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Stelios F Assimakopoulos, Christos Triantos, Konstantinos Thomopoulos, Fotini Fligou, Ioannis Maroulis, Markos Marangos, Charalambos A Gogos
INTRODUCTION: Gut permeability is increased in critically ill patients, and associated with the development of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). The pathogenetic link(s) and potential therapies are an area of intense research over the last decades. METHODS: We thoroughly reviewed the literature on gut-origin sepsis and MODS in critically ill patients, with emphasis on the implicated pathophysiological mechanisms and therapeutic interventions...
July 12, 2018: Infection
Juan Aguilar-Company, Carles Pigrau, Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, Dolors Rodríguez-Pardo, Vicenç Falcó, Mayli Lung, Ferran Pellisé, Benito Almirante
PURPOSE: To describe the demographic, clinical, and microbiological profile of native vertebral osteomyelitis (NVO) in aged patients as compared to that of younger patients, to identify differences that could motivate changes in clinical management. METHODS: Retrospective, observational cohort study (1990-2015) including all adult patients with microbiologically confirmed NVO divided into 2 groups: aged (≥ 65 years) vs younger (18-64 years). RESULTS: 247 patients included, 138 aged and 109 younger...
July 12, 2018: Infection
R Bianucci, C Qualls, D Lippi, P Charlier, A Perciaccante, O Appenzeller
Films are useful for medical education and introduce Science fiction movies or historic documentaries and pioneering scientists who developed the field of infectious disease research. Between the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, expert talents such as von Behring, Koch, and Ehrlich were present at the Charité Hospital. These individuals contributed significantly to the scientific study of infections, their prevention, treatment, and social impact. Here, we compare the relative impact of infectious disease research centers during the study period (late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries) by assuming that the number of publications listed on Wikipedia about the individual scientists working in London, Paris, and Berlin is Poisson distributed...
July 10, 2018: Infection
Alessandra Iacovelli, Martina Spaziante, Samir Al Moghazi, Alessandra Giordano, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Mario Venditti
The given names and family names of all authors were transposed in the original publication. The original article has been corrected.
July 10, 2018: Infection
Didier Brönnimann, Marc-Olivier Vareil, Igor Sibon, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Hubert Lepidi, Mathilde Puges, Fatiha Haneche, Didier Raoult, Arnaud Desclaux, Didier Neau, Charles Cazanave
INTRODUCTION: Many clinical manifestations can be related to Tropheryma whipplei infection. CASE REPORT: We report a Tropheryma whipplei limbic encephalitis developed as a relapse of classical Whipple's disease. DISCUSSION: This case is to the best of our knowledge the first proof of the effective brain-blood barrier crossing of both doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine as demonstrated by direct concentration monitoring on brain biopsy.
July 10, 2018: Infection
José Carlos Mora-Palma, Antonio Jesús Rodríguez-Oliver, José María Navarro-Marí, José Gutiérrez-Fernández
We report the first case of an association between Leptotrichia trevisanii and an episode of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and the second case of the isolation of this infection in the cervical canal. A 45-yr-old woman was admitted to our emergency department with clinical and radiological signs and symptoms compatible with an episode of PID. She was hospitalized for intravenous antibiotic control and treatment and the subsequent surgical drainage of abscesses. Cultures were taken throughout the process, but only cultures from cervical canal exudate were positive, with the growth of L...
July 6, 2018: Infection
Gianluca Russo, Mariangela L'Episcopia, Michela Menegon, Samaly Santos Souza, Bruna Ghyslaine Djeunang Dongho, Vincenzo Vullo, Naomi W Lucchi, Carlo Severini
Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ) is the artemisinin combination therapy that was recently introduced for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum uncomplicated malaria, but emerging resistance in South-East Asia is threatening its use. This report describes a case of DHA-PPQ treatment failure in uncomplicated malaria occurring in an immigrant living in Italy, after a travel to Ethiopia. Thirty days after malaria recovery following DHA-PPQ therapy, the patient had malaria recrudescence. According to the genotyping analysis, the same P...
