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Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787777/examination-of-the-effects-of-cannabinoid-ligands-on-decision-making-in-a-rat-gambling-task
#1
Jacqueline-Marie N Ferland, Madison Carr, Angela M Lee, Myrthe E Hoogeland, Catharine A Winstanley, Tommy Pattij
Although exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is perceived to be relatively harmless, mounting evidence has begun to show that it is associated with a variety of cognitive deficits, including poor decision making. THC-induced impairments in decision making are thought to be the result of cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation, and although clinical literature suggests that chronic activation via THC contributes to perturbations in decision making, acute CB1 receptor modulation has yielded mixed results...
May 19, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782943/effects-of-d-amphetamine-on-risk-choice-in-rats-depend-on-the-manner-in-which-the-expected-reward-value-is-varied
#2
Jen-Hau Yang, Chung-Ping Cheng, Ruey-Ming Liao
Decision making related to risks and rewards has been studied in the rodent by using several behavioral tests including the use of probability discounting tasks. However, it still remains unclear how long-term values and the different levels of risk are involved in decisions with reward uncertainty. In this study, we used a T-maze choice task to investigate the role of expected reward values in decision making under risk in the rat. The task was specifically set up to run with the expected value (EV) being equal to 1 between binary choice options (small-and-certain vs...
May 18, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782942/effects-of-light-and-dark-phase-testing-on-the-investigation-of-behavioural-paradigms-in-mice-relevance-for-behavioural-neuroscience
#3
Juliet Richetto, Marcello Polesel, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer
Different timing and light phases are critical factors in behavioural neuroscience, which can greatly affect the experimental outcomes of the performed tests. Despite the fact that time of testing is one of the most common factors that varies across behavioural laboratories, knowledge about the consequences of testing time on behavioural readouts is limited. Thus, in this study we systematically assessed the effect of this factor on the readout of a variety of elementary and recurrent behavioural paradigms in C57Bl/6 mice...
May 18, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782941/dopamine-and-serotonin-metabolism-associated-with-morphine-reward-and-its-inhibition-with-buspirone-a-study-in-the-rat-striatum
#4
Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem, Shazia Nawaz, Tabinda Salman
Adaptations within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate nucleus (CN) dopamine neurotransmission are involved in behavioral sensitization and enhanced incentive motivation towards drug paired stimuli which lead to drug addiction. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) can modulate dopamine neurotransmission to reduce rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. A recent study from our laboratory shows that rewarding effects of morphine are inhibited in rats co-treated with buspirone. To understand the neurochemical mechanism involved in morphine addiction and its inhibition with buspirone, present study determines the effects of buspirone, morphine and their co-administration on the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine in the NAc and CN...
May 18, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763644/immunomodulatory-effect-of-celecoxib-on-hmgb1-tlr4-pathway-in-a-recurrent-seizures-model-in-immature-rats
#5
Mariana Morales-Sosa, Sandra Orozco-Suárez, AngélicaVega-García, Sara Caballero-Chacón, Iris A Feria-Romero
Epileptic seizures constitute an important problem in pediatric neurology during the developmental period. The frequency and nosological significance of seizures, as well as their association with epileptogenesis, may be related to underlying mechanisms such as neuroinflammation. Those mechanisms of response activate inflammatory molecules induced in the neurons, activated glial cells and endothelial cells via the key HMGB1/TLR4 pathway. In this study, the drug celecoxib (CCX) was used as a blocker of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and HMGB1/TLR-4 pathways...
May 12, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753887/peri-adolescent-drinking-of-ethanol-and-or-nicotine-modulates-astroglial-glutamate-transporters-and-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-1-in-female-alcohol-preferring-rats
#6
Fawaz Alasmari, Richard L Bell, P S S Rao, Alaa M Hammad, Youssef Sari
Impairment in glutamate neurotransmission mediates the development of dependence upon nicotine (NIC) and ethanol (EtOH). Previous work indicated that continuous access to EtOH or phasic exposure to NIC reduces expression of the glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT) but not the glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST). Additionally, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) expression was affected following exposure to EtOH or NIC. However, little is known about the effects of EtOH and NIC co-consumption on GLT-1, xCT, GLAST, and mGluR1 expression...
