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Pediatric Radiology

Beth M Kline-Fath, Arnold C Merrow, Maria A Calvo-Garcia, Usha D Nagaraj, Howard M Saal
Fetal ventriculomegaly is a common referral for prenatal MRI, with possible etiologies being hydrocephalus and hydranencephaly. The underlying cause of hydranencephaly is unknown, but many have suggested that the characteristic supratentorial injury is related to idiopathic bilateral occlusions of the internal carotid arteries from an acquired or destructive event. Fowler syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that causes fetal akinesia and a proliferative vasculopathy that can result in an apparent hydranencephaly-hydrocephaly complex...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Ilaria Bo, Thomas Semple, Emma Cheasty, Michael B Rubens, Siew Yen Ho, Michael L Rigby, Edward D Nicol
BACKGROUND: Scimitar syndrome is a rare combination of cardiopulmonary abnormalities found in 1-3 per 1000 live births. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is only found in 1 in 250-400 congenital heart disease patients. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the incidence of left circumflex ALCAPA within our referral center's cohort of scimitar syndrome patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of medical records, cardiac imaging and operative notes from all patients diagnosed with scimitar syndrome at our center between 1992 and 2016 was undertaken and all imaging reviewed...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Andy Tsai, Patrick R Johnston, Jeannette M Perez-Rossello, Micheál A Breen, Paul K Kleinman
BACKGROUND: The distal tibia is a common location for the classic metaphyseal lesion (CML). Prior radiologic-pathologic studies have suggested a tendency for medial, as opposed to lateral, cortical injury with the CML, but there has been no formal study of the geographic distribution of this strong indicator of abuse. OBJECTIVE: This study compares medial versus lateral cortical involvement of distal tibial CMLs in a clinical cohort of infants with suspected abuse...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Netsiri Dumrongpisutikul, Ammarut Chuajak, Sukalaya Lerdlum
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for neuroradiologic evaluation of patients with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (IGHD). OBJECTIVES: To compare pituitary height and morphology at MRI between patients with IGHD and controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in pediatric patients, 3 years-15 years old, who had had brain MRI with non-contrast-enhanced midsagittal T1-weighted images. These images were measured for pituitary height and morphology of the pituitary gland including shape, stalk and posterior pituitary bright spot was evaluated...
March 6, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Ralph Gnannt, Nicolas Waespe, Michael Temple, Afsaneh Amirabadi, Kuan Liu, Leonardo R Brandão, Bairbre L Connolly
BACKGROUND: Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are associated with superficial and deep venous thrombosis of the arm. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the sequelae of repeated upper limb PICC insertions in children, in terms of the frequency of upper limb thrombosis in this patient group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population included all children who underwent their first successful arm PICC insertion between January 2010 and December 2015...
February 27, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Nathaniel P Roberson, Jonathan R Dillman, Sara M O'Hara, William R DeFoor, Pramod P Reddy, Richard M Giordano, Andrew T Trout
BACKGROUND: The incidence of pediatric nephrolithiasis in the United States is increasing. There is a paucity of literature comparing the diagnostic performance of computed ultrasound (US) to tomography (CT) in the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic performance of renal US for nephrolithiasis in children using a clinical effectiveness approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval with a waiver of informed consent was obtained for this retrospective, HIPAA-complaint investigation...
February 23, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Peter J Strouse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Alexis Galloux, Erika Pace, Stephanie Franchi-Abella, Sophie Branchereau, Emmanuel Gonzales, Daniele Pariente
BACKGROUND: Hepatic venous outflow obstruction after paediatric liver transplantation is an unusual but critical complication. OBJECTIVES: To review the incidence, diagnosis and therapeutic modalities of hepatic venous outflow obstruction from a large national liver transplant unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the period from October 1992 to March 2016, 917 liver transplant procedures were performed with all types of grafts in 792 children...
February 21, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Yojhan E Izquierdo, Eileen V Fonseca, Luz-Ángela Moreno, Rubén D Montoya, Rafael Guerrero Lozano
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) is useful for the diagnosis of local complications in children with acute pancreatitis but its role as a prognostic tool remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To establish the correlation between the CT Severity Index and the Revised Atlanta Classification regarding unfavorable outcomes such as severe acute pancreatitis and need for Pediatric Special Care Unit attention in children with acute pancreatitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective and concordance cohort study in which we obtained abdominal CT scans from 30 patients ages 0 to 18 years with acute pancreatitis...
February 21, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Anjum N Bandarkar, Anna R Blask
Testicular sonography has contributed greatly to the preoperative diagnosis of testicular torsion in the pediatric patient and is the mainstay for evaluation of acute scrotal pain. Despite its high sensitivity and specificity, both false-negative and false-positive findings occur. Presence of documented Doppler flow within the testis might be a dissuading factor for surgical exploration with resultant testicular loss in the false-negative cases. Our goal is to illustrate key sonographic features in the spectrum of testicular torsion with preserved testicular flow, and to describe how to differentiate testicular torsion from epididymitis in order to avoid the under-diagnosis of testicular torsion...
