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Pediatric Radiology

Larry A Binkovitz, Amy B Kolbe, Robert C Orth, Nadia F Mahood, Prabin Thapa, Nathan C Hull, Paul G Thacker, Christopher Moir
BACKGROUND: Ileocolic intussusception occurs when the terminal ileum "telescopes" into the colon. We observed that ileocolic intussusception lengths are similar regardless of location in the colon. OBJECTIVE: To examine the uniformity of ileocolic intussusception length and its relationship to colon location, symptom duration and reducibility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed ultrasound-diagnosed pediatric ileocolic intussusceptions initially treated with pneumatic reduction at the Mayo Clinic or Texas Children's Hospital...
September 19, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Jie C Nguyen, Paul H Yi, Kaitlin M Woo, Humberto G Rosas
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal complaints are common among children, and magnetic resonance (MR) is increasingly used to supplement the clinical assessment. The validation of a short triage protocol could reduce the number of unnecessary contrast-enhanced MR studies that sometimes also require the need for sedation. OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy between fluid-sensitive sequence and contrast-enhanced MR study in the detection of musculoskeletal pathology in the pelvis and the appendicular skeleton in children older than 2 years...
September 19, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Claudia Martinez-Rios, Mehul P Jariwala, Kerri Highmore, Karen Watanabe Duffy, Lynn Spiegel, Ronald M Laxer, Jennifer Stimec
Pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne (PAPA) syndrome is a rare autosomal-dominant autoinflammatory disease of incomplete penetrance and variable expression. PAPA syndrome is the result of a mutation in the proline serine threonine phosphatase-interacting protein 1 (PSTPIP1/CD2BP1) gene located on chromosome 15, which results in an abnormal overproduction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1). This syndrome clinically manifests as early onset of recurrent episodes of acute aseptic inflammation of the joints, generally occurring in the first two decades of life, followed by manifestation of characteristic skin lesions in the third decade, after an obvious decline in the joint symptoms...
September 17, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Benita Tamrazi, Kshitij Mankad, Marvin Nelson, Felice D'Arco
Assessing tumor response is a large part of everyday clinical work in neuroradiology. However in the setting of tumor treatment, distinguishing tumor progression from treatment-related changes is difficult on conventional MRI sequences. This is made even more challenging in children where mainstay advanced imaging techniques that are often used to decipher progression versus treatment-related changes have technical limitations. In this review, we highlight the challenges in pediatric neuro-oncologic tumor assessment with discussion of pseudophenomenon including pseudoresponse and pseudoprogression...
September 13, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Peter J Strouse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Michael J Rose, Cynthia K Rigsby, Haben Berhane, Emilie Bollache, Kelly Jarvis, Alex J Barker, Susanne Schnell, Bradley D Allen, Joshua D Robinson, Michael Markl
BACKGROUND: Children with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) are at risk for serious complications including aortic valve stenosis and aortic rupture. Most studies investigating biomarkers predictive of BAV complications are focused on adults. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether hemodynamic parameters change over time in children and young adults with BAV by comparing baseline and follow-up four-dimensional (4-D) flow MRI examinations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively included 19 children and young adults with BAV who had serial 4-D flow MRI exams (mean difference in scan dates 1...
September 10, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Michele Scialpi, Raffaele Schiavone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Andrew J Degnan, Mark D Alson, Richard Duszak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
M Ines Boechat, Dorothy I Bulas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Gary R Schooler, Joseph T Davis, Heike Daldrup-Link, Donald P Frush
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Meghann M Ronning, Patrick L Carolan, Gretchen J Cutler, Richard J Patterson
BACKGROUND: Abusive head trauma (AHT) is the most common cause of subdural hemorrhage (SDH) in infants younger than 12 months old. Clot formation in the parasagittal vertex seen on imaging has been associated with SDH due to AHT. There have been very few studies regarding these findings; to our knowledge, no studies including controls have been performed. OBJECTIVE: To describe parasagittal vertex clots on head computed tomography (CT) in infants with SDH and AHT compared to patients with SDH and accidental trauma, and to evaluate for parasagittal vertex clots in the absence of SDH in the setting of known accidental head trauma...
September 5, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Teresa Chapman, Adina L Alazraki, Meryle J Eklund
BACKGROUND: Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an imaging examination in evolution. Rapid developments over recent decades have led to better image quality, an increased number of examinations and greater impact on patient care. OBJECTIVE: To gather data regarding current practices among established programs in North America and provide information to radiologists interested in implementing or growing a fetal MRI service. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic survey containing 15 questions relevant to the use of fetal MRI was submitted to pediatric radiologists and neuroradiologists...
