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Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior

Yi-Xuan Li, Zi-He Ye, Tong Chen, Xiao-Feng Jia, Ling He
Donepezil is the first-line of treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which improves cognitive impairment effectively, but whether it has an impact on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effects and mechanisms of donepezil on schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits induced by phencyclidine (PCP). The cognitive deficits model of schizophrenia was established by injecting PCP into mice. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, served as positive control drug...
September 12, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Meiyu Zhang, Erin Harrison, Lisa Biswas, Thuy Tran, Xiu Liu
Menthol is a significant flavoring additive in tobacco products. Accumulating clinical evidence suggests that menthol may promote tobacco smoking and nicotine dependence. Our previous studies demonstrated that menthol enhanced nicotine reinforcement in rats. However, it is unclear whether menthol interacts with nicotine at the neurochemical level. The present study used intracranial microdialysis to examine whether and the ways in which menthol affects nicotine-induced dopamine release in rats in the nucleus accumbens core (NAc), a terminal field of brain reward circuitry...
September 8, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Shigeyuki Chaki, Jun-Ichi Yamaguchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Mona Akhiary, Erin M Purvis, Adam K Klein, Aaron Ettenberg
Cocaine administration has been shown to produce immediate positive (rewarding) and subsequent negative (anxiogenic) effects in humans and animals. These dual and opposing affective responses have been more difficult to demonstrate with administration of methamphetamine (meth). While animal studies have reliably demonstrated the positive reinforcing effects of the drug, reports of negative aftereffects following acute exposure have been few in number and contradictory in nature. The current research was devised to assess the effects of acute meth using a runway model of self-administration that is uniquely sensitive to both the positive and negative effects of a drug reinforcer in the same animal on the same trial...
September 7, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Marcel Pérez-Morales, Gabriela Hurtado-Alvarado, Itzel Morales-Hernández, Beatriz Gómez-González, Emilio Domínguez-Salazar, Javier Velázquez-Moctezuma
One of the approaches to induce obesity in rodents consists in reducing litter size to 3 pups during the lactation period. Animals submitted to this manipulation are heavier, hyperphagic and develop several metabolic diseases for the rest of their lives. In the present study, under the premise that melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), an orexigenic peptide synthesized by neurons of the lateral hypothalamus, is involved in food intake regulation, we aimed to measure the hypothalamic expression of its receptor, MCHR1, in adult early overfed obese animals and normoweight controls at both ad libitum and food deprived conditions...
September 6, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
K Collomp, N Gravisse, N Vibarel-Rebot, M Asselin, M-C Do, O Gagey, C Le-Tiec, S Dufay, C Buisson, M Audran
DHEA is reported to have beneficial effects for the elderly and for several pathologies because of its behavioral and anti-inflammatory properties. However, these properties have never been investigated in a young healthy population. The purpose of this double-blind, randomized study was therefore to investigate the effects of short-term DHEA administration (100 mg/day/4 weeks) on neuroendocrine (i.e., beta-endorphin and prolactin) and inflammatory (i.e., interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha) parameters in 10 young healthy female volunteers with regular sports practice...
September 5, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Abhishek B Jha, Shital S Panchal, Apeksha Shah
Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD), an age-associated dementia, is described as neuronal loss and marked cognitive impairment. Ellagic acid (EA) is a phenolic phytoconstituent obtained from grains and fruits, having evident antioxidant effects and known to modulate several endogenous molecular signals in humans in a beneficial way. The current study evaluated the safety profile of EA in the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line, performing anti-oxidative effect by DPPH assay, and evaluating anti-AchE (acetylcholinesterase) effect against AchE enzyme from Electrophorus electricus...
