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Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534320/infectious-keratitis-and-orthokeratology-lens-use-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Ka Wai Kam, Wing Yung, Gabriel Ka Hin Li, Li Jia Chen, Alvin L Young
PURPOSE: Myopia is a prevalent condition among Asians. Orthokeratology lens has gained popularity as a method of myopia control. This systematic review is to summarize the clinical profile of infectious keratitis in association with orthokeratology lens wear. METHODS: We searched in the PubMed and EMBASE for articles adopting the search strategy "(orthokeratology lens OR orthokeratology) AND (bacterial eye infection OR keratitis OR cornea ulcer OR microbial keratitis OR bacterial keratitis)", from the start date of the databases to August 23, 2016...
May 22, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534319/case-report-human-papilloma-virus-type-120-related-papillomatosis-mimicking-laryngeal-carcinoma
#2
Valeria Belvisi, Salvatore Martellucci, Anna Rosa Garbuglia, Cosmo Del Borgo, Stanislao Martellucci, Andrea Baiocchini, Anna Maria Manicone, Oreste Bagni, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Andrea Gallo
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between human papilloma virus (HPV) and upper respiratory tract pathology was better understood in recent years and represents now an issue of particular interest in carcinogenesis and in immunocompromised host. We describe a case in which a rare genotype HPV-related papillomatosis mimics laryngeal carcinoma in an immunocompromised host. METHODS: A 54-year-old woman with a history of HIV-HCV coinfection and anal and laryngeal cancer successfully treated some years before was hospitalized for severe dyspnea, cough and dysphagia...
May 22, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516432/measurement-of-piperacillin-plasma-concentrations-in-cancer-patients-with-suspected-infection
#3
Tobias Rachow, Verena Schlüter, Sibylle Bremer-Streck, Udo Lindig, Sebastian Scholl, Peter Schlattmann, Michael Kiehntopf, Andreas Hochhaus, Marie von Lilienfeld-Toal
BACKGROUND: Piperacillin (PIP) in combination with tazobactam is commonly used for anti-infective treatment in cancer patients. PIP exerts a time-dependent killing. Thus, the maintenance of plasma concentrations above a pre-defined target concentration for a pre-defined time may be relevant for optimal efficacy. It is assumed that PIP-plasma concentrations above the clinical breakpoint of the target pathogen [Pseudomonas aeruginosa, clinical breakpoint at minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 16 mg/L] should be reached for 100% of the dosing interval or >4xMIC (64 mg/L) for 50% of the dosing interval...
May 17, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508238/surgical-excision-for-recurrent-herpes-simplex-virus-2-hsv-2-anogenital-infection-in-a-patient-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv
#4
Folasade Arinze, Aaron Shaver, Stephen Raffanti
Recurrent anogenital herpes simplex virus infections are common in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), of whom approximately 5% develop resistance to acyclovir. We present a case of a 49-year-old man with HIV who had an 8-year history of recurrent left inguinal herpes simplex virus type 2 ulcerations. He initially responded to oral acyclovir, but developed resistance to acyclovir and eventually foscarnet. The lesion progressed to a large hypertrophic mass that required surgical excision, which led to resolution without recurrences...
May 15, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497295/assessing-the-risk-and-disease-burden-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-patients-with-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-at-a-university-hospital-in-central-china
#5
Chunhui Li, Juping Duan, Sidi Liu, Xiujuan Meng, Chenchao Fu, Cui Zeng, Anhua Wu
PURPOSE: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) remains one of the major hospital-acquired infections in China. Antibiotic treatment of HAP may lead to subsequent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Baseline data on the occurrence of CDI among HAP patients in China are currently unavailable. This study examines the risk and disease burden of CDI among HAP hospitalized patients (HAP-CDI). METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among ICU patients with HAP and hospital-onset diarrhea from January 2014 to December 2014 in a teaching hospital in China...
May 11, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484992/scaring-and-encouraging-news-on-diagnosis-spreading-and-therapy-of-resistant-organisms-the-eccmid-2017-in-vienna
#6
EDITORIAL
Johannes R Bogner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484991/lipid-testing-in-infectious-diseases-possible-role-in-diagnosis-and-prognosis
#7
REVIEW
Sebastian Filippas-Ntekouan, Evangelos Liberopoulos, Moses Elisaf
INTRODUCTION: Acute infections lead to significant alterations in metabolic regulation including lipids and lipoproteins, which play a central role in the host immune response. In this regard, several studies have investigated the role of lipid levels as a marker of infection severity and prognosis. SCOPE OF REVIEW: We review here the role of lipids in immune response and the potential mechanisms underneath. Moreover, we summarize studies on lipid and lipoprotein alterations in acute bacterial, viral and parasitic infections as well as their diagnostic and prognostic significance...
