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Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior

Kamilla Blecharz-Klin, Adriana Wawer, Katarzyna Jawna-Zboińska, Justyna Pyrzanowska, Agnieszka Piechal, Dagmara Mirowska-Guzel, Ewa Widy-Tyszkiewicz
The biochemical and behavioral responses to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to paracetamol in rats are not well understood. The effect of daily maternal and early life administration of 5 mg/kg (group P5) or 15 mg/kg paracetamol (group P15) was evaluated in two-month old male rats, relative to control animals receiving tap water (Con). Social behavior and episodic memory were investigated with Social Interaction and Novel Object Recognition (NOR) tests. Quantification of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was determined in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
March 12, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Richard W Foltin
The reinforcing efficacy of vaporized methamphetamine HCl (0.3 mg/kg) was determined in baboons with minimal previous drug exposure. A group of 8 adult male baboons was tested prior to a group of 7 adult female baboons. Baboons were initially trained to suck on a brass stem activating a pressure-sensitive relay (i.e., puff), to receive one M&M® candy. Five of the 8 males and 6 of the 7 females learned to activate the relay. 0.05 ml of 95% ethyl alcohol containing 0.3 mg/kg methamphetamine was vaporized and delivered to the mouth of the baboon after he/she completed 2 puffs; a single candy was given after an additional 5 puffs to ensure that baboons continued puffing after the aerosol entered their mouths...
March 12, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Nandkishor R Kotagale, Mir Touseef Ali, Chandrabhan T Chopde, Milind J Umekar, Brijesh G Taksande
Nicotine abstinence following chronic exposure is associated with impairments in memory and variety of cognitive functions. Daily nicotine (2 mg/kg, sc, four times daily) administration for 14 days and its abrupt withdrawal significantly impaired avoidance learning in inhibitory avoidance task as indicated by a significant decrease in the step through latency. Animals injected with agmatine (10-40 μg/rat, icv) from day 7 to 14 before the first daily dose of nicotine (2 mg/kg, sc) showed increased step through latencies during retrieval test...
March 10, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Giordano de Guglielmo, Dana E Conlisk, Amanda M Barkley-Levenson, Abraham A Palmer, Olivier George
Previous studies showed that the glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) gene modulates anxiety-like behavior, seizure susceptibility, depression-like behavior, and alcohol drinking in the drinking-in-the-dark paradigm in nondependent mice. Administration of the small-molecule GLO1 inhibitor S-bromobenzylglutathione cyclopentyl diester (pBBG) decreased alcohol drinking in nondependent mice, suggesting a possible therapeutic strategy. However, the preclinical therapeutic efficacy of pBBG in animal models of alcohol dependence remains to be demonstrated...
March 2, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Steven J Nieto, Cana B Quave, Therese A Kosten
BACKGROUND: The mu-opioid antagonist, naltrexone (NTX), is a FDA-approved treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD); however, the data on whether it differentially affects males vs. females are mixed. NTX increases hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity that associates with subjective responses to alcohol and craving in individuals with AUD. The present study tested for sex differences in the ability of NTX to decrease appetitive and consummatory behaviors in rats in operant alcohol self-administration...
February 24, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Robert Gerlai
Reproducibility and replicability are fundamentally important aspects of the scientific method. From time to time the discussion about whether scientific findings are replicable enough flares up. In fact, some recent publications claim we are witnessing a replication crisis. This is a particularly important problem in laboratory organisms that are relatively new, i.e., for which only limited amount of information is available, and for which only a limited number of methods have been developed. The zebrafish is a relative newcomer in behavioral neuroscience...
February 23, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Maria G Corda, Maria A Piludu, Francesco Sanna, Giovanna Piras, Marianna Boi, Fabrizio Sanna, Alberto Fernández Teruel, Osvaldo Giorgi
The Roman high- (RHA) and low-avoidance (RLA) outbred rat lines are selected for respectively rapid vs. poor acquisition of active avoidant behavior. Emotional reactivity appears to be the most prominent behavioral difference between the two lines, with RLA rats being more fearful/anxious than their RHA counterparts. Accordingly, here we show that shock-induced inhibition of drinking behavior in the Vogel's test is significantly more pronounced in RLA than RHA rats. Thus, unpunished drinking activity is similar in both lines (38...
