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Connective Tissue Research

Phong K Nguyen, Xuan Sabrina Pan, Jiewen Li, Catherine K Kuo
Tendon is a specialized connective tissue that connects muscle to bone, thereby enabling musculoskeletal movement. Tendon injury leads to formation of tissue with aberrant functional properties. Current approaches to treat tendon injuries, including surgical repair and tissue engineering, have not achieved normal tendon. A roadmap of markers could help with identifying when mis-steps occur during aberrant tendon formation and providing instructions for normal tendon formation. We propose this roadmap should be based on the embryo-the perfect model of tissue formation...
September 20, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Rachel Choi, Margaret Smith, Elizabeth Clarke, Christopher Little
PURPOSE: Summarise available evidence comparing the cellular, biochemical, structural and biomechanical properties, and the changes that occur in these parameters in response to stimuli, in differentially loaded tendons across different stages of life. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched for literature pertaining to differences between tendons using the term "tendon" or "tendinopathy", plus one or more of the following descriptors: "loading", "positional", "weight- or load-bearing", and "energy-storing"...
September 20, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Katarzyna Gawron, Katarzyna Łazarz-Bartyzel, Anna Kowalska, Grzegorz Bereta, Zuzanna Nowakowska, Paweł Plakwicz, Jan Potempa, Andrzej Fertala, Maria Chomyszyn-Gajewska
PURPOSE: Investigate the content of fibrotic fibrils in gingival tissue and the proliferation of fibroblasts collected from recurrent and non-recurrent hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) and idiopathic gingival fibromatosis (IGF). METHODS: Gingival biopsies were collected from HGF (n = 3) and IGF (n = 3) donors with recurrent and non-recurrent gingival overgrowths and from a control group (Ctrl, n = 3). Hematoxylin staining was performed to evaluate the histomorphology of gingival tissue...
September 20, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Jack G Graham, Mark L Wang, Michael Rivlin, Pedro K Beredjiklian
Tendon injuries of the hand that require surgical repair often heal with excess scarring and adhesions to adjacent tissues. This can compromise the natural gliding mechanics of the flexor tendons in particular, which operate within a fibro-osseous tunnel system similar to a set of pulleys. Even combining the finest suture repair techniques with optimal hand therapy protocols cannot ensure predictable restoration of hand function in these cases. To date, the majority of research regarding tendon injuries has revolved around the mechanical aspects of the surgical repair (i...
September 7, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Mark L Wang, Michael Rivlin, Jack G Graham, Pedro K Beredjiklian
Peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) resulting from trauma can be severe and permanently debilitating. Despite the armamentarium of meticulous microsurgical repair techniques that includes direct repair, grafting of defects with autograft nerve, and grafting with cadaveric allografts, approximately one-third of all PNI demonstrate incomplete recovery with poor restoration of function. This may include total loss or incomplete recovery of motor and/or sensory function, chronic pain, muscle atrophy, and profound weakness, which can result in lifelong morbidity...
September 6, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Antonia F Chen, Yong Seuk Lee, Adam J Seidl, Joseph A Abboud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 3, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Yihua Song, Chenfei Wang, Zhifeng Gu, Peipei Cao, Dan Huang, Guijuan Feng, Min Lian, Ye Zhang, Xingmei Feng, Zhenran Gao
AIM: Casein kinase 2 interacting protein-1 (CKIP-1) is a recently discovered intracellular regulator of bone formation, muscle cell differentiation, and tumor cell proliferation. Our study aims to identify the inhibition of BMP2-Smad1/5 signaling by CKIP-1 in odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: DPSCs infected CKIP-1 siRNA or transfected CKIP-1 full-length plasmid were cultured in odontoblastic differentiation medium or added noggin (200 ng/mL) for 21 days...
August 14, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Juan Pablo Ramírez, Francesca Bonati-Richardson, María Pía García, Christian Hidalgo, Caroll Stoore, Rodrigo Liendo, Francisco Soza, Eduardo Landerer, Rodolfo Paredes
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate in vivo the level of apoptosis in human rotator cuff tears and the relationship it might have with tendon degeneration. METHODS: Rotator cuff biopsies from 19 male and female patients, ages between 38 and 68 years, with and without previous corticosteroid infiltrations were collected via arthroscopy. Biopsies from seven patients with healthy rotator cuffs were used as a control group. An in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay was performed to detect the level of apoptosis, which was expressed as a percentage of apoptotic cells (PAC)...
August 9, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Qingshen Wei, Xiangwei Zhang, Caiju Zhou, Qiang Ren, Yuntao Zhang
Degeneration of the intervertebral discs, a natural progression of the aging process, is strongly implicated as a cause of low back pain. Aggrecan is the major structural proteoglycan in the extracellular matrix of the intervertebral disc. It is large, possessing numerous glycosaminoglycan chains and the ability to form aggregates in association with hyaluronan. The negatively charged glycosaminoglycan side chains in aggrecan in the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral discs can bind electrostatically to polar water molecules, which are crucial for maintaining the well-hydrated state that enables the discs to undergo reversible deformation under compressive loading...
August 9, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Pitchumani Sivakumar, Christopher Kitson, Gabor Jarai
An imbalance of extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and turnover is a hallmark of fibrotic pathologies as opposed to normal repair response to injury across several organs. Antifibrotic approaches to date have targeted multiple mechanisms and pathways involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, injury, wound repair, ECM biosynthesis, assembly, crosslinking and degradation. Many of these approaches have been unsuccessful which may in part be due to suboptimal models and the lack of validated functional ECM end points relevant to fibrosis...
