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Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433835/the-relationship-between-pre-verbal-event-representations-and-semantic-structures-the-case-of-goal-and-source-paths
#1
Laura Lakusta, Danielle Spinelli, Kathryn Garcia
We explored the nature of infants' concepts for goal path and source path in motion events (e.g., the duck moved into the bowl/out of the bowl), specifically asking how infants' representations could support the acquisition of the semantic roles of goal path and source path in language. The results showed that 14.5-month-old infants categorized goal paths across different motion events (moving to X, moving on Y), and they also categorized source paths if the source reference objects were highly salient (relatively large in size and colorful)...
April 20, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431680/two-paradigms-for-religious-representation-the-physicist-and-the-playground-a-reply-to-levy
#2
Neil Van Leeuwen
In an earlier issue, I argue (2014) that psychology and epistemology should distinguish religious credence from factual belief. These are distinct cognitive attitudes. Levy (2017) rejects this distinction, arguing that both religious and factual "beliefs" are subject to "shifting" on the basis of fluency and "intuitiveness." Levy's theory, however, (1) is out of keeping with much research in cognitive science of religion and (2) misrepresents the notion of factual belief employed in my theory. So his claims don't undermine my distinction...
April 18, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431279/cognitive-control-in-action-tracking-the-dynamics-of-rule-switching-in-5-to-8-year-olds-and-adults
#3
Christopher D Erb, Jeff Moher, Joo-Hyun Song, David M Sobel
Recent studies have suggested that dissociable processes featuring distinct types of inhibition support cognitive control in tasks requiring participants to override a prepotent response with a control-demanding alternative response. An open question concerns how these processes support cognitive flexibility in rule-switching tasks. We used a technique known as reach tracking to investigate how 5- to 8-year-olds (Experiment 1) and adults (Experiment 2) select, maintain, and switch between incompatible rule sets in a computerized version of the Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS)...
April 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427031/executive-function-depletion-in-children-and-its-impact-on-theory-of-mind
#4
Lindsey J Powell, Susan Carey
The current studies provide an experimental, rather than correlational, method for testing hypotheses about the role of executive function (EF) in conceptual development. Previous research has established that adults' tendency to deploy EF can be temporarily diminished by use. Exercising self-control in one context decreases adults' performance on other EF demanding tasks immediately thereafter. Using two different depletion methods, Experiments 1 and 3 extend this finding to preschool-aged children. Experiments 2 and 4 make use of these EF depletion methods to elucidate the role of EF in children's theory of mind reasoning...
April 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427030/the-relationship-between-sign-production-and-sign-comprehension-what-handedness-reveals
#5
Freya Watkins, Robin L Thompson
Unlike the phonological loop in spoken language monitoring, sign language users' own production provides mostly proprioceptive feedback and only minimal visual feedback. Here we investigate whether sign production influences sign comprehension by exploiting hand dominance in a picture-sign matching task performed by left-handed signers and right-handed signers. Should all signers perform better to right-handed input, this would suggest that a frequency effect in sign perception drives comprehension. However, if signers perform better to congruent-handed input, this would implicate the production system's role in comprehension...
April 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412593/bootstrapping-language-acquisition
#6
Omri Abend, Tom Kwiatkowski, Nathaniel J Smith, Sharon Goldwater, Mark Steedman
The semantic bootstrapping hypothesis proposes that children acquire their native language through exposure to sentences of the language paired with structured representations of their meaning, whose component substructures can be associated with words and syntactic structures used to express these concepts. The child's task is then to learn a language-specific grammar and lexicon based on (probably contextually ambiguous, possibly somewhat noisy) pairs of sentences and their meaning representations (logical forms)...
April 13, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412592/infants-motor-simulation-of-observed-actions-is-modulated-by-the-visibility-of-the-actor-s-body
#7
Ty W Boyer, Samuel M Harding, Bennett I Bertenthal
Previous research suggests that 9-month-old infants will develop a response bias in the A-not-B search paradigm after only observing an experimenter search for a hidden object on A-trials. In the current experiment, we tested whether infants would persist in making errors when only the hands-and-arms of the experimenter were visible. Three different conditions were included: (1) the experimenter was silent while hiding and finding the object, (2) the experimenter communicated with the infant via infant-directed speech, or (3) the body of the experimenter was visible during the training phase before his head and body were occluded during the test phase...
