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American Journal of Community Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921637/to-serve-or-not-to-serve-ethical-and-policy-implications
#1
Leonard A Jason
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) is one of the nation's more influential health-related non-profit organizations. It plays a large role in shaping health policy by commissioning panels to develop "white papers" describing research and recommendations on a variety of health topics. These white paper publications are often used to help make policy decisions at the legislative and executive levels. Such a prominent institution might seem like a natural ally for policy-related collaborative efforts. As community psychologists, we strongly endorse efforts to positively influence public policy at the national level...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921621/-but-we-want-to-work-the-movement-of-child-workers-in-peru-and-the-actions-for-reducing-child-labor
#2
Isidro Maya Jariego
The program Edúcame Primero (Educate Me First) is an evidence-based practice for eradicating child labor that has been applied with positive results in Colombia, Peru, and several Central American countries. In this article, we describe the difficulties of implementing the program in two poor areas of Lima (Peru) between 2014 and 2016. Specifically, we discuss three ethical challenges faced during the implementation of the program: (a) the existence of a movement of working children that defends the right of children to work; (b) the polarization of some community-based associations and government institutions on how to deal with the problems of working children; and (c) the use of network indicators in the evaluation of the community's level of cohesion...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921599/the-stories-we-tell-introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-ethical-challenges-in-community-psychology-research-and-practice
#3
Rebecca Campbell, Michael Morris
This Special Issue examines ethical challenges in community psychology research and practice. The literature on ethics in community psychology has remained largely abstract and aspirational, with few concrete examples and case studies, so the goal of this Special Issue was to expand our written discourse about ethical dilemmas in our field. In these articles, researchers and practitioners share stories of specific ethical challenges they faced and how they sought to resolve them. These first-person narratives examine how ethical challenges come about, how community psychology values inform ethical decision making, and how lessons learned from these experiences can inform an ethical framework for community psychology...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921584/we-didn-t-say-that-challenges-in-the-public-dissemination-of-a-research-finding-with-controversial-implications
#4
Zachary P Neal, Jennifer Watling Neal
In the March 2014 issue of American Journal of Community Psychology, we published an article that examined the tension between two core values in the field of community psychology: promoting contextual conditions that foster respect for diversity and promoting contextual conditions that foster sense of community. We concluded that processes of social network formation could help explain why diversity and sense of community are seemingly incompatible goals. The study's findings initially disseminated through the usual academic channels, and later through mainstream media outlets...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921576/rape-myth-acceptance-in-sexually-assaulted-adolescents-school-contexts-associations-with-depressed-mood-and-alcohol-use
#5
Emily R Dworkin, Stephanie N Sessarego, Samantha L Pittenger, Katie M Edwards, Victoria L Banyard
High school students exposed to sexual assault (SA) are at risk for negative outcomes like depressed mood and high-risk drinking. Although evidence suggests that both social contexts and internalized stigma can affect recovery from SA, no research to date has directly examined the presence of stigma in social contexts such as high schools as a correlate of adjustment after SA. In this study, the self-reported rape myth acceptance (RMA) of 3080 students from 97 grade cohorts in 25 high schools was used to calculate grade-mean and school-mean RMA, which was entered into multilevel models predicting depressed mood and alcohol use among N = 263 SA survivors within those schools...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921557/accountability-collaboration-and-social-change-ethical-tensions-in-an-action-research-project-to-address-untested-sexual-assault-kits-saks
#6
Rebecca Campbell, Giannina Fehler-Cabral
We conducted a collaborative action research project with stakeholders in Detroit, Michigan, to develop long-term policy strategies to resolve ~11,000 untested rape kits that were discovered in a police storage facility in August 2009. In our research, we uncovered overwhelming evidence of victim-blaming behaviors and fundamental disrespect of rape survivors by the police, which directly contributed to their decisions not to submit kits for forensic testing. We had an ethical responsibility to report these negative findings accurately and completely, and in doing so, we were concerned that police stakeholders might disengage from the action research project and hamper our other ethical responsibilities to promote general and public welfare...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921556/dating-and-sexual-violence-research-in-the-schools-balancing-protection-of-confidentiality-with-supporting-the-welfare-of-survivors
#7
Jill D Sharkey, Lauren A Reed, Erika D Felix
