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Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior

Devon DiPalma, Amir H Rezvani, Blair Willette, Corinne Wells, Susan Slade, Brandon J Hall, Edward D Levin
Tobacco addiction each year causes millions of deaths worldwide. Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been shown to be central to tobacco addiction. Nicotine replacement therapy aids tobacco cessation, but the success rate is still far too low. This may in part be due to the fact that neurons with nicotinic receptors are not the only neural systems involved in tobacco addiction. Interacting neural systems also play important roles in tobacco addiction. Nicotine increases the release of a variety of neurotransmitters, including dopamine and serotonin...
November 9, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Haruki Kawase, Yukio Ago, Megumi Naito, Momoko Higuchi, Yuta Hara, Shigeru Hasebe, Shinji Tsukada, Atsushi Kasai, Takanobu Nakazawa, Tadashi Mishina, Hiroyuki Kouji, Kazuhiro Takuma, Hitoshi Hashimoto
Growing evidence suggests pivotal roles for epigenetic mechanisms in both animal models of and individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) binds to neuron-restrictive silencing elements in neuronal genes and recruits co-repressors, such as mSin3, to epigenetically inhibit neuronal gene expression. Because dysregulation of NRSF is related to ASD, here we examined the effects of mS-11, a chemically optimized mimetic of the mSin3-binding helix in NRSF, on the behavioral and morphological abnormalities found in a mouse model of valproic acid (VPA)-induced ASD...
November 9, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Macarena Fernández, Ana Ferreyra, Soledad de Olmos, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi
Adolescents exhibit, when compared to adults, altered responsivity to the unconditional effects of ethanol. It is unclear if this has a role in the excessive ethanol intake of adolescents. Wistar rats from the third filial generation (F3 ) of a short-term breeding program which were selected for high (STDRHI) vs. low (STDRLO) ethanol intake during adolescence, were assessed for ethanol-induced (0.0, 1.25 or 2.5 g/kg) Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in the central (Ce), basolateral (BLA) and medial (Me) amygdaloid nuclei; nucleus accumbens core and shell (AcbC, AcbSh), ventral tegmental area (VTA), as well as prelimbic and infralimbic (PrL, IL) prefrontal cortices...
November 9, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Zhi-Bing You, Bin Wang, Roy A Wise
The dopamine system-essential for mood and movement-can be activated in two ways: by excitatory inputs that cause burst firing and stamp-in learning or by slow excitatory or inhibitory inputs-like leptin, insulin, ghrelin, or corticosterone-that decrease or increase single-spike (pacemaker) firing rate and that modulate motivation. In the present study we monitored blood samples taken prior to and during intravenous cocaine or saline self-administration in rats. During cocaine-taking, growth hormone and acetylated ghrelin increased 10-fold; glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) doubled; non-acetylated ghrelin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and corticosterone increased by 50% and adiponectin increased by 17%...
November 7, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Rekha C Balachandran, Megan L Sieg, Chi T Q Tran, Bridget M Clancy, Stephane A Beaudin, Paul A Eubig
Acetylcholine (ACh) neurotransmission is important for attention, while dopamine (DA) signaling modulates impulsive behavior. Prior studies have established an existing relationship between ACh and DA that mediates dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex of the brain in rats performing the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). This study is aimed to identify cholinergic and dopaminergic interactions that govern attention and impulsive behavior, using adult Long-Evans rats of both sexes and a 5-CSRTT, with variable short and long cue delays...
October 26, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Lu Gan, Meng Sun, Weihai Chen
Maternal behavior is a highly motivated and well-organized social behavior. Although previous studies have shown that 5‑hydroxytryptamine 2A/2C (5-HT2A/2C ) receptors play an important role in mediating the expression of normal maternal behavior, the role of 5-HT2A receptors in maternal behavior remains unclear. In the present study, the homecage maternal behavior test paradigm was used to investigate whether the low or constitutive (i.e., intrinsic or basal) activity of 5-HT2A receptors influences the expression of normal maternal behavior...
