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American Journal of Community Psychology

Kathryn N Stump, Janis B Kupersmidt, Rebecca L Stelter, Jean E Rhodes
Children of incarcerated parents (COIP) are at risk for a range of negative outcomes; however, participating in a mentoring relationship can be a promising intervention for these youth. This study examined the impact of mentoring and mentoring program enhancements on COIP. Secondary data analyses were conducted on an archival database consisting of 70,729 matches from 216 Big Brothers Big Sisters (BBBS) local agencies to establish the differential effects of mentoring on COIP. A subset of 45 BBBS agencies, representing 25,252 matches, participated in a telephone interview about program enhancements for better serving COIP...
April 26, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Suvarna V Menon, Nicole E Allen
Violence against women (VAW) has become an increasingly salient issue in India, with women at risk for different forms of gendered violence. While there may be universal elements in the international phenomenon of violence against women, it is a complex, multifaceted phenomenon that takes shape in a particular sociocultural context. The current study employs a narrative framework to systematically examine how culture is expressed in the formal systems response and women's help-seeking in two metropolitan cities in India...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
L Van Dam, D Smit, B Wildschut, S J T Branje, J E Rhodes, M Assink, G J J M Stams
In this meta-analytic review, we examined the relation between natural mentoring and youth outcomes in four domains: academic and vocational functioning, social-emotional development, physical health, and psychosocial problems. Natural mentoring relationships are thought to foster positive youth development and buffer against the risks associated with the tumultuous years of adolescence. Two separate meta-analyses were conducted on the presence of a natural mentor and the quality of the natural mentoring relationship, including thirty studies from 1992 to present...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Anjali Dutt
This study examines a psychosocial process linking women's involvement in a grassroots women's organization with skills and experiences to promote empowered solidarity. Empowered solidarity is described as a process of increasing the sense of connection and capacity to create social transformation among a group of people united by interest in addressing a social issue. Data collected and analyzed for this research were 298 quantitative surveys conducted with two groups of women living in rural Nicaragua. One group of women were members of a grassroots feminist organization, and the other group lived in nearby communities where the organization did not offer programs...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Darcy A Freedman, Eunlye Lee, Punam Ohri-Vachaspati, Erika Trapl, Elaine Borawski, Kimberly Bess, Susan Flocke
Promoting use of farmers' markets (FMs) is a promising community-level strategy to increase access to nutritious foods such as fruits and vegetables. Yet, FM shopping among people with Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits remains low. This research examined predictors of FM shopping among SNAP recipients living within 1 mile of a FM. A cross-sectional survey of SNAP participants (N = 270) was conducted in 2015 in Cleveland and East Cleveland, OH, USA. Multinomial regression and zero-truncated Poisson regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with FM shopping...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Rebecca L Stelter, Janis B Kupersmidt, Kathryn N Stump
Implementation of research- and safety-based program practices enhance the longevity of mentoring relationships, in general; however, little is known about how mentoring programs might support the relationships of mentees in foster care. Benchmark program practices and Standards in the Elements of Effective Practice for Mentoring, 3rd Edition (MENTOR, 2009) were assessed in the current study as predictors of match longevity. Secondary data analyses were conducted on a national agency information management database from 216 Big Brothers Big Sisters agencies serving 641 youth in foster care and 70,067 youth not in care from across the United States (Mean = 11...
April 15, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
M Anne Visser
Increasing economic insecurity faced by older youth in rural America presents a crisis of social reproduction for disconnected youth in these areas. Increasingly community based youth serving organizations (CBYSOs) are recognizing and responding to the social reproduction needs of this particularly vulnerable youth population. Such responses are often hidden from funders, government agencies, and community residents. Yet these institutions play an important substitution function for disconnected youth and provide critical social support and social leverage for this population...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Margaret O Caughy, Britain Mills, Dawn Brinkley, Margaret T Owen
The independent and joint associations between child behavioral self-regulation ability and school effectiveness in relation to academic achievement were examined in a sample of low-income African American (n = 132) and Latino (n = 198) children attending kindergarten and first grade across a large metropolitan area. Child behavioral self-regulation and school effectiveness were positively associated with both reading and mathematics performance. School effectiveness moderated the effect of behavioral self-regulation on reading but not math achievement...
March 31, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Linda D Ruiz, Susan D McMahon, Leonard A Jason
In recent years, the quality of education available to children has become increasingly dependent on the social and economic demographics of neighborhoods in which the children live. This study assesses the role of community violence in explaining the relation between socio-economic status (SES) and academic outcomes and the potential of positive school climate to promote academic achievement. With a sample of 297 Chicago public elementary schools, we examine community-level and school-level data and use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) mapping to illustrate how school academic achievement coincides with neighborhood economics and crime statistics...
March 30, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Ashmeet Kaur Oberoi, Edison J Trickett
Islamic norms and Islamophobia present unique challenges for Muslim adolescents in Western countries. For Muslim students, even "secular" public schools are not a religion-free space because their religious beliefs and values are central in their manner of living. To inquire more about these issues, an exploratory sequential design mixed-method study was conducted that included focus groups and a survey addressing the public school experiences of Muslim adolescents in a Midwestern state in the United States and how those experiences are related to their academic achievement, educational aspirations, and psychological adjustment...
