles to his mother], where brackets indicate prosodic phrase boundaries). Although both sentences start with the same words (le-bebe-/suʁi/), they can be disambiguated by the prosodic boundary that either directly precedes the critical word /suʁi/ when it is a verb, or directly follows it when it is a noun...
March 10, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285237/an-adaptive-cue-combination-model-of-human-spatial-reorientation
#7
Yang Xu, Terry Regier, Nora S Newcombe
Previous research has proposed an adaptive cue combination view of the development of human spatial reorientation (Newcombe & Huttenlocher, 2006), whereby information from multiple sources is combined in a weighted fashion in localizing a target, as opposed to being modular and encapsulated (Hermer & Spelke, 1996). However, no prior work has formalized this proposal and tested it against existing empirical data. We propose a computational model of human spatial reorientation that is motivated by probabilistic approaches to optimal perceptual cue integration (e...
March 9, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273520/sequential-congruency-effects-reveal-differences-in-disengagement-of-attention-for-monolingual-and-bilingual-young-adults
#8
John G Grundy, Ashley Chung-Fat-Yim, Deanna C Friesen, Lorinda Mak, Ellen Bialystok
Three studies examined the hypothesis that bilinguals can more rapidly disengage attention from irrelevant information than monolinguals by investigating the impact of previous trial congruency on performance in a simple flanker task. In Study 1, monolingual and bilingual young adults completed two versions of a flanker task. There were no differences between language groups on mean reaction time using standard analyses for congruent or incongruent trials or the size of the flanker effect. Sequential congruency effects (SCEs) however, which account for previous trial congruency, were smaller for bilinguals than for monolinguals...
March 5, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273519/long-live-the-king-beginnings-loom-larger-than-endings-of-past-and-recurrent-events
#9
Karl Halvor Teigen, Gisela Böhm, Susanne Bruckmüller, Peter Hegarty, Olivier Luminet
Events are temporal "figures", which can be defined as identifiable segments in time, bounded by beginnings and endings. But the functions and importance of these two boundaries differ. We argue that beginnings loom larger than endings by attracting more attention, being judged as more important and interesting, warranting more explanation, and having more causal power. This difference follows from a lay notion that additions (the introduction of something new) imply more change and demand more effort than do subtractions (returning to a previous state of affairs)...
March 5, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273518/does-everyone-have-a-price-on-the-role-of-payoff-magnitude-for-ethical-decision-making
#10
Benjamin E Hilbig, Isabel Thielmann
Most approaches to dishonest behavior emphasize the importance of corresponding payoffs, typically implying that dishonesty might increase with increasing incentives. However, prior evidence does not appear to confirm this intuition. However, extant findings are based on relatively small payoffs, the potential effects of which are solely analyzed across participants. In two experiments, we used different multi-trial die-rolling paradigms designed to investigate dishonesty at the individual level (i.e., within participants) and as a function of the payoffs at stake - implementing substantial incentives exceeding 100€...
March 5, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254617/expectancy-violations-promote-learning-in-young-children
#11
Aimee E Stahl, Lisa Feigenson
Children, including infants, have expectations about the world around them, and produce reliable responses when these expectations are violated. However, little is known about how such expectancy violations affect subsequent cognition. Here we tested the hypothesis that violations of expectation enhance children's learning. In four experiments we compared 3- to 6-year-old children's ability to learn novel words in situations that defied versus accorded with their core knowledge of object behavior. In Experiments 1 and 2 we taught children novel words following one of two types of events...
February 27, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249658/from-good-institutions-to-generous-citizens-top-down-incentives-to-cooperate-promote-subsequent-prosociality-but-not-norm-enforcement
#12
Michael N Stagnaro, Antonio A Arechar, David G Rand
What makes people willing to pay costs to help others, and to punish others' selfishness? Why does the extent of such behaviors vary markedly across cultures? To shed light on these questions, we explore the role of formal institutions in shaping individuals' prosociality and punishment. In Study 1 (N=707), American participants who reported living under higher quality cooperation-enforcing institutions (police and courts) gave significantly more in a Dictator Game (DG), but did not punish significantly more in a Third-Party Punishment Game (TPPG)...
February 26, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242344/mutual-intentions-as-a-causal-framework-for-social-groups
#13
Alexander Noyes, Yarrow Dunham
Children's early emerging intuitive theories are specialized for different conceptual domains. Recently attention has turned to children's concepts of social groups, finding that children believe that many social groups mark uniquely social information such as allegiances and obligations. But another critical component of intuitive theories, the causal beliefs that underlie category membership, has received less attention. We propose that children believe membership in these groups is constituted by mutual intentions: i...
