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Pediatric Radiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30421000/diagnosis-of-osteoporotic-vertebral-fractures-in-children
#1
REVIEW
Fawaz F Alqahtani, Amaka C Offiah
Osteoporosis is a generalised disorder of the skeleton with reduced bone density and abnormal bone architecture. It increases bone fragility and renders the individual susceptible to fractures. Fractures of the vertebrae are common osteoporotic fractures. Vertebral fractures may result in scoliosis or kyphosis and, because they may be clinically silent, it is imperative that vertebral fractures are diagnosed in children accurately and at an early stage, so the necessary medical care can be implemented. Traditionally, diagnosis of osteoporotic vertebral fractures has been from lateral spine radiographs; however, a small number of studies have shown that dual energy x-ray absorptiometry is comparable to radiographs for identifying vertebral fractures in children, while allowing reduced radiation exposure...
November 12, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413857/ultrafast-pediatric-chest-computed-tomography-comparison-of-free-breathing-vs-breath-hold-imaging-with-and-without-anesthesia-in-young-children
#2
Aya Kino, Evan J Zucker, Anita Honkanen, Jerry Kneebone, Jia Wang, Frandics Chan, Beverley Newman
BACKGROUND: General anesthesia (GA) or sedation has been used to obtain good-quality motion-free breath-hold chest CT scans in young children; however pulmonary atelectasis is a common and problematic accompaniment that can confound diagnostic utility. Dual-source multidetector CT permits ultrafast high-pitch sub-second examinations, minimizing motion artifact and potentially eliminating the need for a breath-hold. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of free-breathing ultrafast pediatric chest CT without GA and to compare it with breath-hold and non-breath-hold CT with GA...
November 9, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411172/%C3%A1
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411171/cone-beam-computed-tomography-guidance-with-navigational-overlay-for-percutaneous-lung-nodule-biopsy
#4
Giridhar M Shivaram, Anne Elizabeth Gill, Eric J Monroe, Kevin S H Koo, C Matthew Hawkins
BACKGROUND: Cone-beam CT is increasingly used in pediatric interventional radiology procedures. However, the feasibility or safety of using this mode of imaging guidance for percutaneous lung nodule biopsy in children has not been assessed. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate safety and diagnostic accuracy of percutaneous lung nodule biopsy in people treated at a pediatric hospital using cone-beam CT with navigational overlay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six consecutive patients from two large tertiary-care children's hospitals with lung nodules of 48 mm or smaller underwent percutaneous lung nodule biopsy using cone-beam CT with navigational overlay...
November 8, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406414/non-contrast-three-dimensional-gradient-recalled-echo-dixon-based-magnetic-resonance-angiography-venography-in-children
#5
Jonathan R Dillman, Andrew T Trout, Arnold C Merrow, Ryan A Moore, Mantosh S Rattan, Eric J Crotty, Robert J Fleck, Masami Yoneyama, Hui Wang, Jean A Tkach
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been considered a valuable diagnostic tool for noninvasive imaging of the vasculature in children and adults for more than two decades. While a variety of non-contrast MRI methods have been described for imaging of both arteries and veins (e.g., time-of-flight, phase contrast, and balanced steady-state free precession imaging), contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography/venography are the most commonly employed vascular imaging techniques due to their high spatial and contrast resolutions and general reliability...
November 7, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402807/cerebral-oxygen-metabolism-during-and-after-therapeutic-hypothermia-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-a-feasibility-study-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#6
Anil N Shetty, Ashley M Lucke, Peiying Liu, Magdalena Sanz Cortes, Joseph L Hagan, Zili D Chu, Jill V Hunter, Hanzhang Lu, Wesley Lee, Jeffrey R Kaiser
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia is the standard-of-care treatment for infants diagnosed with moderate-to-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). MRI for assessing brain injury is usually performed after hypothermia because of logistical challenges in bringing acutely sick infants receiving hypothermia from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to the MRI suite. Perhaps examining and comparing early cerebral oxygen metabolism disturbances to those after rewarming will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of brain injury in HIE and the effects of therapeutic hypothermia...
