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Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337083/palmitoylethanolamide-attenuates-cocaine-induced-behavioral-sensitization-and-conditioned-place-preference-in-mice
#1
Emma Zambrana-Infantes, Cristina Rosell Del Valle, David Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, Pablo Galeano, Estela Castilla-Ortega, Fernando Rodríguez De Fonseca, Eduardo Blanco, Luis Javier Santín
Cocaine addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. Previous studies have demonstrated that cocaine, as well as other drugs of abuse, alters the levels of lipid-based signaling molecules, such as N-acylethanolamines (NAEs). Moreover, brain levels of NAEs have shown sensitivity to cocaine self-administration and extinction training in rodents. Given this background, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of repeated or acute administration of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous NAE, on psychomotor sensitization and cocaine-induced contextual conditioning...
January 11, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309800/partial-reversal-of-the-effort-related-motivational-effects-of-tetrabenazine-with-the-mao-b-inhibitor-deprenyl-selegiline-implications-for-treating-motivational-dysfunctions
#2
Hector Contreras-Mora, Megan A Rowland, Samantha E Yohn, Merce Correa, John D Salamone
People with depression and Parkinsonism frequently show effort-related motivational symptoms, such as anergia, psychomotor retardation, and fatigue. Tasks that assess effort-related choice are being used as animal models of these motivational symptoms. The present studies characterized the ability of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors with varying selectivity profiles to reverse the low effort bias induced by the monoamine storage inhibitor tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine produces depressive symptoms in humans, and because of its selective inhibition of VMAT-2, it preferentially depletes DA at low doses...
January 5, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309799/circuit-based-frameworks-of-depressive-behaviors-the-role-of-reward-circuitry-and-beyond
#3
REVIEW
Daniel Knowland, Byung Kook Lim
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common but serious neuropsychiatric affliction that comprises a diverse set of symptoms such as the inability to feel pleasure, lack of motivation, changes in appetite, and cognitive difficulties. Given the patient to patient symptomatic variability in MDD and differing severities of individual symptoms, it is likely that maladaptive changes in distinct brain areas may mediate discrete symptoms in MDD. The advent and recent surge of studies using viral-genetic approaches have allowed for circuit-specific dissection of networks underlying motivational behavior...
January 5, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305159/the-test-retest-model-of-anxiety-an-appraisal-of-findings-to-explain-benzodiazepine-tolerance
#4
REVIEW
Michel Bourin
A test retest protocol in animal model of anxiety induces an increase of anxious behavior and a loss of benzodiazepine-induced effect. This effect, known as the "one trial tolerance", is mainly observed in the elevated plus maze, an ethological model of anxiety in mice, but also in the four plate test, a model based on punishment. A review of some hypotheses based on behavioral, pharmacological and neurochemical approaches are proposed here to explain this benzodiazepines tolerance phenomenon.
January 2, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291421/activation-of-the-cannabinoid-system-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-affects-effort-based-decision-making
#5
Zahra Fatahi, Abbas Haghparast
Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is implicated in allowing an animal to overcome effort constraints to obtain greater benefits, and it has been previously shown that cannabis derivatives may affect such processes. Therefore, in this study, we intend to evaluate the involvement of the cannabinoid system in the entire NAc on effort-based decision making. Rats were trained in a T-maze cost-benefit decision making the task in which they could choose either to climb a barrier to obtain a large reward in one arm or run into the other arm without a barrier to obtaining a small reward...
December 29, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289701/dopamine-transporter-knockdown-mice-in-the-behavioral-pattern-monitor-a-robust-reproducible-model-for-mania-relevant-behaviors
#6
Molly A Kwiatkowski, Gerhard Hellemann, Catherine A Sugar, Zackary A Cope, Arpi Minassian, William Perry, Mark A Geyer, Jared W Young
Efforts to replicate results from both basic and clinical models have highlighted problems with reproducibility in science. In psychiatry, reproducibility issues are compounded because the complex behavioral syndromes make many disorders challenging to model. We develop translatable tasks that quantitatively measure psychiatry-relevant behaviors across species. The behavioral pattern monitor (BPM) was designed to analyze exploratory behaviors, which are altered in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), especially during mania episodes...
December 28, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273458/testing-environment-shape-differentially-modulates-baseline-and-nicotine-induced-changes-in-behavior-sex-differences-hypoactivity-and-behavioral-sensitization
#7
J M Illenberger, C F Mactutus, R M Booze, S B Harrod
In those who use nicotine, the likelihood of dependence, negative health consequences, and failed treatment outcomes differ as a function of gender. Women may be more sensitive to learning processes driven by repeated nicotine exposure that influence conditioned approach and craving. Sex differences in nicotine's influence over overt behaviors (i.e. hypoactivity or behavioral sensitization) can be examined using passive drug administration models in male and female rats. Following repeated intravenous (IV) nicotine injections, behavioral sensitization is enhanced in female rats compared to males...
