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Pediatric Radiology

Matthew R Wanner, Megan B Marine, John P Dahl
There is an association between tracheal cartilaginous sleeve and syndromic craniosynostosis. We present a case of tracheal cartilaginous sleeve diagnosed by ultrasound (US) in a patient with Pfeiffer syndrome. The patient developed respiratory failure and was suspected at bronchoscopy to have tracheal cartilaginous sleeve. US performed before tracheostomy placement demonstrated continuous hypoechoic cartilage along the anterior surface of the trachea, confirming the diagnosis. Our report shows that US can make a definitive diagnosis of tracheal cartilaginous sleeve and raises the possibility of using US to screen for the condition in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis without the need for anesthesia or ionizing radiation...
July 19, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Mohammad A Mousa, David J Aria, Carrie M Schaefer, Robin D Kaye, Todd A Abruzzo, Saunder M Bernes, Scott D Willard, Monique C Riemann, Richard B Towbin
BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal-recessive neuromuscular disorder resulting in progressive muscle weakness. In December 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the first treatment for SMA, a drug named nusinersen (Spinraza) that is administered intrathecally. However many children with SMA have neuromuscular scoliosis or spinal instrumentation resulting in challenging intrathecal access. Therefore alternative routes must be considered in these complex patients...
July 18, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Kathleen M McCarten, Monika L Metzger, Richard A Drachtman, Qinglin Pei, Debra L Friedman, Cindy L Schwartz, Kara M Kelly
BACKGROUND: Pleural effusion at presentation in Hodgkin lymphoma has been associated with inferior outcome but has not been systematically evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pleural effusion at presentation in children with Hodgkin lymphoma is a primary indicator of poor prognosis or secondary to associated factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children's Oncology Group (COG) AHOD0031, a randomized, response-based, centrally reviewed protocol, enrolled 1,712 eligible patients <22 years of age with initial presentation of intermediate risk, biopsy-proven Hodgkin lymphoma; 1,423 had available imaging for retrospective review...
July 16, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Pablo Caro-Domínguez, Augusto Zani, David Chitayat, Alan Daneman
BACKGROUND: The role of imaging in meconium peritonitis is not limited to establishing a diagnosis; rather, it might also be helpful in determining which neonates require surgery. However, few data in the literature correlate the postnatal radiographic and sonographic findings with the need for surgery. OBJECTIVE: To compare the role of postnatal radiographic and sonographic findings in predicting the need for surgery in neonates with meconium peritonitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical, imaging and surgical findings in all neonates with meconium peritonitis in the period 1999-2014...
July 16, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Teresa Victoria, Abhay S Srinivasan, Jennifer Pogoriler, Portia A Kreiger, Pablo Laje, Edward R Oliver, Enrico Danzer, Ann M Johnson, Julie S Moldenhauer, William H Peranteau, N Scott Adzick
BACKGROUND: At fetal MR, congenital lung lesions are usually T2 hyperintense with respect to normal lung parenchyma. Some lesions, however, demonstrate unusual patterns of T2 hypointensity, sometimes in a rosette-like pattern. These lesions usually present a diagnostic conundrum. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the imaging findings and pathological characterization of fetal solid lung lesions with elements showing T2-hypointense signal with respect to lung. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of lung lesions with elements showing T2 hypointensity treated prenatally and postnatally at our center and with available pathological evaluation...
July 14, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Marjolein A M Mulders, Monique M J Walenkamp, Annelie Slaar, Frank Ouwehand, Nico L Sosef, Romuald van Velde, J Carel Goslings, Niels W L Schep
BACKGROUND: The Amsterdam Pediatric Wrist Rules have been developed and validated to reduce wrist radiographs following wrist trauma in pediatric patients. However, the actual impact should be evaluated in an implementation study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of implementation of the Amsterdam Pediatric Wrist Rules at the emergency department. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A before-and-after comparative prospective cohort study was conducted, including all consecutive patients aged 3 to 18 years presenting at the emergency department with acute wrist trauma...
