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Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913319/naturalistic-multiattribute-choice
#1
Sudeep Bhatia, Neil Stewart
We study how people evaluate and aggregate the attributes of naturalistic choice objects, such as movies and food items. Our approach applies theories of object representation in semantic memory research to large-scale crowd-sourced data, to recover multiattribute representations for common choice objects. We then use standard choice experiments to test the predictive power of various decision rules for weighting and aggregating these multiattribute representations. Our experiments yield three novel conclusions: 1...
June 15, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909281/basic-functional-trade-offs-in-cognition-an-integrative-framework
#2
Marco Del Giudice, Bernard J Crespi
Trade-offs between advantageous but conflicting properties (e.g., speed vs. accuracy) are ubiquitous in cognition, but the relevant literature is conceptually fragmented, scattered across disciplines, and has not been organized in a coherent framework. This paper takes an initial step toward a general theory of cognitive trade-offs by examining four key properties of goal-directed systems: performance, efficiency, robustness, and flexibility. These properties define a number of basic functional trade-offs that can be used to map the abstract "design space" of natural and artificial cognitive systems...
June 14, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909280/the-influence-of-articulation-dynamics-on-recognition-memory
#3
Berit Lindau, Sascha Topolinski
Previous research has demonstrated an effect of consonantal direction on preference, showing that words following inward articulation dynamics (e.g., EMOK or OPIK) are generally liked more than words following outward dynamics (e.g., EKOM or OKIP). The present studies extended this line of research by hypothesizing an effect of consonantal direction on recognition memory, specifically familiarity. In a total of 7 experimental studies (N = 1043), we tested and confirmed this hypothesis, consistently finding increased hits and false alarms for inward compared to outward pseudo-words...
June 14, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902629/nonword-repetition-depends-on-the-frequency-of-sublexical-representations-at-different-grain-sizes-evidence-from-a-multi-factorial-analysis
#4
Jakub M Szewczyk, Marta Marecka, Shula Chiat, Zofia Wodniecka
The nonword repetition task (NWR) has been widely used in basic cognitive and clinical research, as well as in clinical assessment, and has been proposed as a clinical marker for Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Yet the mechanisms underlying performance on this task are not clear. This study offers insights into these mechanisms through a comprehensive examination of item-related variables identified in previous research as possibly contributing to NWR scores and through testing the predictive power of each in relation to the others...
June 11, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894867/attenuation-of-visual-evoked-responses-to-hand-and-saccade-initiated-flashes
#5
Nathan G Mifsud, Tom Beesley, Tamara L Watson, Ruth B Elijah, Tegan S Sharp, Thomas J Whitford
Sensory attenuation refers to reduced brain responses to self-initiated sensations relative to those produced by the external world. It is a low-level process that may be linked to higher-level cognitive tasks such as reality monitoring. The phenomenon is often explained by prediction error mechanisms of universal applicability to sensory modality; however, it is most widely reported for auditory stimuli resulting from self-initiated hand movements. The present series of event-related potential (ERP) experiments explored the generalizability of sensory attenuation to the visual domain by exposing participants to flashes initiated by either their own button press or volitional saccade and comparing these conditions to identical, computer-initiated stimuli...
June 9, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886094/the-grasping-side-of-post-error-slowing
#6
Francesco Ceccarini, Umberto Castiello
A common finding across many speeded reaction time (RT) tasks is that people tend to respond more slowly after making an error. This phenomenon, known as post-error slowing (PES), has been traditionally hypothesized to reflect a strategic increase in response caution, aimed at preventing the occurrence of new errors. However, this interpretation of PES has been challenged on multiple fronts. Firstly, recent investigations have suggested that errors may produce a decrement in performance accuracy and that PES might occur because error processing has a detrimental effect on subsequent information processing...
June 7, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886058/a-mechanism-for-spatial-perception-on-human-skin
#7
Francesca Fardo, Brianna Beck, Tony Cheng, Patrick Haggard
Our perception of where touch occurs on our skin shapes our interactions with the world. Most accounts of cutaneous localisation emphasise spatial transformations from a skin-based reference frame into body-centred and external egocentric coordinates. We investigated another possible method of tactile localisation based on an intrinsic perception of 'skin space'. The arrangement of cutaneous receptive fields (RFs) could allow one to track a stimulus as it moves across the skin, similarly to the way animals navigate using path integration...
