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Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919072/assessment-of-nicotine-withdrawal-induced-changes-in-sucrose-preference-in-mice
#1
Y Alkhlaif, D Bagdas, A Jackson, A J Park, M I Damaj
Anhedonia, induced by nicotine withdrawal, may serve as an important affective sign that reinforces tobacco use and smoking relapse rates in humans. Animal models provide a way to investigate the underlying neurobiological factors involved in the decrease in responding for positive affective stimuli during nicotine withdrawal and may aid in drug development for nicotine dependence. Thus, we explored the use of the sucrose preference test to measure nicotine withdrawal-induced reduction in response for positive affective stimuli in mice...
September 15, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918226/chronic-central-oxytocin-infusion-impairs-sociability-in-mandarin-voles
#2
Peirong Du, Zhixiong He, Zhenlu Cai, Xin Hao, Na Dong, Wei Yuan, Wenjuan Hou, Jinfeng Yang, Rui Jia, Faodao Tai
Oxytocin (OT) has been reported to increase social contact, however some studies have related OT to reduced social contact, particularly with unfamiliar individuals. The underlying mechanisms of OT on social contact remain unclear. In this study, male mandarin vole (Microtus mandarinus), a socially monogamous rodent, was used as an animal model in which osmotic minipumps were used to intracerebroventricularly administer two continuous dosages of OT or saline for 12 consecutive days. We examined the effect of long-term OT treatment on social behavior, anxiety levels, and levels of oxytocin, vasopressin (AVP) and dopamine (DA) receptors, mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and medial amygdala (MeA)...
September 13, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916283/deuterated-d6-dextromethorphan-elicits-antidepressant-like-effects-in-mice
#3
Linda Nguyen, Anna L Scandinaro, Rae R Matsumoto
The over-the-counter antitussive dextromethorphan (DM) may have rapid antidepressant actions based on its overlapping pharmacology with ketamine, which has shown fast antidepressant effects but whose widespread use remains limited by problematic side effects. We have previously shown that DM produces antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) that are mediated in part through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic (AMPA) and sigma-1 receptors, two protein targets associated with a faster onset of antidepressant efficacy...
September 12, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911960/characterization-of-the-adrenocorticotrophic-hormone-induced-mouse-model-of-resistance-to-antidepressant-drug-treatment
#4
Bettadapura N Srikumar, Mahesh Paschapur, Narasimharaju Kalidindi, Bharath Adepu, Manish L Das, Muppana V Sreedhara, Vijaya K Kuchibhotla, Rick L Pieschl, Yu-Wen Li, Durga Shiva Prasad Ega, Justin Louis, Senthilkumar Murugesan, Pattipati S Naidu, Manjunath Ramarao, Linda J Bristow, Reeba K Vikramadithyan
Approximately 30-60% of patients treated with existing antidepressants fail to achieve remission of depressive symptoms leading to Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD). There is an urgent need to develop novel medications, which is highly limited by the non-availability of relevant animal models with good predictive validity. ACTH administration has been shown to result in the resistance to acute and chronic effects of imipramine. However, the pharmacology of the model and the mechanisms contributing to the resistance are not completely understood...
September 11, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888484/prediction-of-human-efficacious-antidepressant-doses-using-the-mouse-forced-swim-test
#5
Eunice Yuen, Steven Swanson, Jeffrey M Witkin
The forced swim test (FST) is a commonly used preclinical animal behavioural model for prediction of antidepressant activity in humans. While the FST may qualitatively predict efficacy, less is known about the quantitative translation of FST data to human efficacious doses. Assessing quantitative translation allows better predictions of human efficacious doses and a higher chance of success in the drug development process. Dose-response and time-course FST experiments were carried out on mice using four marketed antidepressants (citalopram, desipramine, bupropion, desvenlafaxine) in addition to ketamine, all with varying mechanisms of action...
September 6, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882570/taurine-restores-the-exploratory-behavior-following-alcohol-withdrawal-and-decreases-bdnf-mrna-expression-in-the-frontal-cortex-of-chronic-alcohol-treated-rats
#6
Alana Witt Hansen, Felipe Borges Almeida, Solange Bandiera, Rianne Remus Pulcinelli, Ana Luiza Rodrigues Fragoso, Ricardo Schneider, Helena Maria Tannhauser Barros, Rosane Gomez
Alcohol use disorder is an alarming health problem, and the withdrawal symptoms increase the risk of relapse. We have hypothesized that taurine, a multitarget substance acting as a gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) positive modulator and a partial inhibitor of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors, may reduce the withdrawal symptoms or modify behaviors when combined with alcohol. Therefore, we investigated the effects of taurine on behavior in the open field test (OFT), the GABAAR α2 subunit and BDNF mRNA expression in the frontal cortex of rats after chronic alcohol treatment or upon withdrawal...