August 30, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Peipei Zhou, Shuzhang Du, Lin Zhou, Zhi Sun, Li Hua Zhuo, Guangwei He, Yan Zhao, Yulin Wu, Xiaojian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation following cerebral ischemia is a serious risk factor in stroke patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of tetramethylpyrazine‑2'O‑sodium ferulate (TSF), a structurally modified compound from tetramethylpyrazine and ferulate, on cerebral ischemic injury and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Focal transient cerebral ischemia was induced in rat for 2 h by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and the protective effect of TSF was studied using different doses of the drug (10...
August 29, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Viren H Makhijani, Kalynn Van Voorhies, Joyce Besheer
Cortisol/corticosterone and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis serve an important role in modulating alcohol drinking behaviors. To date most alcohol research has focused on the functional involvement of corticosterone and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), the primary receptor for corticosterone. Recent studies have indicated that the related mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), which binds both corticosterone and aldosterone, may also play a role in alcohol drinking. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to test the functional role of MR signaling in alcohol self-administration via pharmacological antagonism of the MR with spironolactone...
August 29, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Amy E Perkins, Andrew S Vore, Dennis Lovelock, Elena Varlinskaya, Terrence Deak
Responsiveness to ethanol (EtOH) differs as a function of age. Adolescent rodents are less sensitive than adults to the sedative effects of EtOH, whereas they show enhanced sensitivity to EtOH-induced social facilitation. Late aging is associated with a natural decline in social behavior and aging-related peculiarities in sensitivity to EtOH have been largely unexplored. Whether there are sex differences in the behavioral response to EtOH during late aging remains unknown. Thus, behavioral responses to EtOH in male and female Fischer (F) 344 rats aged 4-5 months (adult) and 19-20 months (aging) were examined...
August 29, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Benjamin Tsang, Rida Ansari, Amna Azhar, Robert Gerlai
Alcohol (ethanol) abuse remains to be a leading cause of medical, including mental, problems throughout the world. Whether alcohol consumption leads to chronic use, and subsequent alcohol dependency and abuse is known to be influenced by the acute effects of this drug. Numerous factors may influence how alcohol administered acutely affects the individual. For example, the mechanisms engaged by drugs of abuse, e.g. cocaine as well as alcohol, have been shown to overlap with those underlying circadian rhythm, and conversely, the effects of these drugs may be dependent upon the time of day of their consumption...
August 25, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Caylen J Cloutier, Danna L Zevy, Martin Kavaliers, Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp
The role of sex and estrous phase in the conditioning of toxin-induced disgust reactions (anticipatory nausea) to a novel context were examined in adult rats. Conditioned oral gaping responses have been shown to be a reliable index of nausea in rats. In Experiment 1 male and female rats were injected with LiCl (0, 64, 96, or 128 mg/kg) on each of 4 conditioning trials (72 h apart) and then placed in a novel context for 30 min. 72 h following the last conditioning trial each animal was re-exposed to this context in a toxin-free state for 10 min and disgust responses (gapes, forelimb flails, chin rubs, and paw treads) were scored from video records...
October 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Vivian B Neis, Luis B Bettio, Morgana Moretti, Priscila B Rosa, Gislaine Olescowicz, Daiane B Fraga, Filipe M Gonçalves, Andiara E Freitas, Isabella A Heinrich, Mark W Lopes, Rodrigo B Leal, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Agmatine is a neuromodulator that has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). A previous study reported that agmatine caused a fast-acting effect in mice subjected to chronic mild stress without causing changes in the levels of synaptic proteins in the prefrontal cortex. We examined whether a single administration of agmatine is able to counteract the depressive-like behavior induced by chronic administration of corticosterone, a pharmacological model of stress, paralleled with the modulation of synaptic protein levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus...
October 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Dena Kota, Mai Alajaji, Deniz Bagdas, Dana E Selley, Laura J Sim-Selley, M Imad Damaj
RATIONALE: There is extensive literature regarding nicotine-opioid functional interactions. The possibility that use of nicotine products during adolescence might increase the risk of substance abuse such as morphine later in adulthood is particularly relevant to the current opioid crisis. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of nicotine exposure for seven days during adolescence in mice on morphine reward as well as morphine physical dependence later in adulthood...
