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Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092773/how-does-a-newly-encountered-face-become-familiar-the-effect-of-within-person-variability-on-adults-and-children-s-perception-of-identity
#1
Kristen A Baker, Sarah Laurence, Catherine J Mondloch
Adults and children aged 6years and older easily recognize multiple images of a familiar face, but often perceive two images of an unfamiliar face as belonging to different identities. Here we examined the process by which a newly encountered face becomes familiar, defined as accurate recognition of multiple images that capture natural within-person variability in appearance. In Experiment 1 we examined whether exposure to within-person variability in appearance helps children learn a new face. Children aged 6-13years watched a 10-min video of a woman reading a story; she was filmed on a single day (low variability) or over three days, across which her appearance and filming conditions (e...
January 13, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088714/children-s-and-adults-use-of-verbal-information-to-visually-anticipate-others-actions-a-study-on-explicit-and-implicit-social-cognitive-processing
#2
Markus Paulus, Tobias Schuwerk, Beate Sodian, Kerstin Ganglmayer
According to recent theories, social cognition is based on two different types of information-processing; an implicit or action-based one and an explicit or verbal one. The present study examined whether implicit and explicit social-cognitive information processing interact with each other by investigating young children's and adults' use of verbal (i.e., explicit) information to predict others' actions. Employing eye-tracking to measure anticipatory eye-movements as a measure of implicit processing, Experiment 1 presented 1...
January 12, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088713/the-effects-of-utterance-timing-and-stimulation-of-left-prefrontal-cortex-on-the-production-of-referential-expressions
#3
Jennifer E Arnold, Nazbanou Nozari
We examined the relationship between the timing of utterance initiation and the choice of referring expressions, e.g., pronouns (it), zeros (…and went down), or descriptive NPs (the pink pentagon). We examined language production in healthy adults, and used anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to test the involvement of the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the timing of utterance production and the selection of reference forms in a discourse context. Twenty-two subjects (11 anodal, 11sham) described fast-paced actions, e...
January 12, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088712/a-referential-theory-of-the-repetition-induced-truth-effect
#4
Christian Unkelbach, Sarah C Rom
People are more likely to judge repeated statements as true compared to new statements, a phenomenon known as the illusory truth effect. The currently dominant explanation is an increase in processing fluency caused by prior presentation. We present a new theory to explain this effect. We assume that people judge truth based on coherent references for statements in memory. Due to prior presentation, repeated statements have more coherently linked references; thus, a repetition-induced truth effect follows. Five experiments test this theory...
January 12, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088702/the-social-nature-of-overimitation-insights-from-autism-and-williams-syndrome
#5
Giacomo Vivanti, Darren R Hocking, Peter Fanning, Cheryl Dissanayake
When imitating novel actions, typically developing preschoolers often copy components of the demonstration that are unrelated to the modeled action's goal, a phenomenon known as 'overimitation'. According to the social motivation account, overimitation fulfills social affiliation motives (i.e., the imitator's drive to experience social connectedness with the demonstrator and the social context). Conversely, according to the social-cognitive account, overimitation reflects overattribution of causal relevance (i...
January 12, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088701/testing-the-causal-theory-of-reference
#6
Filippo Domaneschi, Massimiliano Vignolo, Simona Di Paola
Theories of reference are a crucial research topic in analytic philosophy. Since the publication of Kripke's Naming and Necessity, most philosophers have endorsed the causal/historical theory of reference. The goal of this paper is twofold: (i) to discuss a method for testing experimentally the causal theory of reference for proper names by investigating linguistic usage and (ii) to present the results from two experiments conducted with that method. Data collected in our experiments confirm the causal theory of reference for people proper names and for geographical proper names...
January 12, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088040/listen-up-developmental-differences-in-the-impact-of-ids-on-speech-segmentation
#7
Melanie S Schreiner, Nivedita Mani
While American English infants typically segment words from fluent speech by 7.5-months, studies of infants from other language backgrounds have difficulty replicating this finding. One possible explanation for this cross-linguistic difference is that the input infants from different language backgrounds receive is not as infant-directed as American English infant-directed speech (Floccia et al., 2016). Against this background, the current study investigates whether German 7.5- and 9-month-old infants segment words from fluent speech when the input is prosodically similar to American English IDS...