November 6, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397771/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-sacroiliitis-in-children-reply-to-jalalvandi-and-naderi
#7
LETTER
Katharine E Orr, Martin Kidd, Savvas Andronikou, Marc James Bramham, Izidora Holjar-Erlic, Flavia Menegotto, Athimalaipet V Ramanan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30392163/susceptibility-weighted-imaging-of-retinal-hemorrhages-in-abusive-head-trauma
#8
Krishnamoorthy Thamburaj, Ajay Soni, Lori D Frasier, Kyaw N Tun, Sarah R Weber, Mark S Dias
BACKGROUND: Retinal hemorrhages are one of the most important supportive evidences for abusive head trauma (AHT). Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is highly suited to identify various forms of intracranial hemorrhage in AHT. However its utility in imaging retinal hemorrhage is not well established. OBJECTIVE: SWI is a sensitive sequence for identifying retinal hemorrhage on MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, 26 consecutive infants and young children with a suspected admission diagnosis of AHT underwent indirect ophthalmoscopy and brain MRI protocol for AHT along with SWI...
November 3, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382321/contrast-enhanced-mri-compared-to-direct-joint-visualization-at-arthroscopy-in-pediatric-patients-with-suspected-temporomandibular-joint-synovitis
#9
Jessica R Leschied, Ethan A Smith, Scott Baker, Shokoufeh Khalatbari, Sharon Aronovich
BACKGROUND: Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the gold standard when assessing the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in children. To our knowledge, no previous pediatric study has compared findings of TMJ MRI with direct visualization of the joint using arthroscopy. OBJECTIVE: To determine if subjective findings on contrast-enhanced MRI of the temporomandibular joint correlate with arthroscopic findings of acute and chronic inflammation of the TMJ in children...
October 31, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382320/mr-angiography-and-2-d-phase-contrast-imaging-for-evaluation-of-meso-rex-bypass-function
#10
Heather A Stefek, Cynthia K Rigsby, Haben Berhane, Andrada R Popescu, Shankar Rajeswaran, Riccardo A Superina
BACKGROUND: The meso-Rex bypass restores blood flow to the liver in patients with extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis. Stenosis occurs in some cases, causing the reappearance of portal hypertension. Complications such as thrombocytopenia present on a spectrum and there are currently no guidelines regarding a threshold for endovascular intervention. While Doppler ultrasound (US) is common for routine evaluation, magnetic resonance (MR) angiography with two-dimensional phase-contrast MRI (2-D PC-MRI) may improve the assessment of meso-Rex bypass function...
October 31, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367201/the-added-value-of-a-second-read-by-pediatric-radiologists-for-outside-skeletal-surveys
#11
Boaz Karmazyn, Matthew R Wanner, Megan B Marine, Luke Tilmans, S Gregory Jennings, Roberta A Hibbard
BACKGROUND: Fractures are the second most common finding in non-accidental trauma after cutaneous signs. Interpreting skeletal surveys could be challenging as some fractures are subtle and due to anatomical variations that can mimic injuries. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of a second read by a pediatric radiologist of skeletal surveys for suspected non-accidental trauma initially read at referring hospitals by general radiologists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2016 and 2017, we identified all patients referred to our children's hospital with previous surveys performed and read at a community hospital by an outside radiologist...
October 26, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30357424/correction-to-comparative-safety-and-efficacy-of-balloon-use-in-air-enema-reduction-for-pediatric-intussusception
#12
Farahnaz Golriz, Christopher I Cassady, Brandy Bales, Christi Herrejon, M John Hicks, Wei Zhang, Robert C Orth, R Paul Guillerman
The original version on this paper contained an error. The names of M. John Hicks and R. Paul Guillerman, though correctly appeared in the published version, are incorrectly displayed in indexing sites.
October 25, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30357445/identification-of-clinical-parameters-to-increase-the-diagnostic-yield-of-the-non-emergent-upper-gastrointestinal-series-in-pediatric-outpatients
#13
Adam E Goldman-Yassen, Jordana Gross, Inna Novak, Erica Poletto, Jane S Kim, Jennifer K Son, Terry L Levin
BACKGROUND: Outpatient, non-emergent upper gastrointestinal (GI) series are frequently requested in children with no surgical history who have nonspecific symptoms such as abdominal pain, failure to thrive and vomiting. The positive yield of an upper GI series in these patients, and, thus, its utility, has not been studied. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the incidence of positive upper GI findings in children without a history of GI pathology or abdominal surgery in order to identify clinical indications associated with a greater diagnostic yield...
