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Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089628/crf1-but-not-glucocorticoid-receptor-antagonists-reduce-separation-induced-distress-vocalizations-in-guinea-pig-pups-and-crf-overexpressing-mouse-pups-a-combination-study-with-paroxetine
#1
P Monika Verdouw, Joantine C J van Esterik, Bernard W M M Peeters, Mark J Millan, Lucianne Groenink
RATIONALE: Given the large number of patients that does not respond sufficiently to currently available treatment for anxiety disorders, there is a need for improved treatment. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the anxiolytic effects of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)1 receptor antagonists and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonists in the separation-induced vocalization test in guinea pigs and transgenic mice with central CRF overexpression. Furthermore, we explored effects of these drugs when given in combination with a suboptimal dose of a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI)...
January 12, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087221/varenicline-provokes-impulsive-action-by-stimulating-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-the-infralimbic-cortex-in-a-nicotine-exposure-status-dependent-manner
#2
Yu Ohmura, Hitomi Sasamori, Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Takeshi Izumi, Takayuki Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka
Higher impulsivity is a risk factor for criminal involvement and drug addiction. Because nicotine administration enhances impulsivity, the effects of stop-smoking aids stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on impulsivity must be determined in different conditions. Our goals were 1) to confirm the relationship between varenicline, a stop-smoking aid and α4β2 nAChR partial agonist, and impulsivity, 2) to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of varenicline, 3) to examine whether a low dose of varenicline that does not evoke impulsive action could block the stimulating effects of nicotine on impulsive action, 4) to determine whether the route of administration could modulate the effects of varenicline on impulsive action, and 5) to determine whether the effects of varenicline on impulsivity could be altered by smoking status...
January 10, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063947/food-and-drug-addictions-similarities-and-differences
#3
REVIEW
Peter J Rogers
This review examines the merits of 'food addiction' as an explanation of excessive eating (i.e., eating in excess of what is required to maintain a healthy body weight). It describes various apparent similarities in appetites for foods and drugs. For example, conditioned environmental cues can arouse food and drug-seeking behaviour, 'craving' is an experience reported to precede eating and drug taking, 'bingeing' is associated with both eating and drug use, and conditioned and unconditioned tolerance occurs to food and drug ingestion...
January 4, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063946/the-abuse-potential-of-two-novel-synthetic-cathinones-with-modification-on-the-alpha-carbon-position-2-cyclohexyl-2-methylamino-1-phenylethanone-machp-and-2-methylamino-1-phenyloctan-1-one-maop-and-their-effects-on-dopaminergic-activity
#4
Chrislean Jun Botanas, Seong Shoon Yoon, June Bryan de la Peña, Irene Joy Dela Peña, Mikyung Kim, Taeseon Woo, Joung-Wook Seo, Choon-Gon Jang, Kyung-Tae Park, Young Hun Lee, Yong Sup Lee, Hee Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Cheong
The recreational use of synthetic cathinones has dramatically increased in recent years, which is partly due to easy accessibility and ability of synthetic cathinones to exert rewarding effects similar to cocaine and methamphetamine. Many synthetic cathinones have already been scheduled in several countries; however, novel and diverse synthetic cathinones are emerging at an unprecedented rate, often outpacing regulatory processes. Recently, designer modifications of the basic cathinone molecule are usually performed on the alpha-carbon position...
January 4, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063945/calcineurin-inhibitors-improve-memory-loss-and-neuropathological-changes-in-mouse-model-of-dementia
#5
Amit Kumar, Nirmal Singh
AIM: The present study was designed to investigate the potential of Cyclosporine (CsA) and Tacrolimus, the inhibitors of calcineurin (CaN) in cognitive deficits of mice. METHODS: Streptozotocin [STZ, 3mg/kg, injected intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.)] was used to induce memory deficits in NIH mice, while aged mice separately taken served as a natural model of dementia. Morris water maze (MWM) test was employed to evaluate learning and memory of the animals. A battery of biochemical and histopathological studies was also performed...
January 4, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057525/lipopolysaccharide-administration-induces-sex-dependent-behavioural-and-serotonergic-neurochemical-signatures-in-mice
#6
Jonathon Sens, Eric Schneider, Joseph Mauch, Anna Schaffstein, Sara Mohamed, Kathryn Fasoli, Joseph Saurine, Aikaterini Britzolaki, Connor Thelen, Pothitos M Pitychoutis
Challenging the innate immune machinery with the pro-inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in the development of a sickness syndrome characterized by numerous depressive-like behavioural and physiological manifestations, most of which overlap with the clinical symptoms of major depression. Although women are known to mount stronger pro-inflammatory responses during infections and being at higher risk to develop depressive disorders compared to men, the vast majority of experimental studies investigating the neurobiological effects of LPS administration have been conducted in males...
