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Connective Tissue Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402679/inhibition-of-osteogenesis-surrounding-the-titanium-implant-by-cgrp-deficiency
#1
Yao Liu, Guangsen Zheng, Li Liu, Zhi Wang, Yiyao Wang, Qianming Chen, En Luo
Previous studies have suggested one of neurotransmitters, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), modulates local regulation of bone metabolism; however, the regulating signaling pathway is still being explored. The objective of this study was to determine whether CGRP deficiency affects the osteogenesis surrounding titanium implants in vivo. Titanium screws were implanted in 72 adult rats, which were divided into three groups randomly: Sham, inferior alveolar neurectomy (IAN), and IAN+CGRP. Saline solution containing CGRP (concentration: 100 nmol/L) was injected into the area surrounding the implants in the IAN+CGRP group every day post operation...
April 12, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398098/mapk-signaling-has-stage-dependent-osteogenic-effects-on-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-in-vitro
#2
Eric J Tsang, Benjamin Wu, Patricia Zuk
PURPOSE: The use of pro-osteogenic growth factors, such as BMP2, in human adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) osteogenesis is well described. Because these growth factors work via signal transduction pathways, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, a study of the relationship between MAPK signaling and ASC osteogenesis was conducted. METHODS: ERK, JNK, and p38MAPK activation were measured in ASCs osteo-induced using either dexamethasone or vitamin D3 and correlated to mineralization...
April 11, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362515/fbp1-is-highly-expressed-in-human-hypertrophic-scars-and-increases-fibroblast-proliferation-apoptosis-and-collagen-expression
#3
Jieyi Zuo, Zhiying Chen, Xinchao Zhong, Wanli Lan, Yizhen Kuang, Dong Huang
PURPOSE: FBP1, one of the far-upstream element binding proteins (FBPs), is a distal upstream binding protein of c-myc, which is highly expressed in tumor tissues. This study aimed to investigate FBP1 expression in human hypertrophic scars and to determine the effects of FBP1 on fibroblasts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human normal skin and scar specimens were collected during clinical surgery. One portion of each tissue specimen was embedded in paraffin and sliced to observe differences in histological features and FBP1 expression by immunohistochemistry and western blotting...
March 31, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355098/meniscus-beyond-mechanics-using-biology-to-advance-our-understanding-of-meniscus-injury-and-treatment
#4
Muhammad Farooq Rai, Amy L McNulty
Meniscus tissues were historically considered vestigial structures in the knee, and largely remained an unexplored and underappreciated area of research. However, this concept was refuted with the discovery that loss of meniscus tissue leads to joint degeneration and development of osteoarthritis (OA). These findings have led to a growing interest in the role of the meniscus in knee stability and joint health and have brought the meniscus to the forefront of orthopaedic research. While the critical role of the meniscus in joint health has been established, little is known about the biomechanical, biochemical, and molecular signaling pathways that are involved in meniscus homeostasis and pathogenesis...
March 29, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301220/periostin-promotes-migration-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-human-periodontal-ligament-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#5
Ziqiang Wu, Wenyong Dai, Pei Wang, Xiaozhen Zhang, Yi Tang, Lin Liu, Qiaona Wang, Ming Li, Chunbo Tang
PURPOSE: Periostin (POSTN) is critical to bone and dental tissue morphogenesis, postnatal development, and maintenance, however, its roles in tissue repair and regeneration mediated by human periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells (PDLSCs) remain unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of POSTN on hPDLSCs in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: hPDLSCs were isolated and characterized by their expression of the cell surface markers CD44, CD90, CD105, CD34, and CD45...
March 16, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300434/effect-of-carboxymethylcellulose-on-fibril-formation-of-collagen-in-vitro
#6
Cuicui Ding, Ronghui Shi, Zhigong Zheng, Min Zhang
The effect of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the fibril formation of collagen in vitro was studied by turbidity measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The kinetics curves of fibril formation indicated that the rate of collagen fibrillogenesis was decreased with the addition of CMC, meanwhile the final turbidity was obviously increased as the ratio of CMC/collagen reached 30%. The AFM images of collagen-CMC solutions showed that the number of nucleation sites of collagen fibrillogenesis was significantly increased with the presence of CMC, while the diameter of immature collagen fibrils was obviously decreased...
March 16, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282214/clinical-and-radiographic-outcomes-of-meniscus-surgery-and-future-targets-for-biologic-intervention-a-review-of-data-from-the-moon-group
#7
Robert W Westermann, Morgan Jones, David Wasserstein, Kurt P Spindler
Meniscus injury and treatment occurred with the majority of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACLR) in the multicenter orthopaedic outcomes (MOON) cohort. We describe the patient reported outcomes, radiographic outcomes and predictors of pain from meniscus injuries and treatment in the setting of ACLR. Patient reported outcomes improve significantly following meniscus repair with ACLR, but differences exist based on the meniscus injury laterally (medial or lateral). Patients undergoing medial meniscus repair have worse patient-reported outcomes and more pain compared to those with uninjured menisci...