May 8, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478600/optimal-duration-of-antimicrobial-therapy-for-uncomplicated-gram-negative-bloodstream-infections
#8
Avery N Nelson, Julie Ann Justo, P Brandon Bookstaver, Joseph Kohn, Helmut Albrecht, Majdi N Al-Hasan
PURPOSE: Optimal antimicrobial treatment duration for Gram-negative bloodstream infection (BSI) remains unclear. This retrospective cohort study examined effectiveness of short (7-10 days) and long (>10 days) courses of antimicrobial therapy for uncomplicated Gram-negative BSI. METHODS: Hospitalized adults with uncomplicated Gram-negative BSI at Palmetto Health hospitals in Columbia SC, USA from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013 were identified. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression with propensity score adjustment was used to examine risk of treatment failure in the two groups...
May 6, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477212/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-switching-to-a-dual-therapy-with-darunavir-ritonavir-plus-raltegravir-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-hiv-1-rna-%C3%A2-50%C3%A2-cp-ml
#9
Giordano Madeddu, Stefano Rusconi, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Stefano Bonora, Alessia Carbone, Andrea De Luca, Nicola Gianotti, Antonio Di Biagio, Andrea Antinori
BACKGROUND: Nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) toxicity may represent a threat for long-term success of combined antiretroviral therapy. Some studies have suggested a possible improvement of NRTI-related toxicity after switching to NRTI-sparing regimens. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the efficacy and tolerability of switching to darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) plus raltegravir (RAL) while having a viral load (VL) ≤50 copies/mL in the clinical setting...
May 5, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444620/environmental-pollution-with-antimicrobial-agents-from-bulk-drug-manufacturing-industries-in-hyderabad-south-india-is-associated-with-dissemination-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-and-carbapenemase-producing-pathogens
#10
Christoph Lübbert, Christian Baars, Anil Dayakar, Norman Lippmann, Arne C Rodloff, Martina Kinzig, Fritz Sörgel
PURPOSE: High antibiotic and antifungal concentrations in wastewater from anti-infective drug production may exert selection pressure for multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. We investigated the environmental presence of active pharmaceutical ingredients and their association with MDR Gram-negative bacteria in Hyderabad, South India, a major production area for the global bulk drug market. METHODS: From Nov 19 to 28, 2016, water samples were collected from the direct environment of bulk drug manufacturing facilities, the vicinity of two sewage treatment plants, the Musi River, and habitats in Hyderabad and nearby villages...
April 26, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429151/corynebacterium-species-nasopharyngeal-carriage-in-asymptomatic-individuals-aged%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-65%C3%A2-years-in-germany
#11
Barbara Teutsch, Anja Berger, Durdica Marosevic, Katharina Schönberger, Thiên-Trí Lâm, Kerstin Hubert, Steffi Beer, Peter Wienert, Nikolaus Ackermann, Heike Claus, Maria Drayß, Kathrin Thiel, Mark van der Linden, Ulrich Vogel, Andreas Sing
PURPOSE: The prevalence of protective anti-diphtheria toxin antibodies decreases with age. Therefore, the elderly might serve as reservoir for potentially toxigenic Corynebacterium (C.) species (C. diphtheriae, C. ulcerans, and C. pseudotuberculosis). This study aimed to examine the colonization rate of the nasopharynx with corynebacteria of individuals aged 65 years and older. METHODS: In the period from October 2012 to June 2013, nasal and throat swabs were taken from 714 asymptomatic subjects aged 65-106 years (average age 77...
April 20, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417421/a-review-of-infectious-complications-after-haploidentical-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantations
#12
REVIEW
Erden Atilla, Pinar Ataca Atilla, Sinem Civriz Bozdağ, Taner Demirer
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from haploidentical donor is a feasible option for patients with hematological diseases who lack a suitable HLA-matched donor, but viral and fungal infections are still the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in haploidentical transplantation setting because of delayed immune reconstitution, increased risk of graft vs host disease (GvHD) or systemic steroid use. Therefore, this review will focus on the infectious complications after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
April 17, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405941/public-knowledge-and-behaviours-concerning-antibiotic-use-and-resistance-in-france-a-cross-sectional-survey
#13
Béatrice Demoré, Lucie Mangin, Gianpiero Tebano, Céline Pulcini, Nathalie Thilly
PURPOSE: To evaluate knowledge and behaviours concerning antibiotics and bacterial resistance in the French population, and to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with a high level of such knowledge and appropriate behaviours. METHODS: A survey of the general population was conducted in 2015 in northeast France. The 44-item standardized questionnaire used comprised three parts, focusing on the assessment of knowledge, behaviours, and the collection of main socio-demographic characteristics of respondents (gender, age, having children, education level, and profession)...
April 12, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397171/pediatric-antibiotic-stewardship-successful-interventions-to-reduce-broad-spectrum-antibiotic-use-on-general-pediatric-wards
#14
Katharina Kreitmeyr, Ulrich von Both, Alenka Pecar, Johannes P Borde, Rafael Mikolajczyk, Johannes Huebner
PURPOSE: Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASP) optimize antibiotic usage and combat antibiotic resistance of bacteria. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of specific ASP interventions on antibiotic consumption in general pediatric wards. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study to compare a pre-intervention (Sept.-Dec. 2014) and post-intervention (Sept.-Dec. 2015) period. An ASP bundle was established including (1) infectious diseases (ID) ward rounds (prospective-audit-with-feedback), (2) ID consultation service, (3) internal guidelines on empiric antibiotic therapy...
