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Pediatric Radiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213627/real-time-mri-guided-percutaneous-sclerotherapy-of-low-flow-head-and-neck-lymphatic-malformations-in-the-pediatric-population-a-stepwise-approach
#1
Sasan Partovi, Lorenna Vidal, Ziang Lu, Dean A Nakamoto, Ji Buethe, Mark Clampitt, Michael Coffey, Indravadan J Patel
Real-time MRI-guided percutaneous sclerotherapy is a novel and evolving treatment for congenital lymphatic malformations in the head and neck. We elaborate on the specific steps necessary to perform an MRI-guided percutaneous sclerotherapy of lymphatic malformations including pre-procedure patient work-up and preparation, stepwise intraprocedural interventional techniques and post-procedure management. Based on our institutional experience, MRI-guided sclerotherapy with a doxycycline-gadolinium-based mixture as a sclerosant for lymphatic malformations of the head and neck region in children is well tolerated and effective...
February 17, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213626/effectiveness-of-screening-for-craniosynostosis-with-ultrasound-a-retrospective-review
#2
Kent M Hall, David A Besachio, Matthew D Moore, Adrian J Mora, William R Carter
BACKGROUND: Minimizing the ionizing radiation dose to children is fundamental to pediatric radiology. The most widely accepted imaging examination for evaluating craniosynostosis is computed tomography (CT) of the head, an examination that involves ionizing radiation. OBJECTIVE: To determine if sonography of the cranial sutures is an adequate screening examination for the diagnosis of craniosynostosis in patients with abnormal skull shape. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of all cranial suture ultrasound (US) examinations performed during the course of a 3-year period (July 2012 - September 2015) was undertaken...
February 17, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197648/dr-sandra-l-wootton-gorges-oct-20-1958-jan-23-2017
#3
EDITORIAL
Rebecca Stein-Wexler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184962/magnetic-resonance-imaging-4-d-flow-based-analysis-of-aortic-hemodynamics-in-turner-syndrome
#4
Raoul Arnold, Marie Neu, Daniel Hirtler, Charlotte Gimpel, Michael Markl, Julia Geiger
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular surveillance is important in Turner syndrome because of the increased risk of aortic dilation and dissection with consecutively increased mortality. OBJECTIVE: To compare 4-D flow MRI for the characterization of aortic 3-D flow patterns, dimensions and vessel wall parameters in pediatric patients with Turner syndrome and age-matched controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed 4-D flow MRI measuring in vivo 3-D blood flow with coverage of the thoracic aorta in 25 patients with Turner syndrome and in 16 female healthy controls (age mean ± standard deviation were 16 ± 5 years and 17 ± 4 years, respectively)...
February 9, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144704/gaucher-disease-in-the-liver-on-hepatocyte-specific-contrast-agent-enhanced-mr-imaging
#5
Rama S Ayyala, Lisa A Teot, Jeanette M Perez Rossello
Gaucher disease is a hereditary lipid storage disorder that affects the enzyme beta glucocerebrosidase, causing accumulation of glucocerebroside in macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. Accumulation can occur in the liver and spleen, manifesting as hepatosplenomegaly, as well as within the bone marrow. Hepatic involvement is usually diffuse but can occasionally manifest as focal liver lesions. We present a case of a 2-year-old boy with Gaucher disease and an infiltrating liver lesion detected on imaging, which was pathologically shown to be focal changes related to the disease...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127634/ultrasound-risk-stratification-for-malignancy-using-the-2015-american-thyroid-association-management-guidelines-for-children-with-thyroid-nodules-and-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#6
Jennifer E Lim-Dunham, Iclal Erdem Toslak, Khalid Alsabban, Amany Aziz, Brendan Martin, Gokcan Okur, Katherine C Longo
BACKGROUND: The 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) Management Guidelines for Children with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer provides selection criteria for nodules prior to ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of pediatric thyroid nodule risk stratification for predicting malignancy when applying the ultrasound (US) criteria recommended. MATERIALS AND METHODS: US characteristics of 39 thyroid nodules in 33 pediatric patients who underwent US fine-needle aspiration biopsy were reviewed by two radiologists...