March 10, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267400/current-concepts-on-structure-function-relationships-in-the-menisci
#8
Stephen H J Andrews, Adetola B Adesida, Ziad Abusara, Nigel G Shrive
The menisci are intricately organized structures that perform many tasks in the knee. We review their structure and function and introduce new data about their tibial and femoral surfaces. As the femur and tibia approach each other when the knee is bearing load, circumferential tension develops in the menisci, enabling the transmission of compressive load between the femoral and tibial cartilage layers. A low shear modulus is necessary for the tissue to adapt its shape to the changing radius of the femur as that bone moves relative to the tibia during joint articulation...
March 7, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267379/an-injectable-biodegradable-calcium-phosphate-cement-containing-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-as-a-bone-substitute-in-ex-vivo-human-vertebral-compression-fracture-and-rabbit-bone-defect-models
#9
Xin Duan, Hong-Xing Liao, Hua-Zhang Zou, Zi-Ji Zhang, Jian-Dong Ye, Wei-Ming Liao
Purpose/Aim of the study: To evaluate the biomechanical characteristics and biocompatibility of an injectable, biodegradable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) containing poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A vertebral compression fracture model was established using 20 human cadaveric vertebrae (T11-L3) divided into CPC/PLGA composite versus PMMA groups for biomechanical testing. In addition, 35 New Zealand rabbits were used to evaluate biodegradability and osteoconductive properties of CPC/PLGA using a bone defect model...
March 7, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399671/substance-p-increases-ccn2-dependent-on-tgf-beta-yet-collagen-type-i-via-tgf-beta1-dependent-and-independent-pathways-in-tenocytes
#10
Nagat Frara, Paul W Fisher, Yingjie Zhao, Joseph T Tarr, Mamta Amin, Steven N Popoff, Mary F Barbe
Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFbeta-1) and connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) are important mediators of tissue repair and fibrosis, with CCN2 functioning as a downstream mediator of TGFβ-1. Substance P (SP) is also linked to collagen production in tenocytes. A link between SP, TGFbeta-1 and CCN2 has yet to be established in tenocytes or fibrogenic processes. We sought to determine whether SP induces tenocyte proliferation, CCN2, or collagen production via TGFbeta-1 signaling or independently in rat primary tenocytes...
March 1, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346008/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-is-required-for-distraction-osteogenesis-in-rats
#11
Xuemei Wang, En Luo, Ruiye Bi, Bin Ye, Jing Hu, Shujuan Zou
OVERVIEW: The Wnt signaling pathway plays crucial roles in embryonic skeletal development and postnatal bone regeneration. However, mechanisms of Wnt signaling functioning in distraction osteogenesis (DO) haven't been well characterized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established a DO model using Sprague-Dawley rat tibia. And a Wnt signaling blocking agent, recombinant rat Dickkopf-related protein 1 (rrDkk1), was locally applied in the distracted gap to study the role of Wnt signaling during DO process...
March 1, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358226/excess-maternal-and-postnatal-thyroxine-alters-chondrocyte-numbers-and-the-composition-of-the-extracellular-matrix-of-growth-cartilage-in-rats
#12
Lorena Gabriela Rocha Ribeiro, Juneo Freitas Silva, Natália de Melo Ocarino, Eliane Gonçalves de Melo, Rogéria Serakides
Purpose/Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of excess maternal and postnatal thyroxine on chondrocytes and the extracellular matrix (ECM) of growth cartilage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used 16 adult female Wistar rats divided into two groups: thyroxine treatment and control. From weaning to 40 days of age, offspring of the treated group (n = 8) received L-thyroxine. Plasma free T4 was measured. Histomorphometric analysis was performed on thyroids and femurs of all offspring...
February 13, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324674/osteoblast-osteoclast-interactions
#13
Xiao Chen, Zhongqiu Wang, Na Duan, Guoying Zhu, Edward M Schwarz, Chao Xie
Bone homeostasis depends on the resorption of bones by osteoclasts and formation of bones by the osteoblasts. Imbalance of this tightly coupled process can cause diseases such as osteoporosis. Thus, the mechanisms that regulate communication between osteoclasts and osteoblasts are critical to bone cell biology. It has been shown that osteoblasts and osteoclasts can communicate with each other through direct cell-cell contact, cytokines, and extracellular matrix interaction. Osteoblasts can affect osteoclast formation, differentiation, or apoptosis through several pathways, such as OPG/RANKL/RANK, RANKL/LGR4/RANK, Ephrin2/ephB4, and Fas/FasL pathways...
February 8, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165813/piperine-ameliorates-collagenase-induced-achilles-tendon-injury-in-the-rat
#14
Fengyan Gong, Lifeng Cui, Xiaona Zhang, Xiangbo Zhan, Xu Gong, Yan Wen
Tendinopathy is a common clinical pathology found in athletes and workers with mixed treatment results. Piperine, a major alkaloid found in the black and long pepper, has been demonstrated to have variety of pharmacological properties such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of piperine on collagenase-induced Achilles tendon injury. Rats were intratendineously injected with collagenase in the right Achilles tendon, followed by intragastrical administration of piperine (100 mg/kg)...
