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Pediatric Radiology

Lane F Donnelly, Shirley S Cherian, Kimberly B Chua, Sam Thankachan, Laura A Millecker, Alex G Koroll, George S Bisset
BACKGROUND: Because of the increasing complexities of providing imaging for pediatric health care services, a more reliable process to manage the daily delivery of care is necessary. Objective We describe our Daily Readiness Huddle and the effects of the process on problem identification and improvement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our Daily Readiness Huddle has four elements: metrics review, clinical volume review, daily readiness assessment, and problem accountability...
October 22, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Ralf B Loeffler, M Beth McCarville, Anne W Wagstaff, Matthew P Smeltzer, Axel J Krafft, Ruitian Song, Jane S Hankins, Claudia M Hillenbrand
BACKGROUND: Liver R2* values calculated from multi-gradient echo (mGRE) magnetic resonance images (MRI) are strongly correlated with hepatic iron concentration (HIC) as shown in several independently derived biopsy calibration studies. These calibrations were established for axial single-slice breath-hold imaging at the location of the portal vein. Scanning in multi-slice mode makes the exam more efficient, since whole-liver coverage can be achieved with two breath-holds and the optimal slice can be selected afterward...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Paige A Culotta, James E Crowe, Quynh-Anh Tran, Jeremy Y Jones, Amy R Mehollin-Ray, H Brandon Tran, Marcella Donaruma-Kwoh, Cristina T Dodge, Elizabeth A Camp, Andrea T Cruz
BACKGROUND: Young children with suspected abusive head trauma often receive skull radiographs to evaluate for fractures as well as computed tomography (CT) of the head to assess for intracranial injury. Using a CT as the primary modality to evaluate both fracture and intracranial injury could reduce exposure to radiation without sacrificing performance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sensitivity of CT head with (3-D) reconstruction compared to skull radiographs to identify skull fractures in children with suspected abusive head trauma...
October 15, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Savvas Andronikou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Mohan Doss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Mervyn D Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Donald P Frush
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Savvas Andronikou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Miran Han, Hyun Gi Kim, Jung-Dong Lee, Seon Young Park, Young Keun Sur
BACKGROUND: The urinary tract dilation (UTD) classification system was proposed in 2014. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correspondence and reliability of two US grading systems for postnatal urinary tract dilatation in infants: the Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) and the UTD systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed 180 kidneys in infants younger than 1 year. Four radiologists assessed the kidneys twice using both the SFU system (grades 0 to 4) and the UTD system (grades normal, P1, P2, P3)...
October 10, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Michael J Callahan, Jennifer M Talmadge, Robert D MacDougall, Patricia L Kleinman, George A Taylor, Carlo Buonomo
In our experience, questions about the appropriate use of enteric contrast media for pediatric fluoroscopic studies are common. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of enteric contrast media used for pediatric fluoroscopy, highlighting the routine use of these media at a large tertiary care pediatric teaching hospital.
October 10, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Michele N Edison, M Cody O'Dell, Haley P Letter, Kurt Scherer, Jennifer L Williams
An 8-year-old girl presented with bilateral breast masses and was subsequently diagnosed with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare myelodysplastic syndrome that typically presents in boys younger than 3 years of age with splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and skin findings. Bilateral breast masses in a child are rare and, as such, present a diagnostic dilemma due to the relative paucity of cases in the literature. We present a case of granulocytic sarcoma of the breasts in a patient with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia...
October 7, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Charles A James, Leah E Braswell, Amir H Pezeshkmehr, Paula K Roberson, James A Parks, Mary B Moore
BACKGROUND: Complicated pleural effusion prolongs the hospital course of pneumonia. Chest tube placement with instillation of fibrinolytic medication allows efficient drain output and decreases hospital stay. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate experience with lower fibrinolytic dose for parapneumonic effusions and to assess potential dose stratification based on a simple ultrasound grading system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical record to identify children and young adults who received fibrinolytic therapy for parapneumonic effusion and had chest tube placement by an interventional radiology service at a single children's hospital...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Daniel G Rosenbaum, Maire A Conrad, David M Biko, Eduardo D Ruchelli, Judith R Kelsen, Sudha A Anupindi
BACKGROUND: Imaging predictors for surgery in children with Crohn disease are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To identify imaging features of the terminal ileum on short-interval bowel ultrasound (US) and MR enterography (MRE) in children with Crohn disease requiring surgical bowel resection and those managed by medical therapy alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated patients 18 years and younger with Crohn disease undergoing short-interval bowel US and MRE (within 2 months of one another), as well as subsequent ileocecectomy or endoscopy within 3 months of imaging...