January 11, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088039/read-my-lips-visual-speech-influences-word-processing-in-infants
#8
Drew Weatherhead, Katherine S White
What do infants hear when they read lips? In the present study, twelve-to-thirteen-month-old infants viewed a talking face produce familiar and unfamiliar words. The familiar words were of three types: in Experiment 1, they were produced correctly (e.g., "bottle"); in Experiment 2, infants saw and heard mispronunciations in which the altered phoneme either visually resembled the original phoneme (visually consistent, e.g. "pottle"), or did not visually resemble the original phoneme (visually inconsistent, e...
January 11, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081516/autism-does-not-limit-strategic-thinking-in-the-beauty-contest-game
#9
Peter C Pantelis, Daniel P Kennedy
A popular hypothesis in developmental psychology is that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a specific impairment or developmental delay in their ability to reason about other people's mental processes, especially when this reasoning process is of a higher-order, recursive, or nested variety. One type of interpersonal interaction that involves this sort of complex reasoning about others' minds is an economic game, and because economic games have been extensively modeled in behavioral economics, they provide a unique testbed for a quantitative and precise analysis of cognitive functioning in ASD...
January 9, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068528/a-dissociation-between-small-and-large-numbers-in-young-children-s-ability-to-solve-for-x-in-non-symbolic-math-problems
#10
Melissa M Kibbe, Lisa Feigenson
Solving for an unknown addend in problems like 5+x=17 is challenging for children. Yet, previous work (Kibbe & Feigenson, 2015) found that even before formal math education, young children, aged 4- to 6-years, succeeded when problems were presented using non-symbolic collections of objects rather than symbolic digits. This reveals that the Approximate Number System (ANS) can support pre-algebraic intuitions. Here, we asked whether children also could intuitively "solve for x" when problems contained arrays of four or fewer objects that encouraged representations of individual objects instead of ANS representations...
January 6, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056385/prior-conscious-experience-enhances-conscious-perception-but-does-not-affect-response-priming%C3%A2
#11
Dominique Lamy, Tomer Carmel, Ziv Peremen
Recent research shows that prior experience and expectations strongly enhance a visual stimulus' access to conscious awareness. However, whether such advance knowledge also influences this stimulus' indirect impact on behavior is poorly understood. The resolution of this question has the potential of providing strong tests between current models of conscious perception because these diverge on whether a factor that affects conscious access by a stimulus necessarily also affects the strength of this stimulus' representation and hence, its indirect impact on behavior...
January 2, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049041/non-uniform-transformation-of-subjective-time-during-action-preparation
#12
Miho Iwasaki, Kodai Tomita, Yasuki Noguchi
Although many studies have reported a distortion of subjective (internal) time during preparation and execution of actions, it is highly controversial whether actions cause a dilation or compression of time. In the present study, we tested a hypothesis that the previous controversy (dilation vs. compression) partly resulted from a mixture of two types of sensory inputs on which a time length was estimated; some studies asked subjects to measure the time of presentation for a single continuous stimulus (stimulus period, e...
December 31, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043026/venturing-into-the-uncanny-valley-of-mind-the-influence-of-mind-attribution-on-the-acceptance-of-human-like-characters-in-a-virtual-reality-setting
#13
Jan-Philipp Stein, Peter Ohler
For more than 40years, the uncanny valley model has captivated researchers from various fields of expertise. Still, explanations as to why slightly imperfect human-like characters can evoke feelings of eeriness remain the subject of controversy. Many experiments exploring the phenomenon have emphasized specific visual factors in connection to evolutionary psychological theories or an underlying categorization conflict. More recently, studies have also shifted away focus from the appearance of human-like entities, instead exploring their mental capabilities as basis for observers' discomfort...
December 30, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040551/six-month-old-infants-expect-agents-to-minimize-the-cost-of-their-actions
#14
Shari Liu, Elizabeth S Spelke
Substantial evidence indicates that infants expect agents to move directly to their goals when no obstacles block their paths, but the representations that articulate this expectation and its robustness have not been characterized. Across three experiments (total N=60), 6-month-old infants responded to a novel, curvilinear action trajectory on the basis of its efficiency, in accord with the expectation that an agent will move to its goal on the least costly path that the environment affords. Infants expected minimally costly action when presented with a novel constraint, and extended this expectation to agents who had previously acted inefficiently...