April 13, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404207/moral-alchemy-how-love-changes-norms
#8
Rachel W Magid, Laura E Schulz
We discuss a process by which non-moral concerns (that is concerns agreed to be non-moral within a particular cultural context) can take on moral content. We refer to this phenomenon as moral alchemy and suggest that it arises because moral obligations of care entail recursively valuing loved ones' values, thus allowing propositions with no moral weight in themselves to become morally charged. Within this framework, we predict that when people believe a loved one cares about a behavior more than they do themselves, the moral imperative to care about the loved one's interests will raise the value of that behavior, such that people will be more likely to infer that third parties will see the behavior as wrong (Experiment 1) and the behavior itself as more morally important (Experiment 2) than when the same behaviors are considered outside the context of a caring relationship...
April 9, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395908/the-limits-of-early-social-evaluation-9-month-olds-fail-to-generate-social-evaluations-of-individuals-who-behave-inconsistently
#9
Conor M Steckler, Brandon M Woo, J Kiley Hamlin
Infant studies examining the development of the ability to evaluate others for their pro- and antisocial acts to date have explored how infants evaluate individuals who are either consistently prosocial or consistently antisocial. Yet in the real world, one regularly encounters individuals who behave inconsistently, engaging in multiple different kinds of behaviors that are variably prosocial and antisocial. In order to form accurate social evaluations of these inconsistently helpful and harmful individuals, then, evaluators must be able to aggregate across different types of behaviors and update previously formed evaluations based on new information...
April 7, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395907/emotion-based-learning-systems-and-the-development-of-morality
#10
R J R Blair
In this paper it is proposed that important components of moral development and moral judgment rely on two forms of emotional learning: stimulus-reinforcement and response-outcome learning. Data in support of this position will be primarily drawn from work with individuals with the developmental condition of psychopathy as well as fMRI studies with healthy individuals. Individuals with psychopathy show impairment on moral judgment tasks and a pronounced increased risk for instrumental antisocial behavior. It will be argued that these impairments are developmental consequences of impaired stimulus-aversive conditioning on the basis of distress cue reinforcers and response-outcome learning in individuals with this disorder...
April 7, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395153/auditory-morphological-processing-evidence-from-phonological-priming
#11
Hezekiah Akiva Bacovcin, Amy Goodwin Davies, Robert J Wilder, David Embick
Using an auditory lexical decision task, we find evidence of a facilitatory priming effect for morphologically complex targets (e.g., snow-ed) preceded by primes which rhyme with the target's stem (e.g., dough). By using rhyme priming, we are able to probe for morphological processing in a way that avoids confounds arising from semantic relatedness that are inherent to morphological priming (snow/snow-ed). Phonological control conditions (e.g., targets code and grove for prime dough) are used to rule out alternative interpretations of the effect that are based on partial rhyme or phonological embedding of the stem...
April 7, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391135/the-residual-protective-effects-of-enactment
#12
Jeffrey D Wammes, Myra A Fernandes
Research has demonstrated the importance of the quality of initial retrieval events (Test 1) for performance on later memory tests (Test 2). We explored whether enacting words at encoding, relative to simply reading them, provided protection against the detrimental effects of a degraded retrieval experience, through the addition of motor processing to the extant memory representation. Participants encoded a mixed list of enacted and read words, then completed Test 1, and a later Test 2. Encoding and Test 2 were always completed under full attention (FA)...
April 6, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391134/compensation-mechanisms-that-improve-distractor-filtering-are-short-lived
#13
Ayala S Allon, Roy Luria
We investigated possible compensation mechanisms for improving filtering of distractors from entering visual Working Memory (WM). Participants preformed a change-detection task in which three targets, six targets, or three targets along with three distractors (the filtering trial) were randomly presented. In six experiments, we tried to reduce the filtering cost, calculated as the difference in accuracy between the three targets and the filtering condition, by either cueing the possible locations of the distractors using placeholders (that could be either fixed throughout the experiment or change every trial; i...
April 6, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388968/ignoring-alarming-news-brings-indifference-learning-about-the-world-and-the-self
#14
Elizabeth Levy Paluck, Eldar Shafir, Sherry Jueyu Wu
The broadcast of media reports about moral crises such as famine can subtly depress rather than activate moral concern. Whereas much research has examined the effects of media reports that people attend to, social psychological analysis suggests that what goes unattended can also have an impact. We test the idea that when vivid news accounts of human suffering are broadcast in the background but ignored, people infer from their choice to ignore these accounts that they care less about the issue, compared to those who pay attention and even to those who were not exposed...