May 10, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753886/cocaine-impairs-serial-feature-negative-learning-and-blood-brain-barrier-integrity
#7
Terry Davidson, Sara Hargrave, David Kearns, Matthew Clasen, Sabrina Jones, Alison Wakeford, Camille Sample, Anthony Riley
Previous research has shown that diets high in fat and sugar [a.k.a., Western diets (WD)] can impair performance of rats on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory problems, an effect that is accompanied by selective increases in hippocampal blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Based on these types of findings, it has been proposed that overeating of a WD (and its resulting obesity) may be, in part, a consequence of impairments in these anatomical substrates and cognitive processes. Given that drug use (and addiction) represents another behavioral excess, the present experiments assessed if similar outcomes might occur with drug exposure by evaluating the effects of cocaine administration on hippocampal-dependent memory and on the integrity of the BBB...
May 10, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750976/reduced-type-iii-neuregulin-1-expression-does-not-modulate-the-behavioural-sensitivity-of-mice-to-acute-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-d-9-thc
#8
David Lloyd, David Talmage, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Tim Karl
Mice with a mutation in the transmembrane domain of the schizophrenia risk gene, neuregulin 1 (Nrg1 TM HET), are more susceptible to the neuro-behavioural effects of Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (D9 -THC), the principal psychoactive component in cannabis. However, NRG1 is transcriptionally complex with over 30 different isoforms, most of which carry a transmembrane domain, raising the question which NRG1 isoform(s) may contribute to this phenotype. Type III NRG1/Nrg1 is the most brain abundant isoform and brain studies have identified increased levels of type III NRG1 mRNA in humans carrying a NRG1 risk haplotype for schizophrenia...
May 8, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750975/nicotine-increases-fear-responses-and-brain-acetylcholinesterase-activity-in-a-context-dependent-manner-in-zebrafish
#9
Paola R Ziani, Talise E Müller, Flavia V Stefanello, Barbara D Fontana, Tâmie Duarte, Julia Canzian, Denis B Rosemberg
Nicotine is an alkaloid with positive effects on learning and memory processes. Exposure to conspecific alarm substance (CAS) elicits fear responses in zebrafish, but the effects of nicotine on aversive behaviors and associative learning in this species remain unclear. Here, we evaluated whether nicotine enhances contextual fear responses in zebrafish and investigated a putative involvement of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in associative learning. Fish were exposed to 1 mg/L nicotine for 3 min and then kept in non-chlorinated water for 20 min...
May 8, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738811/hypobaric-hypoxia-exposure-in-rats-differentially-alters-antidepressant-efficacy-of-the-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-fluoxetine-paroxetine-escitalopram-and-sertraline
#10
Shami Kanekar, Chandni S Sheth, Hendrik J Ombach, Paul R Olson, Olena V Bogdanova, Matthew Petersen, Chloe E Renshaw, Young-Hoon Sung, Kristen E D'Anci, Perry F Renshaw
Treatment-resistant depression, a chronic condition that affects 30% of depressed patients on antidepressants, is highly linked to suicidal behavior. Chronic hypoxia exposure via living at altitude (hypobaric hypoxia) or with chronic hypoxic diseases is demographically linked to increased risk for depression and suicide. We previously demonstrated that housing rats at altitude for a week incrementally increases depression-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST) in females, but not males. In animal models, high altitude exposure reduces brain serotonin, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can lose efficacy when brain serotonin levels are low...
