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Evangelista Sagnelli, Tommaso Stroffolini, Caterina Sagnelli, Mario Pirisi, Sergio Babudieri, Guido Colloredo, Maurizio Russello, Nicola Coppola, Giovanni Battista Gaeta, Bruno Cacopardo, Massimo De Luca, Piero Luigi Almasio
BACKGROUND: Gender differences in chronic liver disease (CLD) have been partially investigated. To extend the present knowledge, we evaluated 12,263 patients with CLD enrolled in two national surveys (9997 in 2001 and 2557 in 2014). METHODS: The two surveys prospectively recruited patients aged ≥ 18 referring to Italian liver units throughout the country using a similar clinical approach and analytical methods. RESULTS: The overall male to female ratio (M/F) was 1...
November 17, 2017: Infection
Takeshi Kimura, Atsushi Uda, Tomoyuki Sakaue, Kazuhiko Yamashita, Tatsuya Nishioka, Sho Nishimura, Kei Ebisawa, Manabu Nagata, Goh Ohji, Tatsuya Nakamura, Chihiro Koike, Mari Kusuki, Takeshi Ioroi, Akira Mukai, Yasuhisa Abe, Hiroyuki Yoshida, Midori Hirai, Soichi Arakawa, Ikuko Yano, Kentaro Iwata, Issei Tokimatsu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term effects of comprehensive antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) on antibiotic use, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, and clinical outcomes. DESIGN: Before-after study. SETTING: National university hospital with 934 beds. INTERVENTION: Implementation in March 2010 of a comprehensive ASPs including, among other strategies, weekly prospective audit and feedback with multidisciplinary collaboration...
November 13, 2017: Infection
Stamatis Karakonstantis, Dimitra Kalemaki
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is little guidance regarding the evaluation and management of patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria (SABU). Here, we aimed to provide an up-to-date review of the literature. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Scopus, and clinical trial registries for articles evaluating the epidemiology of SABU, risk factors of SABU, the association of SABU with urinary tract infection, bacteremia and invasive S. aureus infections, and the management of patients with SABU...
November 11, 2017: Infection
Mohammad Hossein Ahmadi, Akbar Mirsalehian, Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani, Abbas Bahador, Malihe Talebi
OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the association between asymptomatic infections caused by Mycoplasma genitalium and male infertility, and evaluate the role of antibiotic therapy in treatment of this failure. METHODS: A total of 165 infertile males having abnormal semen parameters (study group) and 165 healthy fertile men (control group) were included. Semen samples were taken from all participants and after analyzing for semen parameters, undergone real-time PCR, microbial culture, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays...
November 9, 2017: Infection
Felipe Francisco Tuon, Jaime L Rocha, Marcelo R Formigoni-Pinto
PURPOSE: Ceftazidime-avibactam is an antimicrobial association active against several Enterobacteriaceae species, including those resistant to carbapenem. Considering the importance of this drug in the current panorama of multidrug-resistant bacteria, we performed a systematic review about ceftazidime-avibactam with emphasis on clinical and pharmacological published data. METHODS: A systematic search of the medical literature was performed. The databases searched included MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science (until September 2017)...
November 7, 2017: Infection
Fernanda Pimentel de Araujo, Marco Tinelli, Antonio Battisti, Angela Ercoli, Adriano Anesi, Annalisa Pantosti, Monica Monaco
PURPOSE: Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of infections in hospitalized neonates. Preterm or low birthweight infants are especially at risk to develop a S. aureus infection due to the immaturity of the immune system, length of hospital stay and invasive procedures. Exfoliative toxin (ET)-producing S. aureus is often responsible for neonatal infections, causing clinical manifestations such as staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, characterized by both localized blisters or generalized exfoliation of the skin...