Rigorous research and program evaluation are needed to understand the experience of dating and sexual violence among youth and the impact of prevention and intervention efforts. Our dilemma in doing this work occurred when youth disclosed dating and sexual violence on a research survey. What responsibility do researchers have to protect survivors' confidentiality as a research participant versus taking steps to ensure the student has the opportunity to access help? In our evaluation of a pilot dating violence prevention program, our protocols employed widely used procedures for providing resources to participants upon their completion of the survey and de-identifying survey data...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913882/reducing-disparities-in-cancer-screening-and-prevention-through-community-based-participatory-research-partnerships-with-local-libraries-a-comprehensive-dynamic-trial
#8
Bruce D Rapkin, Elisa Weiss, David Lounsbury, Tamara Michel, Alexis Gordon, Jennifer Erb-Downward, Eilleen Sabino-Laughlin, Alison Carpenter, Carolyn E Schwartz, Linda Bulone, Margaret Kemeny
Reduction of cancer-related disparities requires strategies that link medically underserved communities to preventive care. In this community-based participatory research project, a public library system brought together stakeholders to plan and undertake programs to address cancer screening and risk behavior. This study was implemented over 48 months in 20 large urban neighborhoods, selected to reach diverse communities disconnected from care. In each neighborhood, Cancer Action Councils were organized to conduct a comprehensive dynamic trial, an iterative process of program planning, implementation and evaluation...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913863/neighborhood-predictors-of-intimate-partner-violence-a-theory-informed-analysis-using-hierarchical-linear-modeling
#9
Laura A Voith, Michael J Brondino
Due to high prevalence rates and deleterious effects on individuals, families, and communities, intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem. Because IPV occurs in the context of communities and neighborhoods, research must examine the broader environment in addition to individual-level factors to successfully facilitate behavior change. Drawing from the Social Determinants of Health framework and Social Disorganization Theory, neighborhood predictors of IPV were tested using hierarchical linear modeling...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913851/pathways-to-housing-policy-translating-research-to-policy-to-achieve-impact-on-well-being
#10
Bryan Samuels
Policy emerges from the legislative, agency, and practice levels and from several pathways, including litigation; high profile or tragic events; community-based service provision and practice innovations; and research evidence. This commentary places an emphasis throughout on discussions of the articles included in this issue. It explores pathways that influenced the development of housing policy targeting child and family well being and provides examples to illustrate each pathway. The article further highlights how research on housing and child well being has influenced policy and practice and notes gaps for further research...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913829/a-retrospective-examination-of-child-protection-involvement-among-young-adults-accessing-homelessness-services
#11
Emily Putnam-Hornstein, Bridgette Lery, Jonathan Hoonhout, Susanna Curry
Childhood maltreatment is associated with a variety of young adult adversities including homelessness. This study used linked administrative records to develop a population-level, epidemiological characterization of the child protection histories of young adults accessing homelessness services. The records of all 17- to 24-year-olds receiving homeless services between 2011 and 2014 in San Francisco County, California (n = 2241) were probabilistically linked to statewide child protective service (CPS) records...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872196/critical-time-intervention-for-homeless-people-making-the-transition-to-community-living-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Renée de Vet, Mariëlle D Beijersbergen, Irene E Jonker, Danielle A M Lako, Albert M van Hemert, Daniel B Herman, Judith R L M Wolf
To help create an evidence base in Europe for effective interventions that improve the well-being of homeless people, we tested whether critical time intervention (CTI), a time-limited intervention developed to support vulnerable people during times of transition, is effective outside the United States. For this multicenter, parallel-group randomized controlled trial, 183 adults who were moving from shelters in the Netherlands to supported or independent housing were allocated to CTI or care-as-usual. The primary outcome was number of days rehoused, which was assessed by interviewing participants four times during a 9-month follow-up...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851113/subjective-social-standing-and-conflict-tactics-among-young-kenyan-men
#13
Michael L Goodman, Hani Serag, Lauren Raimer-Goodman, Philip Keiser, Stanley Gitari
Efforts to reduce intimate partner violence in sub-Saharan Africa generally approach the issue through the lens of women's empowerment. These efforts include foci on women's relative power in the relationship, educational background, and earning potential. The social status of men has largely been ignored, reducing the potential to involve them in efforts to demote intimate partner violence. In this study we consider whether a man's perceived social status predicts conflict tactics, and whether these tactics are mediated by loneliness and collective self-esteem from a community-based sample in semi-rural Kenya (n = 263)...
