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Annals of Statistics

Weichen Wang, Jianqing Fan
We derive the asymptotic distributions of the spiked eigenvalues and eigenvectors under a generalized and unified asymptotic regime, which takes into account the magnitude of spiked eigenvalues, sample size, and dimensionality. This regime allows high dimensionality and diverging eigenvalues and provides new insights into the roles that the leading eigenvalues, sample size, and dimensionality play in principal component analysis. Our results are a natural extension of those in Paul (2007) to a more general setting and solve the rates of convergence problems in Shen et al...
June 2017: Annals of Statistics
Judith J Lok
In observational studies, treatment may be adapted to covariates at several times without a fixed protocol, in continuous time. Treatment influences covariates, which influence treatment, which influences covariates, and so on. Then even time-dependent Cox-models cannot be used to estimate the net treatment effect. Structural nested models have been applied in this setting. Structural nested models are based on counterfactuals: the outcome a person would have had had treatment been withheld after a certain time...
April 2017: Annals of Statistics
James E Johndrow, Anirban Bhattacharya, David B Dunson
Contingency table analysis routinely relies on log-linear models, with latent structure analysis providing a common alternative. Latent structure models lead to a reduced rank tensor factorization of the probability mass function for multivariate categorical data, while log-linear models achieve dimensionality reduction through sparsity. Little is known about the relationship between these notions of dimensionality reduction in the two paradigms. We derive several results relating the support of a log-linear model to nonnegative ranks of the associated probability tensor...
2017: Annals of Statistics
Ilya Shpitser, Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen
Identifying causal parameters from observational data is fraught with subtleties due to the issues of selection bias and confounding. In addition, more complex questions of interest, such as effects of treatment on the treated and mediated effects may not always be identified even in data where treatment assignment is known and under investigator control, or may be identified under one causal model but not another. Increasingly complex effects of interest, coupled with a diversity of causal models in use resulted in a fragmented view of identification...
December 2016: Annals of Statistics
Tianqi Zhao, Guang Cheng, Han Liu
We consider a partially linear framework for modelling massive heterogeneous data. The major goal is to extract common features across all sub-populations while exploring heterogeneity of each sub-population. In particular, we propose an aggregation type estimator for the commonality parameter that possesses the (non-asymptotic) minimax optimal bound and asymptotic distribution as if there were no heterogeneity. This oracular result holds when the number of sub-populations does not grow too fast. A plug-in estimator for the heterogeneity parameter is further constructed, and shown to possess the asymptotic distribution as if the commonality information were available...
August 2016: Annals of Statistics
Holger Dette, Kirsten Schorning
We consider the optimal design problem for a comparison of two regression curves, which is used to establish the similarity between the dose response relationships of two groups. An optimal pair of designs minimizes the width of the confidence band for the difference between the two regression functions. Optimal design theory (equivalence theorems, efficiency bounds) is developed for this non standard design problem and for some commonly used dose response models optimal designs are found explicitly. The results are illustrated in several examples modeling dose response relationships...
June 2016: Annals of Statistics
Hongcheng Liu, Tao Yao, Runze Li
This paper is concerned with solving nonconvex learning problems with folded concave penalty. Despite that their global solutions entail desirable statistical properties, there lack optimization techniques that guarantee global optimality in a general setting. In this paper, we show that a class of nonconvex learning problems are equivalent to general quadratic programs. This equivalence facilitates us in developing mixed integer linear programming reformulations, which admit finite algorithms that find a provably global optimal solution...
April 2016: Annals of Statistics
Xianchao Xie, S C Kou, Lawrence Brown
This paper discusses the simultaneous inference of mean parameters in a family of distributions with quadratic variance function. We first introduce a class of semi-parametric/parametric shrinkage estimators and establish their asymptotic optimality properties. Two specific cases, the location-scale family and the natural exponential family with quadratic variance function, are then studied in detail. We conduct a comprehensive simulation study to compare the performance of the proposed methods with existing shrinkage estimators...
March 1, 2016: Annals of Statistics
Holger Dette, Andrey Pepelyshev, Anatoly Zhigljavsky
This paper discusses the problem of determining optimal designs for regression models, when the observations are dependent and taken on an interval. A complete solution of this challenging optimal design problem is given for a broad class of regression models and covariance kernels. We propose a class of estimators which are only slightly more complicated than the ordinary least-squares estimators. We then demonstrate that we can design the experiments, such that asymptotically the new estimators achieve the same precision as the best linear unbiased estimator computed for the whole trajectory of the process...
February 2016: Annals of Statistics
Jianqing Fan, Yuan Liao, Weichen Wang
This paper introduces a Projected Principal Component Analysis (Projected-PCA), which employees principal component analysis to the projected (smoothed) data matrix onto a given linear space spanned by covariates. When it applies to high-dimensional factor analysis, the projection removes noise components. We show that the unobserved latent factors can be more accurately estimated than the conventional PCA if the projection is genuine, or more precisely, when the factor loading matrices are related to the projected linear space...
