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Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior

Nobue Kitanaka, Junichi Kitanaka, F Scott Hall, Takashi Kandori, Ayaka Murakami, Kazuki Muratani, Tae Nakano, George R Uhl, Motohiko Takemura
A single administration with morphine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) induced long-lasting hyperlocomotion in male ICR mice. Pretreatment of mice with a benzoquinolizine derivative tetrabenazine (TBZ; a reversible vesicular monoamine transporter-2 inhibitor) (1 mg/kg, i.p.) for 30 min significantly attenuated the hyperlocomotion induced by morphine, as compared with vehicle (saline)-pretreated mice. No significant change in locomotion was observed in mice pretreated with TBZ (1 mg/kg) alone. Mice treated with TBZ (1 mg/kg) showed an increase in immobility time in a tail suspension test, as compared with saline-treated mice...
July 12, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Ben Iskhakov, Faye Bourie, Merna Shenouda, Gabriela Fazilov, Agata Buras, Debjeet Bhattacharjee, Petra Dohnalova, Julia Iskhakova, Richard J Bodnar
Conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) are elicited by sucrose relative to saccharin in inbred mice with both the robustness of the preferences and sensitivity to pharmacological receptor antagonists sensitive to genetic variance. Dopamine, opioid and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists differentially interfere with the acquisition (learning) and expression (maintenance) of sucrose-CFP in BALB/c and SWR inbred mice. Further, the muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, scopolamine (SCOP) more potently reduces both sucrose and saccharin intake in BALB/c and C57BL/6 relative to SWR inbred mice...
June 30, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Lina Nie, Tianqi Di, Yu Li, Peng Cheng, Ming Li, Jun Gao
Appetitive aspect of rat maternal behavior, such as pup retrieval, is motivationally driven and sensitive to dopamine disturbances. Activation or blockade of dopamine D2 receptors causes a similar disruption of pup retrieval, which may also reflect an increase in maternal anxiety and/or a disruption of executive function. Recent work indicates that serotonin 5-HT2A receptors also play an important role in rat maternal behavior. Given the well-known modulation of 5-HT2A on the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine functions, the present study examined the extent to which blockade of 5-HT2A receptors on dopamine D2 -mediated maternal effects using a pup retrieval on the elevated plus maze (EPM) test...
June 23, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Monika Wożniak, Paulina Cieślik, Marcin Marciniak, Tomasz Lenda, Andrzej Pilc, Joanna M Wieronska
The modified forced swim test (MFST) has excellent predictive validity for investigating the antipsychotic activity of drugs, with particular emphasis on their activity toward negative symptoms of schizophrenia. However, its face and construct validity are less understood. Therefore, in the present study, some biochemical changes within GABAergic and serotonergic neurotransmission that could be related to observed MK-801-induced disturbances and the activity of compounds active at those neurotransmitters were investigated...
June 15, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Svetlana Semenova, Xinchun Jin, Tristan D McClure-Begley, Matthew Philip Tadman, Michael J Marks, Athina Markou
BACKGROUND: Chronic nicotine exposure produces neuroadaptations in brain reward systems and α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the corticolimbic brain areas. We previously demonstrated opposite effects of nicotine exposure delivered by self-administration or pumps on brain reward thresholds that can be attributed to the different temporal pattern and contingency of nicotine exposure. We investigated the effects of these two factors on reward thresholds and somatic signs during nicotine withdrawal, and on nAChRs binding in corticolimbic brain areas...
June 13, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Martin Henry Plawecki, Sarah Koskie, Ann Kosobud, Michael D Justiss, Sean O'Connor
RATIONALE: Alcohol intoxication impairs driving skills, leading to an increased frequency of accidents and crash fatalities. Inebriation may specifically impair environmental vigilance, reducing the driver's capacity for attention to stimuli that are relevant to successful navigation. OBJECTIVES: We examined the separate and interactive effects of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and simulated driving scenario on the capacity to correctly identify visual stimuli embedded in the environment...