January 27, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116474/prenatal-magnetic-resonance-and-ultrasonographic-findings-in-small-bowel-obstruction-imaging-clues-and-postnatal-outcomes
#7
Eva I Rubio, Anna R Blask, Andrea T Badillo, Dorothy I Bulas
BACKGROUND: Prenatal small-bowel obstruction can result from single or multiple atresias, and it can be an isolated abnormality or part of a syndrome. It is sometimes the first manifestation of cystic fibrosis. Accurate prediction of the level of obstruction and length of bowel affected can be difficult, presenting a challenge for counseling families and planning perinatal management. OBJECTIVE: To review the prenatal US and MRI findings of small-bowel obstruction and to assess whether fetal MRI adds information that could improve prenatal counseling and perinatal management...
January 23, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108797/diagnostic-utility-of-intravenous-contrast-for-mr-imaging-in-pediatric-appendicitis
#8
Gray R Lyons, Pooja Renjen, Gulce Askin, Ashley E Giambrone, Debra Beneck, Arzu Kovanlikaya
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly employed as a diagnostic modality for suspected appendicitis in children. However, there is uncertainty as to which MRI sequences are sufficient for safe, timely and accurate diagnosis. Several recent studies have described different MRI protocols, including exams both with and without the use of intravenous contrast. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that intravenous contrast may be useful in some patients but could be safely omitted in others...
January 21, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108796/a-clinical-decision-rule-for-the-use-of-ultrasound-in-children-presenting-with-acute-inflammatory-neck-masses
#9
Farahnaz Golriz, George S Bisset, Beth D'Amico, Andrea T Cruz, Kiyetta H Alade, Wei Zhang, Lane F Donnelly
OBJECTIVE: To identify the association between clinical and ultrasound findings and surgical drainage in children with inflammatory neck masses and to create a clinical decision rule that allows for reduction of unnecessary use of ultrasound in inflammatory neck masses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed data on patients ≤18 years who visited our emergency department between 2012 and 2014 with inflammatory neck swelling and who underwent ultrasound examinations of the neck...
January 21, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102454/muscle-mri-in-pediatrics-clinical-pathological-and-genetic-correlation
#10
Claudia P Cejas, Maria M Serra, David F Gonzalez Galvez, Eliana A Cavassa, Ana L Taratuto, Gabriel A Vazquez, Mario E L Massaro, Angeles V Schteinschneider
Pediatric myopathies comprise a very heterogeneous group of disorders that may develop at different ages and affect different muscle groups. Its diagnosis is sometimes difficult and must be confirmed by muscle biopsy and/or genetic analysis. In recent years, muscle involvement patterns observed on MRI have become a valuable tool, aiding clinical diagnosis and enriching pathological and genetic assessments. We selected eight myopathy cases from our institutional database in which the pattern of muscle involvement observed on MRI was almost pathognomonic and could therefore contribute to establishing diagnosis...
January 19, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102453/intravascular-ultrasound-versus-digital-subtraction-angiography-direct-comparison-of-intraluminal-diameter-measurements-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-imaging
#11
Anne E Gill, Tadi Ciszak, Hayley Braun, C Matthew Hawkins
BACKGROUND: Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) allows intraluminal imaging of blood vessels rather than the one-dimensional luminal outline depicted by digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Despite extensive literature in multiple adult vascular diseases, IVUS has not been directly compared to DSA in pediatric and adolescent vascular pathologies. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this manuscript is to compare absolute luminal diameter measurements obtained via IVUS and DSA during a variety of pediatric endovascular procedures...
January 19, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101593/diffuse-phalangeal-signal-abnormality-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-phalangeal-microgeodic-disease
#12
Rupa Radhakrishnan, Kathleen H Emery, Arnold C Merrow
BACKGROUND: Phalangeal microgeodic disease is a rare and benign self-limited condition involving the phalanges, often in the setting of cold exposure, with characteristic MR imaging abnormalities. Radiographic case descriptions are predominantly from Asia and Europe, with only seven cases using MR to characterize phalangeal microgeodic disease. OBJECTIVE: In this study we describe the MR imaging appearance of unusual and striking phalangeal signal abnormality compatible with phalangeal microgeodic disease at our institution in North America...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091700/computed-tomography-localization-of-the-appendix-in-the-pediatric-population-relative-to-the-lumbar-spine
#13
John Davis, Albert T Roh, Matthew B Petterson, Tammy R Kopelman, Samantha L Matz, Daniel G Gridley, Mary J Connell
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to evaluate suspected acute appendicitis. Although very effective, CT uses ionizing radiation, exposing patients to an increased risk of cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the potential for decreasing the field of view of the CT (and therefore the dose to the patient) in the evaluation of suspected acute appendicitis in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from 212 consecutive patients who underwent CT for suspected acute appendicitis...
