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Ariel Starr, Nicholas K DeWind, Elizabeth M Brannon
Numerical acuity, frequently measured by a Weber fraction derived from nonsymbolic numerical comparison judgments, has been shown to be predictive of mathematical ability. However, recent findings suggest that stimulus controls in these tasks are often insufficiently implemented, and the proposal has been made that alternative visual features or inhibitory control capacities may actually explain this relation. Here, we use a novel mathematical algorithm to parse the relative influence of numerosity from other visual features in nonsymbolic numerical discrimination and to examine the strength of the relations between each of these variables, including inhibitory control, and mathematical ability...
July 14, 2017: Cognition
Joshua Snell, Jonathan Grainger
A sentence superiority effect was investigated using post-cued word-in-sequence identification with the rapid parallel visual presentation (RPVP) of four horizontally aligned words. The four words were presented for 200ms followed by a post-mask and cue for partial report. They could form a grammatically correct sentence or were formed of the same words in a scrambled agrammatical sequence. Word identification was higher in the syntactically correct sequences, and crucially, this sentence superiority effect did not vary as a function of the target's position in the sequence...
July 13, 2017: Cognition
Andreas Sotiropoulos, J Richard Hanley
The hallmark of developmental surface dyslexia in English and French is inaccurate reading of words with atypical spelling-sound correspondences. According to Douklias, Masterson and Hanley (2009), surface dyslexia can also be observed in Greek (a transparent orthography for reading that does not contain words of this kind). Their findings suggested that surface dyslexia in Greek can be characterized by slow reading of familiar words, and by inaccurate spelling of words with atypical sound-spelling correspondences (Greek is less transparent for spelling than for reading)...
July 12, 2017: Cognition
Árni Gunnar Ásgeirsson, Sander Nieuwenhuis
Arousal sometimes enhances and sometimes impairs perception and memory. A recent theory attempts to reconcile these findings by proposing that arousal amplifies the competition between stimulus representations, strengthening already strong representations and weakening already weak representations. Here, we report a stringent test of this arousal-biased competition theory in the context of focused visuospatial attention. Participants were required to identify a briefly presented target in the context of multiple distractors, which varied in the degree to which they competed for representation with the target, as revealed by psychophysics...
July 11, 2017: Cognition
Franziska Plessow, Susann Schade, Clemens Kirschbaum, Rico Fischer
In highly complex task situations (dual tasking) stressed individuals have been shown to adapt the most resource-efficient task processing strategy, accepting costs of performance. We argue that an interpretation of this behavior in terms of a stress-induced impairment of cognitive control might be too simplified. In the present study, we therefore tested whether stressed individuals are still capable to up-regulate cognitive control when instructed to adapt more resource-intensive strategies, enabling preservation of task performance...
July 10, 2017: Cognition
Devin B Terhune, Love R A Hedman
A disruption in the sense of agency is the primary phenomenological feature of response to hypnotic suggestions but its cognitive basis remains elusive. Here we tested the proposal that distorted volition during response to suggestions arises from poor metacognition pertaining to the sources of one's control. Highly suggestible and control participants completed a motor task in which performance was reduced through surreptitious manipulations of cursor lag and stimuli speed. Highly suggestible participants did not differ from controls in performance or metacognition of performance, but their sense of agency was less sensitive to cursor lag manipulations, suggesting reduced awareness that their control was being manipulated...
July 10, 2017: Cognition
Stefania Pighin, Vittorio Girotto, Katya Tentori
Zhu and Gigerenzer (2006) showed that an appreciable number of Chinese children aged between 9 and 12years old made correct quantitative Bayesian inferences requiring the integration of priors and likelihoods as long as they were presented with numerical information phrased in terms of natural frequencies. In this study, we sought to replicate this finding and extend the investigation of children's Bayesian reasoning to a different numerical format (chances) and other probability questions (distributive and relative)...
July 7, 2017: Cognition
Brandon M Woo, Conor M Steckler, Doan T Le, J Kiley Hamlin
Whereas adults largely base their evaluations of others' actions on others' intentions, a host of research in developmental psychology suggests that younger children privilege outcome over intention, leading them to condemn accidental harm. To date, this question has been examined only with children capable of language production. In the current studies, we utilized a non-linguistic puppet show paradigm to examine the evaluation of intentional and accidental acts of helping or harming in 10-month-old infants...
July 5, 2017: Cognition
Frederik S Kamps, Joshua B Julian, Peter Battaglia, Barbara Landau, Nancy Kanwisher, Daniel D Dilks
Prior work suggests that our understanding of how things work ("intuitive physics") and how people work ("intuitive psychology") are distinct domains of human cognition. Here we directly test the dissociability of these two domains by investigating knowledge of intuitive physics and intuitive psychology in adults with Williams syndrome (WS) - a genetic developmental disorder characterized by severely impaired spatial cognition, but relatively spared social cognition. WS adults and mental-age matched (MA) controls completed an intuitive physics task and an intuitive psychology task...
July 3, 2017: Cognition
Jessica Podda, Caterina Ansuini, Roberta Vastano, Andrea Cavallo, Cristina Becchio
Observation of others' actions has been proposed to provide a shared experience of the properties of objects acted upon. We report results that suggest a similar form of shared experience may be gleaned from the observation of pantomimed grasps, i.e., grasps aimed at pretended objects. In a weight judgment task, participants were asked to observe a hand reaching towards and grasping either a real or imagined glass, and to predictively judge its weight. Results indicate that participants were able to discriminate whether the to-be-grasped glass was empty, and thus light, or full, and thus heavy...
