journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cognition

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235663/the-perceptual-and-phenomenal-capacity-of-mental-imagery
#1
Rebecca Keogh, Joel Pearson
Despite the brain's immense processing power, it has finite resources. Where do these resource limits come from? Little research has examined possible low-level sensory contributions to these limitations. Mental imagery is a fundamental part of human cognition that bridges cognition with sensory representations. Hence, imagery serves as a good candidate sensory process for probing how low capacity limitations might extend down the processing hierarchy. Here we introduce a novel technique to measure the sensory capacity of mental imagery, while removing the need for memory and any direct subjective reports...
February 21, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235664/alignability-based-free-categorization
#2
John P Clapper
Much evidence suggests that real-world natural kinds are based on overall similarity or family resemblance, but people often appear surprisingly insensitive to family resemblance in laboratory studies of sorting or free categorization. In such experiments, all stimuli generally vary along the same discretely-varying dimensions and family resemblance is defined in terms of the proportion of matching or mismatching values along those dimensions. This article argues for an alternative conception of family resemblance based on structural alignability, i...
February 18, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219035/conceptualizing-agency-folkpsychological-and-folkcommunicative-perspectives-on-plants
#3
Bethany L Ojalehto, Douglas L Medin, Salino G García
The present research addresses cultural variation in concepts of agency. Across two experiments, we investigate how Indigenous Ngöbe of Panama and US college students interpret and make inferences about nonhuman agency, focusing on plants as a critical test case. In Experiment 1, participants predicted goal-directed actions for plants and other nonhuman kinds and judged their capacities for intentional agency. Goal-directed action is pervasive among living kinds and as such we expected cultural agreement on these predictions...
February 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219036/-i-use-it-when-i-see-it-the-role-of-development-and-experience-in-deaf-and-hearing-children-s-understanding-of-iconic-gesture
#4
Rachel W Magid, Jennie E Pyers
Iconicity is prevalent in gesture and in sign languages, yet the degree to which children recognize and leverage iconicity for early language learning is unclear. In Experiment 1 of the current study, we presented sign-naïve 3-, 4- and 5-year-olds (n=87) with iconic shape gestures and no additional scaffolding to ask whether children can spontaneously map iconic gestures to their referents. Four- and five-year-olds, but not three-year-olds, recognized the referents of iconic shape gestures above chance. Experiment 2 asked whether preschoolers (n=93) show an advantage in fast-mapping iconic gestures compared to arbitrary ones...
February 16, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212897/representing-composed-meanings-through-temporal-binding
#5
Hugh Rabagliati, Leonidas A A Doumas, Douglas K Bemis
A key feature of human thought and language is compositionality, the ability to bind pre-existing concepts or word meanings together in order to express new ideas. Here we ask how newly composed complex concepts are mentally represented and matched to the outside world, by testing whether it is harder to verify if a picture matches the meaning of a phrase, like big pink tree, than the meaning of a single word, like tree. Five sentence-picture verification experiments provide evidence that, in fact, the meaning of a phrase can often be checked just as fast as the meaning of one single word (and sometimes faster), indicating that the phrase's constituent concepts can be represented and checked in parallel...
February 14, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212896/having-control-over-the-external-world-increases-the-implicit-sense-of-agency
#6
Brianna Beck, Steven Di Costa, Patrick Haggard
The sense of agency refers to the feeling of control over one's actions, and, through them, over external events. One proposed marker of implicit sense of agency is 'intentional binding'-the tendency to perceive voluntary actions and their outcomes as close in time. Another is attenuation of the sensory consequences of a voluntary action. Here we show that the ability to choose an outcome through action selection contributes to implicit sense of agency. We measured intentional binding and stimulus intensity ratings using painful and non-painful somatosensory outcomes...
February 14, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196767/keep-flexible-keep-switching-the-influence-of-forced-task-switching-on-voluntary-task-switching
#7
Kerstin Fröber, Gesine Dreisbach
Goal directed behavior depends on a dynamic balance between cognitive flexibility and stability. Identifying factors that modulate the balance between these control states is therefore of major interest for the understanding of human action control. In two experiments we used a hybrid paradigm combining forced- and free-choice task switching and measured spontaneous voluntary switch rate (VSR) as an indicator of cognitive flexibility. In Experiment 1 participants were free to choose a given task on 75%, 50%, or 25% of all trials...