July 6, 2018: Infection
Maité Garrouste-Orgeas, Elie Azoulay, Stéphane Ruckly, Carole Schwebel, Etienne de Montmollin, Jean-Pierre Bedos, Bertrand Souweine, Guillaume Marcotte, Christophe Adrie, Dany Goldgran-Toledano, Anne-Sylvie Dumenil, Hatem Kallel, Samir Jamali, Laurent Argaud, Michael Darmon, Jean-Ralph Zahar, J F Timsit
PURPOSES: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading pathogen of severe community, hospital or nursing facility infections. We sought to describe characteristics of invasive pneumococcal infection (IPI) and pneumonia (due to the high mortality of intensive care-associated pneumonia) and to report outcomes according to various types of comorbidity. METHODS: Multicenter observational cohort study on the prospective Outcomerea database, including adult patients, with a hospital stay < 48 h before ICU admission and a documented IPI within the first 72 h of ICU admission...
July 4, 2018: Infection
Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Astrid Mayr, Maria Aigner, Michaela Lackner, Dorothea Orth-Höller
PURPOSE: To determine the burden of antifungal resistance in fungi over the last 10 years. METHODS: Performance of a semi-nationwide surveillance on antifungal resistance. RESULTS: We observed a low frequency of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus, a moderate increase of echinocandin resistance in yeasts, and a stable amphotericin B activity in yeasts and molds. Posaconazole resistance in Aspergillus terreus occurred in a few isolates...
July 3, 2018: Infection
Laura Deen, Susan Cowan, Christian Wejse, Jørgen Holm Petersen, Marie Norredam
PURPOSE: Migrants represent a considerable proportion of HIV diagnoses in Europe and are considered a group at risk of late presentation. This study examined the incidence of HIV diagnoses and the risk of late presentation according to migrant status, ethnic origin and duration of residence. METHODS: We conducted a historically prospective cohort study comprising all adult migrants to Denmark between 1.1.1993 and 31.12.2010 (n = 114.282), matched 1:6 to Danish born by age and sex...
July 3, 2018: Infection
S Höring, B Löffler, M W Pletz, S Rößler, S Weis, B T Schleenvoigt
BACKGROUND: Here, we report the case of an HIV positive patient under a dual antiretroviral drug regimen with tenofovir disoproxil and darunavir/ritonavir with stable clinical, virological, and immunological response over 126 weeks. Dual antiretroviral therapy has the advantage of reduced toxicity and lower health care costs, treatment failure and fostering drug resistance are perceived risks. Optimal drug combinations and indication criteria for dual treatment remain controversial...
June 30, 2018: Infection
Hideaki Kato, Yukihiro Yoshimura, Yoshihiro Suido, Kazuo Ide, Yoshifumi Sugiyama, Kasumi Matsuno, Hideaki Nakajima
PURPOSE: Endogenous fungal endophthalmitis (EFE) is a severe consequence of candidemia. The prevalence of, and risk factors for, EFE is not well studied. METHODS: We retrospectively collected cases of patients with candidemia who had undergone ophthalmological examination between April 2011 and March 2016 in five regional hospitals. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses using patients' age, gender, causative Candida species, diabetes status, corticosteroid use, cancer status, neutropenia, intensive care unit admission, presence of central venous catheter (CVC), presence of shock, prior antibiotic use, 30-day mortality, and highest Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score...
June 29, 2018: Infection
Elisa Biliotti, Cristiana Franchi, Martina Spaziante, Anna Rosa Garbuglia, Lorenzo Volpicelli, Donatella Palazzo, Maurizio De Angelis, Rozenn Esvan, Gloria Taliani
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging cause of autochthonous-acute-hepatitis and acute-on-chronic-liver-failure in western countries. Treatment is not routinely used, despite ribavirin has a good antiviral effect. In vitro sofosbuvir inhibits HEV replication, but clinical data are lacking. CASE REPORT: We report a case of acute-on-chronic-liver-failure due to HEV treated with sofosbuvir and ribavirin. The treatment was capable of rapidly inducing both HCV and HEV viral suppression...
June 26, 2018: Infection
Iacovelli Alessandra, Spaziante Martina, Al Moghazi Samir, Giordano Alessandra, Ceccarelli Giancarlo, Venditti Mario
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumonia (KPC-Kp) has become a significant problem in terms of public health and clinical outcome in many hospitals in Southern Europe. Treatment options are usually limited and effective treatment of infections caused by these pathogens is a considerable challenge for clinicians. Ceftazidime-avibactam has been recently approved for the treatment of difficult-to-treat infections due to aerobic Gram-negative organisms in patients with limited treatment options...