April 4, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384491/hierarchical-levels-of-representation-in-language-prediction-the-influence-of-first-language-acquisition-in-highly-proficient-bilinguals
#15
Nicola Molinaro, Francesco Giannelli, Sendy Caffarra, Clara Martin
Language comprehension is largely supported by predictive mechanisms that account for the ease and speed with which communication unfolds. Both native and proficient non-native speakers can efficiently handle contextual cues to generate reliable linguistic expectations. However, the link between the variability of the linguistic background of the speaker and the hierarchical format of the representations predicted is still not clear. We here investigate whether native language exposure to typologically highly diverse languages (Spanish and Basque) affects the way early balanced bilingual speakers carry out language predictions...
April 3, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371699/the-semantic-representation-of-prejudice-and-stereotypes
#16
Sudeep Bhatia
We use a theory of semantic representation to study prejudice and stereotyping. Particularly, we consider large datasets of newspaper articles published in the United States, and apply latent semantic analysis (LSA), a prominent model of human semantic memory, to these datasets to learn representations for common male and female, White, African American, and Latino names. LSA performs a singular value decomposition on word distribution statistics in order to recover word vector representations, and we find that our recovered representations display the types of biases observed in human participants using tasks such as the implicit association test...
March 31, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364713/variations-in-judgments-of-intentional-action-and-moral-evaluation-across-eight-cultures
#17
Erin Robbins, Jason Shepard, Philippe Rochat
Individuals tend to judge bad side effects as more intentional than good side effects (the Knobe or side-effect effect). Here, we assessed how widespread these findings are by testing eleven adult cohorts of eight highly contrasted cultures on their attributions of intentional action as well as ratings of blame and praise. We found limited generalizability of the original side-effect effect, and even a reversal of the effect in two rural, traditional cultures (Samoa and Vanuatu) where participants were more likely to judge the good side effect as intentional...
March 29, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363106/individual-differences-in-the-simon-effect-are-underpinned-by-differences-in-the-competitive-dynamics-in-the-basal-ganglia-an-experimental-verification-and-a-computational-model
#18
Andrea Stocco, Nicole L Murray, Brianna L Yamasaki, Taylor J Renno, Jimmy Nguyen, Chantel S Prat
Cognitive control is thought to be made possible by the activity of the prefrontal cortex, which selectively uses task-specific representations to bias the selection of task-appropriate responses over more automated, but inappropriate, ones. Recent models have suggested, however, that prefrontal representations are in turn controlled by the basal ganglia. In particular, neurophysiological considerations suggest that the basal ganglia's indirect pathway plays a pivotal role in preventing irrelevant information from being incorporated into a task, thus reducing response interference due to the processing of inappropriate stimuli dimensions...
March 28, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351662/learning-a-commonsense-moral-theory
#19
Max Kleiman-Weiner, Rebecca Saxe, Joshua B Tenenbaum
We introduce a computational framework for understanding the structure and dynamics of moral learning, with a focus on how people learn to trade off the interests and welfare of different individuals in their social groups and the larger society. We posit a minimal set of cognitive capacities that together can solve this learning problem: (1) an abstract and recursive utility calculus to quantitatively represent welfare trade-offs; (2) hierarchical Bayesian inference to understand the actions and judgments of others; and (3) meta-values for learning by value alignment both externally to the values of others and internally to make moral theories consistent with one's own attachments and feelings...
March 25, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346870/-to-the-victor-go-the-spoils-infants-expect-resources-to-align-with-dominance-structures
#20
Elizabeth A Enright, Hyowon Gweon, Jessica A Sommerville
Previous research has found that within the first year of life infants possess rich knowledge about social structures (i.e., that some individuals are dominant over other individuals) as well as expectations about resource distributions (i.e., that resources are typically distributed equally to recipients). We investigated whether infants' expectations about resource distribution can be modulated by information about the dominance structure between the recipients. We first replicated the finding that infants attribute a stable dominance hierarchy to a pair of individuals when their goals conflicted and one individual yielded to the other (Expt...
March 24, 2017: Cognition
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