November 6, 2017: Infection
Asad Abbas, Istiyaq Ahmad
Raoultella ornithinolytica is increasingly being isolated as a causative organism in human infections. Most of the infections caused by R. ornithinolytica are hospital acquired and occur in patients who are immunocompromised, had invasive procedures or have indwelling catheters. This is a first report of early onset neonatal sepsis caused by multi-drug-resistant R. ornithinolytica. The infection was not very severe and was characterised by generalized flushing of the skin. Patient made complete recovery once appropriate antibiotics were started...
November 4, 2017: Infection
Ilaria Izzo, Salvatore Casari, Nicola Bossini, Maria Antonia Forleo, Silvio Sandrini, Emanuele Focà, Nigritella Brianese, Giulia Zambolin, Claudia Chirico, Giovanni Cancarini, Francesco Castelli
PURPOSE: Kidney transplantation was recently introduced for the treatment of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in HIV-infected patients. We report the results of the first 28 procedures at our centre. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on HIV-infected patients evaluated for kidney transplantation between January 2005 and October 2016. Patients were selected and monitored by the kidney transplantation and infectious diseases teams, according to the national protocol...
November 4, 2017: Infection
Annalisa Saracino, Francesco Fortarezza, Danila Costa, Domenico Bonamonte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2017: Infection
Massimo Andreoni, Sergio Babudieri, Savino Bruno, Massimo Colombo, Anna L Zignego, Vito Di Marco, Giovanni Di Perri, Carlo F Perno, Massimo Puoti, Gloria Taliani, Erica Villa, Antonio Craxì
BACKGROUND: The recent availability of direct acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) has drastically changed hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment scenarios, due to the exceedingly high rates of sustained virological response (SVR) and excellent tolerability allowing for treatment at all disease stages. METHODS: A panel of Italian experts was convened twice, in November 2016 and January 2017, to provide further support on some open issues and provide guidance for personalized HCV care, also in light of forthcoming regimens...
November 2, 2017: Infection
Piia Jõgi, Marje Oona, Tanel Kaart, Karolin Toompere, Tereza Maskina, Iris Koort, Anneli Rätsep, Irja Lutsar
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the prevalence, symptoms and course of pertussis and parapertussis among patients at any age with a cough of unknown aetiology that had lasted for ≥ 7 days and to assess the diagnostic value of the symptoms included in the World Health Organisations' (WHO) clinical case definition of pertussis. METHODS: Patients were enrolled between the 23 April 2012 and 31 December 2014 at 25 general practitioner (GP) centres and three paediatric hospitals...
November 1, 2017: Infection
Thomas L Walsh, Holly R Bean, Robert B Kaplan
Neisseria cinerea is a commensal species capable of colonizing the upper respiratory tract of humans. Bacteremia associated with this organism is very uncommon, with only seven previous cases described. We report a case of Neisseria cinerea bacteremia in a patient maintained on indefinite eculizumab therapy. It is the eighth reported case of Neisseria cinerea bacteremia and represents the first case in a patient receiving eculizumab.
November 1, 2017: Infection
Julian Schmidberger, Wolfgang Kratzer, Klaus Stark, Beate Grüner
PURPOSE: Alveolar echinococcosis is a rare disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus multilocularis. The newly established national database should enable us to determine high-risk areas and evaluate the endemic levels. METHODS: The national database was implemented using SQL Workbench. We used EpiInfo™ software to display the prevalence of disease. Moran's I geodata analysis according to cluster and high risk areas was performed with GeoDa™. SAS Version 9...
October 31, 2017: Infection
Raffaella Bianucci, Otto Appenzeller, Peter Evans, Philippe Charlier, Antonio Perciaccante
PURPOSE: St. John of the Cross (1542-1591) died aged 49 years after 3 months of excruciating pain following a trivial lesion in his right foot. Erysipelas, a superficial bacterial infection of the skin, and subsequent sepsis were previously suggested as the cause of his death. Here, an alternative diagnosis is proposed. METHODS: An accurate perusal of his biography allowed the symptomatology, the clinical evolution, the depth of the infection and the associated systemic manifestations displayed by Fray John to be reconstructed...
