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Pediatric Radiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331936/ultrasound-guidance-for-difficult-lumbar-puncture-in-children-pearls-and-pitfalls
#1
REVIEW
Prakash Muthusami, Ashley James Robinson, Manohar M Shroff
Pediatric lumbar puncture can be challenging or unsuccessful for several reasons. At the same time, the excellent sonographic window into the pediatric spine provides a distinct opportunity for ultrasound-guided lumbar puncture. Minimal cerebrospinal fluid and thecal displacement by subdural or epidural hematomas are common after failed clinical attempts. Ultrasound is useful for determining a safe infraconal level for subarachnoid access. Real-time guidance increases not only the success rate but also the safety of diagnostic lumbar puncture and injections for chemotherapy and myelography...
March 22, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317070/lumbar-translaminar-fenestration-for-insertion-of-intrathecal-baclofen-catheter-a-novel-technique
#2
Manraj K S Heran, Hisham Al-Shikarchy, Carolyn Chowne
Intrathecal baclofen has long been known to be an efficacious treatment of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy. Test bolus administration is often necessary to ensure patients will benefit from this treatment. The introduction of a intrathecal catheter for test bolus administration can prove challenging in a subset of this population, particularly those who have received surgery with postoperative spinal fusion masses. We outline a novel technique of inserting a spinal catheter for test bolus administration in a patient with a postoperative fusion mass whereby a fenestration is created through the lamina using an osteotomy needle...
March 20, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303321/serial-prenatal-and-postnatal-mri-of-dystroglycanopathy-in-a-patient-with-familial-b3galnt2-mutation
#3
Mai-Lan Ho, Orit A Glenn, Eliott H Sherr, Jonathan B Strober
The dystroglycanopathies are a heterogeneous group of conditions, with mutations in B3GALNT2 described in association with congenital muscular dystrophy. The serial prenatal MRI findings in this disorder have not been well described. We present sequential prenatal and postnatal MRI findings in a boy with compound heterozygous mutations in B3GALNT2, as well as the MRI findings of his two siblings with similar mutations. These findings provide new insight into the molecular pathogenesis and neurodevelopment of congenital muscular dystrophy...
March 16, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303320/sonographic-probabilities-of-appendicitis-in-children
#4
LETTER
Mara Angela Guglietta, Andrea Magistrelli, Cristina Martucci, Ines Casazza, Paolo Tomà
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293707/image-quality-and-radiation-dose-of-brain-computed-tomography-in-children-effects-of-decreasing-tube-voltage-from-120-kvp-to-80-kvp
#5
Ji Eun Park, Young Hun Choi, Jung-Eun Cheon, Woo Sun Kim, In-One Kim, Hyun Suk Cho, Young Jin Ryu, Yu Jin Kim
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) has generated public concern associated with radiation exposure, especially for children. Lowering the tube voltage is one strategy to reduce radiation dose. OBJECTIVE: To assess the image quality and radiation dose of non-enhanced brain CT scans acquired at 80 kilo-voltage peak (kVp) compared to those at 120 kVp in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty children who had undergone both 80- and 120-kVp non-enhanced brain CT were enrolled...