April 10, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389926/influence-of-molecular-characteristics-in-the-prognosis-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-prosthetic-joint-infections-beyond-the-species-and-the-antibiogram
#15
Irene Muñoz-Gallego, Jaime Lora-Tamayo, Dafne Pérez-Montarelo, Patricia Brañas, Esther Viedma, Fernando Chaves
We have explored the relationship of phenotypic (antibiogram, β-haemolysis, agr functionality, biofilm formation) and genotypic characteristics on the prognosis of 18 cases of methicillin-resistant S. aureus prosthetic joint infection (2005-2015). All isolates belonged to CC5, and had agr type II. This pilot study suggests that phage-borne genes belonging to the immune evasion cluster (chp, sak and scn) were more frequent among episodes with treatment failure (80.0 vs. 37.5%).
April 7, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386807/acute-human-herpes-virus-7-hhv-7-encephalitis-in-an-immunocompetent-adult-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#16
Nicoletta Riva, Iacopo Franconi, Marianna Meschiari, Erica Franceschini, Cinzia Puzzolante, Gianluca Cuomo, Alessandro Bianchi, Francesca Cavalleri, Maurilio Genovese, Cristina Mussini
We report a case of an acute HHV-7 encephalitis involving the nucleus of the VI cranial nerve in an immunocompetent host. The patient was an adult male admitted to our Clinic with headache, diplopia, fever, nausea, vertigo, asthenia and general malaise. PCR for viral and bacterial genomes was run on both serum and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) after performing lumbar puncture, resulting positive only for HHV-7 DNA on CSF. MRI showed hyperintensity in FLAIR signal in the dorsal pons, in the area of the VI cranial nerve nucleus...
April 6, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365900/invasive-listeriosis-in-a-patient-with-several-episodes-of-antibiotic-associated-colitis-presumably-due-to-clostridium-difficile
#17
Novella Carannante, Pasquale Pagliano, Marco Rossi, Vittorio Attanasio, Carolina Rescigno, Laura Corte, Carlo Tascini, Gianluigi Cardinali
A 62-year-old man developed a blood stream infection and meningitis due to Listeria monocytogenes, 20 days after an episode of pseudo-membranous colitis. The patient, hospitalized for the first time for transurethral prostatectomy, was readmitted 20 days later with watery diarrhea. Pseudo-membranous colitis was diagnosed and treated successfully, without testing for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). After 15 more days, the patient developed again diarrhea, fever and confusion. Hospitalized again, blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures resulted positive for L...
April 1, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353153/good-tolerability-of-high-dose-colistin-based-therapy-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancies
#18
Sara Grignolo, Paola Tatarelli, Fabio Guolo, Paola Minetto, Giulia Rivoli, Daniela Guardo, Valerio Del Bono, Riccardo Varaldo, Francesca Gualandi, Filippo Ballerini, Annamaria Raiola, Marco Gobbi, Claudio Viscoli, Malgorzata Mikulska
PURPOSE: Colistin is usually the only drug fully active against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria, but its nephrotoxicity might limit its use. Recent pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data suggest that high dose of colistin, preceded by a loading dose, are needed to maximize its antibacterial effect. The aim of this study was to determine the safety of high doses colistin, in haematology population. METHODS: A retrospective review of haematology patients who received high dose colistin-based therapy in years 2011-2016 was performed...
March 28, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349491/low-incidence-of-the-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-among-hiv-infected-patients-starting-antiretroviral-therapy-in-gabon-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
S Janssen, K Osbak, R Holman, S Hermans, A Moekotte, M Knap, E Rossatanga, M Massinga-Loembe, A Alabi, A Adegnika, C Meenken, M van Vugt, P G Kremsner, G Meintjes, T van der Poll, M P Grobusch
There is a paucity of data on the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in the Central African region. We followed ART-naive HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in an HIV clinic in Gabon, for 6 months. Among 101 patients, IRIS was diagnosed in five. All IRIS cases were mucocutaneous manifestations. There were no cases of tuberculosis (TB) IRIS, but active TB (n = 20) was associated with developing other forms of IRIS (p = 0.02). Six patients died. The incidence of IRIS is low in Gabon, with mild, mucocutaneous manifestations...
March 27, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341896/role-of-conservative-management-in-tubercular-abdominal-cocoon-a-case-series
#20
Vishal Sharma, Harshal S Mandavdhare, Surinder S Rana, Harjeet Singh, Amit Kumar, Rajesh Gupta
BACKGROUND: Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (Abdominal cocoon) is an uncommon cause of intestinal obstruction and tuberculosis is an important etiology. Appropriate management of this entity is still uncertain. METHODS: We did a retrospective analysis of patients with abdominal cocoon who were seen over a two year period at a tertiary care center in North India. We included patients with tubercular abdominal cocoon (TAC) who were managed primarily with antitubercular therapy in the present report...
March 24, 2017: Infection
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