February 24, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242345/retrieval-induced-forgetting-is-retrieval-modality-specific-evidence-from-motor-memory
#14
Tobias Tempel, Christian Frings
Three experiments examined the impact of matching retrieval modality at retrieval practice and at test on retrieval-induced forgetting. Participants learned sequential finger movements to be performed either with the left or with the right index finger. Subsequently, they selectively practiced half the items of one hand. A final recall test then assessed memory for all initially learned items. We contrasted different retrieval modalities. In Experiment 1, retrieval practice pertained to motor responses in one experimental condition but it pertained to visual sequence displays in another condition...
February 23, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235663/the-perceptual-and-phenomenal-capacity-of-mental-imagery
#15
Rebecca Keogh, Joel Pearson
Despite the brain's immense processing power, it has finite resources. Where do these resource limits come from? Little research has examined possible low-level sensory contributions to these limitations. Mental imagery is a fundamental part of human cognition that bridges cognition with sensory representations. Hence, imagery serves as a good candidate sensory process for probing how low capacity limitations might extend down the processing hierarchy. Here we introduce a novel technique to measure the sensory capacity of mental imagery, while removing the need for memory and any direct subjective reports...
February 21, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235664/alignability-based-free-categorization
#16
John P Clapper
Much evidence suggests that real-world natural kinds are based on overall similarity or family resemblance, but people often appear surprisingly insensitive to family resemblance in laboratory studies of sorting or free categorization. In such experiments, all stimuli generally vary along the same discretely-varying dimensions and family resemblance is defined in terms of the proportion of matching or mismatching values along those dimensions. This article argues for an alternative conception of family resemblance based on structural alignability, i...
February 18, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219035/conceptualizing-agency-folkpsychological-and-folkcommunicative-perspectives-on-plants
#17
Bethany L Ojalehto, Douglas L Medin, Salino G García
The present research addresses cultural variation in concepts of agency. Across two experiments, we investigate how Indigenous Ngöbe of Panama and US college students interpret and make inferences about nonhuman agency, focusing on plants as a critical test case. In Experiment 1, participants predicted goal-directed actions for plants and other nonhuman kinds and judged their capacities for intentional agency. Goal-directed action is pervasive among living kinds and as such we expected cultural agreement on these predictions...
February 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219036/-i-use-it-when-i-see-it-the-role-of-development-and-experience-in-deaf-and-hearing-children-s-understanding-of-iconic-gesture
#18
Rachel W Magid, Jennie E Pyers
Iconicity is prevalent in gesture and in sign languages, yet the degree to which children recognize and leverage iconicity for early language learning is unclear. In Experiment 1 of the current study, we presented sign-naïve 3-, 4- and 5-year-olds (n=87) with iconic shape gestures and no additional scaffolding to ask whether children can spontaneously map iconic gestures to their referents. Four- and five-year-olds, but not three-year-olds, recognized the referents of iconic shape gestures above chance. Experiment 2 asked whether preschoolers (n=93) show an advantage in fast-mapping iconic gestures compared to arbitrary ones...
February 16, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212897/representing-composed-meanings-through-temporal-binding
#19
Hugh Rabagliati, Leonidas A A Doumas, Douglas K Bemis
A key feature of human thought and language is compositionality, the ability to bind pre-existing concepts or word meanings together in order to express new ideas. Here we ask how newly composed complex concepts are mentally represented and matched to the outside world, by testing whether it is harder to verify if a picture matches the meaning of a phrase, like big pink tree, than the meaning of a single word, like tree. Five sentence-picture verification experiments provide evidence that, in fact, the meaning of a phrase can often be checked just as fast as the meaning of one single word (and sometimes faster), indicating that the phrase's constituent concepts can be represented and checked in parallel...
February 14, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212896/having-control-over-the-external-world-increases-the-implicit-sense-of-agency
#20
Brianna Beck, Steven Di Costa, Patrick Haggard
The sense of agency refers to the feeling of control over one's actions, and, through them, over external events. One proposed marker of implicit sense of agency is 'intentional binding'-the tendency to perceive voluntary actions and their outcomes as close in time. Another is attenuation of the sensory consequences of a voluntary action. Here we show that the ability to choose an outcome through action selection contributes to implicit sense of agency. We measured intentional binding and stimulus intensity ratings using painful and non-painful somatosensory outcomes...
February 14, 2017: Cognition
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