January 14, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091699/musculoskeletal-mri-findings-of-juvenile-localized-scleroderma
#14
Eric P Eutsler, Daniel B Horton, Monica Epelman, Terri Finkel, Lauren W Averill
BACKGROUND: Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. OBJECTIVE: There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children...
January 14, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084504/quality-of-pediatric-abdominal-ct-scans-performed-at-a-dedicated-children-s-hospital-and-its-referring-institutions-a-multifactorial-evaluation
#15
Aisling Snow, Carly E Milliren, Dionne A Graham, Michael J Callahan, Robert D MacDougall, Richard L Robertson, George A Taylor
BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients requiring transfer to a dedicated children's hospital from an outside institution may undergo CT imaging as part of their evaluation. Whether this imaging is performed prior to or after transfer has been shown to impact the radiation dose imparted to the patient. Other quality variables could also be affected by the pediatric experience and expertise of the scanning institution. OBJECTIVE: To identify differences in quality between abdominal CT scans and reports performed at a dedicated children's hospital, and those performed at referring institutions...
January 13, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083700/mri-usage-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department-an-analysis-of-usage-and-usage-trends-over-5%C3%A2-years
#16
Meir H Scheinfeld, Jee-Young Moon, Michele J Fagan, Reubin Davoudzadeh, Dan Wang, Benjamin H Taragin
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) usage has anecdotally increased due to the principles of ALARA and the desire to Image Gently. Aside from a single abstract in the emergency medicine literature, pediatric emergency department MRI usage has not been described. OBJECIVE: Our objective was to determine whether MRI use is indeed increasing at a high-volume urban pediatric emergency department with 24/7 MRI availability. Also, we sought to determine which exams, time periods and demographics influenced the trend...
January 12, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062934/focused-ct-using-a-height-adjusted-metric-and-the-umbilicus-as-a-landmark-for-children-undergoing-evaluation-for-appendicitis
#17
Suzanne Roberts, Abigail F Nixon, James A Meltzer, Einat Blumfield
BACKGROUND: Confirmation of appendicitis in children often requires CT. A focused CT scan that is limited to the lower abdomen/pelvis might help to reduce radiation exposure. OBJECTIVE: To determine the position of the appendix relative to the umbilicus and derive a height-adjusted threshold for a focused CT that would identify most appendices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of children younger than 18 years who underwent a CT scan for suspected appendicitis...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058484/hoverboards-spectrum-of-injury-and-association-with-an-uncommon-fracture
#18
Andrew H Schapiro, Neil U Lall, Christopher G Anton, Andrew T Trout
BACKGROUND: Self-balancing electric scooters, commonly known as hoverboards, are a new and popular consumer item with recognized fall hazards. The spectrum of injuries associated with hoverboard use has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the spectrum of radiologically apparent injuries associated with hoverboard use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all imaging studies interpreted at our institution for hoverboard-related injuries during an 8-month period...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058483/three-dimensional-ultrasound-of-the-neonatal-brain-technical-approach-and-spectrum-of-disease
#19
Jessica Kurian, Susan Sotardi, Mark C Liszewski, William A Gomes, Thomas Hoffman, Benjamin H Taragin
Brain pathology is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, especially in the premature population. While conventional two-dimensional neurosonography is traditionally used for screening, diagnosis and monitoring of brain disorders such as germinal matrix hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia and hydrocephalus, three-dimensional ultrasonography has gained popularity in a variety of clinical applications in recent years. Three-dimensional ultrasonography is not yet widely utilized in pediatric imaging but is a potentially powerful tool for evaluating the neonatal brain...
January 5, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050636/systematic-radiographic-evaluation-of-tibial-hemimelia-with-orthopedic-implications
#20
Katia Kaplan-List, Nina B Klionsky, James O Sanders, Michael E Katz
Tibial hemimelia is a rare lower-extremity pre-axial longitudinal deficiency characterized by complete or partial absence of the tibia. The reported incidence is 1 in 1 million live births. In this pictorial essay, we define tibial hemimelia and describe associated conditions and principles of preoperative imaging assessment for a child with tibial hemimelia. We also indicate the imaging findings that might influence the choice of treatment, describe the most widely used classification systems, and briefly discuss current treatment approaches...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
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