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American Journal of Community Psychology

Rachel C Garthe, Deborah Gorman-Smith, Joshua Gregory, Michael E Schoeny
The link between relationship violence and aspects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage (e.g., percent of unemployed adults, percent of families below poverty level), has been established. However, the literature examining neighborhood social processes, including informal social control and social cohesion, in relation to adolescent dating violence has shown mixed results with a limited theoretical foundation and methodology. Using a social disorganization theoretical framework, this study examined the mediating role of these neighborhood social processes in the relation between concentrated disadvantage and adolescent dating violence within an urban context...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
S L Wenzel, H Rhoades, H Moore, J Lahey, B Henwood, W La Motte-Kerr, M Bird
Permanent supportive housing (PSH) is a widely-accepted solution to the challenge of chronic homelessness. While housing support and retention, physical health, and healthcare continue to be important for formerly homeless persons in PSH, "higher-order" and humanistic needs such as thriving have received less attention and as a result are less well understood in this population. One important indicator of thriving is the ability to establish and articulate life goals. This study utilizes longitudinal data from 421 formerly homeless adults prior to their move into PSH, and at 3-, 6- and 12-months after move-in (369 respondents completed all four interviews), to examine what life goals are articulated by this population and how those goals change over time...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
David Weisburd, Breanne Cave, Matthew Nelson, Clair White, Amelia Haviland, Justin Ready, Brian Lawton, Kathleen Sikkema
This study explores the relationship between mental health and place at microgeographic units of analysis. We examine self-reported symptomology for depression and PTSD for 2,724 survey respondents interviewed in three types of randomly selected street segments: violent crime hot spots, cool spots, and cold spots. We find that the mean symptomology score is 61% higher for depression in violent crime hot spots than cold spots, and 85% higher for PTSD. Overall, we estimate that 14.8% of residents of violent crime hot spots meet thresholds for moderate depression or a diagnosis of PTSD...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Maria O'Connell, Kyaw Sint, Robert Rosenheck
Supported housing, combining rent subsidies with intensive case management, is associated with improvements in quality of life of homeless adults, but factors mediating their impact on quality of life have not been studied. Twelve-month outcome data from a randomized trial of the Housing and Urban Development- Veterans Affairs Supported Housing program (HUD-VASH) showed that access to a housing rent subsidy plus intensive case management (ICM) was associated with greater improvement in subjective quality of life than ICM alone...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Veronica Fruiht, Thomas Chan
Attending college is increasingly important to compete in this global world; however, young people whose parents did not attend college are significantly less likely to enroll in and finish college. Formal programs to support first-generation college goers are common, but not scalable to provide support to all young people who need it. Instead, mentoring that naturally occurs on these students' journeys into and out of college may be a more practical avenue for supporting their success. This study investigated the role community members, relatives, and educators play in first-generation college goers' educational outcomes...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Erica Briones-Vozmediano, Daniel La Parra-Casado, Carmen Vives-Cases
This qualitative study identifies health professionals' dominant, adaptive, and liberating narratives regarding inter-ethnic relations when talking about intimate partner violence (IPV) and the health system responses to the way it affects Roma women. Dominant narratives are oppressive internalized stories that shape social perceptions of members of both dominant and minority groups, adaptive narratives refer to those that acknowledge asymmetry and inequality, and liberating narratives directly challenge oppression with resistant views of stereotypes and negative interpretations...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Andrew Rasmussen, Aïcha Cissé, Ying Han, Sonia Roubeni
Immigrants make up large proportions of many low-income neighborhoods, but have been largely ignored in the neighborhood safety literature. We examined perceived safety's association with migration using a six-item, child-specific measure of parents' perceptions of school-aged (5-12 years of age) children's safety in a sample of 93 West African immigrant parents in New York City. Aims of the study were (a) to identify pre-migration correlates (e.g., trauma in home countries), (b) to identify migration-related correlates (e...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Shepherd Zeldin, Josset Sky Gauley, Alexandra Barringer, Brie Chapa
Educational reform efforts emphasize empowerment and engagement, but these concepts are rarely translated into policy or classroom practice. This inquiry explores how schools can become places where students take ownership over their own learning. Phase 1 of this inquiry, a survey of students from diverse high schools, examines pathways to school engagement. Results indicated that youth voice in decision-making, particularly when the experience is situated within supportive adult relationships and a sense of safety, significantly predicts emotional and cognitive engagement...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Elizabeth B Raposa, Lance D Erickson, Matthew Hagler, Jean E Rhodes
Supportive nonparental adults, particularly nonfamilial adults, provide critical support during the transition to adulthood, opening doors to educational and career paths. This study examined whether economic disadvantage shapes access to these relationships. Results showed that low-income adolescents had reduced access to naturally occurring mentors, and the relationships they did form tended to be close bonds with family and friends, rather than nonfamilial adults. Their mentors were more likely to focus on practical support, and less likely to serve as role models or provide career advice...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Catherine Walker O'Neal, Jacquelyn K Mallette, Jay A Mancini
Drawing from the Social Organization Theory of Action and Change (SOAC), this analysis of 223 military families, including active duty (AD) military and civilian partners, examines how parents' sense of community and community engagement (two elements of community connections) are associated with their own resilient coping, and ultimately with important outcomes capturing their adolescent offspring's individual well-being (depression, anxiety, and self-efficacy) and family well-being (family functioning and parenting quality)...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Leslie Ann D Brick, Nicole R Nugent, Shoshana Y Kahana, Douglas Bruce, Mary R Tanney, M Isabel Fernández, Jose A Bauermeister
Youth living with HIV (YLH) experience multiple disease-related stresses along with the same structural and developmental challenges faced by their uninfected peers; alcohol use among YLH represents a risk behavior by virtue of potential effects on youth health and increased likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex while drinking alcohol. Research aimed at better understanding the interplay of individual- and neighborhood-level influences on alcohol use for YLH is needed to inform interventions. This study examined whether socioeconomic disadvantage (SED) and social support influence, independently and through interaction, alcohol use in YLH...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Tiara C Willie, Enna Khondkaryan, Tamora Callands, Trace Kershaw
The purpose of the study was to (a) explore the relationship between sexual cultural scripting and traditional masculine norms on changes in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, and (b) examine traditional masculine norms as an effect modifier among young heterosexual men. This study is a secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study of 119 young heterosexual men who were followed for 6 months. The adjusted logistic regression results revealed that sexual cultural scripting norms were associated with an increased odds of emotional IPV perpetration and traditional masculine norms were associated with an increased odds of physical IPV perpetration in the past 6 months...