January 3, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057524/involvement-of-presynaptic-5-ht1a-receptors-in-the-low-propensity-of-brexpiprazole-to-induce-extrapyramidal-side-effects-in-rats
#7
Cedric Mombereau, Jørn Arnt, Arne Mørk
Previous studies have shown that partial and full 5-HT1A receptor agonists reduce antipsychotic-induced catalepsy. Consequently, some antipsychotics combining balanced efficacy between dopamine (DA) D2 antagonism or partial agonism and 5-HT1A receptor agonism have a low propensity to induce extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), as reflected by low cataleptogenic activity in rodents. In the present experiments, we attempted to explore the importance of pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT1A agonistic properties of brexpiprazole and aripiprazole in the context of neurological side-effect liabilities...
January 3, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024909/dose-response-characteristics-of-intravenous-ketamine-on-dissociative-stereotypy-locomotion-sensorimotor-gating-and-nociception-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#8
Kennett D Radford, Thomas Y Park, Bong Hyo Lee, Sean Moran, Lisa A Osborne, Kwang H Choi
Clinicians administer subanesthetic intravenous (IV) ketamine infusions for treatment of refractory depression, chronic pain, and post-traumatic stress disorder in humans. However, ketamine is administered via the subcutaneous (SC) or intraperitoneal (IP) routes to rodents in most pre-clinical research, which may limit translational application. The present study characterized the dose-response of a subanesthetic IV ketamine bolus (2 and 5mg/kg) and 1-h infusion (5, 10, and 20mg/kg/h) on dissociative stereotypy, locomotion, sensorimotor gating, and thermal nociception in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
December 24, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024908/hyp-17-a-novel-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-blocker-relieves-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#9
Jee Youn Lee, Yoo Lim Kam, Jungae Oh, Dong Hyun Kim, Jin-Sung Choi, Hae Young Choi, Sungmin Han, Inchan Youn, Hea-Young Park Choo, Tae Young Yune
Clinical and experimental studies suggest that voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain and that blocking agents against these channels can be potentially therapeutic. In the current study, we investigated whether a novel compound, (-)-2-Amino-1-(4-((4-chlorophenyl)(phenyl)methyl)piperazin-1-yl)-propan-1-one(HYP-17), binds to VGSCs and evaluated its inhibitory effect on Na(+) currents of the rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons and its analgesic effect on inflammatory and neuropathic pain...
December 24, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017641/wy-14643-a-selective-agonist-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-ameliorates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-depressive-like-behaviors-by-preventing-neuroinflammation-and-oxido-nitrosative-stress-in-mice
#10
Rongrong Yang, Peng Wang, Zhuo Chen, Wenfeng Hu, Yu Gong, Wei Zhang, Chao Huang
Depression is a common disease that afflicts one in six people at some points in life. Numerous hypotheses have been raised in past years, but the exact mechanism that can be used to explain the development of depression remains obscure. Recently, more and more attentions are being focused on neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in depression. WY-14643, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), has been reported to inhibit neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, and one of our previous studies have showed that WY-14643 possesses antidepressive activities...
December 23, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012732/gabaergic-control-of-neostriatal-dopamine-d2-receptor-binding-and-behaviors-in-the-rat
#11
Susanne Nikolaus, Markus Beu, Maria Angelica de Souza Silva, Joseph P Huston, Christina Antke, Hans-Wilhelm Müller, Hubertus Hautzel
PURPOSE: The present study assessed the influence of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol and the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline on neostriatal dopamine D2 receptor binding in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors in the rat. METHODS: D2 receptor binding was measured in baseline and after challenge with either 1mg/kg muscimol or 1mg/kg bicuculline. In additional rats, D2 receptor binding was measured after injection of saline. After treatment with muscimol, bicuculline and saline, motor and exploratory behaviors were assessed for 30min in an open field prior to administration of [(123)I]S-3-iodo-N-(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzamide ([(123)I]IBZM)...
December 21, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011337/risk-taking-locomotor-activity-and-dopamine-levels-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-male-rats-treated-prenatally-with-alcohol
#12
Patricia Muñoz-Villegas, Verónica Mireya Rodríguez, Magda Giordano, Jorge Juárez
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PA) restricted to days 8-20 of rat gestation reduces the activity of the dopaminergic neurons (DA) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Hyperactivity and impulsivity have been observed under this treatment; however, it is unknown whether DA levels are affected. Decision-making in risk situations, meanwhile, has been associated with impulsive behavior, but because studies of this phenomenon in animal models are limited, we do not yet know whether PA has any effect...
December 21, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998722/intermittent-access-to-a-nutritionally-complete-high-fat-diet-attenuates-alcohol-drinking-in-rats
#13
Sunil Sirohi, Arriel Van Cleef, Jon F Davis
Binge eating disorder and alcohol use disorder (AUD) frequently co-occur in the presence of other psychiatric conditions. Data suggest that binge eating engages similar behavioral and neurochemical processes common to AUD, which might contribute to the etiology or maintenance of alcoholism. However, it is unclear how binge feeding behavior and alcohol intake interact to promote initiation or maintenance of AUD. We investigated the impact of binge-like feeding on alcohol intake and anxiety-like behavior in male Long Evans rats...