October 26, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Zhongwei Xiong, Kai Zhang, Tamaki Ishima, Qian Ren, Lijia Chang, Jincao Chen, Kenji Hashimoto
The negative allosteric modulators (NAMs: L-655,708 and MRK-016) of α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors are reported to show rapid-acting antidepressant effects in rodents. However, there are no reports comparing these NAMs and (R)‑ketamine, (R)-enantiomer of the rapid-acting antidepressant ketamine, in a chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model. Here we measured expression of α5 GABAA receptor in the brain regions from CSDS susceptible mice and postmortem brain samples from depressed patients. Expression of α5 GABAA receptor in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus from CSDS susceptible mice was significantly higher than that of control mice...
October 23, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Sevim Kandis, Mehmet Ates, Servet Kizildag, Gamze B Camsari, Zeynep Yuce, Guven Guvendi, Basar Koc, Aslı Karakilic, Ulas M Camsari, Nazan Uysal
Empathy is the ability to recognize, process and respond to another's emotional state and empathic functions have been linked with a multitude of cognitive and affective processes. Impaired empathy has been linked to aggression and criminal behavior in society. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is among the most common nonprescription (over the counter) analgesics in the world and has been already linked to reducing empathic behavior in humans. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of acetaminophen on empathy-like behavior in Sprague Dawley rats, and we further explored the underlying mechanisms by analyzing empathy related neurohormones, e...
October 22, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Rahul Raghav, Raka Jain, Anju Dhawan, T S Roy, Punit Kumar
Nalbuphine is an agonist of κ-opioid receptors and a partial agonist of μ-opioid receptors, which can stimulate κ-receptors and antagonize the acute rewarding effects of morphine. It is widely used either as an analgesic or as an adjuvant with morphine. This present study aimed to compare the acute and chronic effects of nalbuphine on the naloxone-precipitated opiate-withdrawal in rats. Male adult Wistar albino rats (150-175 g, n = 160) were made physically dependent by administrating increasing dose of morphine (5-25 mg/kg; i...
October 9, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Gregory L Powell, John Paul Bonadonna, Annika Vannan, Kuiying Xu, Robert H Mach, Robert R Luedtke, Janet L Neisewander
AIMS: The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) is a pharmacotherapeutic target for drug dependence. We have successfully imaged human D3Rs using radiolabeled LS-3-134, an arylamide phenylpiperazine with moderate selectivity for the D3R over D2R and low efficacy at the D2 and D3R. In this study, we screened for effects of LS-3-134 as a potential anti-cocaine therapeutic. METHODS: Male rats were pretreated with LS-3-134 (0, 1.0, 3.2, or 5.6 mg/kg, IP) 15 min prior to tests for its effects on spontaneous and cocaine-induced locomotion...
October 8, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Breno Garone Santos, Robert J Carey, Marinete Pinheiro Carrera
This investigation was undertaken to compare the sensitization/conditioned effects induced by apomorphine given pre-trial versus administered immediately post-trial or 15 min post-trial. We measured the effects on locomotor activity of 5 daily apomorphine treatments induced by an inhibitory low auto-receptor dose (0.05 mg/kg) and a stimulatory high postsynaptic dose (2.0 mg/kg). Three sets of four groups were used and each set of four groups was comprised of two vehicle and two apomorphine groups (0.05/2...
September 27, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Néstor I Martínez-Torres, David González-Tapia, Nallely Vázquez-Hernández, Ignacio González-Burgos
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) causes impaired visuospatial working memory (VWM), which primarily maps to the prefrontal cortex. However, little is known about the synaptic processes underlying cognitive loss in ADHD, or those ultimately involved in the preventive effect observed through the clinical use of Atomoxetine (ATX). To investigate the plasticity underlying ADHD related cognitive loss, and that potentially involved in the preventive action of Atomoxetine, allocentric VWM was assessed, as well as the dendritic spine number and proportional density on pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cerebral cortex layer III of neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats...
September 26, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
R Zajaczkowska, K Popiolek-Barczyk, D Pilat, E Rojewska, W Makuch, J Wordliczek, J Mika
Metamizol (also known as dipyrone or sulpyrine) is one of the non-opioid analgesics commonly used in clinical practice in the treatment of somatic and visceral pain. Here, our results give evidence that repeated twice daily intraperitoneal metamizol administration during 7 days diminished development of neuropathic pain symptoms in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. We observed that metamizol inhibited the activation of spinal microglia in neuropathic mice. Moreover, our findings provide evidence that pronociceptive (IL-1β, XCL1, and CCL2), but not antinociceptive (IL-1α, IL-1RA, and IL-18BP), factors play an important role in metamizol-induced antinociception...
