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Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340995/is-bacteremia-the-decisive-factor-for-the-duration-of-antimicrobial-therapy-in-bacteremic-urinary-tract-infections
#1
LETTER
Stamatis Karakonstantis, Dafni Korela, Dimitra Kalemaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335905/influence-of-antiviral-therapy-on-the-liver-stiffness-in-chronic-hbv-hepatitis
#2
Luca Rinaldi, Antonio Ascione, Vincenzo Messina, Valerio Rosato, Giovanna Valente, Vincenzo Sangiovanni, Rosa Zampino, Aldo Marrone, Luca Fontanella, Nicolina de Rosa, Pasquale Orabona, Carmela Buonomo, Antonio Chirianni, Luigi Elio Adinolfi, Guido Piai
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of antiviral therapy on liver stiffness measurement (LSM). METHODS: Two hundred HBV patients were enrolled from four hospital centers in southern Italy; median age was 50.7 (25-75) males were 68%; 171 patients underwent to liver biopsy and 200 patients had LSM at baseline and 189 at the end of follow-up. One hundred and forty-nine patients were treated with nucleos(t)ide analogs, while 51 patients were untreated...
January 15, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330674/advances-in-serological-imaging-techniques-and-molecular-diagnosis-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#3
REVIEW
Ali Rostami, Panagiotis Karanis, Shirzad Fallahi
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is worldwide distributed zoonotic infection disease with medical importance in immunocompromised patients, pregnant women and congenitally infected newborns. Having basic information on the traditional and new developed methods is essential for general physicians and infectious disease specialists for choosing a suitable diagnostic approach for rapid and accurate diagnosis of the disease and, consequently, timely and effective treatment. METHODS: We conducted English literature searches in PubMed from 1989 to 2016 using relevant keywords and summarized the recent advances in diagnosis of toxoplasmosis...
January 12, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330673/vacuum-assisted-closure-therapy-of-paradoxical-reaction-in-tuberculous-lymphadenopathy-caused-by-mycobacterium-africanum
#4
H F Geerdes-Fenge, P Pongratz, J Liese, E C Reisinger
A 26-year-old HIV-negative male from Ghana was treated for cervical, intrathoracic and abdominal lymph node tuberculosis (TB) and tuberculous hepatitis. Penetration of the thoracic trachea by a mediastinal lymph node had caused bronchomucosal TB. Sputum culture grew M. africanum, sensitive to all first-line antituberculous drugs. Four weeks after the beginning of directly observed treatment with isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol, the right cervical lymph node increased in size, liquefied and caused a spontaneous fistula...
January 12, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294237/correction-to-antifungal-activity-of-myrtus-communis-against-malassezia-sp-isolated-from-the-skin-of-patients-with-pityriasis-versicolor
#5
Aleksandra Barac, Matthew Donadu, Donatella Usai, Vesna Tomic Spiric, Vittorio Mazzarello, Stefania Zanetti, Ema Aleksic, Goran Stevanovic, Natasa Nikolic, Salvatore Rubino
The original version of this article unfortunately contained two mistakes in authors' names.
January 2, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273972/the-first-report-of-japanese-antimicrobial-use-measured-by-national-database-based-on-health-insurance-claims-data-2011-2013-comparison-with-sales-data-and-trend-analysis-stratified-by-antimicrobial-category-and-age-group
#6
Daisuke Yamasaki, Masaki Tanabe, Yuichi Muraki, Genta Kato, Norio Ohmagari, Tetsuya Yagi
PURPOSE: Our objective was to evaluate the utility of the national database (NDB) based on health insurance claims data for antimicrobial use (AMU) surveillance in medical institutions in Japan. METHODS: The population-weighted total AMU expressed as defined daily doses (DDDs) per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID) was measured by the NDB. The data were compared with our previous study measured by the sales data. Trend analysis of DID from 2011 to 2013 and subgroup analysis stratified by antimicrobial category and age group were performed...
December 22, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250713/influence-of-a-strictly-perioperative-antibiotic-prophylaxis-vs-a-prolonged-postoperative-prophylaxis-on-surgical-site-infections-in-maxillofacial-surgery
#7
Alexander K Bartella, Sebastian Lemmen, Aida Burnic, Anita Kloss-Brandstätter, Mohammad Kamal, Thomas Breisach, Frank Hölzle, Bernd Lethaus
PURPOSE: The adequate perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in maxillofacial surgery is still under discussion due to the wide range of hard and soft tissue procedures as well as contaminated, semi-contaminated and clean surgical sides. Perioperative antibiosis is an easy applicable tool that can be used to decrease nosocomial morbidity and mortality by reducing the rate of infections. We compared strictly perioperative antibiosis with an extended postoperative prophylactic antibiosis...