September 5, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870523/antagonism-of-mglu2-3-receptors-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-prevents-oxytocin-from-reducing-cued-methamphetamine-seeking-in-male-and-female-rats
#7
Aurelien Bernheim, Kah-Chung Leong, Carole Berini, Carmela M Reichel
Methamphetamine (meth) addiction is a prevalent health concern worldwide, yet remains without approved pharmacological treatments. Preclinical evidence suggests that oxytocin may decrease relapse, but the neuronal underpinnings driving this effect remain unknown. Here we investigate whether oxytocin's effect is dependent on presynaptic glutamatergic regulation in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) by blocking metabotropic glutamate receptors 2/3 (mGluR2/3). Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered meth or sucrose on an escalating fixed ratio, followed by extinction and cue-induced reinstatement sessions...
September 1, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867606/similar-precipitated-withdrawal-effects-on-intracranial-self-stimulation-during-chronic-infusion-of-an-e-cigarette-liquid-or-nicotine-alone
#8
A C Harris, P Muelken, J R Smethells, M Krueger, LeSage M G
The FDA recently extended their regulatory authority to electronic cigarettes (ECs). Because the abuse liability of ECs is a leading concern of the FDA, animal models are urgently needed to identify factors that influence the relative abuse liability of these products. The ability of tobacco products to induce nicotine dependence, defined by the emergence of anhedonia and other symptoms of nicotine withdrawal following cessation of their use, contributes to tobacco abuse liability. The present study compared the severity of precipitated withdrawal during chronic infusion of nicotine alone or nicotine-dose equivalent concentrations of three different EC refill liquids in rats, as indicated by elevations in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds (anhedonia-like behavior)...
September 1, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851586/clinical-models-of-decision-making-in-addiction
#9
REVIEW
Mikhail N Koffarnus, Brent A Kaplan
As research on decision making in addiction accumulates, it is increasingly clear that decision-making processes are dysfunctional in addiction and that this dysfunction may be fundamental to the initiation and maintenance of addictive behavior. How drug-dependent individuals value and choose among drug and nondrug rewards is consistently different from non-dependent individuals. The present review focuses on the assessment of decision-making in addiction. We cover the common behavioral tasks that have shown to be fruitful in decision-making research and highlight analytical and graphical considerations, when available, to facilitate comparisons within and among studies...
August 26, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843423/neural-circuit-adaptations-during-drug-withdrawal-spotlight-on-the-lateral-habenula
#10
REVIEW
Frank J Meye, Massimo Trusel, Mariano Soiza-Reilly, Manuel Mameli
Withdrawal after drug intake triggers a wealth of affective states including negative feelings reminiscent of depressive symptoms. This negative state can ultimately be crucial for relapse, a hallmark of addiction. Adaptations in a wide number of neuronal circuits underlie aspects of drug withdrawal, however causality between cellular modifications within these systems and precise behavioral phenotypes remains poorly described. Recent advances point to an instrumental role of the lateral habenula in driving depressive-like states during drug withdrawal...
August 24, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843425/does-being-drunk-or-high-cause-hiv-sexual-risk-behavior-a-systematic-review-of-drug-administration-studies
#11
REVIEW
Meredith S Berry, Matthew W Johnson
HIV sexual risk behavior is broadly associated with substance use. Yet critical questions remain regarding the potential causal link between substance use (e.g., intoxication) and HIV sexual risk behavior. The present systematic review was designed to examine and synthesize the existing literature regarding the effects of substance administration on HIV sexual risk behavior. Randomized controlled experiments investigating substance administration and HIV sexual risk behavior (e.g., likelihood of condom use in a casual sex scenario) were included...
August 23, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843424/the-molecular-mechanisms-controlling-morphogenesis-and-wiring-of-the-habenula
#12
REVIEW
Ewoud R E Schmidt, R Jeroen Pasterkamp
The habenula is an evolutionarily conserved brain region comprising bilaterally paired nuclei that plays a key role in processing reward information and mediating aversive responses to negative stimuli. An important aspect underlying habenula function is relaying information between forebrain and mid- and hindbrain areas. This is mediated by its complex organization into multiple subdomains and corresponding complexity in circuit organization. Additionally, in many species habenular nuclei display left-right differences at the anatomical and functional level...
August 23, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823689/effects-of-binge-like-ethanol-exposure-during-adolescence-on-the-hyperalgesia-observed-during-sickness-syndrome-in-rats
#13
Bruna M T de Oliveira, Tatiane M B B Telles, Luiz A Lomba, Diego Correia, Aleksander R Zampronio
Acute and chronic ethanol exposure increases the risk of infection by altering the innate host's defense system. Adolescence is a critical period for brain development. Insults during this period may have long-lasting consequences. The present study investigated the effects of binge-like ethanol exposure in adolescent rats on mechanical hyperalgesia during sickness syndrome that was induced by a systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) after the cessation of ethanol exposure...