December 18, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993380/corrigendum-to-hydrogen-sulfide-ameliorates-learning-memory-impairment-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice-a-novel-mechanism-mediated-by-the-activation-of-nrf2-pharmacol-biochem-behav-150-151-2016-207-216
#14
Yuangui Liu, Yuanyuan Deng, Huiyu Liu, Caixia Yin, Xiaohui Li, Qihai Gong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 16, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989747/chronic-postnatal-monoamine-oxidase-inhibition-affects-affiliative-behavior-in-rat-pupso
#15
Sofia Blazevic, Mirna Merkler, Dora Persic, Dubravka Hranilovic
Monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and noradrenaline (NA) act as important modulators of mammalian brain development and represent neurobiological substrates of affiliative behavior reflected in rat pups as a tendency to huddle or produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) when separated from the nest. Monoamines are metabolized through oxidative deamination catalyzed by the mitochondrial enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO). In this study, we examined the consequences of postnatal MAO inhibition on affiliative behavior in rat pups...
December 15, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988176/anxiogenic-like-effects-of-fluoxetine-render-adult-male-rats-vulnerable-to-the-effects-of-a-novel-stress
#16
Francisca Gomez, Luis García-García
Fluoxetine (FLX) has paradoxical anxiogenic-like effects during the acute phase of treatment. In adolescent (35d-old) male rats, the stress-like effects induced by short-term (3d-4d) FLX treatment appear to involve up-regulation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) arginine vasopressin (AVP) mRNA. However, studies on FLX-induced anxiety-like effects in adult rodents are inconclusive. Herein, we sought to study the response of adult male rats (60-65d-old) to a similar FLX treatment, also investigating how the stressful component, inherent to our experimental conditions, contributed to the responses...
December 14, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986516/effects-of-withdrawal-from-repeated-phencyclidine-administration-on-behavioural-function-and-brain-arginine-metabolism-in-rats
#17
Logan T Knox, Yu Jing, Jamal Bawazier-Edgecombe, Nicola D Collie, Hu Zhang, Ping Liu
Phencyclidine (PCP) induces behavioural changes in humans and laboratory animals that resemble positive and negative symptoms, and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. It has been shown repeated treatment of PCP leading to persistent symptoms even after the drug discontinuation, and there is a growing body of evidence implicating altered arginine metabolism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The present study investigated the effects of withdrawal from repeated daily injection of PCP (2mg/kg) for 12 consecutive days on animals'behavioural performance and arginine metabolism in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in male young adult rats...
December 13, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986515/an-assessment-of-sex-differences-in-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-taste-and-place-conditioning
#18
Briana J Hempel, Alison G P Wakeford, Katharine H Nelson, Matthew M Clasen, Claudia J Woloshchuk, Anthony L Riley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965084/cannabinoid-modulation-of-zebrafish-fear-learning-and-its-functional-analysis-investigated-by-c-fos-expression
#19
Tim Ruhl, Malou Zeymer, Gerhard von der Emde
It has been shown that zebrafish fear learning proceeds in the same way as reported for rodents. However, in zebrafish fear learning it is possible to substitute the use of electric shocks as unconditioned stimulus and utilize the inborn fear responses to the alarm substance Schreckstoff, instead. The skin extract Schreckstoff elicits typical fear reactions such as preferred bottom dwelling, swimming in a tighter shoal, erratic movements and freezing. This natural fear behavior can be transferred from Schreckstoff to any other sensory stimulus by associative conditioning (fear learning)...
December 10, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940067/enhanced-alcohol-drinking-behavior-associated-with-active-ghrelinergic-and-serotoninergic-neurons-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-and-amygdala
#20
Kanji Yoshimoto, Masataka Nagao, Yoshihisa Watanabe, Takashi Yamaguchi, Shuichi Ueda, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Kaneyasu Nishimura, Masatoshi Inden, Yoshinori Marunaka, Hiroyuki Hattori, Kaori Murakami, Megumi Tokaji, Kozo Ochi
Central ghrelin is required for the rewarding properties of drug abuse. We investigated whether alcohol affects ghrelinergic, dopaminergic, and serotoninergic neurons and growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1A (GHS-R1A) levels in the reward system of the brain. Alcohol-naïve C57BL/6J mice received 2g/kg ethanol (EtOH) intraperitoneally (i.p.). Plasma ghrelin levels decreased between 1 and 4h. We investigated the effects of EtOH administration on plasma ghrelin levels in two different animal models at 1, 3, and 10months of age...
December 7, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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