July 10, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Katharine E Orr, Savvas Andronikou, Marc James Bramham, Izidora Holjar-Erlic, Flavia Menegotto, Athimalaipet V Ramanan
BACKGROUND: Clinicians increasingly rely on imaging in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) to identify sacroiliitis and guide treatment. However, there is limited evidence about magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for sacroiliitis in children, and interobserver reliability is variable. OBJECTIVE: Identify the frequency of MRI findings in children with suspected sacroiliitis, calculate inter-reporter reliability and assess the value of diffusion-weighted imaging and contrast-enhanced sequences...
July 9, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Ingvild Særvold Bruserud, Mathieu Roelants, Ninnie Helén Bakken Oehme, Geir Egil Eide, Robert Bjerknes, Karen Rosendahl, Pétur B Júlíusson
BACKGROUND: Clinical assessment of pubertal breast development using Tanner staging is subjective. This has led to the introduction of ultrasound (US), aiming for a more objective analysis. However, information regarding its reliability is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To examine intra- and interobserver agreement of breast maturity staging using US and to examine the precision of direct measurements of the gland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven healthy girls (mean age: 10...
July 7, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Farah Khachab, Anderson Loundou, Céline Roman, Nathalie Colavolpe, Audrey Aschero, Brigitte Bourlière-Najean, Nassima Daidj, Catherine Desvignes, Harmony Pico, Guillaume Gorincour, Pascal Auquier, Philippe Petit
BACKGROUND: Contrast-enhanced MRI is often used for diagnosis and follow-up of children with inflammatory bowel disease. OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) to contrast-enhanced MRI in children with known or suspected inflammatory bowel disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective, consecutive study included 55 children. We used ileo-colonoscopy and histology as the reference standard from the terminal ileum to the rectum, and contrast-enhanced MRI as the reference standard proximal to the terminal ileum...
July 7, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Bradley S Rostad, Kimberly E Applegate, Tammy Kim, Renee M Mansour, Sarah S Milla
BACKGROUND: Many patients at our pediatric hospital have had a contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis performed by an outside imaging facility before admission. We have noticed that many of these exams are multiphase, which may contribute to unnecessary radiation dose. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of multiphase acquisitions and radiation dose indices in contrast-enhanced CTs of the abdomen and pelvis performed by outside imaging facilities in patients who were subsequently transferred to our pediatric hospital for care, and compare these metrics to contrast-enhanced CTs of the abdomen and pelvis performed internally...
July 7, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Ninnie Helén Bakken Oehme, Mathieu Roelants, Ingvild Særvold Bruserud, Geir Egil Eide, Robert Bjerknes, Karen Rosendahl, Pétur B Júlíusson
BACKGROUND: Prader orchidometry has been the standard method for evaluating testicular size. As this technique is subjective and tends to overestimate the testicular volume, ultrasound (US) has been proposed as more reliable. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intra- and interobserver agreement of US measurements of testicular volume and to compare US with the Prader orchidometer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dimensions of the right testicle were measured using US in 57 boys ages 6...
July 6, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Felice D'Arco, Sinead Culleton, Laurens J L De Cocker, Kshitij Mankad, Jorge Davila, Benita Tamrazi
Pediatric brain tumors differ from those in adults by location, phenotype and genotype. In addition, they show dissimilar imaging characteristics before and after treatment. While adult brain tumor treatment effects are primarily assessed on MRI by measuring the contrast-enhancing components in addition to abnormalities on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images, these methods cannot be simply extrapolated to pediatric central nervous system tumors. A number of researchers have attempted to solve the problem of tumor assessment during treatment in pediatric neuro-oncology; specifically, the Response Assessment in Pediatric Neuro-Oncology (RAPNO) working group was recently established to deal with the distinct challenges in evaluating treatment-related changes on imaging, but no established criteria are available...