February 2016: Annals of Statistics
Rui Song, Moulinath Banerjee, Michael R Kosorok
Change-point models are widely used by statisticians to model drastic changes in the pattern of observed data. Least squares/maximum likelihood based estimation of change-points leads to curious asymptotic phenomena. When the change-point model is correctly specified, such estimates generally converge at a fast rate (n) and are asymptotically described by minimizers of a jump process. Under complete mis-specification by a smooth curve, i.e. when a change-point model is fitted to data described by a smooth curve, the rate of convergence slows down to n(1/3) and the limit distribution changes to that of the minimizer of a continuous Gaussian process...
February 2016: Annals of Statistics
Qiyang Han, Jon A Wellner
In this paper, we study the approximation and estimation of s-concave densities via Rényi divergence. We first show that the approximation of a probability measure Q by an s-concave density exists and is unique via the procedure of minimizing a divergence functional proposed by [Ann. Statist.38 (2010) 2998-3027] if and only if Q admits full-dimensional support and a first moment. We also show continuity of the divergence functional in Q: if Qn → Q in the Wasserstein metric, then the projected densities converge in weighted L1 metrics and uniformly on closed subsets of the continuity set of the limit...
2016: Annals of Statistics
Charles R Doss, Jon A Wellner
We establish global rates of convergence for the Maximum Likelihood Estimators (MLEs) of log-concave and s-concave densities on ℝ. The main finding is that the rate of convergence of the MLE in the Hellinger metric is no worse than n(-2/5) when -1 < s < ∞ where s = 0 corresponds to the log-concave case. We also show that the MLE does not exist for the classes of s-concave densities with s < -1.
2016: Annals of Statistics
Jinyuan Chang, Cheng Yong Tang, Yichao Wu
We consider an independence feature screening technique for identifying explanatory variables that locally contribute to the response variable in high-dimensional regression analysis. Without requiring a specific parametric form of the underlying data model, our approach accommodates a wide spectrum of nonparametric and semiparametric model families. To detect the local contributions of explanatory variables, our approach constructs empirical likelihood locally in conjunction with marginal nonparametric regressions...
2016: Annals of Statistics
Holger Dette, Viatcheslav B Melas, Roman Guchenko
The problem of constructing Bayesian optimal discriminating designs for a class of regression models with respect to the T-optimality criterion introduced by Atkinson and Fedorov (1975a) is considered. It is demonstrated that the discretization of the integral with respect to the prior distribution leads to locally T-optimal discriminating design problems with a large number of model comparisons. Current methodology for the numerical construction of discrimination designs can only deal with a few comparisons, but the discretization of the Bayesian prior easily yields to discrimination design problems for more than 100 competing models...
October 2015: Annals of Statistics
Qi Zheng, Limin Peng, Xuming He
Quantile regression has become a valuable tool to analyze heterogeneous covaraite-response associations that are often encountered in practice. The development of quantile regression methodology for high dimensional covariates primarily focuses on examination of model sparsity at a single or multiple quantile levels, which are typically prespecified ad hoc by the users. The resulting models may be sensitive to the specific choices of the quantile levels, leading to difficulties in interpretation and erosion of confidence in the results...
October 1, 2015: Annals of Statistics
M A Shujie, Raymond J Carroll, Hua Liang, Shizhong Xu
In the low-dimensional case, the generalized additive coefficient model (GACM) proposed by Xue and Yang [Statist. Sinica16 (2006) 1423-1446] has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for studying nonlinear interaction effects of variables. In this paper, we propose estimation and inference procedures for the GACM when the dimension of the variables is high. Specifically, we propose a groupwise penalization based procedure to distinguish significant covariates for the "large p small n" setting. The procedure is shown to be consistent for model structure identification...
October 2015: Annals of Statistics
Rajarshi Mukherjee, Natesh S Pillai, Xihong Lin
In this paper, we study the detection boundary for minimax hypothesis testing in the context of high-dimensional, sparse binary regression models. Motivated by genetic sequencing association studies for rare variant effects, we investigate the complexity of the hypothesis testing problem when the design matrix is sparse. We observe a new phenomenon in the behavior of detection boundary which does not occur in the case of Gaussian linear regression. We derive the detection boundary as a function of two components: a design matrix sparsity index and signal strength, each of which is a function of the sparsity of the alternative...
February 2015: Annals of Statistics
Jianqing Fan, Philippe Rigollet, Weichen Wang
High-dimensional statistical tests often ignore correlations to gain simplicity and stability leading to null distributions that depend on functionals of correlation matrices such as their Frobenius norm and other ℓ r norms. Motivated by the computation of critical values of such tests, we investigate the difficulty of estimation the functionals of sparse correlation matrices. Specifically, we show that simple plug-in procedures based on thresholded estimators of correlation matrices are sparsity-adaptive and minimax optimal over a large class of correlation matrices...
2015: Annals of Statistics
Jianqing Fan, Zheng Tracy Ke, Han Liu, Lucy Xia
We propose a novel Rayleigh quotient based sparse quadratic dimension reduction method-named QUADRO (Quadratic Dimension Reduction via Rayleigh Optimization)-for analyzing high-dimensional data. Unlike in the linear setting where Rayleigh quotient optimization coincides with classification, these two problems are very different under nonlinear settings. In this paper, we clarify this difference and show that Rayleigh quotient optimization may be of independent scientific interests. One major challenge of Rayleigh quotient optimization is that the variance of quadratic statistics involves all fourth cross-moments of predictors, which are infeasible to compute for high-dimensional applications and may accumulate too many stochastic errors...
2015: Annals of Statistics
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