December 29, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039783/not-so-fast-fast-speech-correlates-with-lower-lexical-and-structural-information
#15
Uriel Cohen Priva
Speakers dynamically adjust their speech rate throughout conversations. These adjustments have been linked to cognitive and communicative limitations: for example, speakers speak words that are contextually unexpected (and thus add more information) with slower speech rates. This raises the question whether limitations of this type vary wildly across speakers or are relatively constant. The latter predicts that across speakers (or conversations), speech rate and the amount of information content are inversely correlated: on average, speakers can either provide high information content or speak quickly, but not both...
December 28, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039782/reduced-sensitivity-to-social-priors-during-action-prediction-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#16
Valerian Chambon, Chlöé Farrer, Elisabeth Pacherie, Pierre O Jacquet, Marion Leboyer, Tiziana Zalla
An extensive amount of evidence has documented a diminished ability to predict and understand other people's action in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Recently, two theoretical accounts, the "Hypo-priors" and the "Aberrant precision" hypotheses, have suggested that attenuated Bayesian priors or an imbalance of the precision ascribed to sensory evidence relative to prior expectations may be responsible for the atypical perceptual experience and difficulties with action understanding in ASD...
December 28, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024170/reaction-time-profiles-of-adults-action-prediction-reveal-two-mindreading-systems
#17
Katheryn Edwards, Jason Low
Human beings are able to quickly step into others' shoes to predict peoples' actions. There is little consensus over how this cognitive feat might be accomplished. We tested the hypotheses that an efficient, but inflexible, mindreading system gives rise to appropriate reaction time facilitation in a standard unexpected transfer task, but not in a task involving an identity component. We created a new behavioural paradigm where adults had to quickly select whether an actor would reach, or not reach, for an object based on the actor's false belief about the object's location...
December 23, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010879/explaining-the-moral-of-the-story
#18
Caren M Walker, Tania Lombrozo
Although storybooks are often used as pedagogical tools for conveying moral lessons to children, the ability to spontaneously extract "the moral" of a story develops relatively late. Instead, children tend to represent stories at a concrete level - one that highlights surface features and understates more abstract themes. Here we examine the role of explanation in 5- and 6-year-old children's developing ability to learn the moral of a story. Two experiments demonstrate that, relative to a control condition, prompts to explain aspects of a story facilitate children's ability to override salient surface features, abstract the underlying moral, and generalize that moral to novel contexts...
December 20, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007293/centripetal-and-centrifugal-forces-in-the-moral-circle-competing-constraints-on-moral-learning
#19
Jesse Graham, Adam Waytz, Peter Meindl, Ravi Iyer, Liane Young
The idea of the moral circle pictures the self in the center, surrounded by concentric circles encompassing increasingly distant possible targets of moral concern, including family, local community, nation, all humans, all mammals, all living things including plants, and all things including inanimate objects. The authors develop the idea of two opposing forces in people's moral circles, with centripetal forces pulling inward, urging greater concern for close others than for distant others, and centrifugal forces pushing outward, resisting "drawing the line" anywhere as a form of prejudice and urging egalitarian concern for all regardless of social distance...
December 19, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871623/modeling-the-n400-erp-component-as-transient-semantic-over-activation-within-a-neural-network-model-of-word-comprehension
#20
Samuel J Cheyette, David C Plaut
The study of the N400 event-related brain potential has provided fundamental insights into the nature of real-time comprehension processes, and its amplitude is modulated by a wide variety of stimulus and context factors. It is generally thought to reflect the difficulty of semantic access, but formulating a precise characterization of this process has proved difficult. Laszlo and colleagues (Laszlo & Plaut, 2012; Laszlo & Armstrong, 2014) used physiologically constrained neural networks to model the N400 as transient over-activation within semantic representations, arising as a consequence of the distribution of excitation and inhibition within and between cortical areas...
November 18, 2016: Cognition
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