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Connective Tissue Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099240/advances-in-the-pathogenesis-and-possible-treatments-for-multiple-hereditary-exostoses-from-the-2016-international-mhe-conference
#1
Anne Q Phan, Maurizio Pacifici, Jeffrey D Esko
Multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE) is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects about 1 in 50,000 children worldwide. MHE, also known as hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) or multiple osteochondromas (MO), is characterized by cartilage-capped outgrowths called osteochondromas that develop adjacent to the growth plates of skeletal elements in young patients. These benign tumors can affect growth plate function, leading to skeletal growth retardation, or deformations, and can encroach on nerves, tendons, muscles, and other surrounding tissues and cause motion impairment, chronic pain, and early onset osteoarthritis...
November 3, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095075/suitable-reference-gene-selection-for-gene-expression-studies-in-knee-osteoarthritis-synovium-using-quantitative-pcr-analysis
#2
Hiroshi Watanabe, Hirotaka Ishii, Kenji Takahashi, Shinro Takai, Hitoshi Ozawa
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the leading cause of musculoskeletal disability in the elderly. Insights into the biological features of OA are obtained by characterization of the molecular features by gene expression profiling using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). However, it has recently become evident that the use of suitable reference genes is required for appropriate normalization of this technique. Here total RNA was isolated from the synovium of 18 men and 20 women who underwent total knee arthroplasty for knee OA (KOA)...
November 2, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083939/growth-of-second-stage-mineral-in-lytechinus-variegatus
#3
S R Stock, Jong Seto, A C Deymier, A Rack, A Veis
Purpose and Aims: Sea urchin teeth consist of calcite and form in two stages with different magnesium contents. The first stage structures of independently formed plates and needle-prisms define the shape of the tooth, and the columns of the second stage mineral cements the first stage structures together and control the fracture behavior of the mature tooth. This study investigates the nucleation and growth of the second stage mineral. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and synchrotron microComputed Tomography characterized the structures of the second phase material found in developing of Lytechinus variegatus teeth...
October 30, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035127/healing-potential-of-nanohydroxyapatite-gelatin-and-fibrin-platelet-glue-combination-as-tissue-engineered-scaffolds-in-radial-bone-defects-of-rats
#4
Abdolhamid Meimandi-Parizi, Ahmad Oryan, Hojjat Gholipour
Different biomaterials have been used in orthopedic surgery. Evaluation of biomaterials for bone healing promotion has been a wide area of research of the orthopedic field. Sixty critical size defects of 5 mm long were bilaterally created in the radial diaphysis of 30 rats. The animals were randomly divided into six equal groups as empty defect, autograft, nanohydroxyapatite (nHA), Gelatin (Gel)-nHA, fibrin-platelet glue (FPG)-nHA, and Gel-FPG-nHA groups (n = 10 in each group). Radiographs of each forelimb were taken postoperatively on the 1st day and then at the 28th and 56th days post injury...
October 16, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956662/leptin-alone-and-in-combination-with-interleukin-1-beta-induced-cartilage-degradation-potentially-inhibited-by-epa-and-dha
#5
Thanyaluck Phitak, Kanchanit Boonmaleerat, Peraphan Pothacharoen, Dumnoensun Pruksakorn, Prachya Kongtawelert
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis. Obesity has been believed to be an important risk factor for OA development and the progression of not only load-bearing joints, but low-load-bearing joints as well. Increased leptin has been the focus of a link between obesity and OA. In this study, the effects of pathological (100ng/ml) or supra-pathological (10μg/ml) concentrations of leptin alone or in combination with IL1β on cartilage metabolisms were studied in porcine cartilage explant. The involved mechanisms were examined in human articular chondrocytes (HACs)...
September 28, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945485/contact-guidance-and-collective-migration-in-the-advancing-epithelial-monolayer
#6
Gyudo Lee, Lior Atia, Bo Lan, Yasha Sharma, Lior Nissim, Ming-Ru Wu, Erez Pery, Timothy K Lu, Chan Young Park, James P Butler, Jeffrey J Fredberg
At the edge of a confluent cell layer, cell-free empty space is a cue that can drive directed collective cellular migration. Similarly, contact guidance is also a robust mechanical cue that can drive cell migration. However, it is unclear which of the two effects is stronger, and how each mechanism affects collective migration. To address this question, here we explore the trajectories of cells migrating collectively on a substrate containing micropatterned grooves (10-20 μm in periodicity, 2 μm in height) compared with unpatterned control substrates...
September 25, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937836/optimizing-a-3d-model-system-for-molecular-manipulation-of-tenogenesis
#7
Chun Chien, Brian Pryce, Sara F Tufa, Douglas R Keene, Alice H Huang
PURPOSE: Tendon injuries are clinically challenging due to poor healing. A better understanding of the molecular events that regulate tendon differentiation would improve current strategies for repair. The mouse model system has been instrumental to tendon studies and several key molecules were initially established in mouse. However, the study of gene function has been limited by the absence of a standard in vitro tendon system for efficiently testing multiple mutations, physical manipulations, and mis-expression...