June 4, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Jana Tchekalarova, Tzveta Stoynova, Kalina Ilieva, Rumyana Mitreva, Milena Atanasova
Desynchronization of circadian rhythms is a hallmark of depression. The antidepressant agomelatine, which is an MT1 /MT2 melatonin receptor agonist/5-HT2C serotonin receptor antagonist has advantages compared to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors as a circadian phase-shifting agent. The present study was designed to explore whether agomelatine is able to have an antidepressant effect on rats exposed to chronic constant light (CCL) for 6 weeks. Focus is also placed on whether this activity affects diurnal rhythms of depressive-like symptoms and is associated with restoration of impaired circadian rhythms in plasma melatonin and corticosterone...
May 26, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Alejandra Hernández, Alonso Fernández-Guasti
Sex preference in male rats is partly determined by the organizational action of estradiol. Thus, several paradigms have used aromatase inhibitors to manipulate sex preference. We recently showed that a subpopulation of male rats prenatally treated with letrozole (0.56 μg/kg, G10-G22), a non-steroidal third generation aromatase inhibitor, had same-sex preference, female sexual behavior (including lordosis and proceptivity) and penile erections when exposed to other males. These males, in addition, displayed high levels of experimental anxiety in the plus maze test and were insensitive to the anxiogenic-like acute effect of FLX (10 mg/kg)...
May 26, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Gregory L Powell, John Paul Bonadonna, Annika Vannan, Kuiying Xu, Robert H Mach, Robert R Luedtke, Janet L Neisewander
AIMS: The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) is a pharmacotherapeutic target for drug dependence. We have successfully imaged human D3Rs using radiolabeled LS-3-134, an arylamide phenylpiperazine with moderate selectivity for the D3R over D2R and low efficacy at the D2 and D3R. In this study, we screened for effects of LS-3-134 as a potential anti-cocaine therapeutic. METHODS: Male rats were pretreated with LS-3-134 (0, 1.0, 3.2, or 5.6 mg/kg, IP) 15 min prior to tests for its effects on spontaneous and cocaine-induced locomotion...
May 25, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Marten Vares, Mait Metelitsa, Kadri Kõiv, Margit Kaldmäe, Karita Laugus, Kai Tiitsaar, Ruth Shimmo, Jaanus Harro
High level of positive affectivity acts as a protective factor against adverse effects of stress and decreases vulnerability to mood disorders and drug abuse. Fifty-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (50-kHz USV) index the level of positive affect in the rat, whereas stable, trait-like inter-individual differences in terms of vocalization activity exist. Previously we have demonstrated that chronic stress can alter the effect of repeated amphetamine administration on 50-kHz vocalizations, and this effect is different in rats with high and low positive affectivity...
May 24, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Rong Li, Sudhanshu Sahu, Melitta Schachner
Injury to the spinal cord initiates a cascade of cellular and molecular events that contribute to the tissue environment that is non-permissive for cell survival and axonal regrowth/sprouting in the adult mammalian central nervous system. The endogenous repair response is impaired in this generally inhibitory environment. Previous studies indicate that homophilic interactions of the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1CAM) promote recovery after spinal cord injury and ameliorate neurodegenerative processes in experimental rodent and zebrafish models...
May 24, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Jen-Hau Yang, Chung-Ping Cheng, Ruey-Ming Liao
Decision making related to risks and rewards has been studied in the rodent by using several behavioral tests including the use of probability discounting tasks. However, it still remains unclear how long-term values and the different levels of risk are involved in decisions with reward uncertainty. In this study, we used a T-maze choice task to investigate the role of expected reward values in decision making under risk in the rat. The task was specifically set up to run with the expected value (EV) being equal to 1 between binary choice options (small-and-certain vs...
May 18, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Juliet Richetto, Marcello Polesel, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer
Different timing and light phases are critical factors in behavioural neuroscience, which can greatly affect the experimental outcomes of the performed tests. Despite the fact that time of testing is one of the most common factors that varies across behavioural laboratories, knowledge about the consequences of testing time on behavioural readouts is limited. Thus, in this study we systematically assessed the effect of this factor on the readout of a variety of elementary and recurrent behavioural paradigms in C57Bl/6 mice...