June 7, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886057/experience-aptitude-and-individual-differences-in-native-language-ultimate-attainment
#8
Ewa Dąbrowska
Several recent studies have demonstrated that some native speakers do not fully master some fairly basic grammatical constructions of their language, thus challenging the widely-held assumption that all native speakers converge on the same grammar. This study investigates the extent of individual differences in adult native speakers' knowledge of a range of constructions as well as vocabulary size and collocational knowledge, and explores the relationship between these three aspects of linguistic knowledge and four nonlinguistic predictors: nonverbal IQ, language aptitude, print exposure and education...
June 7, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886056/grammatical-licensing-and-relative-clause-parsing-in-a-flexible-word-order-language
#9
Matthew W Wagers, Manuel F Borja, Sandra Chung
Evidence from two experiments reveals that in Chamorro, a verb-first language, the comprehension of relative clauses (RCs) is sensitive to the order of the RC with respect to the head. Unlike most other languages, Chamorro allows both postnominal and prenominal RCs, so it is possible to compare how the two types are processed within the same language. Moreover, Chamorro is a small language whose speakers do not fit the typical profile of participants in cognitive science experiments. We found that RC comprehension is affected by the relative order of RC and head, and by other language-specific factors...
June 7, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885600/is-infant-directed-speech-interesting-because-it-is-surprising-linking-properties-of-ids-to-statistical-learning-and-attention-at-the-prosodic-level
#10
Okko Räsänen, Sofoklis Kakouros, Melanie Soderstrom
The exaggerated intonation and special rhythmic properties of infant-directed speech (IDS) have been hypothesized to attract infants' attention to the speech stream. However, there has been little work actually connecting the properties of IDS to models of attentional processing or perceptual learning. A number of such attention models suggest that surprising or novel perceptual inputs attract attention, where novelty can be operationalized as the statistical (un)predictability of the stimulus in the given context...
June 6, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879554/on-children-s-variable-success-with-scalar-inferences-insights-from-disjunction-in-the-scope-of-a-universal-quantifier
#11
Elena Pagliarini, Cory Bill, Jacopo Romoli, Lyn Tieu, Stephen Crain
Previous developmental studies have revealed variation in children's ability to compute scalar inferences. While children have been shown to struggle with standard scalar inferences (e.g., with scalar quantifiers like "some") (Chierchia, Crain, Guasti, Gualmini, & Meroni, 2001; Guasti et al., 2005; Noveck, 2001; Papafragou & Musolino, 2003), there is also a growing handful of inferences that children have been reported to derive quite readily (Barner & Bachrach, 2010; Hochstein, Bale, Fox, & Barner, 2016; Papafragou & Musolino, 2003; Singh, Wexler, Astle-Rahim, Kamawar, & Fox, 2016; Stiller, Goodman, & Frank, 2015; Tieu, Romoli, Zhou, & Crain, 2016; Tieu et al...
June 4, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860176/who-did-what-a-causal-role-for-cognitive-control-in-thematic-role-assignment-during-sentence-comprehension
#12
Malathi Thothathiri, Christine T Asaro, Nina S Hsu, Jared M Novick
Thematic role assignment - generally, figuring out who did what to whom - is a critical component of sentence comprehension, which is influenced by both syntactic and semantic cues. Conflict between these cues can result in temporary consideration of multiple incompatible interpretations during real-time sentence processing. We tested whether the resolution of syntax-semantics conflict can be expedited by the online engagement of cognitive control processes that are routinely used to regulate behavior across domains...
May 31, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857283/extremely-costly-intensifiers-are-stronger-than-quite-costly-ones
#13
Erin D Bennett, Noah D Goodman
We show that the wide range in strengths of intensifying degree adverbs (e.g. very and extremely) can be partly explained by pragmatic inference based on differing cost, rather than differing semantics. The pragmatic theory predicts a linear relationship between the meaning of intensifiers and their length and log-frequency. We first test this prediction in three studies, using two different dependent measures, finding that higher utterance cost (i.e. higher word length or surprisal) does predict stronger meanings...