May 5, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729289/astrocytes-activation-contributes-to-the-antidepressant-like-effect-of-ketamine-but-not-scopolamine
#11
Yun Wang, Liming Xie, Ce Gao, Lingyan Zhai, Ning Zhang, Lin Guo
Depression is a common, debilitating mood disorder, but currently available antidepressants have several major drawbacks. Both ketamine and scopolamine attract more and more attention due to their rapid and sustained antidepressant activities. However, the molecular and cellular mechanism that underlies the therapeutic action of ketamine and scopolamine still remain to be elucidated. Considering the importance of astrocytes in the development of depression, we hypothesized that the activation of astrocyte may play a vital role in the antidepressant effects of ketamine and scopolamine...
May 3, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729290/anticonvulsant-evaluation-of-novel-non-imidazole-histamine-h-3-r-antagonists-in-different-convulsion-models-in-rats
#12
Alaa Alachkar, Gniewomir Latacz, Agata Siwek, Annamaria Lubelska, Ewelina Honkisz, Anna Gryboś, Dorota Łażewska, Jadwiga Handzlik, Holger Stark, Katarzyna Kiec-Kononowicz, Bassem Sadek
Novel non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonists (2-8) were developed and assessed for in-vitro antagonist binding affinities at the human histamine H1-H4R. These novel H3R antagonists (2-8) were examined in-vivo for anticonvulsant effects in three different convulsion models in male adult rats. Compound 6 significantly and dose-dependently exhibited decreased duration of tonic hind limb extension (THLE) in the maximal electroshock (MES)- and fully protected animals against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion, following acute systemic administration (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, i...
May 2, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715490/an-antidepressant-related-pharmacological-signature-for-positive-allosteric-modulators-of-%C3%AE-2-3-containing-gaba-a-receptors
#13
K R Methuku, X Li, R Cerne, S D Gleason, J M Schkeryantz, V V N P B Tiruveedhula, L K Golani, G Li, M M Poe, Md T Rahman, J M Cook, J L Fisher, J M Witkin
Data from transgenic animals and novel pharmacological agents has realigned scientific scrutiny on the therapeutic potential of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α2/3-containing GABAA receptors. Evidence for analgesic, anticonvulsant, and anxiolytic activity of α2/3-selective PAMs has been presented along with the clinical potential for a milder motor-impacting profile compared to non-selective GABAA receptor PAMs. A new series of α2/3-selective PAMs was recently introduced which has anxiolytic and anticonvulsant activity in rodent models...
April 28, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709585/emerging-role-of-viral-vectors-for-circuit-specific-gene-interrogation-and-manipulation-in-rodent-brain
#14
REVIEW
Erika Sarno, Alfred J Robison
Over the past half century, novel tools have allowed the characterization of myriad molecular underpinnings of neural phenomena including synaptic function, neurogenesis and neurodegeneration, membrane excitability, and neurogenetics/epigenetics. More recently, transgenic mice have made possible cell type-specific explorations of these phenomena and have provided critical models of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, it has become clear that many critical areas of study require tools allowing the study and manipulation of individual neural circuits within the brain, and viral vectors have come to the forefront in driving these circuit-specific studies...
April 27, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698632/fgin-1-27-an-agonist-at-translocator-protein-18-kda-tspo-produces-anti-anxiety-and-anti-panic-effects-in-non-mammalian-models
#15
Monica Gomes Lima, Jonathan Cueto-Escobedo, Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa, Caio Maximino
FGIN-1-27 is an agonist at the translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO), a cholesterol transporter that is associated with neurosteroidogenesis. This protein has been identified as a peripheral binding site for benzodiazepines; in anamniotes, however, a second TSPO isoform that is absent in amniotes has been implicated in erythropoiesis. Functional conservation of the central benzodiazepine-binding site located in the GABAA receptors has been demonstrated in anamniotes and amniotes alike; however, it was not previously demonstrated for TSPO...