February 21, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Arsany Hakim, Diana Aguiar de Sousa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Sun Kyung Jeon, Young Hun Choi, Jung-Eun Cheon, Woo Sun Kim, Yeon Jin Cho, Ji Young Ha, Seung Hyun Lee, Hyejin Hyun, In-One Kim
BACKGROUND: The 320-row multidetector computed tomography (CT) scanner has multiple scan modes, including volumetric modes. OBJECTIVE: To compare the image quality and radiation dose of 320-row CT in three acquisition modes - helical, one-shot volume, and wide-volume scan - at pediatric brain imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven children underwent unenhanced brain CT using one of three scan modes (helical scan, n=21; one-shot volume scan, n=17; wide-volume scan, n=19)...
February 15, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Veronica J Rooks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Mariaconcetta Longo, Elisabetta Genovese, Salvatore Donatiello, Bartolomeo Cassano, Teresa Insero, Mauro Campoleoni, Antonella Del Vecchio, Andrea Magistrelli, Paolo Tomà, Vittorio Cannatà
BACKGROUND: In a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), preterm infants are often exposed to a large number of radiographic examinations, which could cause adjacent neonates, family caregivers and staff members to be exposed to a dose amount due to scatter radiation. OBJECTIVE: To provide information on scatter radiation exposure levels in a NICU, to compare these values with the effective dose limits established by the European Union and to evaluate the effectiveness of radiation protection devices in this setting...
February 13, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Susan J Back, Carolina Maya, Kassa Darge, Patricia T Acharya, Carol E Barnewolt, Jamie L Coleman, Jonathan R Dillman, Lynn Ansley Fordham, Misun Hwang, Annie Lim, M Beth McCarville, Marthe M Munden, Harriet J Paltiel, Frank M Volberg
BACKGROUND: The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved an ultrasound (US) contrast agent for intravenous and intravesical administration in children. OBJECTIVE: Survey the usage, interest in and barriers for contrast-enhanced US among pediatric radiologists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Task Force of the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR) surveyed the membership of the SPR in January 2017 regarding their current use and opinions about contrast-enhanced US in pediatrics...
February 13, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Alexander J Towbin, Rebecka L Meyers, Helen Woodley, Osamu Miyazaki, Christopher B Weldon, Bruce Morland, Eiso Hiyama, Piotr Czauderna, Derek J Roebuck, Greg M Tiao
Imaging is crucial in the assessment of children with a primary hepatic malignancy. Since its inception in 1992, the PRETEXT (PRE-Treatment EXTent of tumor) system has become the primary method of risk stratification for hepatoblastoma and pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma in numerous cooperative group trials across the world. The PRETEXT system is made of two components: the PRETEXT group and the annotation factors. The PRETEXT group describes the extent of tumor within the liver while the annotation factors help to describe associated features such as vascular involvement (either portal vein or hepatic vein/inferior vena cava), extrahepatic disease, multifocality, tumor rupture and metastatic disease (to both the lungs and lymph nodes)...
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
M Cody O'Dell, Nancy A Chauvin, Diego Jaramillo, David M Biko
BACKGROUND: Cuboid fractures are rare, usually occult on initial radiographs and are often underdiagnosed. MRI is more sensitive than radiographs for detecting acute, non-displaced cuboid fractures in adults, but only case reports have described these findings in children. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the MR and clinical features of cuboid fractures and compare MR findings with initial and follow-up radiographs in a cohort of children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective search for patients <18 years of age with cuboid fractures was performed during a 10-year period at a large tertiary children's hospital...
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Anne E Gill, Nicholas Gallagher, Barbara O McElhanon, Amy R Painter, Benjamin D Gold, C Matthew Hawkins
BACKGROUND: De novo low-profile gastrojejunostomy tubes in pediatric patients offer less external catheter bulk and decreased propensity for dislodgement as children become more mobile. While small cohort studies have evaluated de novo placement of coaxial, adjustable-length, percutaneous gastrojejunostomy (GJ) tubes in children, placement of de novo low-profile GJ tubes in pediatric patients has not been analyzed. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates technical feasibility, safety and clinical efficacy of percutaneous, retrograde placement of de novo low-profile GJ tubes in infants and children...
February 8, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Alex Chau, Jose Alberto Hernandez, Sheena Pimpalwar, Daniel Ashton, Kamlesh Kukreja
BACKGROUND: Femoral tunneled central line placement in the pediatric population offers an alternative means for intravenous (IV) access, but there is concern for higher complication and infection rates when placed at bedside. OBJECTIVE: To describe the complications and infection outcomes of primary femoral tunneled central venous catheter placement in the interventional radiology suite compared to the portable bedside location at a single tertiary pediatric institution...
February 8, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Katsumi Hayakawa, Sachiko Koshino, Koichi Tanda, Akira Nishimura, Osamu Sato, Hiroyuki Morishita, Takaaki Ito
BACKGROUND: Pseudonormalization of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can lead to underestimation of brain injury in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), posing a significant problem. We have noticed that some neonates show pseudonormalization negativity on diffusion-weighted imaging. OBJECTIVE: To compare pseudonormalization negativity with clinical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen term neonates with moderate or severe HIE underwent therapeutic hypothermia...
February 7, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
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