December 18, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238918/treatment-of-acute-hepatitis-c-recommendations-from-an-expert-panel-of-the-italian-society-of-infectious-and-tropical-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Giovanni B Gaeta, Massimo Puoti, Nicola Coppola, Teresa Santantonio, Raffaele Bruno, Antonio Chirianni, Massimo Galli
AIM: This paper is aimed at providing practical recommendations for the management of acute hepatitis C (AHC). METHODS: This is an expert position paper based on the literature revision. Final recommendations were graded by level of evidence and strength of the recommendations. RESULTS: Treatment of AHC with direct-acting antivirals (DAA) is safe and effective; it overcomes the limitations of INF-based treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Early treatment with DAA should be offered when available...
December 13, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224191/bilateral-choroiditis-as-the-only-sign-of-persistent-mycobacterium-intracellulare-infection-following-haematogenous-spread-in-an-immunocompromised-patient
#9
Alessandro Invernizzi, Davide Ricaboni, Marco Franzetti, Giovanni Staurenghi, Peter McCluskey, Fabio Franzetti
An immunocompromised patient had positive blood cultures for Mycobacterium intracellulare and no identifiable organ seeding was started on treatment. One month later, the patient was clinically well with negative blood cultures but drug-induced myelotoxicity had developed. Ocular fundus examination at this time revealed bilateral choroidal granulomas which changed patient management.
December 9, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218569/toxin-positivity-and-tcdb-gene-load-in-broad-spectrum-clostridium-difficile-infection
#10
Hyeong Nyeon Kim, Hanah Kim, Hee-Won Moon, Mina Hur, Yeo-Min Yun
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of toxin positivity and toxin gene load, and the relation between them in the broad spectrum of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) including colonization, significant diarrhea, and severe disease. METHODS: We included 2671 fecal samples submitted for CDI diagnosis and 180 samples from healthy individuals. The clinical spectrum was categorized as category I (toxigenic C. difficile positive without clinical CDI criteria), category II (mild CDI), and category III (severe CDI)...
December 7, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177610/findings-from-an-outbreak-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-emphasize-the-role-of-antibiotic-treatment-for-cross-transmission
#11
Stefan Borgmann, Yvonne Pfeifer, Laura Becker, Beate Rieß, Rabea Siegmund, Ulrich Sagel
PURPOSE: In January 2015, we noticed by rectal swab analyses that seven of 23 patients at an early rehabilitation ward had been colonized with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CKP). Here, we describe risk factors for CKP acquisition. METHODS: In the present study, the outbreak is described and risk factors for CKP acquisition are examined, e.g., antibiotic treatment. Microbiological analyses including corresponding results were examined to study when colonization with CKP occurred and whether patients had suffered from diarrhea...
November 24, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159502/antifungal-activity-of-myrtus-communis-against-malassezia-sp-isolated-from-the-skin-of-patients-with-pityriasis-versicolor
#12
Aleksandra Barac, Matthew Donadu, Donatella Usai, Vesna Tomic Spiric, Vittorio Mazzarello, Stefania Zanetti, Ema Nikolic, Goran Stevanovic, Natasa Popovic, Salvatore Rubino
The increasing incidence of fungal infections and antifungal resistance has prompted the search for novel antifungal drugs and alternative agents. We explored the antifungal activity of Myrtus communis essential oil (EO) against Malassezia sp. isolated from the skin of patients with pityriasis versicolor. These broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities of M. communis EO and its potent inhibiting activity on Malassezia growth deserve further research with aim to considerate this EO as candidate for topical use in treatment of skin diseases...
November 20, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150796/gender-differences-in-chronic-liver-diseases-in-two-cohorts-of-2001-and-2014-in-italy
#13
Evangelista Sagnelli, Tommaso Stroffolini, Caterina Sagnelli, Mario Pirisi, Sergio Babudieri, Guido Colloredo, Maurizio Russello, Nicola Coppola, Giovanni Battista Gaeta, Bruno Cacopardo, Massimo De Luca, Piero Luigi Almasio
BACKGROUND: Gender differences in chronic liver disease (CLD) have been partially investigated. To extend the present knowledge, we evaluated 12,263 patients with CLD enrolled in two national surveys (9997 in 2001 and 2557 in 2014). METHODS: The two surveys prospectively recruited patients aged ≥ 18 referring to Italian liver units throughout the country using a similar clinical approach and analytical methods. RESULTS: The overall male to female ratio (M/F) was 1...