March 26, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
John Sylvestre, Fran Klodawsky, Evie Gogosis, John Ecker, Alexia Polillo, Konrad Czechowski, Ayda Agha, Sneha Shankar, Matthew To, Anne Gadermann, Anita Palepu, Stephen Hwang
Housing is a key social determinant of health that contributes to the well-documented relationship between socioeconomic status and health. This study explored how individuals with histories of unstable and precarious housing perceive their housing or shelter situations, and the impact of these settings on their health and well-being. Participants were recruited from the Health and Housing in Transition study (HHiT), a longitudinal, multi-city study that tracked the health and housing status of people with unstable housing histories over a 5-year period...
March 25, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Brian Soller, Jessica R Goodkind, R Neil Greene, Christopher R Browning, Cece Shantzek
Interventions aimed at enhancing mental health are increasingly centered around promoting community attachment and support. However, few have examined and tested the specific ecological factors that give rise to these key community processes. Drawing from insights from the ecological network perspective, we tested whether spatial and social overlap in routine activity settings (e.g., work, school, childcare) with fellow ethnic community members is associated with individuals' attachment to their ethnic communities and access to social resources embedded in their communities...
March 25, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Claire V Crooks, Andrea Lapp, Monique Auger, Kim van der Woerd, Angela Snowshoe, Billie Jo Rogers, Samantha Tsuruda, Cassidy Caron
The Mental Health First Aid First Nations course was adapted from Mental Health First Aid Basic to create a community-based, culturally safe and relevant approach to promoting mental health literacy in First Nations contexts. Over 2.5 days, the course aims to build community capacity by teaching individuals to recognize and respond to mental health crises. This feasibility trial utilized mixed methods to evaluate the acceptability, cultural adaptation, and preliminary effectiveness of MHFAFN. Our approach was grounded in community-based participatory research principles, emphasizing relationship-driven procedures to collecting data and choice for how participants shared their voices...
March 25, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Rachel C Garthe, Deborah Gorman-Smith, Joshua Gregory, Michael E Schoeny
The link between relationship violence and aspects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage (e.g., percent of unemployed adults, percent of families below poverty level), has been established. However, the literature examining neighborhood social processes, including informal social control and social cohesion, in relation to adolescent dating violence has shown mixed results with a limited theoretical foundation and methodology. Using a social disorganization theoretical framework, this study examined the mediating role of these neighborhood social processes in the relation between concentrated disadvantage and adolescent dating violence within an urban context...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
S L Wenzel, H Rhoades, H Moore, J Lahey, B Henwood, W La Motte-Kerr, M Bird
Permanent supportive housing (PSH) is a widely-accepted solution to the challenge of chronic homelessness. While housing support and retention, physical health, and healthcare continue to be important for formerly homeless persons in PSH, "higher-order" and humanistic needs such as thriving have received less attention and as a result are less well understood in this population. One important indicator of thriving is the ability to establish and articulate life goals. This study utilizes longitudinal data from 421 formerly homeless adults prior to their move into PSH, and at 3-, 6- and 12-months after move-in (369 respondents completed all four interviews), to examine what life goals are articulated by this population and how those goals change over time...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
David Weisburd, Breanne Cave, Matthew Nelson, Clair White, Amelia Haviland, Justin Ready, Brian Lawton, Kathleen Sikkema
This study explores the relationship between mental health and place at microgeographic units of analysis. We examine self-reported symptomology for depression and PTSD for 2,724 survey respondents interviewed in three types of randomly selected street segments: violent crime hot spots, cool spots, and cold spots. We find that the mean symptomology score is 61% higher for depression in violent crime hot spots than cold spots, and 85% higher for PTSD. Overall, we estimate that 14.8% of residents of violent crime hot spots meet thresholds for moderate depression or a diagnosis of PTSD...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Maria O'Connell, Kyaw Sint, Robert Rosenheck
Supported housing, combining rent subsidies with intensive case management, is associated with improvements in quality of life of homeless adults, but factors mediating their impact on quality of life have not been studied. Twelve-month outcome data from a randomized trial of the Housing and Urban Development- Veterans Affairs Supported Housing program (HUD-VASH) showed that access to a housing rent subsidy plus intensive case management (ICM) was associated with greater improvement in subjective quality of life than ICM alone...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Veronica Fruiht, Thomas Chan
Attending college is increasingly important to compete in this global world; however, young people whose parents did not attend college are significantly less likely to enroll in and finish college. Formal programs to support first-generation college goers are common, but not scalable to provide support to all young people who need it. Instead, mentoring that naturally occurs on these students' journeys into and out of college may be a more practical avenue for supporting their success. This study investigated the role community members, relatives, and educators play in first-generation college goers' educational outcomes...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Erica Briones-Vozmediano, Daniel La Parra-Casado, Carmen Vives-Cases
This qualitative study identifies health professionals' dominant, adaptive, and liberating narratives regarding inter-ethnic relations when talking about intimate partner violence (IPV) and the health system responses to the way it affects Roma women. Dominant narratives are oppressive internalized stories that shape social perceptions of members of both dominant and minority groups, adaptive narratives refer to those that acknowledge asymmetry and inequality, and liberating narratives directly challenge oppression with resistant views of stereotypes and negative interpretations...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Elizabeth B Raposa, Lance D Erickson, Matthew Hagler, Jean E Rhodes
Supportive nonparental adults, particularly nonfamilial adults, provide critical support during the transition to adulthood, opening doors to educational and career paths. This study examined whether economic disadvantage shapes access to these relationships. Results showed that low-income adolescents had reduced access to naturally occurring mentors, and the relationships they did form tended to be close bonds with family and friends, rather than nonfamilial adults. Their mentors were more likely to focus on practical support, and less likely to serve as role models or provide career advice...
March 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
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