August 17, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821396/the-new-hdac1-inhibitor-lg325-ameliorates-neuropathic-pain-in-a-mouse-model
#14
Maria Domenica Sanna, Luca Guandalini, Maria Novella Romanelli, Nicoletta Galeotti
Current analgesic therapies for treatment of neuropathic pain are unsatisfactory. Neuropathic pain is, therefore, undertreated and there is a significant need for a better pharmacotherapy. Increasing evidence indicate that histone deacetylation is a critical step in nerve injury pain. To obtain an innovative treatment for the management of neuropathic pain, we investigated the pharmacological effects produced by the new histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1 selective inhibitor, LG325, in a mouse model of trauma-induced peripheral mononeuropathy provoked by spared nerve injury (SNI)...
August 15, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807620/muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor-but-not-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-plays-a-role-in-morphine-induced-behavioral-sensitization-in-rats
#15
Jinling Sun, Lin Tian, Ruisi Cui, Heng Ruan, Xinwang Li
Background and Aim The cholinergic system can affect drug reward. The present study aimed to examine the roles of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. METHODS: To analyze the roles of mAChR and nAChR in behavioral sensitization induced by morphine (5mg/kg), seven experiments were designed. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effects of 3, 1, and 0.3 mg/kg scopolamine and 0.2, 0.1, and 0.05mg/kg scopolamine, respectively, on the locomotor activity when administered alone...
August 12, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803849/characteristics-of-ethanol-induced-behavioral-sensitization-in-rats-molecular-mediators-and-cross-sensitization-between-ethanol-and-cocaine
#16
Shijie Xu, Ung Gu Kang
Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse can induce a progressive increase in locomotor activity, known as behavioral sensitization. However, little is known about behavioral sensitization to ethanol. We examined whether ethanol could induce behavioral sensitization and investigated several molecular changes accompanying sensitization. We also assessed whether "cross-sensitization" occurred between ethanol and cocaine, another abused drug. Ethanol-induced sensitization was examined in rats after ethanol treatment (0...
August 10, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801265/fluoxetine-coupled-with-zinc-in-a-chronic-mild-stress-model-of-depression-providing-a-reservoir-for-optimum-zinc-signaling-and-neuronal-remodeling
#17
Nesreen Nabil Omar, Reham Fathy Tash
BACKGROUND: Recently, depression has been envisioned as more than an alteration in neurotransmitters centered around receptor signaling pathways. Consequently, the precise mechanisms of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant drugs such as fluoxetine are being revisited. Zinc is a trace element that has been long implicated in the psychopathology and therapy of depression. Zinc has been found to be sequestered and dispensed during stress and inflammation through a family of proteins called metallothioneins (MTs)...
August 9, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778739/the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-exendin-4-decreases-relapse-like-drinking-in-socially-housed-mice
#18
Morgane Thomsen, Ditte Dencker, Gitta Wörtwein, Pia Weikop, Emil Egecioglu, Elisabet Jerlhag, Anders Fink-Jensen, Anna Molander
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut peptide that regulates food intake and glucose metabolism. GLP-1 is also produced and released in the brain, and GLP-1 receptors are expressed in brain regions important for alcohol and drug reward, and for the development of addiction. GLP-1 receptor agonists can decrease alcohol intake acutely in rodents. However, alcohol use disorder is a chronic condition that requires treatments to be effective in promoting abstinence from excessive alcohol consumption over time...
August 1, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778738/control-of-behavioral-flexibility-by-the-lateral-habenula
#19
REVIEW
Phillip M Baker, Sheri J Y Mizumori
The ability to rapidly switch behaviors in dynamic environments is fundamental to survival across species. Recognizing when an ongoing behavioral strategy should be replaced by an alternative one requires the integration of a diverse number of cues both internal and external to the organism including hunger, stress, or the presence of reward predictive cues. Increasingly sophisticated behavioral paradigms coupled with state of the art electrophysiological and pharmacological approaches have delineated a brain circuit involved in behavioral flexibility...
August 1, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778737/age-and-impulsive-behavior-in-drug-addiction-a-review-of-past-research-and-future-directions
#20
REVIEW
Evangelia Argyriou, Miji Um, Claire Carron, Melissa A Cyders
Impulsive behavior is implicated in the initiation, maintenance, and relapse of drug-seeking behaviors involved in drug addiction. Research shows that changes in impulsive behavior across the lifespan contribute to drug use and addiction. The goal of this review is to examine existing research on the relationship between impulsive behavior and drug use across the lifespan and to recommend directions for future research. Three domains of impulsive behavior are explored in this review: impulsive behavior-related personality traits, delay discounting, and prepotent response inhibition...
August 1, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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