September 26, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
PeiPei Chau, Helga H Lidö, Bo Söderpalm, Mia Ericson
Previous studies indicate that the anti-craving substance acamprosate modulates nucleus accumbens (nAc) dopamine levels via a dopamine-controlling nAc-VTA-nAc neurocircuitry. It was demonstrated that glycine receptors in the nAc are involved both in the dopamine-elevating effect and the ethanol intake-reducing effect of the drug. Here we wanted to explore the interaction of ethanol and acamprosate on nAc dopamine and investigate whether dopaminergic transmission may be related to the ethanol intake-reducing effects...
September 26, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Peter U Hámor, Jana Šírová, Tomáš Páleníček, Magdalena Zaniewska, Věra Bubeníková-Valešová, Marek Schwendt
Chronic methamphetamine (meth) abuse often turns into a compulsive drug-taking disorder accompanied by persistent cognitive deficits and re-occurring psychosis. Possible common neurobiological substrates underlying meth-induced deficits and schizophrenia remain poorly understood. Serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) and metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptors co-regulate psychosis-like behaviors and cognitive function in animals. Therefore, in the present study we examined the effects of chronic exposure to three different drugs known to produce persistent deficits in sensorimotor gating and cognition [meth, phencyclidine (PCP) and MK-801] on the expression of 5-HT2A and mGlu2 within the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) and perirhinal cortex (PRh)...
September 18, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Yi-Xuan Li, Zi-He Ye, Tong Chen, Xiao-Feng Jia, Ling He
Donepezil is the first-line of treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which improves cognitive impairment effectively, but whether it has an impact on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effects and mechanisms of donepezil on schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits induced by phencyclidine (PCP). The cognitive deficits model of schizophrenia was established by injecting PCP into mice. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, served as positive control drug...
September 12, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Meiyu Zhang, Erin Harrison, Lisa Biswas, Thuy Tran, Xiu Liu
Menthol is a significant flavoring additive in tobacco products. Accumulating clinical evidence suggests that menthol may promote tobacco smoking and nicotine dependence. Our previous studies demonstrated that menthol enhanced nicotine reinforcement in rats. However, it is unclear whether menthol interacts with nicotine at the neurochemical level. The present study used intracranial microdialysis to examine whether and the ways in which menthol affects nicotine-induced dopamine release in rats in the nucleus accumbens core (NAc), a terminal field of brain reward circuitry...
September 8, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Shigeyuki Chaki, Jun-Ichi Yamaguchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Mona Akhiary, Erin M Purvis, Adam K Klein, Aaron Ettenberg
Cocaine administration has been shown to produce immediate positive (rewarding) and subsequent negative (anxiogenic) effects in humans and animals. These dual and opposing affective responses have been more difficult to demonstrate with administration of methamphetamine (meth). While animal studies have reliably demonstrated the positive reinforcing effects of the drug, reports of negative aftereffects following acute exposure have been few in number and contradictory in nature. The current research was devised to assess the effects of acute meth using a runway model of self-administration that is uniquely sensitive to both the positive and negative effects of a drug reinforcer in the same animal on the same trial...
September 7, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Marcel Pérez-Morales, Gabriela Hurtado-Alvarado, Itzel Morales-Hernández, Beatriz Gómez-González, Emilio Domínguez-Salazar, Javier Velázquez-Moctezuma
One of the approaches to induce obesity in rodents consists in reducing litter size to 3 pups during the lactation period. Animals submitted to this manipulation are heavier, hyperphagic and develop several metabolic diseases for the rest of their lives. In the present study, under the premise that melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), an orexigenic peptide synthesized by neurons of the lateral hypothalamus, is involved in food intake regulation, we aimed to measure the hypothalamic expression of its receptor, MCHR1, in adult early overfed obese animals and normoweight controls at both ad libitum and food deprived conditions...
September 6, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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