January 29, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Allison N Ponce, Michael Rowe
Citizenship is an approach to supporting the social inclusion and participation in society of people with mental illnesses. It is receiving greater attention in community mental health discourse and literature in parallel with increased awareness of social determinants of health and concern over the continued marginalization of persons with mental illness in the United States. In this article, we review the definition and principles of our citizenship framework with attention to social participation and access to resources as well as rights and responsibilities that society confers on its members...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Rachel M Manning, Ronni Michelle Greenwood
There is still much to learn about how aspects of the ecology of homelessness shape homeless adults' recovery experiences. In the present mixed-methods study, the relationship of service providers' work-related values to their service users' recovery experiences in the microsystem of homelessness were examined. Service providers completed semi-structured qualitative interviews about their service users, daily work activities, and work-related goals. At three time points, their service users completed quantitative measures of choice, mastery, and recovery in four life domains: physical health, psychiatric symptoms, substance use, and community integration...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Anna S Pruitt, John P Barile, Terry Yasuko Ogawa, Nelson Peralta, Reumell Bugg, John Lau, Thomas Lamberton, Corazon Hall, Victor Mori
This article presents findings from a community-based participatory evaluation of a Housing First program on the Island of O'ahu. In this study, clients in a Housing First program used Photovoice to evaluate the program and to advocate for progressive housing policies. Written together by members of the Housing First Photovoice group, this collaborative article describes the outcomes from both the Housing First program and the Photovoice project and demonstrates the ways in which participatory program evaluations can interact with client-driven programs like Housing First to produce a cumulative, transformative impact...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Emily M May, Sandra T Azar, Stephen A Matthews
Living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with heightened risk for poor school readiness and health outcomes in early childhood, and the home environment is thought to be a primary mechanism by which neighborhood context impacts preschoolers. This study examined the effects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and neighborhood residential instability on the home physical environment and home learning environment for preschoolers in economically disadvantaged families (N = 187). Using structural equation modeling, mothers' perceived neighborhood disorder and depressive symptoms were examined as mechanisms by which neighborhood context "comes through the door...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Greg Townley, Molly Brown, John Sylvestre
Community psychology is rooted in community mental health research and practice and has made important contributions to this field. Yet, in the decades since its inception, community psychology has reduced its focus on promoting mental health, well-being, and liberation of individuals with serious mental illnesses. This special issue endeavors to highlight current efforts in community mental health from our field and related disciplines and point to future directions for reengagement in this area. The issue includes 12 articles authored by diverse stakeholder groups...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Beatrice Sacchetto, José Ornelas, Maria Manuela Calheiros, Marybeth Shinn
The capabilities approach provides a rich evaluative framework to guide transformative change in the community mental health system. This study reports the content and construct validity and psychometric properties of a contextualized measure of the extent to which mental health programs foster achieved capabilities. The Achieved Capabilities Questionnaire for Community Mental Health (ACQ-CMH), adapted from Nussbaum's capabilities framework, was developed previously with consumer collaboration. Content validity was assessed through a collaborative process, involving a panel of eight consumers, staff members, and senior researchers...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Sean Kidd, Larry Davidson, Tyler Frederick, Michael J Kral
This paper provides a critical reflection on participatory action research (PAR) methods as they pertain to community psychology. Following a brief review of the fundamental aspects of PAR, key developments in the field are examined. These developments include the redefinition of the research enterprise among groups such as Indigenous and consumer/survivor communities, challenges that attend the "project" framing of PAR, academic and practice context challenges, and important domains in which PAR methods need to become more engaged (e...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
John R Reynolds, Michael Parrish
Natural mentors provide advice, moral support, and assistance to adolescents who aspire to obtain a postsecondary degree, but past studies of the benefits of having an informal adult mentor have yet to resolve several issues. Our analyses of a national sample of high school graduates test three hypotheses: (H1) natural mentoring increases the odds of college attendance and completion, (H2) guidance and career advice are more important for college success than encouragement or role modeling, and (H3) students from poor and working-class families benefit more from mentoring than students from middle- and upper-class families...
March 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
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