March 14, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283728/survey-of-gadolinium-based-contrast-agent-utilization-among-the-members-of-the-society-for-pediatric-radiology-a-quality-and-safety-committee-report
#6
Einat Blumfield, Michael M Moore, Mary K Drake, Thomas R Goodman, Kristopher N Lewis, Laura T Meyer, Thang D Ngo, Christina Sammet, Arta Luana Stanescu, David W Swenson, Thomas L Slovis, Ramesh S Iyer
BACKGROUND: Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have been used for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging over the last three decades. Recent reports demonstrated gadolinium retention in patients' brains following intravenous administration. Since gadolinium is a highly toxic heavy metal, there is a potential for adverse effects from prolonged retention or deposition, particularly in children. For this reason, the Society (SPR) for Pediatric Radiology Quality and Safety committee conducted a survey to evaluate the current status of GBCAs usage among pediatric radiologists...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283727/use-of-gadolinium-based-magnetic-resonance-imaging-contrast-agents-and-awareness-of-brain-gadolinium-deposition-among-pediatric-providers-in-north-america
#7
Leena B Mithal, Payal S Patel, Divakar Mithal, Hannah L Palac, Michael N Rozenfeld
BACKGROUND: Numerous recent articles have reported brain gadolinium deposition when using linear but not macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). OBJECTIVE: To determine the current landscape of gadolinium use among pediatric institutions and the knowledge base of radiologists and referring providers with regard to GBCAs and brain gadolinium deposition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We e-mailed voluntary closed surveys to 5,390 physicians in various pediatric professional societies between January 2016 and March 2016...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283726/magnetic-resonance-enterography-has-good-inter-rater-agreement-and-diagnostic-accuracy-for-detecting-inflammation-in-pediatric-crohn-disease
#8
Peter C Church, Mary-Louise C Greer, Ruth Cytter-Kuint, Andrea S Doria, Anne M Griffiths, Dan Turner, Thomas D Walters, Brian M Feldman
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) is increasingly relied upon for noninvasive assessment of intestinal inflammation in Crohn disease. However very few studies have examined the diagnostic accuracy of individual MRE signs in children. OBJECTIVE: We have created an MR-based multi-item measure of intestinal inflammation in children with Crohn disease - the Pediatric Inflammatory Crohn's MRE Index (PICMI). To inform item selection for this instrument, we explored the inter-rater agreement and diagnostic accuracy of individual MRE signs of inflammation in pediatric Crohn disease and compared our findings with the reference standards of the weighted Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index (wPCDAI) and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283725/realistic-phantoms-to-characterize-dosimetry-in-pediatric-ct
#9
Diana E Carver, Susan D Kost, Nicholas D Fraser, W Paul Segars, David R Pickens, Ronald R Price, Michael G Stabin
BACKGROUND: The estimation of organ doses and effective doses for children receiving CT examinations is of high interest. Newer, more realistic anthropomorphic body models can provide information on individual organ doses and improved estimates of effective dose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Previously developed body models representing 50th-percentile individuals at reference ages (newborn, 1, 5, 10 and 15 years) were modified to represent 10th, 25th, 75th and 90th height percentiles for both genders and an expanded range of ages (3, 8 and 13 years)...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283724/radiation-dose-associated-with-ct-guided-drain-placement-for-pediatric-patients
#10
Cody J Schwartz, Ari J Isaacson, Lynn Ansley Fordham, Marija Ivanovic, J Bradford Taylor, Robert G Dixon
BACKGROUND: To date, there are limited radiation dose data on CT-guided procedures in pediatric patients. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to quantify the radiation dose associated with pediatric CT-guided drain placement and follow-up drain evaluations in order to estimate effective dose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched the electronic medical record and picture archiving and communication system (PACS) to identify all pediatric (<18 years old) CT-guided drain placements performed between January 2008 and December 2013 at our institution...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283723/intravoxel-incoherent-motion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-knee-joint-in-children-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#11
Fabian Hilbert, Annette Holl-Wieden, Alexander Sauer, Herbert Köstler, Henning Neubauer
BACKGROUND: MRI of synovitis relies on use of a gadolinium-based contrast agent. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) visualises thickened synovium but is of limited use in the presence of joint effusion. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted MRI with intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) for diagnosing synovitis in the knee joint of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve consecutive children with confirmed or suspected juvenile idiopathic arthritis (10 girls, median age 11 years) underwent MRI with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging and DWI at 1...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283722/fanconi-anemia-correlating-central-nervous-system-malformations-and-genetic-complementation-groups