April 23, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689295/behavioral-and-biochemical-effects-of-ethanol-withdrawal-in-zebrafish
#16
Suianny Nayara da Silva Chaves, Gabriel Felício Rocha, Bruna Patrícia Dutra Costa, Witallo Etevaldo Araújo de Oliveira, Monica Gomes Lima, Diógenes Henrique de Siqueira Silva, Caio Maximino
Chronic alcohol use induces adaptations and toxicity that can induce symptoms of anxiety, autonomic hyperarousal, and epileptic seizures when alcohol is removed (withdrawal syndrome). Zebrafish has recently gained wide attention as a behavioral model to study the neurobehavioral effects of acute and chronic alcohol use, including withdrawal. The literature, however, is very contradictory on findings regarding withdrawal effects, with some studies reporting increased anxiety, while others report no effect. A meta-analytic approach was taken to find the sources of this heterogeneity, and ethanol concentration during exposure and exposure duration were found to be the main sources of variation...
April 21, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684396/jsh-23-prevents-depressive-like-behaviors-in-mice-subjected-to-chronic-mild-stress-effects-on-inflammation-and-antioxidant-defense-in-the-hippocampus
#17
Qi Wang, Xiaomei Dong, Nannan Li, Yan Wang, Xiaofeng Guan, Yiwei Lin, Jiguang Kang, Xia Zhang, Yuchen Zhang, Xiaobai Li, Tianchao Xu
Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), which is reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of depression, also has a central role in the genesis and progression of inflammation. Here, we have targeted the nuclear translocation of NF-κB using 4-methyl-N1-(3-phenyl-propyl)-benzene-1,2-diamine (JSH-23) to elucidate its role in depression. We investigated the antidepressant-like effects of JSH-23 in the chronic mild stress (CMS) mouse model, which is a valid, reasonably reliable, and useful model of depression...
April 20, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655598/individual-differences-in-the-energizing-effects-of-caffeine-on-effort-based-decision-making-tests-in-rats
#18
Noemí SanMiguel, Marta Pardo, Carla Carratalá-Ros, Laura López-Cruz, John D Salamone, Mercè Correa
Motivated behavior is characterized by activation and high work output. Nucleus accumbens (Nacb) modulates behavioral activation and effort-based decision-making. Caffeine is widely consumed because of its energizing properties. This methylxanthine is a non-selective adenosine A1 /A2A receptor antagonist. Adenosine receptors are highly concentrated in Nacb. Adenosine agonists injected into Nacb, shift preference towards low effort alternatives. The present studies characterized effort-related effects of caffeine in a concurrent progressive ratio (PROG)/free reinforcer choice procedure that requires high levels of work output, and generates great variability among different animals...
April 12, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649502/a-behavioral-mechanistic-investigation-of-the-role-of-5-ht-1a-receptors-in-the-mediation-of-rat-maternal-behavior
#19
Xiaonan Li, Xiaojing Ding, Ruiyong Wu, Leilei Chen, Jun Gao, Gang Hu, Ming Li
Previous work suggests that 5-HT1A receptors play a special role in rodent maternal aggression, but not in other aspects of maternal care (e.g. pup retrieval and nest building). The present study re-assessed the basic effects of 5-HT1A activation or blockade on various maternal responses in postpartum female rats. We also examined the possible behavioral mechanisms underlying the maternal effects of 5-HT1A . Sprague-Dawley mother rats were injected with a 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT (0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg, sc), a 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-101405 (0...
April 9, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626492/environmental-enrichment-reduces-cocaine-neurotoxicity-during-cocaine-conditioned-place-preference-in-male-rats
#20
Luana Freese, Felipe Borges Almeida, Nubia Heidrich, Alana Witt Hansen, Luiza Steffens, Aline Steinmetz, Dinara Jaqueline Moura, Rosane Gomez, Helena Maria Tannhauser Barros
Environmental enrichment (EE) has a neuroprotective role and prevents the development of cocaine addiction behavior in rats. Studies showing the role of EE in cocaine toxicity are nonexistent. We hypothesized that rats exposed to EE are protected from cocaine-induced changes in the redox profile and DNA damage after undergoing conditioned place preference (CPP). Ten male Wistar rats were placed in EE cages equipped with toys, a ladder and tunnels, and ten were provided clean, standard laboratory housing (non-EE)...
April 5, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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