December 19, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273457/the-effects-of-ketamine-on-sexual-behavior-anxiety-and-locomotion-in-female-rats
#8
Fay A Guarraci, Chantal M F Gonzalez, Devon Lucero, Paige D Womble, Heba Abdel-Rahim, Jennie DeVore, Marcela Nicole Kunkel, Emma Quadlander, Morgan Stinnett, Jessica Boyette-Davis
The present study characterized the effects of ketamine on sexual behavior and anxiety in female rats. In Experiment 1, female subjects received an injection of ketamine (10.0mg/kg) or saline 30min prior to a sexual partner-preference test during which each female subject was given the opportunity to interact with a female stimulus or a sexually vigorous male stimulus. Immediately afterwards, female subjects were tested for locomotion in an open field test. Ketamine-treated subjects spent significantly more time with the male stimulus than saline-treated subjects...
December 19, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273456/the-antipsychotic-trifluoperazine-reduces-marble-burying-behavior-in-mice-via-d2-and-5-ht2a-receptors-implications-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#9
Nobuaki Egashira, Naoki Kubota, Yu Goto, Takuya Watanabe, Kaori Kubota, Shutaro Katsurabayashi, Katsunori Iwasaki
Trifluoperazine, a typical antipsychotic drug, not only antagonizes dopamine D2 receptors but also enhances serotonin 5-HT2 receptor-mediated behavior. Moreover, trifluoperazine suppresses human purinergic receptor P2X7 responses and calmodulin. However, the effect of trifluoperazine on marble-burying behavior, which has been considered an animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), has not been studied. Here, we examined the effect of trifluoperazine on marble-burying behavior in mice. Oral administration of paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, significantly reduced marble-burying behavior without affecting total locomotor activity...
December 19, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253499/sex-differences-in-the-effects-of-nicotine-on-contextual-fear-extinction
#10
Chicora F Oliver, Munir Gunes Kutlu, Dana Zeid, Thomas J Gould
Anxiety and stress disorders occur at a higher rate in women compared to men as well as in smokers in comparison to non-smoker population. Nicotine is known to impair fear extinction, which is altered in anxiety disorders. However, nicotine differentially affects fear learning in men and women, which may mean that sex and nicotine-product use can interact to also alter fear extinction. For this study, we examined sex differences in the effects of acute and chronic nicotine administration on fear memory extinction in male and female C57BL/6J mice...
December 15, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241648/different-effects-of-caffeine-on-behavioral-neurophenotypes-of-two-zebrafish-populations
#11
Luiz Vinícius Rosa, Ana Paula Ardais, Fabiano Vargas Costa, Barbara Dotto Fontana, Vanessa Andreatta Quadros, Lisiane Oliveira Porciúncula, Denis Broock Rosemberg
Caffeine is a substance present in several foods and drinks of common western diet. Although high caffeine concentrations induce anxiogenic properties in various species, the influence of the different baselines of anxiety levels on caffeine-mediated responses is poorly understood. The short-fin wild-type (WT) and leopard (leo) zebrafish populations present significant behavioral differences, in which leo shows exacerbated anxiety-like responses. Since behavioral neurophenotyping may be easily assessed in adult zebrafish by associating temporal and spatial three-dimensional reconstructions of locomotion, we investigated the effects of caffeine on exploration and anxiety-like behavior of WT and leo zebrafish...
December 11, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196096/effects-of-isolated-tobacco-alkaloids-and-tobacco-products-on-deprivation-induced-food-intake-and-meal-patterns-in-rats
#12
Patricia E Bunney, Mylissa Hansen, Mark LeSage
The ability of smoking to reduce body weight serves as motivation for continued smoking. It is unclear to what extent non-nicotine constituents in cigarettes are contributing to the weight-reducing effect of smoking. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of nicotine and four minor tobacco alkaloids (nornicotine, cotinine, anatabine, and anabasine) on food intake, one of the key regulators of body weight. In addition, a smokeless tobacco extract (STE) and e-cigarette (EC) refill liquid were used to model the effects of actual tobacco product exposure on food intake...
November 28, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191711/analyzing-test-batteries-in-animal-models-of-psychopathology-with-multivariate-analysis-of-variance-manova-one-possible-approach-to-increase-external-validity
#13
Yelena Stukalin, Haim Einat
BACKGROUND: One concern regarding animal models of psychopathology is unclear external validity. One way to establish external validity is to examine measures representing separate facets of the pathology with a battery of tests in the same cohort of animals. Additionally, utilizing the same animals in a battery of tests can help to reduce the number of animals in research. However, issues had been raised regarding the analysis of data coming from batteries and the standard practice is to analyze each test separately...