September 22, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914550/socs3-participates-in-cholinergic-pathway-regulation-of-synovitis-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#8
Tong Li, Shiyao Wu, Sha Li, Xuelian Bai, Hui Luo, Xiaoxia Zuo
Stimulation of the cholinergic inflammatory pathway can promote collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and inhibit synovitis by Janus kinase (JAK) 2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 signaling. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) protein can also regulate inflammatory processes and activate JAK/STAT signal transduction, but its involvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not been demonstrated. This study investigated the effect of SOCS on cholinergic pathway regulation of synovitis in the fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) of RA and CIA mice...
September 15, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910556/probing-the-influence-of-sibling-proteins-on-collagen-i-fibrillogenesis-and-denaturation
#9
Chengyu Jiang, Kevin Zurick, Chunlin Qin, Matthew T Bernards
Bone tissue is comprised of collagen, non-collagenous proteins, and hydroxyapatite and the SIBLING (small integrin binding, N-linked glycoprotein) family of proteins is the primary group of non-collagenous proteins. By replicating the native interactions between collagen and the SIBLING family of proteins at the interface of an implant, it is believed that a bone scaffold will more easily integrate with the surrounding tissue. In this work bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteopontin (OPN), dentin sialoprotein (DSP), dentin phosphoprotein (DPP), C-terminal fragment of dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1-C) and proteoglycan versions of DSP (DSP-PG) and DMP1 (DMP1-PG) were tested individually to determine their roles in collagen fibrillogenesis and the prevention of denaturation...
September 14, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829698/the-pro-%C3%AE-1-v-collagen-gene-col5a1-is-coordinately-regulated-by-mir-29b-with-core-promoter-in-cultured-cells
#10
Juan Juan Zhang, Hiroyuki Yano, Takako Sasaki, Noritaka Matsuo, Hidekatsu Yoshioka
AIMS: Col5a1 encodes the α1 chain of type V collagen, a quantitatively minor fibrillar collagen that is critical for the formation and function of the organs in the body. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate biological functions by binding to the 3'- untranslated region (3'UTR) of specific target mRNA. In this study, we investigated the post-transcriptional regulation of miRNAs on the Col5a1 gene expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We cultured osteoblasts and fibroblasts of cell lines...
August 22, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165810/the-origin-and-distribution-of-cd68-cd163-and-%C3%AE-sma-cells-in-the-early-phase-after-meniscal-resection-in-a-parabiotic-rat-model
#11
Shozaburo Terai, Yusuke Hashimoto, Kumi Orita, Shinya Yamasaki, Junsei Takigami, Takafumi Shinkuma, Takanori Teraoka, Yohei Nishida, Masafumi Takahashi, Hiroaki Nakamura
We previously reported that circulating peripheral blood-borne cells (PBCs) contribute to early-phase meniscal reparative change. Because macrophages and myofibroblasts are important contributors of tissue regeneration, we examined their origin and distribution in the reparative meniscus. Reparative menisci were evaluated at 1, 2, and 4 weeks post-meniscectomy by immunohistochemistry to locate monocytes and macrophages (stained positive for CD68 and CD163), and myofibroblasts (stained positive for αSMA). Of the total number of cells, 13% were CD68(+) at 1 week post-meniscectomy, which decreased to 1% by 4 weeks post-meniscectomy; of these, almost half of CD68(+) cells (49...
November 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165802/remifentanil-reduced-the-effects-of-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-oxidative-stress-in-human-keratinocytes-via-autophagy
#12
Cheul Hong Kim, Seong Soon Jeong, Ji Young Yoon, Ji Uk Yoon, Su Bin Yu, Eun Jung Kim
PURPOSE: Excess reactive oxygen species are detrimental to wound repair. Remifentanil decreases reactive oxygen species generation and inflammatory response; however, its effects on oxidative cell injury are not completely understood. Therefore, we investigated the effects of remifentanil on human keratinocytes under hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and the correlation of these effects with autophagy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cell line) were randomly assigned to four groups: control, hydrogen peroxide, remifentanil pretreatment + hydrogen peroxide, and 3-methyladenine + remifentanil pretreatment + hydrogen peroxide...
November 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121187/development-and-progression-of-immobilization-induced-skin-fibrosis-through-overexpression-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%A3-1-and-hypoxic-conditions-in-a-rat-knee-joint-contracture-model
#13
Kyo Goto, Junya Sakamoto, Jiro Nakano, Hideki Kataoka, Yuichiro Honda, Ryo Sasabe, Tomoki Origuchi, Minoru Okita
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathology and mechanism of immobilization-induced skin fibrosis in a rat joint contracture model. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into control and immobilization groups. In the immobilization groups, knee joints of the rats were immobilized for 1, 2, and 4 weeks. After each immobilization, skin was dissected. To assess fibrosis in the skin, the thickness and area of adipocytes and connective tissue fibers were measured...