August 29, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851064/structural-and-community-change-outcomes-of-the-connect-to-protect-coalitions-trials-and-triumphs-securing-adolescent-access-to-hiv-prevention-testing-and-medical-care
#14
Robin Lin Miller, Sarah J Reed, Danielle Chiaramonte, Trevor Strzyzykowski, Hannah Spring, Ignacio D Acevedo-Polakovich, Kate Chutuape, Bendu Cooper-Walker, Cherrie B Boyer, Jonathan M Ellen
Connect to Protect (C2P), a 10-year community mobilization effort, pursued the dual aims of creating communities competent to address youth's HIV-related risks and removing structural barriers to youth health. We used Community Coalition Action Theory (CCAT) to examine the perceived contributions and accomplishments of 14 C2P coalitions. We interviewed 318 key informants, including youth and community leaders, to identify the features of coalitions' context and operation that facilitated and undermined their ability to achieve structural change and build communities' capability to manage their local adolescent HIV epidemic effectively...
August 29, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815623/housing-and-child-welfare-emerging-evidence-and-implications-for-scaling-up-services
#15
Patrick J Fowler, Anne F Farrell, Katherine E Marcal, Saras Chung, Peter S Hovmand
Inadequate housing threatens family stability in communities across the United States. This study reviews emerging evidence on housing interventions in the context of scale-up for the child welfare system. In child welfare, scale-up refers to the extent to which fully implemented interventions sustainably alleviate family separations associated with housing instability. It incorporates multiple aspects beyond traditional measures of effectiveness including costs, potential reach, local capacities for implementation, and fit within broader social services...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815622/selling-innovations-like-soap-the-interactive-systems-framework-and-social-marketing
#16
Kathryn McAlindon
Despite the popularity and noted utility of Wandersman and colleagues' (American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 2008, 171) Interactive Systems Framework, the literature currently provides a primary focus on delivery organizations' and supportive stakeholders' capacities and strategies to implement innovations, presenting a critical gap in understanding. Unfortunately, reflective of a larger void in community dissemination and implementation efforts, there is a more limited focus on the dissemination of innovations...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815612/network-analysis-in-community-psychology-looking-back-looking-forward
#17
REVIEW
Zachary P Neal, Jennifer Watling Neal
Network analysis holds promise for community psychology given the field's aim to understand the interplay between individuals and their social contexts. Indeed, because network analysis focuses explicitly on patterns of relationships between actors, its theories and methods are inherently extra-individual in nature and particularly well suited to characterizing social contexts. But, to what extent has community psychology taken advantage of this network analysis as a tool for capturing context? To answer these questions, this study provides a review of the use network analysis in articles published in American Journal of Community Psychology...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792079/mentoring-relationship-quality-and-maltreated-children-s-coping
#18
Ashley A Chesmore, Lindsey M Weiler, Heather N Taussig
Coping strategies are believed to protect against the harmful effects of maltreatment on children's psychosocial outcomes. Caregivers are thought to be critical in helping children develop adaptive coping strategies, yet many maltreated children have poor and/or insecure relationships with their parents. A quality relationship with a caring, non-parental adult (e.g., a mentor), however, may be one strategy to promote healthy coping among maltreated children. Children (N = 154) in this study participated in a mentoring and skill-based program for maltreated preadolescents placed in foster care...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792078/adverse-housing-conditions-and-early-onset-delinquency
#19
Dylan B Jackson, Jamie Newsome, Kellie R Lynch
Housing constitutes an important health resource for children. Research has revealed that, when housing conditions are unfavorable, they can interfere with child health, academic performance, and cognition. Little to no research, however, has considered whether adverse housing conditions and early-onset delinquency are significantly associated with one another. This study explores the associations between structural and non-structural housing conditions and delinquent involvement during childhood. Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS) were employed in this study...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792063/youth-homelessness-and-vulnerability-how-does-couch-surfing-fit
#20
Susanna R Curry, Matthew Morton, Jennifer L Matjasko, Amy Dworsky, Gina M Samuels, David Schlueter
Youth homelessness is a problem characterized by high levels of vulnerability. The extent to which couch surfing - moving from one temporary housing arrangement to another - is part of youth homelessness is not well understood. Chapin Hall's Voices of Youth Count, a national research initiative, involves a multicomponent approach to studying youth homelessness. This study reports emerging findings regarding couch surfing and homelessness primarily from a national survey of 13,113 adults with youth ages 13-25 in their households or who are themselves ages 18-25...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
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