May 29, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852427/your-visual-system-provides-all-the-information-you-need-to-make-moral-judgments-about-generic-visual-events
#14
Julian De Freitas, George A Alvarez
To what extent are people's moral judgments susceptible to subtle factors of which they are unaware? Here we show that we can change people's moral judgments outside of their awareness by subtly biasing perceived causality. Specifically, we used subtle visual manipulations to create visual illusions of causality in morally relevant scenarios, and this systematically changed people's moral judgments. After demonstrating the basic effect using simple displays involving an ambiguous car collision that ends up injuring a person (E1), we show that the effect is sensitive on the millisecond timescale to manipulations of task-irrelevant factors that are known to affect perceived causality, including the duration (E2a) and asynchrony (E2b) of specific task-irrelevant contextual factors in the display...
May 28, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852426/mistakes-weren-t-made-three-year-olds-comprehension-of-novel-verb-passives-provides-evidence-for-early-abstract-syntax
#15
Katherine Messenger, Cynthia Fisher
By about age three, English-learning children begin to understand passive sentences with familiar verbs. We probed the nature of children's linguistic representations by asking whether 3-year-olds promptly extend their emerging knowledge of the passive structure to novel verbs. In three preferential-looking experiments, 3-year-olds (N = 124) interpreted novel verbs presented in short passives (Experiment 1, "She's getting snedded!") as transitive verbs, referring to causal-action rather than solo-action events, and used word-order in full passives, (Experiments 2 and 3, e...
May 28, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852425/-ir-rational-choices-of-humans-rhesus-macaques-and-capuchin-monkeys-in-dynamic-stochastic-environments
#16
Julia Watzek, Sarah F Brosnan
Human and animal decision-making is known to violate rational expectations in a variety of contexts. Previous models suggest that statistical structures of real-world environments can favor such seemingly irrational behavior, but this has not been tested empirically. We tested 16 capuchin monkeys, seven rhesus monkeys, and 30 humans in a computerized experiment that implemented such stochastic environments. Subjects chose from among up to three options of different value that disappeared and became available again with different probabilities...
May 28, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852424/joint-action-coordination-in-expert-novice-pairs-can-experts-predict-novices-suboptimal-timing
#17
Thomas Wolf, Natalie Sebanz, Günther Knoblich
Previous research has established that skilled joint action partners use predictive models to achieve temporal coordination, for instance, when playing a music duet. But how do joint action partners with different skill levels achieve coordination? Can experts predict the suboptimal timing of novices? What kind of information allows them to predict novices' timing? To address these questions, we asked skilled pianists to perform duets with piano novices. We varied whether, prior to performing duets, experts were familiar with novices' performances of their individual parts of the duets and whether experts had access to the musical scores including the novices' part of the duet...
May 28, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29842989/when-learning-goes-beyond-statistics-infants-represent-visual-sequences-in-terms-of-chunks
#18
Lauren K Slone, Scott P Johnson
Much research has documented infants' sensitivity to statistical regularities in auditory and visual inputs, however the manner in which infants process and represent statistically defined information remains unclear. Two types of models have been proposed to account for this sensitivity: statistical models, which posit that learners represent statistical relations between elements in the input; and chunking models, which posit that learners represent statistically-coherent units of information from the input...
May 26, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29842988/moral-hindsight-for-good-actions-and-the-effects-of-imagined-alternatives-to-reality
#19
Ruth M J Byrne, Shane Timmons
Five experiments identify an asymmetric moral hindsight effect for judgments about whether a morally good action should have been taken, e.g., Ann should run into traffic to save Jill who fell before an oncoming truck. Judgments are increased when the outcome is good (Jill sustained minor bruises), as Experiment 1 shows; but they are not decreased when the outcome is bad (Jill sustained life-threatening injuries), as Experiment 2 shows. The hindsight effect is modified by imagined alternatives to the outcome: judgments are amplified by a counterfactual that if the good action had not been taken, the outcome would have been worse, and diminished by a semi-factual that if the good action had not been taken, the outcome would have been the same...
May 26, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793110/remembrance-of-inferences-past-amortization-in-human-hypothesis-generation
#20
Ishita Dasgupta, Eric Schulz, Noah D Goodman, Samuel J Gershman
Bayesian models of cognition assume that people compute probability distributions over hypotheses. However, the required computations are frequently intractable or prohibitively expensive. Since people often encounter many closely related distributions, selective reuse of computations (amortized inference) is a computationally efficient use of the brain's limited resources. We present three experiments that provide evidence for amortization in human probabilistic reasoning. When sequentially answering two related queries about natural scenes, participants' responses to the second query systematically depend on the structure of the first query...
May 21, 2018: Cognition
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