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Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118966/learning-to-focus-on-number
#1
Manuela Piazza, Vito De Feo, Stefano Panzeri, Stanislas Dehaene
With age and education, children become increasingly accurate in processing numerosity. This developmental trend is often interpreted as a progressive refinement of the mental representation of number. Here we provide empirical and theoretical support for an alternative possibility, the filtering hypothesis, which proposes that development primarily affects the ability to focus on the relevant dimension of number and to avoid interference from irrelevant but often co-varying quantitative dimensions. Data from the same numerical comparison task in adults and children of various levels of numeracy, including Mundurucú Indians and western dyscalculics, show that, as predicted by the filtering hypothesis, age and education primarily increase the ability to focus on number and filter out potentially interfering information on the non-numerical dimensions...
August 14, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107256/people-are-averse-to-machines-making-moral-decisions
#2
Yochanan E Bigman, Kurt Gray
Do people want autonomous machines making moral decisions? Nine studies suggest that that the answer is 'no'-in part because machines lack a complete mind. Studies 1-6 find that people are averse to machines making morally-relevant driving, legal, medical, and military decisions, and that this aversion is mediated by the perception that machines can neither fully think nor feel. Studies 5-6 find that this aversion exists even when moral decisions have positive outcomes. Studies 7-9 briefly investigate three potential routes to increasing the acceptability of machine moral decision-making: limiting the machine to an advisory role (Study 7), increasing machines' perceived experience (Study 8), and increasing machines' perceived expertise (Study 9)...
August 11, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103208/anchoring-is-amodal-evidence-from-a-signed-language
#3
Qatherine Andan, Outi Bat-El, Diane Brentari, Iris Berent
Across languages, certain linguistic forms are systematically preferred to others (e.g. bla > lba). But whether these preferences concern abstract constraints on language structure, generally, or whether these restrictions only apply to speech is unknown. To address this question, here we ask whether linguistic constraints previously identified in spoken languages apply to signs. One such constraint, ANCHORING, restricts the structure of reduplicated forms (AB → ABB, not ABA). In two experiments, native ASL signers rated the acceptability of novel reduplicated forms that either violated ANCHORING (ABA) or obeyed it (ABB)...
August 10, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103033/greater-reliance-on-the-eye-region-predicts-better-face-recognition-ability
#4
Jessica Royer, Caroline Blais, Isabelle Charbonneau, Karine Déry, Jessica Tardif, Brad Duchaine, Frédéric Gosselin, Daniel Fiset
Interest in using individual differences in face recognition ability to better understand the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms supporting face processing has grown substantially in recent years. The goal of this study was to determine how varying levels of face recognition ability are linked to changes in visual information extraction strategies in an identity recognition task. To address this question, fifty participants completed six tasks measuring face and object processing abilities. Using the Bubbles method (Gosselin & Schyns, 2001), we also measured each individual's use of visual information in face recognition...
August 10, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099365/beyond-unpleasantness-social-exclusion-affects-the-experience-of-pain-but-not-of-equally-unpleasant-disgust
#5
Lia Antico, Amelie Guyon, Zainab K Mohamed, Corrado Corradi-Dell'Acqua
Seminal theories posit that social and physical suffering underlie partly-common representational code. It is unclear, however, if this shared information reflects a modality-specific component of pain, or alternatively a supramodal code for properties common to many aversive experiences (unpleasantness, salience, etc.). To address this issue, we engaged participants in a gaming experience in which they were excluded or included by virtual players. After each game session, participants were subjected to comparably-unpleasant painful or disgusting stimuli...
August 9, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098471/the-latent-structure-of-spatial-skill-a-test-of-the-2-%C3%A3-2-typology
#6
Kelly S Mix, David Z Hambrick, V Rani Satyam, Alexander P Burgoyne, Susan C Levine
Multiple frameworks for categorizing spatial abilities exist but it has been difficult to verify them using exploratory factor analysis. The present study tested one of these frameworks-a 2 × 2 classification scheme that crossed the dimensions of static/dynamic and intrinsic/extrinsic (Uttal et al., 2013)-using confirmatory factor analysis with data on spatial performance from kindergarten (N = 251), third grade (N = 246) and sixth grade students (N = 241). For kindergarten and third grade students, four models were tested at each grade level: A 1-factor model, two 2-factor models (one static vs...