August 3, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Ichiro Sasagawa, Mikio Ishiyama, Hiroyuki Yokosuka, Masato Mikami, Shunya Oka, Hitoyata Shimokawa, Takashi Uchida
Enameloid is a well-mineralized tissue covering the tooth surface in fish and it corresponds to the outer-most layer of dentin. It was reported that both dental epithelial cells and odontoblasts are involved in the formation of enameloid. Nevertheless, the localization and timing of secretion of ectodermal enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) in enameloid are unclear. In the present study, the enameloid matrix during the stages of enameloid formation in spotted gar, Lepisosteus oculatus, an actinopterygian, was examined mainly by transmission electron microscopy-based immunohistochemistry using an anti-mammalian amelogenin (AMEL) antibody and antiserum...
July 31, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Zeynep Busra Velioglu, Deniz Pulat, Beril Demirbakan, Burak Ozcan, Ece Bayrak, Cevat Erisken
PURPOSE: Study objectives were set to (i) fabricate 3D-printed scaffolds/grafts with varying pore sizes, (ii) characterize surface and mechanical properties of scaffolds, (iii) characterize biomechanical properties of bovine trabecular bone, and (iv) evaluate attachment and proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on 3D-printed scaffolds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Poly(lactic acid) scaffolds were fabricated using 3D-printing technology, and characterized in terms of their surface as well as compressive mechanical properties...
July 30, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Lukasz Stawski, Maria Trojanowska
Oncostain M, a member of the IL-6 family of cytokines, is produced by immune cells in response to infections and tissue injury. OSM has a broad, often context-dependent effect on various cellular processes including differentiation, hematopoiesis, cell proliferation, and cell survival. OSM signaling is initiated by binding to type I (LIFRβ/gp130) or type II (OSMRβ/gp130) receptor complexes and involves activation of Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase...
July 30, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Vivianne Izabelle de Araújo Baptista, Hananiah Tardivo Quintana, Mariana Cruz Lazzarin, Izabelle Dias Benfato, Francine Pereira De Carvalho, Luciana Le Sueur-Maluf, Camila Aparecida Machado De Oliveira, Josemberg da Silva Baptista, Flavia De Oliveira
Extensive burn may cause acute resistance to insulin, which accentuates hypermetabolism, impairs glucose metabolism, immune dysfunction and risks of sepsis. To minimize these effects, insulin is used as a treatment. The purpose was to analyze the collagen-elastic arrangement effects of insulin on the burned skin. Wistar rats were assigned in groups: control (C); control with insulin (C + I); scald burn injury (SBI); and SBI with insulin (SBI+ I). SBI were submitted to 45% total body surface area burn and the insulin-treated groups received insulin (5 UI/Kg/day) for 4 or 14 days (d)...
July 11, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Shubo Li, Yihuai Pan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a downstream mediator of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1 ) and TGF-β1 -induced CTGF expression is regulated through SMAD and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. However, little is known about the localization of CTGF and TGF-β1 signaling cascades during incisor development. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the distribution pattern of TGF-β1 , CTGF, phosphorylated-SMAD2/3 (p-SMAD2/3) and phosphorylated-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) in the developing mouse incisors...
July 10, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Michael D Kurdziel, Abigail Davidson, David Ross, Joseph Seta, Shashin Doshi, Kevin C Baker, Tristan Maerz
PURPOSE: The rat rotator cuff (RC) model is used to study RC pathology and potential treatment; however, native scar-mediated healing allows the rat RC to recover at 4-6 weeks but little is known about acute healing. This study characterized the properties of the repaired and non-repaired rat RC following surgical detachment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight rats underwent surgical RC detachment and received surgical repair (Repair) or left unrepaired (Defect) to either 12 or 19 days...
July 10, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Elisabeth A Lemmon, Ryan C Locke, Adrianna K Szostek, Elahe Ganji, Megan L Killian
PURPOSE: Identify the healing outcomes following a partial-width, full-thickness injury to the rotator cuff tendon-bone attachment and establish if the adult attachment can regenerate the morphology of the healthy attachment. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that a partial-width injury to the attachment would heal via fibrosis and bone remodeling, resulting in increased cellularity and extra-cellular matrix deposition, reduced bone volume (BV), osteoclast presence, and decreased collagen organization compared to shams...
July 2, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Coralee E Tye, Joseph R Boyd, Natalie A Page, Michelle M Falcone, Janet L Stein, Gary S Stein, Jane B Lian
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently emerged as novel regulators of lineage commitment, differentiation, development, viability, and disease progression. Few studies have examined their role in osteogenesis; however, given their critical and wide-ranging roles in other tissues, lncRNAs are most likely vital regulators of osteogenesis. In this study, we extensively characterized lncRNA expression in mesenchymal cells during commitment and differentiation to the osteoblast lineage using a whole transcriptome sequencing approach (RNA-Seq)...
December 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Pascal R Buenzli, Chloé Lerebours, Andreas Roschger, Paul Roschger, Richard Weinkamer
PURPOSE: Experimental measurements of bone mineral density distributions (BMDDs) enable a determination of secondary mineralization kinetics in bone, but the maximum degree of mineralization and how this maximum is approached remain uncertain. We thus test computationally different hypotheses on late stages of bone mineralization by simulating BMDDs in low-turnover conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An established computational model of the BMDD that accounts for mineralization and remodeling processes was extended to limit mineralization to various maximum calcium capacities of bone...
December 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Ceren Tuzmen, Phil G Campbell
AIM OF THE STUDY: The peripheral nervous system is involved in regulation of bone metabolism via sensory and sympathetic innervation. Substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are two sensory neuropeptides that have been associated with regulation of osteogenic differentiation. However, the interaction between SP and CGRP both with each other and the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) in regulation of osteogenic differentiation has not been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between SP and CGRP on BMP2-induced bone differentiation using model progenitor cells...
December 2018: Connective Tissue Research
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