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Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior

Vivian B Neis, Luis E B Bettio, Morgana Moretti, Priscila B Rosa, Camille M Ribeiro, Andiara E Freitas, Filipe M Gonçalves, Rodrigo B Leal, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Agmatine is an endogenous neuromodulator that has been shown to have antidepressant-like properties. We have previously demonstrated that it can induce a rapid increase in BDNF levels after acute administration, suggesting that agmatine may be a fast-acting antidepressant. To investigate this hypothesis, the present study evaluated the effects of a single administration of agmatine in mice subjected to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), a model of depression responsive only to chronic treatment with conventional antidepressants...
October 12, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Linnet Ramos, Callum Hicks, Alex Caminer, Kalliu Couto, Rajeshwar Narlawar, Michael Kassiou, Iain S McGregor
In laboratory rats, peripheral administration of the neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) induces similar prosocial effects (i.e. increased adjacent lying) to the party drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), which are sensitive to vasopressin V1A receptor (V1AR) antagonism. Here, we employed a social preference paradigm to further compare the prosocial effects of OT, AVP and MDMA. We also investigated the possible involvement of the V1AR and oxytocin receptor (OTR) in rodent social preference...
October 7, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Mark A Smith, Gaylen E Fronk, Huailin Zhang, Charlotte P Magee, Andrea M Robinson
Exercise is associated with lower rates of drug use in human populations and decreases drug self-administration in laboratory animals. Most of the existing literature examining the link between exercise and drug use has focused on chronic, long-term exercise, and very few studies have examined the link between exercise output (i.e., amount of exercise) and drug self-administration. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute bouts of exercise on cocaine self-administration, and to determine whether these effects were dependent on exercise output and the time interval between exercise and drug self-administration...
October 5, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Stefania Castello, Genesis D'Aloisio, Carlos Arias, Juan Carlos Molina
Drugs of abuse, as cocaine or amphetamine, induce locomotor sensitization during infancy and adulthood of the rat. This effect during the preweanling period is observed only after a short interval of time between training and testing. We recently reported short-term locomotor sensitization induced by ethanol in pups chronically exposed to the drug during the second postnatal week of life. The present series of experiments was designed to explore the persistence of the sensitization effect across the preweanling period...
September 30, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Suzette M Evans, Richard W Foltin, Martin J Hicks, Jonathan B Rosenberg, Bishnu P De, Kim D Janda, Stephen M Kaminsky, Ronald G Crystal
Immunopharmacotherapy offers an approach for treating cocaine abuse by specifically targeting the cocaine molecule and preventing its access to the CNS. dAd5GNE is a novel cocaine vaccine that attenuates the stimulant and the reinforcing effects of cocaine in rats. The goal of this study was to extend and validate dAd5GNE vaccine efficacy in non-human primates. Six experimentally naïve adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to self-administer 0.1mg/kg/injection intravenous (i.v.) cocaine or receive candy; then 4 monkeys were administered the vaccine and 2 monkeys were administered vehicle intramuscularly, with additional vaccine boosts throughout the study...
September 30, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Erika Pike, William W Stoops, Craig R Rush
There is not an approved pharmacotherapy for treating methamphetamine use disorder. This study sought to determine the effects of acute buspirone treatment on the subjective and cardiovascular effects of oral methamphetamine in order to provide an initial assessment of the utility, safety, and tolerability of buspirone for managing methamphetamine use disorder. We predicted that acute buspirone administration would reduce the subjective effects of methamphetamine. We also predicted that the combination of buspirone and methamphetamine would be safe and well tolerated...
September 30, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Alexa Gomez, Alexandra N Petrucci, Lauren Dance, Jessica Morales Valenzuela, Nicole Gibbs, Cara C Dahlhausen, Jessica R Villatoro, Russell F Frohardt, Fay A Guarraci
The present study was designed to test the effects of an acute, high dose of methylphenidate (MPH; trademarked as Ritalin) on sexual behavior in female Long-Evans rats. In Experiment 1, naturally cycling subjects in estrus were tested for partner preference 20 min after receiving an i.p. injection of MPH 10.0 mg/kg (n=8) or saline (n=7). During the partner-preference test, female subjects were given the choice to interact with a sexually active male stimulus or a sexually receptive female stimulus. Physical contact was limited by placing the stimulus animals behind a wire mesh during the no-contact phase of the test, whereas physical contact was not limited during the contact phase...