August 8, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096483/subconscious-processing-reveals-dissociable-contextual-modulations-of-visual-size-perception
#7
Lihong Chen, Congying Qiao, Ying Wang, Yi Jiang
Visual size perception is highly context-dependent. In a series of experiments reported here, we demonstrated that the contextual modulation of visual size processing could occur independent of conscious awareness. Specifically, the Ebbinghaus illusion, which is mediated by lateral connections within the early visual processing stream, persisted even when the surrounding inducers were rendered invisible. Moreover, when the central target was initially interocularly suppressed, the identical target emerged from suppression faster when surrounded by small relative to large inducers, with the suppression time difference well predicted by the strength of the illusion...
August 7, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096482/identifying-others-informative-intentions-from-movement-kinematics
#8
Luke McEllin, Natalie Sebanz, Günther Knoblich
Previous research has demonstrated that people can reliably distinguish between actions with different instrumental intentions on the basis of the kinematic signatures of these actions (Cavallo, Koul, Ansuini, Capozzi, & Becchio, 2016). It has also been demonstrated that different informative intentions result in distinct action kinematics (McEllin, Knoblich, & Sebanz, 2017). However, it is unknown whether people can discriminate between instrumental actions and actions performed with an informative intention, and between actions performed with different informative intentions, on the basis of kinematic cues produced in these actions...
August 7, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092461/mnemonic-accessibility-affects-statement-believability-the-effect-of-listening-to-others-selectively-practicing-beliefs
#9
Madalina Vlasceanu, Alin Coman
Belief endorsement is rarely a fully deliberative process. Oftentimes, one's beliefs are influenced by superficial characteristics of the belief evaluation experience. Here, we show that by manipulating the mnemonic accessibility of particular beliefs we can alter their believability. We use a well-established socio-cognitive paradigm (i.e., the social version of the selective practice paradigm) to increase the mnemonic accessibility of some beliefs and induce forgetting in others. We find that listening to a speaker selectively practicing beliefs results in changes in believability...
August 6, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092460/event-segmentation-cross-linguistic-differences-in-verbal-and-non-verbal-tasks
#10
Johannes Gerwien, Christiane von Stutterheim
Events, as fundamental units in human perception and cognition, are limited by quality changes of objects over time. In the present study, we investigate the role of language in shaping event units. Given fundamental cross-linguistic differences in the concepts encoded in the verb, as in French compared to German, event unit formation was tested for motion events in a verbal (online event description, experiment 1), as well as a non-verbal task (Newtson-test, experiment 2). In German, motion and direction are described by a single assertion, i...
August 6, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081374/attention-capture-is-temporally-stable-evidence-from-mixed-model-correlations
#11
Hanna Weichselbaum, Christoph Huber-Huber, Ulrich Ansorge
Studies on domain-specific expertise in visual attention, on its cognitive enhancement, or its pathology require individually reliable measurement of visual attention. Yet, the reliability of the most widely used reaction time (RT) differences measuring visual attention is in doubt or unknown. Therefore, we used novel methods of analyses based on linear mixed models (LMMs) and tested the temporal stability, as one index of reliability, of three attentional RT effects in the popular additional-singleton research protocol: (1) bottom-up, (2) top-down, and (3) memory-driven (intertrial priming) influences on attention capture effects...
August 3, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077822/motor-simulation-of-multiple-observed-actions
#12
Emiel Cracco, Marcel Brass
Research has shown that observed actions are represented in the motor system, leading to automatic imitative responses. However, in social life, we often see multiple persons acting together. Here, we use an automatic imitation paradigm with four stimulus hands to investigate the hypothesis that multiple observed actions can be represented at the same time in the motor system. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed weaker automatic imitation when one hand performed a different action than the other three hands, compared with when three or four hands all performed the same action...
August 2, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075345/unconscious-memory-suppression
#13
Alexandre Salvador, Lucie Berkovitch, Fabien Vinckier, Laurent Cohen, Lionel Naccache, Stanislas Dehaene, Raphaël Gaillard
Recent evidence suggests that high-level executive control can occur unconsciously. In this study, we tested whether unconscious executive control extends to memory retrieval and forgetting. In a first experiment, participants learned word-word associations and were trained to either actively recall or forget theses associations in response to conscious visual cues (Think/No-Think paradigm). Then, the very same cues were subliminally presented while participants were performing a grammatical gender categorization task on distinct word pairs...