September 3, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Donald P Frush
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 3, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Leslie E Grissom, Mary P Harty, Grace W Guo, Heidi H Kecskemethy
BACKGROUND: The pelvis is composed of three paired primary ossification centers: the pubis, the ischium and the ilium. During maturation, multiple secondary ossification centers can be seen in the synchondroses between these bones and in the pelvic apophyses. The fragmented appearance of these centers can be confused with pathology. OBJECTIVE: To examine development of pelvic ossification centers by CT and determine normal appearance throughout childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three pediatric radiologists reviewed 325 pelvic CT scans in children and young adults 5-18 years old and graded 6 pelvic ossification centers to evaluate maturational changes in critical structures...
September 3, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Jordan C Knight, Stephen Lehnert, Anthony L Shanks, Lamia Atasi, Lisa R Delaney, Megan B Marine, Sherrine A Ibrahim, Brandon P Brown
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound (US) is the first-line imaging modality to assess the morbidly adherent placenta, but sensitivity and specificity are lacking. OBJECTIVE: This investigation aims to improve diagnostic accuracy with a comprehensive score using clinical history, US, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women who received both transvaginal US and MRI with suspicion for morbidly adherent placenta between 2009 and 2016...
September 3, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Carlos B Ortiz, Kamlesh U Kukreja, Timothy E Lotze, Alex Chau
BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal-recessive disease affecting motor neurons and is the most common genetic cause of death in infants. Intrathecal nusinersen is the only therapy approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for SMA. Deformities and spinal instrumentation from orthopedic surgeries are common in children with SMA, complicating traditional intrathecal access for nusinersen delivery. Cervical punctures are routinely performed in adults for cervical myelograms and should be considered for children with SMA as a viable form of intrathecal access...
August 30, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Elizabeth J Snyder, Wei Zhang, Kimberly Chua Jasmin, Sam Thankachan, Lane F Donnelly
BACKGROUND: Incident reporting can be used to inform imaging departments about adverse events and near misses. OBJECTIVE: To study incident reports submitted during a 5-year period at a large pediatric imaging system to evaluate which imaging modalities and other factors were associated with a greater rate of filed incident reports. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All incident reports filed between 2013 and 2017 were reviewed and categorized by modality, patient type (inpatient, outpatient or emergency center) and use of sedation/anesthesia...
August 29, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Avinash N Medsinge, Fernando A Escobar, Sabri Yilmaz, James K Park, John J Crowley
Mediport (also known as port, portacath or Infusaport) is a commonly placed central venous access in pediatric patients. Fibrin sheath formation around the central venous catheter is a common biological response leading to port malfunction in the form of inability to aspirate but preserved capacity for infusion of fluids. If fibrinolytic therapy fails, percutaneous fibrin sheath stripping via transfemoral route or replacement with a new mediport are routine/conventional treatments for a fibrin sheath. We describe a novel technique for removing a fibrin sheath by exteriorizing the catheter through the neck entry site, stripping the fibrin sheath from the catheter manually under sterile conditions and replacing the catheter via a peel-away sheath introduced through the same skin incision as an alternative to complete port replacement or attempted catheter stripping...
August 29, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Yu Jin Kim, Woo Sun Kim, Young Hun Choi, Jung-Eun Cheon, Jung Yoon Choi, Hyoung Jin Kang, Ji-Eun Park, Young Jin Ryu, In-One Kim
BACKGROUND: Toxicity of carmustine and cyclophosphamide can cause pulmonary injury after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the radiologic findings of pulmonary injuries following carmustine- and cyclophosphamide-based preparative regimens in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2014, 35 children received carmustine- and cyclophosphamide-based preparative regimens. Fourteen of 35 children presented with symptoms and radiologic abnormalities...
August 18, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Felice D'Arco, Faraan Khan, Kshitij Mankad, Mario Ganau, Pablo Caro-Dominguez, Sotirios Bisdas
Central nervous system neoplasms are the most common solid tumours that develop in children, with the greatest proportion located in the infratentorium. The 2016 World Health Organization Central Nervous System tumour classification evolved from the 2007 edition with the integration of molecular and genetic profiling into the diagnosis, the addition of new entities and the removal of others. Radiology can assist with the subtyping of tumours from certain characteristics described below to provide prognostic information and guide further management...
August 17, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
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