October 24, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30353273/introduction-to-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-of-the-brain-in-neonates-and-infants-current-understanding-and-future-potential
#14
Misun Hwang
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a valuable bedside imaging technique that enables both qualitative and quantitative assessment of cerebral perfusion. In neonates and infants whose fontanelles remain open, the technique is particularly useful as it delineates cerebral pathology with high soft-tissue contrast. The technique has the potential to be a valuable alternative to computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in critically ill neonates and infants in need of bedside imaging. While further studies are needed to validate the technique, preliminary data in this regard appear promising...
October 23, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328480/correction-to-inter-and-intra-observer-reliability-of-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-parameters-in-children-with-suspected-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-of-the-hip
#15
Francesca M Porter-Young, Amaka C Offiah, Penny Broadley, Isla Lang, Anne-Marie McMahon, Philippa Howsley, Daniel P Hawley
The article "Inter- and intra-observer reliability of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging parameters in children with suspected juvenile idiopathic arthritis of the hip".
October 17, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30327829/utility-of-hounsfield-unit-and-hematocrit-values-in-the-diagnosis-of-acute-venous-sinus-thrombosis-in-unenhanced-brain-cts-in-the-pediatric-population
#16
Gabriela de la Vega Muns, Robert Quencer, Nisreen S Ezuddin, Gaurav Saigal
BACKGROUND: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a recognized cause of childhood and neonatal stroke with high morbidity and mortality and a challenging diagnosis in the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that measuring Hounsfield units (HU) of blood in venous sinuses is a more reliable method to diagnose CVST and that normalizing the measured HU in relation to the patient's hematocrit levels may further improve detection of CVST in the pediatric population...
October 16, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298211/pilot-study-on-renal-magnetic-resonance-diffusion-tensor-imaging-are-quantitative-diffusion-tensor-imaging-values-useful-in-the-evaluation-of-children-with-ureteropelvic-junction-obstruction
#17
Jorge Delgado, Jeffrey I Berman, Carolina Maya, Robert H Carson, Susan J Back, Kassa Darge
BACKGROUND: Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction is a common cause of renal injury in children. Indications for surgery are still controversial. Currently, there is no threshold to differentiate patients with suspected UPJ obstruction requiring surgery from the ones that do not, or to predict renal outcome after surgery. Several studies have demonstrated that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) results may correlate with microstructural changes in the kidneys. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of using DTI to identify UPJ obstruction kidneys...
October 8, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298210/does-3-t-fetal-mri-induce-adverse-acoustic-effects-in-the-neonate-a-preliminary-study-comparing-postnatal-auditory-test-performance-of-fetuses-scanned-at-1-5-and-3-t
#18
Camilo Jaimes, Jorge Delgado, Mary Beth Cunnane, Holly L Hedrick, N Scott Adzick, Michael S Gee, Teresa Victoria
BACKGROUND: Fetal MRI at 3 T is associated with increased acoustic noise relative to 1.5 T. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to determine if there is an increased prevalence of congenital hearing loss in neonates who had a 3-T prenatal MR vs. those who had it at 1.5 T. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified all subjects who had 3-T fetal MRI between 2012 and 2016 and also underwent universal neonatal hearing screening within 60 days of birth...
October 8, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30293138/pancreatic-heterotopia-in-a-neonatal-abdominopelvic-cyst
#19
Noah M Seymore, Bachir Zoghbi, Cirilo Sotelo-Avila, Shannon G Farmakis
Pancreatic heterotopia is a rare congenital anomaly more commonly incidentally found in adults. While intra-abdominal cysts found on prenatal imaging are not uncommon, we examine a case of pancreatic heterotopia presenting in an abdominopelvic cyst on prenatal imaging. At birth, the neonate was found to have hypoglycemia unresponsive to treatment that resolved after cyst resection. We will review the etiology, imaging findings and clinical course of this anomaly, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of newborns presenting with unexplained hypoglycemia...
October 6, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30293137/fetal-brain-morphometry-on-prenatal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#20
Rupa Radhakrishnan, Stephanie L Merhar, Patricia Burns, Bin Zhang, Foong-Yen Lim, Beth M Kline-Fath
BACKGROUND: Many infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) show brain abnormality on postnatal brain MRI related to severity of CDH, degree of lung hypoplasia, intrathoracic liver, right diaphragmatic hernia and large diaphragmatic defect. It is not known whether these factors affect brain growth in utero in CDH. OBJECTIVE: To assess prenatal brain morphometry and abnormalities on fetal MR in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 109 fetal MRIs in 63 fetuses with CDH from 2009 to 2014 (27 died before discharge, 36 survived to discharge)...
October 6, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
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