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Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818790/effects-of-semantic-neighborhood-density-in-abstract-and-concrete-words
#1
Megan Reilly, Rutvik H Desai
Concrete and abstract words are thought to differ along several psycholinguistic variables, such as frequency and emotional content. Here, we consider another variable, semantic neighborhood density, which has received much less attention, likely because semantic neighborhoods of abstract words are difficult to measure. Using a corpus-based method that creates representations of words that emphasize featural information, the current investigation explores the relationship between neighborhood density and concreteness in a large set of English nouns...
August 14, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806722/spontaneous-modality-general-abstraction-of-a-ratio-scale
#2
Cory D Bonn, Jessica F Cantlon
The existence of a generalized magnitude system in the human mind and brain has been studied extensively but remains elusive because it has not been clearly defined. Here we show that one possibility is the representation of relative magnitudes via ratio calculations: ratios are a naturally dimensionless or abstract quantity that could qualify as a common currency for magnitudes measured on vastly different psychophysical scales and in different sensory modalities like size, number, duration, and loudness. In a series of demonstrations based on comparisons of item sequences, we demonstrate that subjects spontaneously use knowledge of inter-item ratios within and across sensory modalities and across magnitude domains to rate sequences as more or less similar on a sliding scale...
August 11, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803616/unfounded-dumbfounding-how-harm-and-purity-undermine-evidence-for-moral-dumbfounding
#3
Steve Guglielmo
Two paradigm-shifting ideas have gained widespread influence in current accounts of moral cognition: (a) that moral judgments are pluralistic, extending beyond domains of harm and fairness, and (b) that people's judgments are driven primarily by intuition, such that people are "morally dumbfounded" about the reasons behind their own judgments. An ongoing debate has emerged regarding the former claim of moral pluralism, with opposing sides in disagreement about whether moral judgments are best understood as reflecting multiple moral domains vs...
August 10, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803219/revealing-the-mechanisms-of-human-face-perception-using-dynamic-apertures
#4
Jennifer Murphy, Richard Cook
Faces are notoriously hard to perceive when turned upside-down. It is often claimed that perceptual decrements reflect a qualitative switch from parallel whole-face processing, to a serial analysis of individual features. To test this view, we examined observers' ability to categorize faces presented in their entirety, or viewed through a dynamic aperture that moved incrementally across the facial image. Exposing faces region-by-region disrupts holistic processing, but permits serial analysis of local features...
August 10, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803218/do-you-hear-feather-when-listening-to-rain-lexical-tone-activation-during-unconscious-translation-evidence-from-mandarin-english-bilinguals
#5
Xin Wang, Juan Wang, Jeffrey G Malins
Although lexical tone is a highly prevalent phonetic cue in human languages, its role in bilingual spoken word recognition is not well understood. The present study investigates whether and how adult bilinguals, who use pitch contours to disambiguate lexical items in one language but not the other, access a tonal L1 when exclusively processing a non-tonal L2. Using the visual world paradigm, we show that Mandarin-English listeners automatically activated Mandarin translation equivalents of English target words such as 'rain' (Mandarin 'yu3'), and consequently were distracted by competitors whose segments and tones overlapped with the translations of English target words ('feather', also 'yu3' in Mandarin)...
August 10, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802103/where-you-are-affects-what-you-can-easily-imagines-environmental-geometry-elicits-sensorimotor-interference-in-remote-perspective-taking
#6
Bernhard E Riecke, Timothy P McNamara
Imagined perspective switches are notoriously difficult, a fact often ascribed to sensorimotor interference between one's to-be-imagined versus actual orientation. Here, we demonstrate similar interference effects, even if participants know they are in a remote environment with unknown spatial relation to the learning environment. Participants learned 15 target objects irregularly arranged in an office from one orientation (0°, 120°, or 240°). Participants were blindfolded and disoriented before being wheeled to a test room of similar geometry (exp...
August 9, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800495/the-explanatory-effect-of-a-label-explanations-with-named-categories-are-more-satisfying
#7
Carly Giffin, Daniel Wilkenfeld, Tania Lombrozo
Can opium's tendency to induce sleep be explained by appeal to a "dormitive virtue"? If the label merely references the tendency being explained, the explanation seems vacuous. Yet the presence of a label could signal genuinely explanatory content concerning the (causal) basis for the property being explained. In Experiments 1 and 2, we find that explanations for a person's behavior that appeal to a named tendency or condition are indeed judged to be more satisfying than equivalent explanations that differ only in omitting the name...