July 1, 2017: Cognition
Yanliang Sun, Timo Stein, Wenjie Liu, Xiaowei Ding, Qi-Yang Nie
Biological motion (BM) is one of the most important social cues for detecting conspecifics, prey, and predators. We show that unconscious BM processing can reflexively direct spatial attention, and that this effect has a biphasic temporal profile. Participants responded to probes that were preceded by intact or scrambled BM cues rendered invisible through continuous flash suppression. With a short inter-stimulus interval (ISI, 100ms) between the invisible BM cues and the probe, responses to probes at the same location as the invisible, nonpredictive BM cue were faster than to probes at the location of the scrambled BM cue...
June 30, 2017: Cognition
Aaron Sell, Daniel Sznycer, Laith Al-Shawaf, Julian Lim, Andre Krauss, Aneta Feldman, Ruxandra Rascanu, Lawrence Sugiyama, Leda Cosmides, John Tooby
According to the recalibrational theory of anger, anger is a computationally complex cognitive system that evolved to bargain for better treatment. Anger coordinates facial expressions, vocal changes, verbal arguments, the withholding of benefits, the deployment of aggression, and a suite of other cognitive and physiological variables in the service of leveraging bargaining position into better outcomes. The prototypical trigger of anger is an indication that the offender places too little weight on the angry individual's welfare when making decisions, i...
June 29, 2017: Cognition
Dekel Abeles, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
During visual exploration of a scene, the eye-gaze tends to be directed toward more salient image-locations, containing more information. However, while performing non-visual tasks, such information-seeking behavior could be detrimental to performance, as the perception of irrelevant but salient visual input may unnecessarily increase the cognitive-load. It would be therefore beneficial if during non-visual tasks, eye-gaze would be governed by a drive to reduce saliency rather than maximize it. The current study examined the phenomenon of gaze-aversion during non-visual tasks, which is hypothesized to act as an active avoidance mechanism...
June 27, 2017: Cognition
Gaëlle Meert, Jessica Wang, Dana Samson
A growing body of evidence suggests that adults can monitor other people's beliefs in an efficient way. However, the nature and the limits of efficient belief tracking are still being debated. The present study addressed these issues by testing (a) whether adults spontaneously process other people's beliefs when overt task instructions assign priority to participants' own belief, (b) whether this processing relies on low-level associative processes and (c) whether the propensity to track other people's beliefs is linked to empathic disposition...
June 27, 2017: Cognition
Alan Jern, Christopher G Lucas, Charles Kemp
People are capable of learning other people's preferences by observing the choices they make. We propose that this learning relies on inverse decision-making-inverting a decision-making model to infer the preferences that led to an observed choice. In Experiment 1, participants observed 47 choices made by others and ranked them by how strongly each choice suggested that the decision maker had a preference for a specific item. An inverse decision-making model generated predictions that were in accordance with participants' inferences...
June 26, 2017: Cognition
Laura Verga, Sonja A Kotz
A major challenge in second language acquisition is to build up new vocabulary. How is it possible to identify the meaning of a new word among several possible referents? Adult learners typically use contextual information, which reduces the number of possible referents a new word can have. Alternatively, a social partner may facilitate word learning by directing the learner's attention toward the correct new word meaning. While much is known about the role of this form of 'joint attention' in first language acquisition, little is known about its efficacy in second language acquisition...
June 25, 2017: Cognition
Maryam Vaziri-Pashkam, Sarah Cormiea, Ken Nakayama
To study how people anticipate others' actions, we designed a competitive reaching task. Subjects faced each other separated by a Plexiglas screen and their finger movements in 3D space were recorded with sensors. The first subject (Attacker) was instructed to touch one of two horizontally arranged targets on the screen. The other subject (Blocker) touched the same target as quickly as possible. Average finger reaction times (fRTs) were fast, much faster than reactions to a dot moving on the screen in the same manner as the Attacker's finger...
June 23, 2017: Cognition
Céline Ngon, Sharon Peperkamp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Cognition
Geoffrey Fisher
In order to make good decisions, individuals need to identify and properly integrate information about various attributes associated with a choice. Since choices are often complex and made rapidly, they are typically affected by contextual variables that are thought to influence how much attention is paid to different attributes. I propose a modification of the attentional drift-diffusion model, the binary-attribute attentional drift diffusion model (baDDM), which describes the choice process over simple binary-attribute choices and how it is affected by fluctuations in visual attention...
June 21, 2017: Cognition
Noemi Fariña, Jon Andoni Duñabeitia, Manuel Carreiras
Written language is very important in daily life. However, most deaf people do not achieve good reading levels compared to their hearing peers. Previous research has mainly focused on their difficulties when reading in a language with an opaque orthography such as English. In the present study, we investigated visual word recognition of deaf adult skilled readers while reading in Spanish, a language with a transparent orthography, for which obligatory phonological mediation has been claimed. Experiment 1 showed a pseudohomophone inhibitory effect in hearing but not in deaf people...
June 21, 2017: Cognition
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