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Pediatric Radiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933410/magnetic-resonance-imaging-patterns-of-treatment-related-toxicity-in-the-pediatric-brain-an-update-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
REVIEW
Maria Camilla Rossi Espagnet, Luca Pasquini, Antonio Napolitano, Antonella Cacchione, Angela Mastronuzzi, Roberta Caruso, Paolo Tomà, Daniela Longo
Treatment-related neurotoxicity is a potentially life-threatening clinical condition that can represent a diagnostic challenge. Differentiating diagnoses between therapy-associated brain injury and recurrent disease can be difficult, and the immediate recognition of neurotoxicity is crucial to providing correct therapeutic management, ensuring damage reversibility. For these purposes, the knowledge of clinical timing and specific treatment protocols is extremely important for interpreting MRI patterns. Neuroradiologic findings are heterogeneous and sometimes overlapping, representing the compounding effect of the different treatments...
December 9, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924362/pediatric-radiology-continuing-medical-education-activity
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924361/prevalence-of-non-cardiovascular-findings-on-ct-angiography-in-children-with-congenital-heart-disease
#3
Archana Malik, Jeffrey C Hellinger, Sabah Servaes, Mathew C Schwartz, Marc S Keller, Monica Epelman
BACKGROUND: CT angiography is gaining broader acceptance in the evaluation of children with known or suspected congenital heart disease. These studies include non-cardiovascular structures such as the mediastinum, lung parenchyma and upper abdominal organs. It is important to inspect all these structures for potential abnormalities that might be clinically important and, in some cases, may impact care plans. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of non-cardiovascular findings in CT angiography of children with congenital heart disease...
December 6, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904917/evaluating-skeletal-dysplasias-on-prenatal-ultrasound-an-emphasis-on-predicting-lethality
#4
REVIEW
Kathryn S Milks, Lyndon M Hill, Keyanoosh Hosseinzadeh
Lethal skeletal dysplasias can be diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound (US) using several sonographic parameters. Degree of femoral shortening, lung volumes, femur length to abdominal circumference ratio, and chest circumference to abdominal circumference ratio are the most sensitive and specific predictors. Although there are more than 450 different skeletal dysplasias, only a few are lethal in the perinatal period. We review current fetal US literature and present an updated algorithmic approach to first establish lethality and, second, evaluate for hallmark sonographic features to help determine a specific diagnosis...
December 1, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904916/imaging-of-late-complications-of-cancer-therapy-in-children
#5
REVIEW
Susan C Shelmerdine, Govind B Chavhan, Paul S Babyn, Paul C Nathan, Sue C Kaste
Long-term survival after childhood cancer has improved dramatically over recent decades but survivors face lifelong risks of adverse health effects. Many of these chronic conditions are a direct result of previous therapeutic exposures. Compared to their siblings, survivors face a greater than 8-fold increase in relative risk of severe or life-threatening medical conditions; the most significant of these include second malignancies and cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Imaging can play a key role in identifying and characterizing such complications, which can be reasonably predicted with knowledge of the child's treatment...
December 1, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896373/assessing-colonic-anatomy-normal-values-based-on-air-contrast-enemas-in-children-younger-than-6%C3%A2-years
#6
Ilan J N Koppen, Desale Yacob, Carlo Di Lorenzo, Miguel Saps, Marc A Benninga, Jennifer N Cooper, Peter C Minneci, Katherine J Deans, D Gregory Bates, Benjamin P Thompson
BACKGROUND: Contrast enemas with barium or water-soluble contrast agents are sometimes performed in children with severe intractable constipation to identify anatomical abnormalities. However there are no clear definitions for normal colonic size or abnormalities such as colonic dilation or sigmoid redundancy in children. OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics of colonic anatomy on air contrast enemas in children without constipation to provide normal values for colonic size ratios in children...
November 29, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891546/ct-image-quality-in-sinogram-affirmed-iterative-reconstruction-phantom-study-is-there-a-point-of-diminishing-returns
#7
Juan C Infante, Yu Liu, Cynthia K Rigsby
BACKGROUND: In our pediatric practice, we have observed qualitatively limited improvement in the image quality of images generated with sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) compared to series generated with filtered back projection (FBP), particularly in cases near or below a CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) of 1-mGy. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the image quality advantage of SAFIRE remains constant across clinically used CT dose levels in an American College of Radiology (ACR) CT accreditation phantom including the lower dose range used in pediatric imaging...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889813/pediatric-radiology-editorial-board-acknowledgments-and-updates
#8
EDITORIAL
Peter J Strouse, Øystein E Olsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 26, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878583/imaging-button-battery-ingestions-and-insertions-in-children-a-15-year-single-center-review
#9
Brian S Pugmire, Tom K Lin, Scott Pentiuk, Alessandro de Alarcon, Catherine K Hart, Andrew T Trout
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown an increase in morbidity associated with button battery ingestions in children. OBJECTIVE: To perform a comprehensive, imaging-focused review of all patients with confirmed button battery ingestions/insertions imaged at our institution in the last 15 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Radiology reports from Jan. 1, 2000, to July 12, 2015, were searched for the terms "battery" and "batteries." Confirmed cases of battery ingestion/insertion for which images were available were reviewed...
November 23, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878339/multifocal-tenosynovial-giant-cell-tumors-in-a-child-with-noonan-syndrome
#10
Arthur B Meyers, Agboola O Awomolo, Sara Szabo
Noonan syndrome is a genetic disorder with variable expression of distinctive facial features, webbed neck, chest deformity, short stature, cryptorchidism and congenital heart disease. The association of Noonan syndrome and giant cell granulomas of the mandible is widely reported. However, Noonan syndrome may also be associated with single or multifocal tenosynovial giant cell tumors, also referred to as pigmented villonodular synovitis. We report a child with Noonan syndrome, giant cell granulomas of the mandible and synovial and tenosynovial giant cell tumors involving multiple joints and tendon sheaths who was initially misdiagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis...