February 11, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196766/projecting-the-self-outside-the-body-body-representations-underlying-proprioceptive-imagery
#8
Nataşa Ganea, Matthew R Longo
Recent research has shown that proprioception relies on distorted representations of body size and shape. By asking participants to localise multiple landmarks on their occluded hand, perceptual maps of hand size and shape can be constructed and compared to actual hand structure. These maps are different from the actual size and shape of the occluded hand, revealing underestimation of finger length and overestimation of hand width. Here we tested whether the same distorted body model underlies proprioceptive imagery (i...
February 11, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196765/visual-illusion-of-tool-use-recalibrates-tactile-perception
#9
Luke E Miller, Matthew R Longo, Ayse P Saygin
Brief use of a tool recalibrates multisensory representations of the user's body, a phenomenon called tool embodiment. Despite two decades of research, little is known about its boundary conditions. It has been widely argued that embodiment requires active tool use, suggesting a critical role for somatosensory and motor feedback. The present study used a visual illusion to cast doubt on this view. We used a mirror-based setup to induce a visual experience of tool use with an arm that was in fact stationary...
February 11, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189035/current-evidence-for-automatic-theory-of-mind-processing-in-adults
#10
Dana Schneider, Virginia P Slaughter, Paul E Dux
Theory of Mind (ToM) is thought to play a key role in social information processing as it refers to the ability of individuals to represent the mental states of others (e.g., intentions, desires, beliefs). A provocative hypothesis has been put forward which espouses the existence of two ToM systems: one that is implicit and involves the automatic analysis of the belief states of others and another that is not automatic and is involved in explicitly reasoning about others' mental states. Recently, Phillips et al...
February 8, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189034/direct-and-indirect-influences-of-executive-functions-on-mathematics-achievement
#11
Lucy Cragg, Sarah Keeble, Sophie Richardson, Hannah E Roome, Camilla Gilmore
Achievement in mathematics is predicted by an individual's domain-specific factual knowledge, procedural skill and conceptual understanding as well as domain-general executive function skills. In this study we investigated the extent to which executive function skills contribute to these three components of mathematical knowledge, whether this mediates the relationship between executive functions and overall mathematics achievement, and if these relationships change with age. Two hundred and ninety-three participants aged between 8 and 25years completed a large battery of mathematics and executive function tests...
February 8, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187352/the-double-identity-of-doubling-evidence-for-the-phonology-morphology-split
#12
Iris Berent, Outi Bat-El, Vered Vaknin-Nusbaum
Duality of patterning, is, by hypothesis, a universal design feature of language. Every language constructs words from meaningful units (morphemes), which, in turn, are comprised of meaningless phonological elements (e.g., segments, syllables). But whether the language faculty does, in fact, include a separate morphological level, distinct from the phonology, is a matter of controversy. To elucidate the role of morphology, here we ask whether morphological forms are constrained by putatively universal combinatorial principles, distinct from those applying to phonological patterns...
February 7, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187323/suppressing-memories-of-words-and-familiar-objects-results-in-their-affective-devaluation-evidence-from-think-no-think-tasks
#13
David De Vito, Mark J Fenske
Potentially distracting or otherwise-inappropriate stimuli, thoughts, or actions often must be inhibited to prevent interference with goal-directed behaviour. Growing evidence suggests that the impact of inhibition is not limited to reduced neurocognitive processing, but also includes negative affective consequences for any associated stimuli. The link between inhibition and aversive response has primarily been studied using tasks involving attentional- or response-related inhibition of external sensory stimuli...