May 18, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Erika Sarno, Alfred J Robison
Over the past half century, novel tools have allowed the characterization of myriad molecular underpinnings of neural phenomena including synaptic function, neurogenesis and neurodegeneration, membrane excitability, and neurogenetics/epigenetics. More recently, transgenic mice have made possible cell type-specific explorations of these phenomena and have provided critical models of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, it has become clear that many critical areas of study require tools allowing the study and manipulation of individual neural circuits within the brain, and viral vectors have come to the forefront in driving these circuit-specific studies...
April 27, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Monica Gomes Lima-Maximino, Jonathan Cueto-Escobedo, Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa, Caio Maximino
FGIN-1-27 is an agonist at the translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO), a cholesterol transporter that is associated with neurosteroidogenesis. This protein has been identified as a peripheral binding site for benzodiazepines; in anamniotes, however, a second TSPO isoform that is absent in amniotes has been implicated in erythropoiesis. Functional conservation of the central benzodiazepine-binding site located in the GABAA receptors has been demonstrated in anamniotes and amniotes alike; however, it was not previously demonstrated for TSPO...
April 24, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Jacqueline-Marie N Ferland, Madison R Carr, Angela M Lee, Myrthe E Hoogeland, Catharine A Winstanley, Tommy Pattij
Although exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is perceived to be relatively harmless, mounting evidence has begun to show that it is associated with a variety of cognitive deficits, including poor decision making. THC-induced impairments in decision making are thought to be the result of cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation, and although clinical literature suggests that chronic activation via THC contributes to perturbations in decision making, acute CB1 receptor modulation has yielded mixed results...
July 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem, Shazia Nawaz, Tabinda Salman
Adaptations within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate nucleus (CN) dopamine neurotransmission are involved in behavioral sensitization and enhanced incentive motivation towards drug paired stimuli which lead to drug addiction. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) can modulate dopamine neurotransmission to reduce rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. A recent study from our laboratory shows that rewarding effects of morphine are inhibited in rats co-treated with buspirone. To understand the neurochemical mechanism involved in morphine addiction and its inhibition with buspirone, present study determines the effects of buspirone, morphine and their co-administration on the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine in the NAc and CN...
July 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Mariana Morales-Sosa, Sandra Orozco-Suárez, Angélica Vega-García, Sara Caballero-Chacón, Iris A Feria-Romero
Epileptic seizures constitute an important problem in pediatric neurology during the developmental period. The frequency and nosological significance of seizures, as well as their association with epileptogenesis, may be related to underlying mechanisms such as neuroinflammation. Those mechanisms of response activate inflammatory molecules induced in the neurons, activated glial cells and endothelial cells via the key HMGB1/TLR4 pathway. In this study, the drug celecoxib (CCX) was used as a blocker of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and HMGB1/TLR-4 pathways...
July 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Fawaz Alasmari, Richard L Bell, P S S Rao, Alaa M Hammad, Youssef Sari
Impairment in glutamate neurotransmission mediates the development of dependence upon nicotine (NIC) and ethanol (EtOH). Previous work indicates that continuous access to EtOH or phasic exposure to NIC reduces expression of the glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT) but not the glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST). Additionally, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) expression was affected following exposure to EtOH or NIC. However, little is known about the effects of EtOH and NIC co-consumption on GLT-1, xCT, GLAST, and mGluR1 expression...
July 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Terry L Davidson, Sara L Hargrave, David N Kearns, Matthew M Clasen, Sabrina Jones, Alison G P Wakeford, Camille H Sample, Anthony L Riley
Previous research has shown that diets high in fat and sugar [a.k.a., Western diets (WD)] can impair performance of rats on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory problems, an effect that is accompanied by selective increases in hippocampal blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Based on these types of findings, it has been proposed that overeating of a WD (and its resulting obesity) may be, in part, a consequence of impairments in these anatomical substrates and cognitive processes. Given that drug use (and addiction) represents another behavioral excess, the present experiments assessed if similar outcomes might occur with drug exposure by evaluating the effects of cocaine administration on hippocampal-dependent memory and on the integrity of the BBB...
July 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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