July 31, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055339/learning-to-measure-through-action-and-gesture-children-s-prior-knowledge-matters
#14
Eliza L Congdon, Mee-Kyoung Kwon, Susan C Levine
Learning through physical action with mathematical manipulatives is an effective way to help children acquire new ideas and concepts. Gesture is a type of physical action, but it differs from other kinds of actions in that it does not involve interacting directly with external objects. As such, gesture provides an interesting comparison to action-on-objects and allows us to identify the circumstances under which gesture versus interaction with objects (and the associated effects on the external world) may be differentially beneficial to learning...
July 25, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055338/when-do-circumstances-excuse-moral-prejudices-and-beliefs-about-the-true-self-drive-preferences-for-agency-minimizing-explanations
#15
Simon Cullen
When explaining human actions, people usually focus on a small subset of potential causes. What leads us to prefer certain explanations for valenced actions over others? The present studies indicate that our moral attitudes often predict our explanatory preferences far better than our beliefs about how causally sensitive actions are to features of the actor's environment. Study 1 found that high-prejudice participants were much more likely to endorse non-agential explanations of an erotic same-sex encounter, such as that one of the men endured a stressful event earlier that day...
July 25, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055337/context-mitigates-crowding-peripheral-object-recognition-in-real-world-images
#16
Maarten W A Wijntjes, Ruth Rosenholtz
Object recognition is often conceived of as proceeding by segmenting an object from its surround, then integrating its features. In turn, peripheral vision's sensitivity to clutter, known as visual crowding, has been framed as due to a failure to restrict that integration to features belonging to the object. We hand-segment objects from their background, and find that rather than helping peripheral recognition, this impairs it when compared to viewing the object in its real-world context. Context is in fact so important that it alone (no visible target object) is just as informative, in our experiments, as seeing the object alone...
July 25, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053570/grounding-the-neurobiology-of-language-in-first-principles-the-necessity-of-non-language-centric-explanations-for-language-comprehension
#17
Uri Hasson, Giovanna Egidi, Marco Marelli, Roel M Willems
Recent decades have ushered in tremendous progress in understanding the neural basis of language. Most of our current knowledge on language and the brain, however, is derived from lab-based experiments that are far removed from everyday language use, and that are inspired by questions originating in linguistic and psycholinguistic contexts. In this paper we argue that in order to make progress, the field needs to shift its focus to understanding the neurobiology of naturalistic language comprehension. We present here a new conceptual framework for understanding the neurobiological organization of language comprehension...
July 24, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053569/expectation-affects-learning-and-modulates-memory-experience-at-retrieval
#18
Alex Kafkas, Daniela Montaldi
Our ability to make predictions and monitor regularities has a profound impact on the way we perceive the environment, but the effect this mechanism has on memory is not well understood. In four experiments, we explored the effects on memory of the expectation status of information at encoding or at retrieval. In a rule-learning task participants learned a contingency relationship between 6 different symbols and the type of stimulus that followed each one. Either at encoding (Experiments 1a and 1b) or at retrieval (Experiments 2a and 2b), the established relationship was violated for a subset of stimuli resulting in the presentation of both expected and unexpected stimuli...
July 24, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30029067/typical-visual-field-locations-facilitate-access-to-awareness-for-everyday-objects
#19
Daniel Kaiser, Radoslaw M Cichy
In real-world vision, humans are constantly confronted with complex environments that contain a multitude of objects. These environments are spatially structured, so that objects have different likelihoods of appearing in specific parts of the visual space. Our massive experience with such positional regularities prompts the hypothesis that the processing of individual objects varies in efficiency across the visual field: when objects are encountered in their typical locations (e.g., we are used to seeing lamps in the upper visual field and carpets in the lower visual field), they should be more efficiently perceived than when they are encountered in atypical locations (e...
July 17, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30015211/intuitive-statistical-inferences-in-chimpanzees-and-humans-follow-weber-s-law
#20
Johanna Eckert, Josep Call, Jonas Hermes, Esther Herrmann, Hannes Rakoczy
Humans and nonhuman great apes share a sense for intuitive statistical reasoning, making intuitive probability judgments based on proportional information. This ability is of fundamental importance, in particular for inferring general regularities from finite numbers of observations and, vice versa, for predicting the outcome of single events using prior information. To date it remains unclear which cognitive mechanism underlies and enables this capacity. The aim of the present study was to gain deeper insights into the cognitive structure of intuitive statistics by probing its signatures in chimpanzees and humans...
July 13, 2018: Cognition
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