June 20, 2018: Infection
Jesper Smit, Siegbert R Rieg, Andreas F Wendel, Winfried V Kern, Harald Seifert, Henrik C Schønheyder, Achim J Kaasch
PURPOSE: Data on the systemic dissemination in Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (SAB) remain sparse. We investigated the timing and the sequence of clinical symptoms, diagnostic confirmation, and occurrence of multiple infective foci in relation to three major infective foci. METHODS: From 2006 to 2011, all adult patients with first-time SAB in Cologne and Freiburg, Germany were followed prospectively. The study was restricted to patients with short-term central venous catheter (CVC)-related SAB, vertebral osteomyelitis (VO), and infective endocarditis (IE)...
June 14, 2018: Infection
Ziauddin Khan, Suhail Ahmad, Khalifa Benwan, Prashant Purohit, Inaam Al-Obaid, Ritu Bafna, Maha Emara, Eiman Mokaddas, Aneesa Ahmed Abdullah, Khaled Al-Obaid, Leena Joseph
PURPOSE: Candida auris is a recently recognized yeast pathogen, which has attracted worldwide attention due to its multidrug-resistant nature and associated high mortality rates. Its persistence in hospital environment and propensity of nosocomial transmission underscores the need of continuous monitoring to prevent outbreaks. Since the first case of C. auris candidemia in May, 2014, we have identified 17 additional invasive cases, which are described here. METHODS: Identity of 17 isolates originating from proven or possible cases of invasive C...
June 14, 2018: Infection
Emanuela Sozio, Filippo Pieralli, Anna Maria Azzini, Giancarlo Tintori, Federica Demma, Gianluca Furneri, Francesco Sbrana, Giacomo Bertolino, Simona Fortunato, Simone Meini, Damiano Bragantini, Alessandro Morettini, Carlo Nozzoli, Francesco Menichetti, Ercole Concia, Carlo Tascini
PURPOSE: Increasing prevalence of candidemia in Internal Medicine wards (IMWs) has been reported in recent years, but risk factors for candida bloodstream infection in patients admitted to IMW may differ from those known in other settings. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors and define a prediction rule for the early recognition of the risk of candidemia in IMW inpatients. METHODS: This was a multicentric, retrospective, observational case-control study on non-neutropenic patients with candidemia admitted to IMWs of four large Italian Hospitals...
June 9, 2018: Infection
Marcel Hochreiter, Maria Uhling, Leila Sisic, Thomas Bruckner, Alexandra Heininger, Andreas Hohn, Katja Ott, Thomas Schmidt, Marc Moritz Berger, Daniel Christoph Richter, Markus Büchler, Markus Alexander Weigand, Cornelius Johannes Busch
PURPOSE: Thoracoabdominal esophageal resection for malignant disease is frequently associated with pulmonary infection. Whether prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis beyond a single perioperative dose is advantageous in preventing pulmonary infection after thoracoabdominal esophagectomy remains unclear. METHODS: In this retrospective before-and-after analysis, 173 patients between January 2009 and December 2014 from a prospectively maintained database were included. We evaluated the effect of a 5-day postoperative course of moxifloxacin, which is a frequently used antimicrobial agent for pneumonia, on the incidence of pulmonary infection and mortality after thoracoabdominal esophagectomy...
June 5, 2018: Infection
Luis Anibarro, Eliana Cortés, Ana Chouza, Alberto Parafita-Fernández, Juan Carlos García, Alberto Pena, Carlos Fernández-Cid, África González-Fernández
PURPOSE: Diagnosis of tuberculous uveitis (TBU) is often challenging and is usually made after excluding other causes of uveitis. We analysed the characteristics of TBU and variables associated with visual outcome. METHODS: A retrospective, observational analysis was performed in patients with presumptive TBU who were started on specific TB treatment between January 2006 and June 2016. Demographic, clinical, radiological, analytical and ophthalmic examination variables were studied...
June 4, 2018: Infection
Eric Nulens, Eva-Line Decoster, Marie-Christine Schoonooghe, Astrid Muyldermans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2018: Infection
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