November 27, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126857/impact-of-endogenous-progesterone-on-reactivity-to-yohimbine-and-cocaine-cues-in-cocaine-dependent-women
#14
Megan M Moran-Santa Maria, Brian J Sherman, Kathleen T Brady, Nathaniel L Baker, J Madison Hyer, Chantelle Ferland, Aimee L McRae-Clark
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Data from clinical and preclinical models of relapse suggest that progesterone attenuates cocaine-seeking behavior. In a recent study, we found that cocaine-dependent women reported greater subjective responses to cues that were preceded by a stressor than cocaine-dependent men. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of endogenous progesterone on the subjective and endocrine responses to a drug-paired cue that was preceded by a stressor in cocaine-dependent women...
November 7, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126856/nlx-112-a-highly-selective-5-ht1a-receptor-agonist-effects-on-body-temperature-and-plasma-corticosterone-levels-in-rats
#15
A Newman-Tancredi, R Depoortère, E Carilla-Durand, J P Tarayre, M Kleven, W Koek, L Bardin, M A Varney
NLX-112 (a.k.a. F13640 or befiradol), exhibits nanomolar affinity, exceptional selectivity and high agonist efficacy at 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT1A receptors. It possesses marked activity in a variety of animal models of depression, pain and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. However, its influence on translational biomarkers of central 5-HT1A receptor activation has not been previously described. Here, we report on the activity, in rats, of NLX-112 to increase plasma corticosterone levels and produce hypothermia, two responses which are also elicited by 5-HT1A receptor agonists in humans...
November 7, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100992/antagonism-of-the-kappa-opioid-receptor-attenuates-thc-induced-place-aversions-in-adult-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#16
Matthew M Clasen, Shaun M Flax, Briana J Hempel, Kejun Cheng, Kenner C Rice, Anthony L Riley
RATIONALE: Prior research with transgenic mice in which the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) has been suppressed or activated suggests that the aversive effects of THC are mediated by activity of this receptor subtype. If the activity of the KOR system is responsible for mediating the THC's aversive effects, then selective antagonism of the KOR by norBNI should block such aversive effects. To test this hypothesis, rats were pretreated with norBNI 24h prior to place conditioning with THC to assess its effect on the acquisition of THC-induced place aversions...
October 31, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100991/cue-induced-reinstatement-of-alcohol-seeking-behavior-is-associated-with-increased-camkii-t286-phosphorylation-in-the-reward-pathway-of-mice
#17
Michael C Salling, Christopher J Hodge, Kelly E Psilos, Vallari R Eastman, Sara P Faccidomo, Clyde W Hodge
Cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking is a hallmark behavioral pathology of addiction. Evidence suggests that reinstatement (e.g., relapse), may be regulated by cell signaling systems that underlie neuroplasticity. A variety of plasticity events require activation of calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in components of the reward pathway, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. We sought to determine if cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior is associated with changes in the activation state (e...
October 31, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097161/a-behavioral-and-pharmacological-characterization-of-palatable-diet-alternation-in-mice
#18
Catherine F Moore, Gabrielle S Schlain, Samantha Mancino, Valentina Sabino, Pietro Cottone
Obesity and eating disorders are widespread in Western societies. Both the increased availability of highly palatable foods and dieting are major risk factors contributing to the epidemic of disorders of feeding. The purpose of this study was to characterize an animal model of maladaptive feeding induced by intermittent access to a palatable diet alternation in mice. In this study, mice were either continuously provided with standard chow food (Chow/Chow), or provided with standard chow for 2days and a high-sucrose, palatable food for 1day (Chow/Palatable)...
October 31, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287612/decision-making-in-addiction-current-knowledge-clinical-implications-and-future-directions
#19
EDITORIAL
William W Stoops, David N Kearns
This article serves to summarize this special issue on "Decision-making in Addiction." The manuscripts included in this issue cover topics as diverse as theory, types of models used to study decision-making, underlying pharmacological, behavioral and brain mechanisms, and individual differences. Together, these papers can serve as a comprehensive resource outlining our contemporary understanding of how decision-making processes contribute to addictive behavior. The knowledge included here can inform treatment development, clearly pointing to the need for tailored interventions based on individual differences...
January 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107728/acute-and-long-term-effects-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-on-object-recognition-and-anxiety-like-activity-are-age-and-strain-dependent-in-mice
#20
C R Kasten, Y Zhang, S L Boehm
Use of exogenous cannabinoids disrupts the fine-tuned endocannabinoid receptor system, possibly leading to alterations in cognition, memory, and emotional processes that endure long after cannabinoid use has stopped. Long-term adolescent use may uniquely disrupt these behaviors when compared to adult use. The current study explored the acute and long-term behavioral effects of six 10mg/kg Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) injections across the adolescent or early adult period in male inbred C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J mice...
December 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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