September 27, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Hong Wei, Hai-Yun Wu, Zuyue Chen, Ai-Niu Ma, Xiao-Fang Mao, Teng-Fei Li, Xin-Yan Li, Yong-Xiang Wang, Antti Pertovaara
Spinal transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel is associated with various pain hypersensitivity conditions. Spinally, TRPA1 is expressed by central terminals of nociceptive nerve fibers and astrocytes. Among potential endogenous agonists of TRPA1 is H2O2 generated by d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) in astrocytes. Here we studied whether prolonged block of the spinal TRPA1 or astrocytes starting at time of injury attenuates development and/or maintenance of neuropathic hypersensitivity. Additionally, TRPA1 and DAAO mRNA were determined in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn (SDH)...
September 24, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
R M Craft, A E Haas, J L Wiley, Z Yu, B H Clowers
The gonadal hormones testosterone (T) in adult males and estradiol (E2) in adult females have been reported to modulate behavioral effects of ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This study determined whether activational effects of T and E2 are sex-specific, and whether hormones modulate production of the active metabolite 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and the inactive metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH). Adult male and female rats were gonadectomized (GDX) and treated with nothing (0), T (10-mm Silastic capsule/100g body weight), or E2 (1-mm Silastic capsule/rat)...
September 24, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Justin R Yates, Kerry A Breitenstein, Benjamin T Gunkel, Mallory N Hughes, Anthony B Johnson, Katherine K Rogers, Sara M Shape
Risky decision making can be measured using a probability-discounting procedure, in which animals choose between a small, certain reinforcer and a large, uncertain reinforcer. Recent evidence has identified glutamate as a mediator of risky decision making, as blocking the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor with MK-801 increases preference for a large, uncertain reinforcer. Because the order in which probabilities associated with the large reinforcer can modulate the effects of drugs on choice, the current study determined if NMDA receptor ligands alter probability discounting using ascending and descending schedules...
September 15, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Nia M Harris, Rodney Ritzel, Nikolas Mancini, Yuhang Jiang, Xiang Yi, Devika S Manickam, William A Banks, Alexander V Kabanov, Louise D McCullough, Rajkumar Verma
BACKGROUND: Low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are linked to delayed neurological recovery, depression, and cognitive impairment following stroke. Supplementation with BDNF reverses these effects. Unfortunately, systemically administered BDNF in its native form has minimal therapeutic value due to its poor blood brain barrier permeability and short serum half-life. In this study, a novel nano-particle polyion complex formulation of BDNF (nano-BDNF) was administered to mice after experimental ischemic stroke...
September 13, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Dharmendra K Khatri, Archana R Juvekar
Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric), a plant in the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) has been used worldwide and extensively in Southeast Asia. Curcumin exhibited numerous biological and pharmacological activities including potent antioxidant, cardiovascular disease, anticancer, anti-inflammatory effects and neurodegenerative disorders in cell cultures and animal models. Hence, the present study was designed in order to explore the possible neuroprotective role of curcumin against rotenone induced cognitive impairment, oxidative and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice...
September 9, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Francis M Rotella, Kerstin Olsson, Nancy Martinez, Alexandra Mordo, Ilanna Kohen, Alon Aminov, Jeremy Pagirsky, Alice Yu, Vishal Vig, Richard J Bodnar
Rats display conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) for fats. Previous studies demonstrated that whereas expression of an already-acquired corn oil (CO)-CFP was mildly reduced by dopamine (DA) D1, DA D2, NMDA or opioid receptor antagonists, the acquisition or learning of CO-CFP was eliminated by NMDA antagonists, and significantly reduced by DA D1 and D2, but not opioid antagonists. Previous studies of fructose-CFP demonstrated that muscarinic (scopolamine) and nicotinic (mecamylamine) cholinergic receptor antagonists and GABAB (baclofen) receptor agonism reduced the expression of this acquired response, and that scopolamine, but not mecamylamine or baclofen eliminated the acquisition or learning of this response...