October 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Christina N Nona, Christian S Hendershot, Anh Dzung Lê
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is an increasingly prevalent disorder that contributes significantly to the global burden of disease. According to the incentive sensitization theory (IST) of addiction, repeated alcohol exposure produces persistent neuroadaptations that promote the craving, relapse, and drug-taking characteristic of addiction. Critical to the IST model is the prediction that stimulant or hedonic drug effects become more pronounced with repeated exposure (i.e., sensitization). While there is an extensive body of preclinical alcohol sensitization research, there have been few studies examining this aspect of the incentive sensitization model in human alcohol research...
October 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Kevin P Jensen, Gerald Valentine, Eugenia Buta, Elise E DeVito, Joel Gelernter, Mehmet Sofuoglu
Understanding the stimulatory effects of nicotine on cardiovascular function in humans is of great interest given the wide-spread use of different forms of combustible and smokeless products that deliver nicotine. An intravenous nicotine infusion procedure was used to evaluate factors associated with the acute heart rate (HR) response to nicotine (0.5 mg per 70 kg bodyweight) in a sample of 213 smokers. We tested for differential response to nicotine based on demographic characteristics (race [European American vs African America], sex, body mass index and age); a set of blood-based biomarkers (baseline nicotine, cotinine and cortisol levels and nicotine metabolite ratio); and a set of self-reported measures related to tobacco use...
October 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Lorena Oliveira de Matos, Ana Luiza de Araujo Lima Reis, Lorena Terene Lopes Guerra, Leonardo de Oliveira Guarnieri, Muiara Aparecida Moraes, Nayara Soares Sena Aquino, Raphael E Szawka, Grace Schenatto Pereira, Bruno Rezende Souza
Alterations in dopaminergic signaling and neurodevelopment are associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, and schizophrenia. Imbalances in dopamine levels during prenatal development are associated with behavioral alterations later in life, like hyperactivity and addiction, and it is possible that dopaminergic imbalances may have diverse effects during different neurodevelopmental windows. In this study, we investigate whether an increase in dopamine levels during the perinatal developmental window affects behavior of juvenile male and female Swiss mice...
October 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Siamak Shahidi, Reihaneh Sadeghian, Alireza Komaki, Sara Soleimani Asl
Relapse following a prolonged period of drug cessation is a key barrier in the treatment of methamphetamine (METH) addiction, for which pharmacological treatment exhibits little efficacy. Previous studies have suggested that this process involves alterations in levels of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain. Although the 5-HT1F receptor has been implicated in the reward pathway, its physiological functions remain unknown. In the present study, we examined the effect of the 5-HT1F agonist LY 344864 on the reinstatement of METH-seeking behavior in rats using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm...
October 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Luana Freese, Audrey Durand, Karine Guillem, Serge H Ahmed
Being under the influence during choice between drug and nondrug options can have a dramatic effect on choice outcomes. When rats face a choice between cocaine and sweet water and are not under the influence, they prefer sweet water. In contrast, when they are under the influence of cocaine, this causes them to shift their choice to cocaine nearly exclusively. Here we sought to characterize the behavioral mechanisms underlying the influence of cocaine on choice. In theory, rats under the influence of cocaine should be in a mixed motivational state, at least temporarily, with both their motivation for cocaine and their motivation for the nondrug option suppressed by the drug satiating and anorexic effects of cocaine, respectively...
October 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Fair M Vassoler, Michelle L Oranges, Anika M Toorie, Elizabeth M Byrnes
Opioid use and abuse has reached epidemic levels in the United States. As these drugs are frequently used by women of reproductive age, there has been a significant increase in the number of infants born to opioid dependent women. Few preclinical studies have examined voluntary opioid intake during pregnancy, and none have used intravenous self-administration. Thus, the purpose of the current set of studies was to utilize a translational model of oxycodone self-administration in rats to determine the effects of oxycodone intake during pregnancy on early postnatal outcomes...
October 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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