February 22, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Mercedes Martín-López, Ana T Muela, María Cavas, José Francisco Navarro
Para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) is a synthetic drug chemically similar to the recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") and often replaces MDMA in tablets that show an "ecstasy" logo. PMA displays a higher toxic potential than MDMA, but the behavioral profile of PMA has been scarcely studied in animal models. Here we evaluated the effects of PMA (2, 4, 8, and 12 mg/kg, i.p.) on agonist encounters between male mice using an ethopharmacological approach, the isolation-induced aggression model...
February 14, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Monalisa Ribeiro Silva, Alyne Oliveira Correia, Gabriel Cabral Alencar Dos Santos, Lucas Leimig Telles Parente, Keicy Parente de Siqueira, Danielly Gonçalves Sombra Lima, Jonathan Almeida Moura, Ana Elisa da Silva Ribeiro, Roberta Oliveira Costa, Daniel Luna Lucetti, Elaine Cristina Pereira Lucetti, Kelly Rose Tavares Neves, Glauce Socorro de Barros Viana
Valproic acid (VA) is an antiepileptic that is also used for the treatment of bipolar disorders. The objective was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of VA on a brain ischemia model. The groups of male Wistar rats were: SO (sham-operated), ischemic and ischemic treated with VA (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.). After anesthesia with ketamine and xilazine, the animals were subjected to clamping of carotid arteries (30 min) and reperfusion. Except for the carotid clamping, the SO group was submitted to the same procedure...
February 13, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Erika Brolin, Sofia Zelleroth, Anna Jonsson, Mathias Hallberg, Alfhild Grönbladh, Fred Nyberg
The use of opioid analgesics to treat non-cancer pain has increased over the years. Many chronic pain patients suffer from numerous adverse effects, such as reduced quality of life, development of dependence, and cognitive impairments. Cognitive processes are regulated by several systems, one of which involves growth hormone (GH) and its secondary mediator insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), but also glutamatergic transmission, including receptors such as the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor complex. In the laboratory, repeated injections are commonly used to establish animal models of long-term or chronic drug exposure...
February 5, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Yayi Swain, Peter Muelken, Mark G LeSage, Jonathan C Gewirtz, Andrew C Harris
Understanding factors contributing to individual differences in opioid addiction vulnerability is essential for developing more effective preventions and treatments. Sensation seeking has been implicated in addiction to several drugs of abuse, yet its relationship with individual differences in opioid addiction vulnerability has not been well established. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between locomotor activity in a novel environment, a preclinical model of sensation-seeking, and individual differences in acquisition of i...
February 2, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Scott Ewing, Robert Ranaldi
In this study, we sought to discover if housing in an enriched environment (EE) is an efficacious intervention for encouraging abstinence from cocaine seeking in an animal "conflict" model of abstinence. Sixteen Long-Evans rats were trained in 3-h daily sessions to self-administer a cocaine solution (1 mg/kg/infusion) until each demonstrated a stable pattern of drug-seeking. Afterward, half were placed in EE cages equipped with toys, obstacles, and a running wheel, while the other half were given clean, standard laboratory housing...
January 31, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Tania Molina-Jiménez, Ofelia Limón-Morales, Herlinda Bonilla-Jaime
Administration of clomipramine (CMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, in early stages of development in rats, is considered an animal model for the study of depression. This pharmacological manipulation has induced behavioral and physiological alterations, i.e., less pleasure-seeking behaviors, despair, hyperactivity, cognitive dysfunction, alterations in neurotransmitter systems and in HPA axis. These abnormalities in adult male rats are similar to the symptoms observed in major depressive disorders. One of the main pleasure-seeking behaviors affected in male rats treated with CMI is sexual behavior...