November 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102712/bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-and-7-mediate-the-anabolic-function-of-nucleus-pulposus-cells-with-discrete-mechanisms
#14
Victor Y L Leung, Lixiong Zhou, Wai-Kit Tam, Yi Sun, Fengjuan Lv, Guangqian Zhou, Kenneth M C Cheung
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play roles in promoting cell anabolism, especially in extracellular matrix production. The difference between BMP members in their capacity to modulate intervertebral disc cell activity is yet to be defined. BMP-7/OP-1 has been shown to retard disc degeneration. We compared the activity of BMP-7 with that of BMP-2 on nucleus pulposus (NP) cell phenotype and function, and investigated how they differentially affect the gene expression profiles of signaling cascade components in human NP cells under degenerative states...
November 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095112/autogenous-bone-particle-titanium-fiber-composites-for-bone-regeneration-in-a-rabbit-radius-critical-size-defect-model
#15
Huanxin Xie, Ye Ji, Qi Tian, Xintao Wang, Nan Zhang, Yicai Zhang, Jun Xu, Nanxiang Wang, Jinglong Yan
PURPOSE: To explore the effects of autogenous bone particle/titanium fiber composites on repairing segmental bone defects in rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A model of bilateral radial bone defect was established in 36 New Zealand white rabbits which were randomly divided into 3 groups according to filling materials used for bilaterally defect treatment: in group C, 9 animal bone defect areas were prepared into simple bilateral radius bone defect (empty sham) as the control group; 27 rabbits were used in groups ABP and ABP-Ti...
November 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937051/wnt10b-and-dkk-1-gene-therapy-differentially-influenced-trabecular-bone-architecture-soft-tissue-integrity-and-osteophytosis-in-a-skeletally-mature-rat-model-of-osteoarthritis
#16
Jeffrey B Mason, Brittney L Gurda, Kurt D Hankenson, Lindsey R Harper, Cathy S Carlson, James M Wilson, Dean W Richardson
AIMS: Our goals in the current experiments were to determine if (a) upregulation of Wnt signaling would induce osteoarthritis changes in stable stifle joints and (b) if downregulation of Wnt signaling in destabilized joints would influence the progression of OA. METHODS: At 37 weeks of age, rats were injected in the stifle joint with a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector containing the Wnt-inhibitor Dkk-1 or a Wnt10b transgene. At 40 weeks of age, rats underwent surgical destabilization of the joint...
November 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929701/effect-of-serum-and-platelet-rich-plasma-on-human-early-or-advanced-degenerative-meniscus-cells
#17
Undine Freymann, Lucia Degrassi, Jan Philipp Krüger, Sebastian Metzlaff, Michaela Endres, Wolf Petersen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the migratory, proliferating, and extracellular matrix (ECM) forming effect of human serum (HS) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on meniscus cells derived from human knees with early or advanced degenerative changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medial menisci from knees with early degenerative changes (n = 5; mean Kellgren score of 1) undergoing arthroscopic meniscal surgery and advanced degenerative changes (n = 5; mean Kellgren score of 4) undergoing total knee replacement were collected...
November 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905856/1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-stimulates-odontoblastic-differentiation-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-in-vitro
#18
Goksen Mucuk, Elif Sepet, Mine Erguven, Ozlem Ekmekcı, Ayhan Bılır
BACKGROUND: 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-OH D3) plays an important role in mineralized tissue metabolism, including teeth. However, few studies have addressed its role in odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp-stem cells (hDPSCs). AIM: This study aimed to understand the influence of various concentrations of 1,25-OH D3 on the proliferation capacity and early dentinogenesis responses of hDPSCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: hDPSCs were obtained from the impacted third molar teeth...
November 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898233/hyaluronan-stimulates-chondrogenic-gene-expression-in-human-meniscus-cells
#19
Takaaki Tanaka, Takayuki Furumatsu, Shinichi Miyazawa, Masataka Fujii, Hiroto Inoue, Yuya Kodama, Toshifumi Ozaki
Purpose/Aim of the Study: Inner meniscus cells have a chondrocytic phenotype, whereas outer meniscus cells have a fibroblastic phenotype. In this study, we examined the effect of hyaluronan on chondrocytic gene expression in human meniscus cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human meniscus cells were prepared from macroscopically intact lateral meniscus. Inner and outer meniscus cells were obtained from the inner and outer halves of the meniscus. The cells were stimulated with hyaluronan diluted in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium without serum to the desired concentration (0, 10, 100, and 1000 μg/mL) for 2-7 days...
November 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668694/autophagy-in-osteoarthritis
#20
Hyelin Jeon, Gun-Il Im
Osteoarthritis is characterized by continuous degeneration of articular cartilage resulting in disability. The death of chondrocytes and the loss of the extracellular matrix are the central peculiarities in cartilage degeneration during osteoarthritis pathogenesis. Autophagy is an essential cellular homeostasis mechanism whereby cellular organelles and macromolecules are recycled to maintain cellular metabolism. Autophagy is reported to be cytoprotective effects for articular cartilage, and osteoarthritis is associated with decreased autophagy...
November 2017: Connective Tissue Research
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