September 4, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Richard W Foltin, Margaret Haney, Gillinder Bedi, Suzette M Evans
This study examined how response effort (pressing a keyboard button) for cocaine and the value of an alternative reinforcer (opportunity to play a game of chance for money) combined with 'free' cocaine (with no response effort) affected cocaine choice when participants were maintained on modafinil or placebo. Nontreatment-seeking current cocaine smokers were enrolled in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, within-subject study comprising both inpatient and outpatient phases. Participants were maintained on placebo capsules (0mg/day) during one inpatient phase and modafinil (300mg/day) capsules during another inpatient phase in counter-balanced order...
September 1, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Jeffery N Talbot, Laura M Geffert, Jessica E Jorvig, Ruben I Goldstein, Cienna L Nielsen, Nicholas E Wolters, Mary Ellen Amos, Caitlin A Munro, Elizabeth Dallman, Maddalena Mereu, Gianluigi Tanda, Jonathan L Katz, Martín Indarte, Jeffry D Madura, Hailey Choi, Rehana K Leak, Christopher K Surratt
Rational design of lead compounds targeting monoamine transporters (MATs) is critical to developing novel therapeutics to treat psychiatric disorders including depression and substance abuse. A 3-D dopamine transporter (DAT) computer model was used to virtually screen a commercially available small molecule library for high DAT affinity drug-like compounds. One hit, coded "MI-4", inhibited human dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters in vitro. In vivo administration in mice induced robust, dose-dependent antidepressant-like behaviors in learned helplessness models (tail suspension and forced swim tests)...
August 26, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Sara L Stockman, Margaret M McCarthy
Juvenile social play behavior is one of the earliest sexually differentiated behaviors to emerge. In rats, as with most other species that play, males engage in more rough-and-tumble play compared to females. Exposure to early life adversity is a major driver of adult health and can manifest differently in males and females. However, the effects of adverse early life exposure on play behavior in the juvenile period are poorly understood. To address this, male and female neonatal rats were exposed to predator odor (PO), for 5min/day on PN1-PN3...
August 25, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Victoria Luine, Juan Gomez, Kevin Beck, Rachel Bowman
Chronic stress causes deleterious changes in physiological function in systems ranging from neural cells in culture to laboratory rodents, sub-human primates and humans. It is notable, however, that the vast majority of research in this area has been conducted in males. In this review, we provide information about chronic stress effects on cognition in female rodents and contrast it with responses in male rodents. In general, females show cognitive resilience to chronic stressors which impair male cognitive function using spatial tasks including the radial arm maze, radial arm water maze, Morris water maze, Y-maze and object placement...
August 24, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Caylen J Cloutier, Martin Kavaliers, Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp
This study examined sex differences in the establishment of lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced conditioned disgust behavior (anticipatory nausea) to a distinct context in adult male and female rats. Also examined were potential sex differences in response to treatment with the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and its effect on learning and memory. Twenty-nine male and 31 female naïve Long-Evans rats were injected (intraperitoneally; i.p.) with either 200μg/kg LPS or 0.9% (NaCl), 90min prior to i...
August 23, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
M F Lazenka, J A Suyama, C T Bauer, M L Banks, S S Negus
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a substrate for the dopamine (DA), norepinephrine and serotonin (5HT) transporters that produces greater pharmacological effects on certain endpoints in females than males in both clinical and rodent preclinical studies. To evaluate potential for sex differences in abuse-related MDMA effects, the present study compared MDMA effects on intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) and on in vivo microdialysis measurements of DA or 5HT in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in female and male Sprague-Dawley rats...
August 23, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Ari P Kirshenbaum, Jesse A Suhaka, Jessie L Phillips, Maiary Voltolini de Souza Pinto
In rats, nicotine enhances responding maintained by non-pharmacological reinforcers, and discontinuation of nicotine devalues those same reinforcers. The goal of this study was to assess the interaction of nicotine and opioid receptors and to evaluate the degree to which nicotine enhancement and nicotine-induced devaluation are related to opioid activation. Nicotine (0.4mg/kg), or nicotine plus naloxone (0.3 or 3.0mg/kg), was delivered to rats prior to progressive ratio (PR) schedule sessions in which sucrose was used as a reinforcer...
August 19, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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