July 6, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Matthew G Ditzler, J Herman Kan, Maddy Artunduaga, Siddharth P Jadhav, Bryce R Bell, Wei Zhang, Robert C Orth
BACKGROUND: Glenoid version angles are measured to objectively follow changes related to glenohumeral dysplasia in the setting of brachial plexus birth palsy. Measuring glenoid version on cross-sectional imaging was initially described by Friedman et al. in 1992. Recent literature for non-dysplastic shoulders advocates time-consuming reconstructions and reformations for an accurate assessment of glenoid version. OBJECTIVE: To compare Friedman's original method for measuring glenoid version to a novel technique we developed ("modified Friedman") with the reference standard of true axial reformations...
July 5, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Kengo Hattori, Shigeru Takamizawa, Yuichiro Miyake, Tomoko Hatata, Katsumi Yoshizawa, Tomoko Furukawa, Yoshiaki Kondo
BACKGROUND: Sonographic assessment before congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair has rarely been studied. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of preoperative ultrasound in measuring the defect size and in anticipating the presence of a rim and thereby to determine ultrasound's usefulness in informing the surgical approach for definitive repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of seven children with left congenital diaphragmatic hernia who had undergone ultrasound and definitive repair between 2014 and 2017 at our institution...
July 5, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Kathrine Rydén Suther, Einar Hopp, Bjarne Smevik, Arnt Eltvedt Fiane, Harald Lauritz Lindberg, Stig Larsen, Charlotte de Lange
BACKGROUND: Assessment of qualitative or subjective image quality in radiology is traditionally performed using a fixed-point scale even though reproducibility has proved challenging. OBJECTIVE: Image quality of 3-T coronary magnetic resonance (MR) angiography was evaluated using three scoring methods, hypothesizing that a continuous scoring scale like visual analogue scale would improve the assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adolescents corrected for transposition of the great arteries with arterial switch operation, ages 9-15 years (n=12), and healthy, age-matched controls (n=12), were examined with 3-D steady-state free precession magnetic resonance imaging...
July 4, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Ezekiel Maloney, Sarah J Menashe, Ramesh S Iyer, Sarah Ringold, Amit K Chakraborty, Gisele E Ishak
BACKGROUND: Localized craniofacial scleroderma is a rare pediatric disease that involves a spectrum of discoloration, fibrosis and hemiatrophy of the face and scalp. Children with localized craniofacial scleroderma may have neurological symptoms, and in this context often undergo diagnostic imaging of the brain. OBJECTIVE: To catalogue neuroimaging abnormalities in patients with localized craniofacial scleroderma treated at our institution, review their clinical courses and compare this data with prior studies...
July 3, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Ilan J N Koppen, Desale Yacob, Carlo Di Lorenzo, Miguel Saps, Marc A Benninga, Jennifer N Cooper, Peter C Minneci, Katherine J Deans, D Gregory Bates, Benjamin P Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 30, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Michael D Levin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 30, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Emily J Mastej, Emily M DeBoer, Stephen M Humphries, Marlijne C Cook, Kendall S Hunter, Deborah R Liptzin, Jason P Weinman, Robin R Deterding
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) is a rare lung disease associated with significant air trapping. Although chest CT is crucial in establishing a diagnosis, CT and biopsy findings do not reveal airway abnormalities to explain the air trapping. OBJECTIVE: We compared lung and airway morphology obtained from chest CT scans in children with NEHI and control children. In the children with NEHI, we explored relationships between lung and airway shape and lung function...
June 28, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Marla B K Sammer, J Herman Kan, Marcus D Sammer, Lane F Donnelly
BACKGROUND: According to anecdotal press reports, there have been medically significant ingestions of fidget spinner toys, including ingestions that required endoscopic intervention. Fidget spinners have been marketed to improve attention and have been suggested as a therapeutic alternative to medications in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). OBJECTIVE: To describe the radiographic appearance and features of ingested fidget spinner components...
June 28, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
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