October 31, 2017: Infection
Maddalena Peghin, Massimo Maiani, Nadia Castaldo, Filippo Givone, Elda Righi, Andrea Lechiancole, Assunta Sartor, Federico Pea, Ugolino Livi, Matteo Bassetti
BACKGROUND: Ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) is a novel antibiotic with enhanced microbiological activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria, including MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa. CASE REPORT: Five months after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, a 49-year old man developed fever and blood culture was positive for MDR P. aeruginosa, susceptible only to aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin and colistin. A diagnosis of LVAD-related infection was made based on persistent bacteremia associated with moderate 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT uptake in the left ventricular apex...
October 31, 2017: Infection
Dominik M Meinel, Susanne Heinzinger, Ute Eberle, Nikolaus Ackermann, Katharina Schönberger, Andreas Sing
OBJECTIVES: Influenza with its annual epidemic waves is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, only little whole genome data are available regarding the molecular epidemiology promoting our understanding of viral spread in human populations. METHODS: We implemented a RT-PCR strategy starting from patient material to generate influenza A whole genome sequences for molecular epidemiological surveillance. Samples were obtained within the Bavarian Influenza Sentinel...
October 31, 2017: Infection
Cihan Papan, Melanie Meyer-Buehn, Gudrun Laniado, Thomas Nicolai, Matthias Griese, Johannes Huebner
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a major healthcare problem. Rapid pathogen identification is critical, but often delayed due to the duration of culturing. Early, broad antibacterial therapy might lead to false-negative culture findings and eventually to the development of antibiotic resistances. We aimed to assess the accuracy of the new application Unyvero P50 based on multiplex PCR to detect bacterial pathogens in respiratory specimens from children and neonates. METHODS: In this prospective study, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, tracheal aspirates, or pleural fluids from neonates and children were analyzed by both traditional culture methods and Unyvero multiplex PCR...
October 31, 2017: Infection
Sara Veloci, Jessica Mencarini, Filippo Lagi, Giovanni Beltrami, Domenico Andrea Campanacci, Alessandro Bartoloni, Filippo Bartalesi
PURPOSE: Tubercular prosthetic joint infection (TB-PJI) is an uncommon complication. Lack of evidence of systemic tuberculosis and clinical suspicion could bring a delay in the time of the diagnosis. The aims of this study are to underline the importance of awareness and suspicion of mycobacterial infection in the differential diagnosis in PJI and to evaluate the appropriateness of different therapeutic options. METHODS: Case report and literature review. RESULTS: We report two cases of TB-PJI after total knee arthroplasty in Caucasian patients without prior history of tubercular disease or exposure...
October 30, 2017: Infection
Kevin Staats, Florian Sevelda, Alexandra Kaider, Christoph Böhler, Irene K Sigmund, Stephan E Puchner, Reinhard Windhager, Johannes Holinka
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was the evaluation of possible outcome differences of patients undergoing two-stage hip exchange with antibiotic-loaded spacers, compared to patients without an interim spacer implantation. METHODS: We evaluated 46 patients undergoing two-stage hip revision surgery. Twenty-five patients received an interim ALS. Additional to a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, a competing risk analysis was performed to estimate the cumulative incidence function for re-revisions due to infection accounting for death as a competing event...
October 24, 2017: Infection
Sophie Edouard, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Mamadou Beye, Frédérique Gouriet, Gregory Dubourg, Jeremy Delerce, Laure Swiader, Didier Raoult
Most of the species from the genus Kocuria are environmental or commensals of mammalian skin and oral bacteria, and had rarely been associated with human infection. However, recent reports showed an increase of the clinical role of these bacteria in human infectious diseases. Most of the cases occurred in hospitals and were device related. They included bacteremia, peritonitis, abscess, endocarditis and ocular infection. We here describe the main characteristics and the draft genome of Kocuria massiliensis sp...
October 23, 2017: Infection
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