#12
Benjamin A Johnson-Tesch, Rakhee S Gawande, Lei Zhang, Margaret L MacMillan, David R Nascene
BACKGROUND: Congenital central nervous system abnormalities in children with Fanconi anemia are poorly characterized, especially with regard to specific genetic complementation groups. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the impact of genetic complementation groups on central nervous system anatomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through chart review we identified 36 patients with Fanconi anemia with available brain MRIs at the University of Minnesota (average age, 11...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271218/rapid-lung-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-children-with-pulmonary-infection-reply-to-sodhi-et-al
#13
LETTER
H Nursun Ozcan, Ayşegul Gormez, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Jale Karakaya, Berna Oguz, Sule Unal, Mualla Cetin, Mehmet Ceyhan, Mithat Haliloglu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271217/reply-to-bilo-et-al
#14
LETTER
C Adamsbaum, B Morel, B Ducot, G Antoni, C Rey-Salmon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271216/the-imaging-appearance-of-crayons
#15
Aaron S McAllister, Neil U Lall, Kareem O Tawfik, Blaise V Jones
BACKGROUND: A crayon fragment was determined to be the source of a foreign body inflammatory process in the masticator space of a 15-month-old boy. The appearance of the crayon on CT and MR imaging was unexpected, leading to a further analysis of the imaging features of crayons. OBJECTIVE: To investigate and characterize the imaging appearance of crayons at CT and MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors obtained CT and MR images of 22 crayons from three manufacturers and three non-pigmented crayons cast by the authors...
March 7, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265696/pediatric-interventional-radiology-a-maturing-subspecialty
#16
EDITORIAL
James S Donaldson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265695/pediatric-interventional-radiology-workforce-survey-10-year-follow-up
#17
Claire S Kaufman, Charles A James, Roger K Harned, Bairbre L Connolly, Derek J Roebuck, Anne M Cahill, Josee Dubois, Frank P Morello, Robin K Morgan, Manrita K Sidhu
BACKGROUND: Pediatric interventional radiology is a distinct subspecialty differing from both pediatric diagnostic radiology and adult interventional radiology. We conducted a workforce survey in 2005 to evaluate the state of pediatric interventional radiology at that time. Since then there have been many advancements to the subspecialty, including the founding of the Society for Pediatric Interventional Radiology (SPIR). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current state of the pediatric interventional radiology workforce and compare findings with those of the initial 2005 workforce survey...
March 6, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258425/magnetic-resonance-guided-biopsy-of-focal-liver-lesions
#18
Ethan A Smith, Jason J Grove, Abraham F L Van Der Spek, Marcus D Jarboe
Image-guided biopsy techniques are widely used in clinical practice. Commonly used methods employ either ultrasound (US) or computed tomography (CT) for image guidance. In certain patients, US or CT guidance may be suboptimal, or even impossible, because of artifacts, suboptimal lesion visualization, or both. We recently began performing magnetic resonance (MR)-guided biopsy of focal liver lesions in select pediatric patients with lesions that are not well visualized by US or CT. This report describes our experience performing MR-guided biopsy of focal liver lesions, with case examples to illustrate innovative techniques and novel aspects of these procedures...
March 3, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255690/rapid-lung-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-children-with-pulmonary-infection
#19
LETTER
Kushaljit Singh Sodhi, Anmol Bhatia, Niranjan Khandelwal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255689/high-resolution-heavily-t2-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-evaluation-of-the-pituitary-stalk-in-children-with-ectopic-neurohypophysis
#20
Imane El Sanharawi, Loukia Tzarouchi, Liesbeth Cardoen, Laetitia Martinerie, Juliane Leger, Jean-Claude Carel, Monique Elmaleh-Berges, Marianne Alison
BACKGROUND: In anterior pituitary deficiency, patients with non visible pituitary stalk have more often multiple deficiencies and persistent deficiency than patients with visible pituitary stalk. OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic value of a high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence to 1.5-mm-thick unenhanced and contrast-enhanced sagittal T1-weighted sequences to assess the presence of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland...
March 2, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
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