February 7, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167396/musical-friends-and-foes-the-social-cognition-of-affiliation-and-control-in-improvised-interactions
#14
Jean-Julien Aucouturier, Clément Canonne
A recently emerging view in music cognition holds that music is not only social and participatory in its production, but also in its perception, i.e. that music is in fact perceived as the sonic trace of social relations between a group of real or virtual agents. While this view appears compatible with a number of intriguing music cognitive phenomena, such as the links between beat entrainment and prosocial behaviour or between strong musical emotions and empathy, direct evidence is lacking that listeners are at all able to use the acoustic features of a musical interaction to infer the affiliatory or controlling nature of an underlying social intention...
February 2, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161595/religious-beliefs-are-factual-beliefs-content-does-not-correlate-with-context-sensitivity
#15
Neil Levy
Neil Van Leeuwen argues that religious beliefs are not factual beliefs: typically, at least, they are attitudes of a different type. He argues that they exhibit much more sensitivity to context than factual beliefs: outside of contexts in which they are salient, they do not govern behaviour or inference, or provide background assumptions for cognition. This article surveys a large range of data to show that the kind of context sensitivity that Van Leeuwen thinks is the province of religious beliefs does not correlate with belief content...
February 2, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157584/normality-and-actual-causal-strength
#16
Thomas F Icard, Jonathan F Kominsky, Joshua Knobe
Existing research suggests that people's judgments of actual causation can be influenced by the degree to which they regard certain events as normal. We develop an explanation for this phenomenon that draws on standard tools from the literature on graphical causal models and, in particular, on the idea of probabilistic sampling. Using these tools, we propose a new measure of actual causal strength. This measure accurately captures three effects of normality on causal judgment that have been observed in existing studies...
February 1, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159315/moral-empiricism-and-the-bias-for-act-based-rules
#17
Alisabeth Ayars, Shaun Nichols
Previous studies on rule learning show a bias in favor of act-based rules, which prohibit intentionally producing an outcome but not merely allowing the outcome. Nichols, Kumar, Lopez, Ayars, and Chan (2016) found that exposure to a single sample violation in which an agent intentionally causes the outcome was sufficient for participants to infer that the rule was act-based. One explanation is that people have an innate bias to think rules are act-based. We suggest an alternative empiricist account: since most rules that people learn are act-based, people form an overhypothesis (Goodman, 1955) that rules are typically act-based...
January 31, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135575/chimpanzees-process-structural-isomorphisms-across-sensory-modalities
#18
Andrea Ravignani, Ruth Sonnweber
Evolution has shaped animal brains to detect sensory regularities in environmental stimuli. In addition, many species map one-dimensional quantities across sensory modalities, such as conspecific faces to voices, or high-pitched sounds to bright light. If basic patterns like repetitions and identities are frequently perceived in different sensory modalities, it could be advantageous to detect cross-modal isomorphisms, i.e. develop modality-independent representations of structural features, exploitable in visual, tactile, and auditory processing...
January 27, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129890/children-are-sensitive-to-norms-of-giving
#19
Katherine McAuliffe, Nichola J Raihani, Yarrow Dunham
People across societies engage in costly sharing, but the extent of such sharing shows striking cultural variation, highlighting the importance of local norms in shaping generosity. Despite this acknowledged role for norms, it is unclear when they begin to exert their influence in development. Here we use a Dictator Game to investigate the extent to which 4- to 9-year-old children are sensitive to selfish (give 20%) and generous (give 80%) norms. Additionally, we varied whether children were told how much other children give (descriptive norm) or what they should give according to an adult (injunctive norm)...
January 24, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110237/undoing-the-past-in-order-to-lie-in-the-present-counterfactual-thinking-and-deceptive-communication
#20
Raluca A Briazu, Clare R Walsh, Catherine Deeprose, Giorgio Ganis
This paper explores the proposal that there is a close link between counterfactual thinking and lying. Both require the imagination of alternatives to reality and we describe four studies which explore this link. In Study 1 we measured individual differences in both abilities and found that individuals with a tendency to generate counterfactual thoughts were also more likely to generate potential lies. Studies 2 and 3 showed that counterfactual availability influences people's ability to come up with lies and the extent to which they expect others to lie...
January 19, 2017: Cognition
journal
journal
23176
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"