September 29, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Luis F Goncalves, Julie A Berger, Jacqueline K Macknis, Samuel T Bauer, David A Bloom
Grebe dysplasia is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe acromesomelic shortening of the long bones in a proximal to distal gradient of severity, with bones of the hands and feet more severely affected than those of the forearms and legs, which in turn are more severely affected than the humeri and femora. In addition, the bones of the lower extremities tend to be more severely affected than the bones of the upper extremities. Despite the severe skeletal deformities, the condition is not lethal and surviving individuals can have normal intelligence...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Beverley Newman, Kate Hanneman, Frandics Chan
Fifth arch anomalies are rare and complex and frequently misdiagnosed or mistaken for other entities. We report a double arch vascular ring that is thought to consist of right fourth arch and left fifth arch components, a previously undescribed persistent fifth arch variant. The currently recognized spectrum and classification of fifth arch vascular anomalies are expanded along with illustrative images to justify the proposed changes. Reviewing and expanding the classification of fifth arch anomalies to include a double arch ring variant will promote recognition, correct diagnosis and appropriate management of these anomalies...
September 26, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Paolo Toma, Alice Bertaina, Elio Castagnola, Giovanna Stefania Colafati, Maria Luisa D'Andrea, Andrea Finocchi, Vincenzina Lucidi, Angela Mastronuzzi, Claudio Granata
Fungal infections of the lungs are relatively common and potentially life-threatening conditions in immunocompromised children. The role of imaging in children with lung mycosis is to delineate the extension of pulmonary involvement, to assess response to therapy, and to monitor for adverse sequelae such as bronchiectasis and cavitation. The aim of this paper is to show imaging findings in a series of patients with fungal pneumonia from two tertiary children's hospitals, to discuss differential diagnoses and to show how imaging findings can vary depending on the host immune response...
September 23, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Eveline Y Wu, Lauren Ehrlich, Brian Handly, Donald P Frush, Rebecca H Buckley
Primary immunodeficiencies are a group of genetically determined disorders with diverse presentations. The purpose of this review is to provide a practical and brief description of a select number of these diseases and to discuss the important role the radiologist can have in making an early diagnosis and in detecting and following disease complications. The role of diagnostic imaging and informed performance and interpretation are vital in the diagnosis, surveillance and management of all primary immunodeficiency disorders...
September 22, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Gonca Koc, Sam Sugimoto, Rachel Kuperman, Bamidele F Kammen, S Pinar Karakas
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are not included in the diagnostic criteria for tuberous sclerosis complex, although an association has been described. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex and define MRI characteristics of the tumor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the abdominal MRI scans of 55 children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex for the presence of a pancreatic mass...
September 17, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Lin Yang, Jian Zhuang, Meiping Huang, Changhong Liang, Hui Liu
BACKGROUND: Hybrid iterative reconstruction can reduce image noise and produce better image quality compared with filtered back-projection (FBP), but few reports describe optimization of the iteration level. OBJECTIVE: We optimized the iteration level of iDose(4) and evaluated image quality for pediatric cardiac CT angiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children (n = 160) with congenital heart disease were enrolled and divided into full-dose (n = 84) and half-dose (n = 76) groups...
September 16, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Andrew T Trout, Bin Zhang, Alexander J Towbin
BACKGROUND: Appendiceal diameter continues to be cited as an important criterion for diagnosis of appendicitis by computed tomography (CT). OBJECTIVE: To assess sources of error and variability in appendiceal diameter measurements by CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this institutional review board-approved review of imaging and medical records, we reviewed CTs performed in children <18 years of age between Jan. 1 and Dec. 31, 2010. Appendiceal diameter was measured in the axial and coronal planes by two reviewers (R1, R2)...
September 2, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
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