February 6, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165810/the-origin-and-distribution-of-cd68-cd163-and-%C3%AE-sma-cells-in-the-early-phase-after-meniscal-resection-in-a-parabiotic-rat-model
#15
Shozaburo Terai, Yusuke Hashimoto, Kumi Orita, Shinya Yamasaki, Junsei Takigami, Takafumi Shinkuma, Takanori Teraoka, Yohei Nishida, Masafumi Takahashi, Hiroaki Nakamura
We previously reported that circulating peripheral blood-borne cells (PBCs) contribute to early-phase meniscal reparative change. Because macrophages and myofibroblasts are important contributors of tissue regeneration, we examined their origin and distribution in the reparative meniscus. Reparative menisci were evaluated at 1, 2, and 4 weeks post-meniscectomy by immunohistochemistry to locate monocytes and macrophages (stained positive for CD68 and CD163), and myofibroblasts (stained positive for αSMA). Of the total number of cells, 13% were CD68(+) at 1 week post-meniscectomy, which decreased to 1% by 4 weeks post-meniscectomy; of these, almost half of CD68(+) cells (49...
February 6, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165802/remifentanil-reduced-the-effects-of-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-oxidative-stress-in-human-keratinocytes-via-autophagy
#16
Cheul Hong Kim, Seong Soon Jeong, Ji Young Yoon, Ji Uk Yoon, Su Bin Yu, Eun Jung Kim
PURPOSE: Excess reactive oxygen species are detrimental to wound repair. Remifentanil decreases reactive oxygen species generation and inflammatory response; however, its effects on oxidative cell injury are not completely understood. Therefore, we investigated the effects of remifentanil on human keratinocytes under hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and the correlation of these effects with autophagy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cell line) were randomly assigned to four groups: control, hydrogen peroxide, remifentanil pretreatment + hydrogen peroxide, and 3-methyladenine + remifentanil pretreatment + hydrogen peroxide...
February 6, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165799/the-balance-between-proliferation-and-transcription-of-angiogenic-factors-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-hypoxia
#17
Arina T Buizer, Sjoerd K Bulstra, Albert G Veldhuizen, Roel Kuijer
Bridging large bone defects with mesenchymal stromal cells-seeded scaffolds remains a big challenge in orthopedic surgery, due to the lack of vascularization. Within such a cell-scaffold construct cells are exposed to ischemic conditions. When human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) encounter hypoxic conditions, they show higher cell proliferation than at ambient oxygen levels. However, when hMSCs are exposed to prolonged ischemia, cell proliferation ceases completely. Exposure of hMSCs to hypoxic conditions is known to result in the transcription of angiogenic factors (AGF), which can promote the development of a new blood vessels...
February 6, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165797/strategies-of-enhancing-bone-regenerate-formation-in-distraction-osteogenesis
#18
Mohammad Mesfer Alzahrani, Emad Anam, Saad M AlQahtani, Asim M Makhdom, Reggie C Hamdy
Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a commonly used technique in multiple orthopedic specialties, including trauma, oncology and pediatrics. This technique aims to produce new bone formation in the distraction gap in a controlled manner. The issue with this technique has been the high risk of complications, one of which is poor regenerate formation during the distraction process. Although several factors (including patient and operative factors) and techniques (including surgical, mechanical and pharmacological) have been described to ensure successful regenerate formation during the process of DO, these factors are sometimes difficult to control clinically...
February 6, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121190/the-biology-of-meniscal-pathology-in-osteoarthritis-and-its-contribution-to-joint-disease-beyond-simple-mechanics
#19
James Melrose, Emily S Fuller, Christopher B Little
The meniscal cartilages in the knee function to improve congruity of the medial and lateral femoro-tibial joints, and play critical roles in load distribution and joint stability. Meniscal tears of various configurations are one of the most common conditions of the knee, and are associated with an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis (OA). While this risk has been largely attributed to loss of the biomechanical functions of the menisci, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that other aspects of meniscal biology may play a role in determining the long-term consequences of meniscal damage for joint health...
January 25, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121187/development-and-progression-of-immobilization-induced-skin-fibrosis-through-overexpression-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%A3-1-and-hypoxic-conditions-in-a-rat-knee-joint-contracture-model
#20
Kyo Goto, Junya Sakamoto, Jiro Nakano, Hideki Kataoka, Yuichiro Honda, Ryo Sasabe, Tomoki Origuchi, Minoru Okita
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathology and mechanism of immobilization-induced skin fibrosis in a rat joint contracture model. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into control and immobilization groups. In the immobilization groups, knee joints of the rats were immobilized for 1, 2, and 4 weeks. After each immobilization, skin was dissected. To assess fibrosis in the skin, the thickness and area of adipocytes and connective tissue fibers were measured...
January 25, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
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