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Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726037/can-a-collaborative-subspecialty-antimicrobial-stewardship-intervention-have-lasting-effects
#1
Kaushal B Shah, Ramzy H Rimawi, Mark A Mazer, Paul P Cook
OBJECTIVE: We previously demonstrated the benefit of direct, daily collaboration between infectious disease (ID) and critical care practitioners (CCP) on guideline adherence and antibiotic use in the medical intensive care unit (MICU). In this post-intervention review, we sought to establish whether the effect on antibiotic use and guideline adherence was sustainable. DESIGN: A retrospective review of 87 patients, admitted to the 24-bed MICU, was done 3 (n = 45) and 6 months (n = 42) after the intervention...
July 19, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710682/thelazia-callipaeda-infection-in-a-5-month-old-infant
#2
Xinyue Zhao, Yao Shi, Zhengming Fang, Zhi Wang, Xiaobo Yang
BACKGROUND: Thelazia callipaeda is the main causative organism in thelaziasis, commonly infecting orbital cavities and associated tissues of carnivores. Thelazia callipaeda infection is rarely reported in humans, especially in infants. CASE PRESENTATION: A 5-month-old male infant presented with 2 weeks of redness and increased secretions in the left eye. On examination, the left eye revealed the presence of one creamy thread-like mobile worm in the conjunctival sac...
July 14, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707184/misdiagnosis-of-tuberculosis-associated-with-some-species-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-by-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay
#3
Yu Pang, Jie Lu, Biyi Su, Huiwen Zheng, Yanlin Zhao
Out of 12 nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species, 5 were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) by GeneXpert at a bacterial load of 10(6). Notably, two species, including M. abscessus and M. smegmatis, were flagged as RIF-resistant MTB due to the high C(t) value of Probe E. In conclusion, our data have demonstrated that the misdiagnosis of MTB by GeneXpert assay is observed in five NTM species at a high bacterial load.
July 13, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702763/pharmacokinetics-of-antifungal-drugs-practical-implications-for-optimized-treatment-of-patients
#4
REVIEW
Romuald Bellmann, Piotr Smuszkiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Because of the high mortality of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), appropriate exposure to antifungals appears to be crucial for therapeutic efficacy and safety. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review summarises published pharmacokinetic data on systemically administered antifungals focusing on co-morbidities, target-site penetration, and combination antifungal therapy. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION: Amphotericin B is eliminated unchanged via urine and faeces...
July 12, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660356/community-acquired-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-hiv-infected-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-predictors-in-a-contemporary-cohort-study
#5
Cristiane C Lamas, Lara E Coelho, Beatriz J Grinsztejn, Valdilea G Veloso
Community-acquired pneumonia represents the most frequent bacterial infection in patients with HIV/AIDS. PURPOSE: We aimed to assess variables associated with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) among HIV-infected adults using ART. METHODS: A cohort study of HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years, enrolled from 2000 to 2015, on ART for at least 60 days, with primary outcome as the 1st episode of LRTI during follow-up. The independent variables included were sex at birth, age, race/skin color, educational level, tobacco smoking, alcohol use, cocaine use, diabetes mellitus, CD4 count, HIV viral load, influenza and pneumococcal vaccination...
June 28, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647898/respiratory-diphtheriae-due-to-corynebacterium-ulcerans-transmitted-by-a-companion-dog-italy-2014
#6
Monica Monaco, Anna Rita Sacchi, Marzia Scotti, Fabiola Mancini, Carlo Riccio, Giulia Errico, Giovanna Ratti, Filippo Bondi, Alessandra Ciervo, Annalisa Pantosti
A serious respiratory tract infection due to Corynebacterium ulcerans was observed in a 70-year-old woman. Clinical presentation included pseudomembranes in the upper respiratory tract and lung involvement. C. ulcerans was recovered from the nose of the patient's dog. Both dog's and patient's isolates belonged to Sequence Type 331.
June 24, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639141/survival-of-an-aids-patient-after-infection-with-acanthamoeba-sp-of-the-central-nervous-system
#7
Hana El Sahly, Michelle Udayamurthy, George Parkerson, Rodrigo Hasbun
CASE DESCRIPTION: A 38-year-old man presented with headaches and generalized weakness. He was found to have AIDS; a ring-enhancing central nervous system lesion was found on brain imaging and he had elevated serum Toxoplasma gondii IgG levels. A diagnosis of presumptive toxoplasma encephalitis was made and he received antiretrovirals and antitoxoplasma therapy for 4 years. Intermittent headaches and evidence of disease progression on neuroimaging warranted further evaluation and cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed amebic forms on hematoxylin and eosin staining and positive polymerase chain reaction testing for Acanthamoeba spp...
June 21, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616745/bacterial-meningitis-complicating-the-course-of-liver-cirrhosis
#8
Pasquale Pagliano, Giovanni Boccia, Francesco De Caro, Silvano Esposito
Meningitis is rarely reported in studies investigating bacterial infections in patients affected by liver cirrhosis. We investigated the findings of bacterial meningitis in patients affected by liver cirrhosis referred to our department in a 16-year period. MATERIALS: Patients with cirrhosis and bacterial meningitis were enrolled. Cirrhosis was defined by liver histology or clinical, laboratory, and ultrasonographic and endoscopic findings. Bacterial meningitis was defined by cerebro-spinal fluid pleocytosis (>10/mcl) and characteristic clinical presentation...