November 17, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134582/long-term-efficacy-of-comprehensive-multidisciplinary-antibiotic-stewardship-programs-centered-on-weekly-prospective-audit-and-feedback
#14
Takeshi Kimura, Atsushi Uda, Tomoyuki Sakaue, Kazuhiko Yamashita, Tatsuya Nishioka, Sho Nishimura, Kei Ebisawa, Manabu Nagata, Goh Ohji, Tatsuya Nakamura, Chihiro Koike, Mari Kusuki, Takeshi Ioroi, Akira Mukai, Yasuhisa Abe, Hiroyuki Yoshida, Midori Hirai, Soichi Arakawa, Ikuko Yano, Kentaro Iwata, Issei Tokimatsu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term effects of comprehensive antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) on antibiotic use, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, and clinical outcomes. DESIGN: Before-after study. SETTING: National university hospital with 934 beds. INTERVENTION: Implementation in March 2010 of a comprehensive ASPs including, among other strategies, weekly prospective audit and feedback with multidisciplinary collaboration...
November 13, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129031/evaluation-and-management-of-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteriuria-an-updated-review
#15
REVIEW
Stamatis Karakonstantis, Dimitra Kalemaki
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is little guidance regarding the evaluation and management of patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria (SABU). Here, we aimed to provide an up-to-date review of the literature. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Scopus, and clinical trial registries for articles evaluating the epidemiology of SABU, risk factors of SABU, the association of SABU with urinary tract infection, bacteremia and invasive S. aureus infections, and the management of patients with SABU...
November 11, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124647/improvement-of-semen-parameters-after-antibiotic-therapy-in-asymptomatic-infertile-men-infected-with-mycoplasma-genitalium
#16
Mohammad Hossein Ahmadi, Akbar Mirsalehian, Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani, Abbas Bahador, Malihe Talebi
OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the association between asymptomatic infections caused by Mycoplasma genitalium and male infertility, and evaluate the role of antibiotic therapy in treatment of this failure. METHODS: A total of 165 infertile males having abnormal semen parameters (study group) and 165 healthy fertile men (control group) were included. Semen samples were taken from all participants and after analyzing for semen parameters, undergone real-time PCR, microbial culture, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays...
November 9, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110143/pharmacological-aspects-and-spectrum-of-action-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Felipe Francisco Tuon, Jaime L Rocha, Marcelo R Formigoni-Pinto
PURPOSE: Ceftazidime-avibactam is an antimicrobial association active against several Enterobacteriaceae species, including those resistant to carbapenem. Considering the importance of this drug in the current panorama of multidrug-resistant bacteria, we performed a systematic review about ceftazidime-avibactam with emphasis on clinical and pharmacological published data. METHODS: A systematic search of the medical literature was performed. The databases searched included MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science (until September 2017)...
November 7, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110142/an-outbreak-of-skin-infections-in-neonates-due-to-a-staphylococcus-aureus-strain-producing-the-exfoliative-toxin-a
#18
Fernanda Pimentel de Araujo, Marco Tinelli, Antonio Battisti, Angela Ercoli, Adriano Anesi, Annalisa Pantosti, Monica Monaco
PURPOSE: Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of infections in hospitalized neonates. Preterm or low birthweight infants are especially at risk to develop a S. aureus infection due to the immaturity of the immune system, length of hospital stay and invasive procedures. Exfoliative toxin (ET)-producing S. aureus is often responsible for neonatal infections, causing clinical manifestations such as staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, characterized by both localized blisters or generalized exfoliation of the skin...
November 6, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103080/first-report-of-neonatal-early-onset-sepsis-caused-by-multi-drug-resistant-raoultella-ornithinolytica
#19
Asad Abbas, Istiyaq Ahmad
Raoultella ornithinolytica is increasingly being isolated as a causative organism in human infections. Most of the infections caused by R. ornithinolytica are hospital acquired and occur in patients who are immunocompromised, had invasive procedures or have indwelling catheters. This is a first report of early onset neonatal sepsis caused by multi-drug-resistant R. ornithinolytica. The infection was not very severe and was characterised by generalized flushing of the skin. Patient made complete recovery once appropriate antibiotics were started...
November 4, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103079/effectiveness-of-kidney-transplantation-in-hiv-infected-recipients-under-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-a-single-cohort-experience-brescia-northern-italy
#20
Ilaria Izzo, Salvatore Casari, Nicola Bossini, Maria Antonia Forleo, Silvio Sandrini, Emanuele Focà, Nigritella Brianese, Giulia Zambolin, Claudia Chirico, Giovanni Cancarini, Francesco Castelli
PURPOSE: Kidney transplantation was recently introduced for the treatment of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in HIV-infected patients. We report the results of the first 28 procedures at our centre. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on HIV-infected patients evaluated for kidney transplantation between January 2005 and October 2016. Patients were selected and monitored by the kidney transplantation and infectious diseases teams, according to the national protocol...
November 4, 2017: Infection
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