November 23, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858110/reply-regarding-presentation-to-publication-institutional-and-individual-factors
#11
LETTER
Susan C Shelmerdine, Owen J Arthurs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858109/presentation-to-publication-institutional-and-individual-factors
#12
LETTER
Cory M Pfeifer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853839/the-effects-of-expanding-outpatient-and-inpatient-evaluation-and-management-services-in-a-pediatric-interventional-radiology-practice
#13
Faramarz Edalat, Will S Lindquester, Anne E Gill, Stephen F Simoneaux, Jennifer Gaines, C Matthew Hawkins
BACKGROUND: Despite a continuing emphasis on evaluation and management clinical services in adult interventional radiology (IR) practice, the peer-reviewed literature addressing these services - and their potential economic benefits - is lacking in pediatric IR practice. OBJECTIVE: To measure the effects of expanding evaluation and management (E&M) services through the establishment of a dedicated pediatric interventional radiology outpatient clinic and inpatient E&M reporting system...
November 17, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853838/pre-procedural-scout-radiographs-are-unnecessary-for-routine-pediatric-fluoroscopic-examinations
#14
Sean G Creeden, Anil G Rao, Meryle J Eklund, Jeanne G Hill, Paul G Thacker
BACKGROUND: Although practice patterns vary, scout radiographs are often routinely performed with pediatric fluoroscopic studies. However few studies have evaluated their utility in routine pediatric fluoroscopy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of scout abdomen radiographs in routine barium or water-soluble enema, upper gastrointestinal (GI) series, and voiding cystourethrogram pediatric fluoroscopic procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 723 barium or water-soluble enema, upper GI series, and voiding cystourethrogram fluoroscopic procedures performed at our institution...
November 17, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844104/primary-hyperoxaluria-spectrum-of-clinical-and-imaging-findings
#15
Sara B Strauss, Temima Waltuch, William Bivin, Frederick Kaskel, Terry L Levin
Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism with three known subtypes. In primary hyperoxaluria type 1, the most common of the subtypes, a deficiency in the hepatic enzymes responsible for the metabolism of glycoxylate to glycine, leads to excessive levels of glyoxylate, which is converted to oxalate. The resultant elevation in serum and urinary oxalate that characterizes primary hyperoxaluria leads to calcium oxalate crystal deposition in multiple organ systems (oxalosis)...
November 14, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832304/the-challenging-sonographic-inguinal-canal-evaluation-in-neonates-and-children-an-update-of-differential-diagnoses
#16
Yoshino T Sameshima, Maurício G I Yamanari, Mariana A Silva, Miguel J Francisco Neto, Marcelo B G Funari
Bulging of the inguinal region is a frequent complaint in the pediatric population and sonographic findings can be challenging for radiologists. In this review we update the sonographic findings of the most common disorders that affect the inguinal canal in neonates and children, with a focus on the processus vaginalis abnormalities such as congenital hydroceles, indirect inguinal hernias and cryptorchidism, illustrated with cases collected at a quaternary hospital during a 7-year period. We emphasize the importance of correctly classifying different types of congenital hydrocele and inguinal hernia to allow for early surgical intervention when necessary...
November 10, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830296/radiation-dose-levels-in-pediatric-chest-ct-experience-in-499-children-evaluated-with-dual-source-single-energy-ct
#17
Remy-Jardin Martine, Teresa Santangelo, Lucie Colas, Faivre Jean-Baptiste, Alain Duhamel, Antoine Deschildre, Jacques Remy
BACKGROUND: The availability of dual-source technology has introduced the possibility of scanning children at lower kVp with a high-pitch mode, combining high-speed data acquisition and high temporal resolution. OBJECTIVE: To establish the radiation dose levels of dual-source, single-energy chest CT examinations in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively recorded the dose-length product (DLP) of 499 consecutive examinations obtained in children <50 kg, divided into five weight groups: group 1 (<10 kg, n = 129); group 2 (10-20 kg, n = 176); group 3 (20-30 kg, n = 99), group 4 (30-40 kg, n = 58) and group 5 (40-49 kg, n = 37)...
November 9, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826678/reply-regarding-lesional-perfusion-abnormalities-on-arterial-spin-labeling-in-leigh-disease
#18
LETTER
Matthew T Whitehead, Bonmyong Lee, Andrea Gropman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826677/torcular-pseudomass-a-potential-diagnostic-pitfall-in-infants-and-young-children
#19
Luísa Sampaio, Giovanni Morana, Mariasavina Severino, Domenico Tortora, Miguel Leão, Andrea Rossi
BACKGROUND: Incidental findings on brain MRI may constitute a diagnostic pitfall. We observed an incidental extra-axial midline rounded pseudomass between the torcular Herophili and the occipital squama, with spontaneous resolution, which we called "torcular pseudomass." OBJECTIVE: We investigated the frequency, imaging features, natural history and developmental background of this finding in a large group of infants and young children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective study by reviewing all brain MRIs performed in children younger than 3 years between 2007 and 2013 in a specialized pediatric hospital...
November 8, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826676/do-lesional-perfusion-abnormalities-on-arterial-spin-labeling-truly-contribute-to-the-diagnosis-of-leigh-syndrome
#20
LETTER
Josef Finsterer, Sinda Zarrouk-Mahjoub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
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