June 14, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608225/bacterial-growth-and-antibiotic-resistance-patterns-in-cirrhotic-ascites
#9
LETTER
Jose D Debes, Daniel Beisang, Paola Ricci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608224/concordance-between-the-old-and-new-diagnostic-criteria-for-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#10
Meeri Honkanen, Esa Jämsen, Matti Karppelin, Reetta Huttunen, Outi Lyytikäinen, Jaana Syrjänen
PURPOSE: There is no uniform definition for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). New diagnostic criteria were formulated in an international consensus meeting in 2013 and adopted by Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in 2016. The purpose of this study is to compare the new diagnostic criteria with the old CDC criteria from the year 1992. METHODS: Patients, who had been treated for PJI of hip or knee from 2002 to 2014, in a tertiary care hospital, were identified...
June 12, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593617/the-dangers-of-extreme-body-mass-index-values-in-patients-with-clostridium-difficile
#11
Brian H Nathanson, Thomas L Higgins, William T McGee
PURPOSE: To examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and in-hospital mortality in patients presenting with Clostridium difficile infections in emergency department visits (ED) in the USA. Infected patients with extreme BMIs may have an elevated mortality risk, but prior studies examining this question have been too small to reach definitive conclusions. METHODS: Data were from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality during 2012...
June 7, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589415/noma-in-an-hiv-infected-patient-in-guinea-bissau-a-case-report
#12
Tina Madsen, Candida Medina, Sanne Jespersen, Christian Wejse, Bo Langhoff Hønge
BACKGROUND: Noma is a multifactorial and multibacterial opportunistic infection that initially causes necrotic gingivitis but rapidly spreads to the nearby orofacial tissue resulting in sloughing and severe deformation of the facial structures. The majority of cases are seen in young children under the age of 6 years. Noma is strongly associated with poverty, malnutrition and immunosuppression, and is often preceded by severe systemic infections such as measles and malaria. Only few cases of noma infection in adults have been described...
June 6, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577242/divergence-in-the-approach-to-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-inhibitor-recipients-with-coccidioidomycosis
#13
Ashley L Garrett, Stephen S Cha, Elizabeth Wack, Janis E Blair
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor α-inhibitors (TNFIs) have been associated with increased risk of certain fungal infections, including coccidioidomycosis. The optimal treatment approach to coccidioidomycosis in TNFI recipients is unknown. METHODS: We constructed an anonymous, voluntary survey for practicing pulmonary and infectious disease physicians in the state of Arizona regarding approach to TNFI patients with coccidioidomycosis. RESULTS: There is no current consensus on managing these patients...
June 2, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577241/human-infectious-diseases-and-risk-of-preeclampsia-an-updated-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh, Zahra Behboodi Moghadam, Ishag Adam, Vafa Saber, Maryam Bagheri, Ali Rostami
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the major causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, especially in low- and middle-income countries. In recent years, a growing body of literatures suggests that infections by bacteria, viruses, and parasites and their related inflammations play an important role in the pathogenesis of PE. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Google scholar, and Cochrane databases using the following search words: "infection and preeclampsia," "bacterial infection and preeclampsia," "viral infection and preeclampsia" and "parasitic infection and preeclampsia...
June 2, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573415/published-data-do-not-support-the-notion-that-borrelia-valaisiana-is-human-pathogenic
#15
LETTER
Gabriele Margos, Andreas Sing, Volker Fingerle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573414/primary-cutaneous-nocardiosis-a-pitfall-in-the-diagnosis-of-skin-infection
#16
Mercè Grau Pérez, Antonio Casabella Pernas, María Del Pilar de la Rosa Del Rey, Rosa Torrado González
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567599/ocular-and-oto-syphilis-not-a-thing-of-the-past
#17
Chiara Papalini, Carlo Cagini, Giampietro Ricci, Maria Bruna Pasticci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 31, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555416/clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-septic-bursitis
#18
Sarah B Lieber, Mary Louise Fowler, Clara Zhu, Andrew Moore, Robert H Shmerling, Ziv Paz
PURPOSE: Limited data guide practice in evaluation and treatment of septic bursitis. We aimed to characterize clinical characteristics, microbiology, and outcomes of patients with septic bursitis stratified by bursal involvement, presence of trauma, and management type. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients admitted to a single center from 1998 to 2015 with culture-proven olecranon and patellar septic bursitis. Baseline characteristics, clinical features, microbial profiles, operative interventions, hospitalization lengths, and 60-day readmission rates were determined...
May 29, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534320/infectious-keratitis-and-orthokeratology-lens-use-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Ka Wai Kam, Wing Yung, Gabriel Ka Hin Li, Li Jia Chen, Alvin L Young
PURPOSE: Myopia is a prevalent condition among Asians. Orthokeratology lens has gained popularity as a method of myopia control. This systematic review is to summarize the clinical profile of infectious keratitis in association with orthokeratology lens wear. METHODS: We searched in the PubMed and EMBASE for articles adopting the search strategy "(orthokeratology lens OR orthokeratology) AND (bacterial eye infection OR keratitis OR cornea ulcer OR microbial keratitis OR bacterial keratitis)", from the start date of the databases to August 23, 2016...
May 22, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534319/case-report-human-papilloma-virus-type-120-related-papillomatosis-mimicking-laryngeal-carcinoma
#20
Valeria Belvisi, Salvatore Martellucci, Anna Rosa Garbuglia, Cosmo Del Borgo, Stanislao Martellucci, Andrea Baiocchini, Anna Maria Manicone, Oreste Bagni, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Andrea Gallo
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between human papilloma virus (HPV) and upper respiratory tract pathology was better understood in recent years and represents now an issue of particular interest in carcinogenesis and in immunocompromised host. We describe a case in which a rare genotype HPV-related papillomatosis mimics laryngeal carcinoma in an immunocompromised host. METHODS: A 54-year-old woman with a history of HIV-HCV coinfection and anal and laryngeal cancer successfully treated some years before was hospitalized for severe dyspnea, cough and dysphagia...
May 22, 2017: Infection
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