August 8, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797935/children-s-collaboration-induces-fairness-rather-than-generosity
#8
John Corbit, Katherine McAuliffe, Tara C Callaghan, Peter R Blake, Felix Warneken
Children across diverse societies reject resource allocations that place them at a disadvantage (disadvantageous inequity aversion; DI). In certain societies, older children also reject advantageous allocations (advantageous inequity aversion; AI). Other work demonstrates that after collaboration, children reduce inequity by sharing. However, it is unknown whether collaboration leads to greater sharing because it encourages prosociality (Generosity Hypothesis) or because collaboration elicits stronger equitable tendencies (Equity Hypothesis)...
August 7, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783499/young-children-s-tool-innovation-across-culture-affordance-visibility-matters
#9
Karri Neldner, Ilana Mushin, Mark Nielsen
Young children typically demonstrate low rates of tool innovation. However, previous studies have limited children's performance by presenting tools with opaque affordances. In an attempt to scaffold children's understanding of what constitutes an appropriate tool within an innovation task we compared tools in which the focal affordance was visible to those in which it was opaque. To evaluate possible cultural specificity, data collection was undertaken in a Western urban population and a remote Indigenous community...
August 4, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772189/learning-abstract-visual-concepts-via-probabilistic-program-induction-in-a-language-of-thought
#10
Matthew C Overlan, Robert A Jacobs, Steven T Piantadosi
The ability to learn abstract concepts is a powerful component of human cognition. It has been argued that variable binding is the key element enabling this ability, but the computational aspects of variable binding remain poorly understood. Here, we address this shortcoming by formalizing the Hierarchical Language of Thought (HLOT) model of rule learning. Given a set of data items, the model uses Bayesian inference to infer a probability distribution over stochastic programs that implement variable binding...
July 31, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772188/spatial-representation-of-magnitude-in-gorillas-and-orangutans
#11
Regina Paxton Gazes, Rachel F L Diamond, Jasmine M Hope, Damien Caillaud, Tara S Stoinski, Robert R Hampton
Humans mentally represent magnitudes spatially; we respond faster to one side of space when processing small quantities and to the other side of space when processing large quantities. We determined whether spatial representation of magnitude is a fundamental feature of primate cognition by testing for such space-magnitude correspondence in gorillas and orangutans. Subjects picked the larger quantity in a pair of dot arrays in one condition, and the smaller in another. Response latencies to the left and right sides of the screen were compared across the magnitude range...
July 31, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756352/resolving-uncertainty-in-plural-predication
#12
Gregory Scontras, Noah D Goodman
Plural predications (e.g., "the boxes are heavy") are common sources of ambiguity in everyday language, allowing both distributive and collective interpretations (e.g., the boxes each are heavy vs. the boxes together are heavy). This paper investigates the role of context in the disambiguation of plural predication. We address the key phenomenon of "stubborn distributivity," whereby certain predicates (e.g., big, tall) are claimed to lack collective interpretations altogether. We first validate a new methodology for measuring the interpretation of plural predications...
July 27, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756351/linguistic-generalization-on-the-basis-of-function-and-constraints-on-the-basis-of-statistical-preemption
#13
Florent Perek, Adele E Goldberg
How do people learn to use language in creative but constrained ways? Experiment 1 investigates linguistic creativity by exposing adult participants to two novel word order constructions that differ in terms of their semantics: One construction exclusively describes actions that have a strong effect; the other construction describes actions with a weaker but otherwise similar effect. One group of participants witnessed novel verbs only appearing in one construction or the other, while another group witnessed a minority of verbs alternating between constructions...
July 27, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755538/how-ought-exceeds-but-implies-can-description-and-encouragement-in-moral-judgment
#14
John Turri
This paper tests a theory about the relationship between two important topics in moral philosophy and psychology. One topic is the function of normative language, specifically claims that one "ought" to do something. Do these claims function to describe moral responsibilities, encourage specific behavior, or both? The other topic is the relationship between saying that one "ought" to do something and one's ability to do it. In what respect, if any, does what one "ought" to do exceed what one "can" do? The theory tested here has two parts: (1) "ought" claims function to both describe responsibilities and encourage people to fulfill them (the dual-function hypothesis); (2) the two functions relate differently to ability, because the encouragement function is limited by the person's ability, but the descriptive function is not (the interaction hypothesis)...