January 31, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Edward D Levin, Corrine Wells Susan Slade, Amir H Rezvani
A variety of nicotinic drug treatments have been found to decrease nicotine self-administration. However, interactions of drugs affecting different nicotinic receptor subtypes have not been much investigated. This study investigated the interactions between dextromethorphan, which blocks nicotinic α3β2 receptors as well as a variety of other receptors with sazetidine-A which is a potent and selective α4β2 nicotinic receptor partial agonist with desensitizing properties. This interaction was compared with dextromethorphan combination treatment with mecamylamine, which is a nonspecific nicotinic channel blocker...
January 30, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Ana Paula Chiapinotto Ceretta, Catiuscia Molz de Freitas, Larissa Finger Schaffer, Jeane Binotto Reinheimer, Mariana Maikéli Dotto, Elizete de Moraes Reis, Rahisa Scussel, Ricardo Andrez Machado-de-Ávila, Roselei Fachinetto
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a common adverse effect observed in patients with long-term use of typical antipsychotic medications. A vacuous chewing movement (VCM) model induced by haloperidol has been used to study these abnormalities in experimental animals. The cause of TD and its treatment remain unknown, but several lines of evidence suggest that dopamine receptor supersensitivity and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) insufficiency play important roles in the development of TD. This study investigated the effects of treatment with the GABA-mimetic drug gabapentin on the development of haloperidol-induced VCMs...
January 25, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Emma Zambrana-Infantes, Cristina Rosell Del Valle, David Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, Pablo Galeano, Estela Castilla-Ortega, Fernando Rodríguez De Fonseca, Eduardo Blanco, Luis Javier Santín
Cocaine addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. Previous studies have demonstrated that cocaine, as well as other drugs of abuse, alters the levels of lipid-based signaling molecules, such as N-acylethanolamines (NAEs). Moreover, brain levels of NAEs have shown sensitivity to cocaine self-administration and extinction training in rodents. Given this background, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of repeated or acute administration of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous NAE, on psychomotor sensitization and cocaine-induced contextual conditioning...
January 11, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Hector Contreras-Mora, Megan A Rowland, Samantha E Yohn, Merce Correa, John D Salamone
People with depression and Parkinsonism frequently show effort-related motivational symptoms, such as anergia, psychomotor retardation, and fatigue. Tasks that assess effort-related choice are being used as animal models of these motivational symptoms. The present studies characterized the ability of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors with varying selectivity profiles to reverse the low effort bias induced by the monoamine storage inhibitor tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine produces depressive symptoms in humans, and because of its selective inhibition of VMAT-2, it preferentially depletes DA at low doses...
January 5, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Daniel Knowland, Byung Kook Lim
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common but serious neuropsychiatric affliction that comprises a diverse set of symptoms such as the inability to feel pleasure, lack of motivation, changes in appetite, and cognitive difficulties. Given the patient to patient symptomatic variability in MDD and differing severities of individual symptoms, it is likely that maladaptive changes in distinct brain areas may mediate discrete symptoms in MDD. The advent and recent surge of studies using viral-genetic approaches have allowed for circuit-specific dissection of networks underlying motivational behavior...
January 5, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Michel Bourin
A test retest protocol in animal model of anxiety induces an increase of anxious behavior and a loss of benzodiazepine-induced effect. This effect, known as the "one trial tolerance", is mainly observed in the elevated plus maze, an ethological model of anxiety in mice, but also in the four plate test, a model based on punishment. A review of some hypotheses based on behavioral, pharmacological and neurochemical approaches are proposed here to explain this benzodiazepines tolerance phenomenon.
January 2, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Molly A Kwiatkowski, Gerhard Hellemann, Catherine A Sugar, Zackary A Cope, Arpi Minassian, William Perry, Mark A Geyer, Jared W Young
Efforts to replicate results from both basic and clinical models have highlighted problems with reproducibility in science. In psychiatry, reproducibility issues are compounded because the complex behavioral syndromes make many disorders challenging to model. We develop translatable tasks that quantitatively measure psychiatry-relevant behaviors across species. The behavioral pattern monitor (BPM) was designed to analyze exploratory behaviors, which are altered in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), especially during mania episodes...
December 28, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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