July 26, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735177/the-visual-system-encodes-others-direction-of-gaze-in-a-first-person-frame-of-reference
#15
Colin J Palmer, Colin W G Clifford
The primate visual system contains specialised neural mechanisms for encoding the direction of others' gaze. A foundational question that we can ask in this domain concerns the frame of reference in which another person's gaze is represented. Electrophysiological recordings in macaque monkeys suggest that direction of gaze might be encoded relative to the observer (i.e., in a first person reference frame) or relative to the head or body of the stimulus (i.e., in a second person reference frame). Here we use sensory adaptation to gaze direction as a psychophysical tool to probe how this property of the environment is represented in the human visual system...
July 20, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732303/do-analog-number-representations-underlie-the-meanings-of-young-children-s-verbal-numerals
#16
Susan Carey, Anna Shusterman, Paul Haward, Rebecca Distefano
Children learn to count, and even learn the cardinal meanings of the first three or four verbal numerals ("one" through "three" or "four"), before they master the numerical significance of counting. If so, it follows that the cardinal meanings of those first few numerals cannot be derived, initially, from their place in the count list and the counting routine. What non-verbal representations, then, support the cardinal meanings of verbal numerals before children have mastered how counting does so? Four experiments addressed the commonly adopted assumption that in the earliest period of learning the meanings of number words, children map verbal numerals to regions of the analog number system (ANS), a system of representation with numerical content that is widely attested in animals and in human infants...
July 18, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732302/a-familiar-size-stroop-effect-in-the-absence-of-basic-level-recognition
#17
Bria Long, Talia Konkle
When we view a picture of an object, we automatically recognize what the object is and know how big it typically is in the world (Konkle & Oliva, 2012). Is information about an object's size activated only after we've identified the object, or can this size information be activated before object recognition even occurs? We previously found that big and small objects differ in mid-level perceptual features (Long, Konkle, Cohen, & Alvarez, 2016). Here we asked whether these perceptual features can automatically trigger real-world size processing, bypassing the need for basic-level object recognition...
July 18, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715669/the-contributions-of-numerical-acuity-and-non-numerical-stimulus-features-to-the-development-of-the-number-sense-and-symbolic-math-achievement
#18
Ariel Starr, Nicholas K DeWind, Elizabeth M Brannon
Numerical acuity, frequently measured by a Weber fraction derived from nonsymbolic numerical comparison judgments, has been shown to be predictive of mathematical ability. However, recent findings suggest that stimulus controls in these tasks are often insufficiently implemented, and the proposal has been made that alternative visual features or inhibitory control capacities may actually explain this relation. Here, we use a novel mathematical algorithm to parse the relative influence of numerosity from other visual features in nonsymbolic numerical discrimination and to examine the strength of the relations between each of these variables, including inhibitory control, and mathematical ability...
July 14, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711764/the-sentence-superiority-effect-revisited
#19
Joshua Snell, Jonathan Grainger
A sentence superiority effect was investigated using post-cued word-in-sequence identification with the rapid parallel visual presentation (RPVP) of four horizontally aligned words. The four words were presented for 200ms followed by a post-mask and cue for partial report. They could form a grammatically correct sentence or were formed of the same words in a scrambled agrammatical sequence. Word identification was higher in the syntactically correct sequences, and crucially, this sentence superiority effect did not vary as a function of the target's position in the sequence...
July 13, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710937/developmental-surface-and-phonological-dyslexia-in-both-greek-and-english
#20
Andreas Sotiropoulos, J Richard Hanley
The hallmark of developmental surface dyslexia in English and French is inaccurate reading of words with atypical spelling-sound correspondences. According to Douklias, Masterson and Hanley (2009), surface dyslexia can also be observed in Greek (a transparent orthography for reading that does not contain words of this kind). Their findings suggested that surface dyslexia in Greek can be characterized by slow reading of familiar words, and by inaccurate spelling of words with atypical sound-spelling correspondences (Greek is less transparent for spelling than for reading)...
July 12, 2017: Cognition
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