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Hosni A M Hussein, Usama M Abdel-Raouf, Shaw M Akula
OBJECTIVES: Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) glycoprotein B (gB) is expressed on the viral envelope as well as on the cytoplasmic membrane of infected cells. In the current study, we aimed to decipher the impact of membrane-associated gB on adhesion and migration of cells via modulating the expression of cytokines. METHODS: A combination of polymerase chain reaction array, cell adhesion assay, and wound-healing migration assay was conducted to study the influence of the gB-induced cytokines on cell adhesion and migration...
March 29, 2018: Intervirology
Pragya D Yadav, Vimal Kumar, Sandeep Kumar, Chandrashekhar S Mote, Triparna D Majumdar, Mangesh Gokhale, Pravin Kore, Devendra T Mourya
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to understand natural disease progression in infant CD1 mice after the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected by the Zika virus (ZIKV, MR-766 strain). METHODS: A. aegypti mosquitoes were experimentally infected with ZIKV MR-766 strain via the oral feeding route. Infected mosquitoes were allowed to feed on infant CD1 mice. Sick mice were euthanized, and their organs were collected and subjected to real-time RT-PCR, histo-pathology, and immunohistochemistry...
March 29, 2018: Intervirology
Dhananjay Singh Mankotia, Mohammad Irshad
AIMS: This study describes an immunoassay to detect anti-torque teno virus (TTV) antibodies using a peptide obtained from expression of the N22 region of TTV genotype 2. METHODS: The N22 region (∼500 bp) of TTV genotype 2 was cloned in a pET-28a(+) vector and expressed in ZYM-5052 autoinduction medium. Following metal affinity chromatography, a purified polypeptide was used as an antigen for the development of an immunoassay to detect anti-TTV antibodies in human sera...
March 27, 2018: Intervirology
Anthony Pinon, Michèle Vialette
Water, a frequent vehicle for the transmission of viruses, may permit their survival, but many environmental factors will have an adverse effect on the viral population. Risk evaluation requires identification of these factors and assessment of the inactivation rate of infectious viruses. A higher temperature means a faster reduction of the viral population, as do increased sunlight, higher antimicrobial concentration, or higher oxygen levels. Another documented impact is linked to the presence of indigenous microbial populations: virus survival is higher in sterile water...
January 10, 2018: Intervirology
Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou, Famara Sane, Swan Firquet, Pierre-Emmanuel Lobert, Didier Hober
Human enteric viruses are associated with several clinical features, especially gastroenteritis. Large amounts of these viruses can be released in the environment and spread to people. Enteric viruses are nonenveloped viruses and have displayed good survival in the environment. They can be significantly resistant in food and water but also on fomites, and this is thought to play a role in transmission, leading to sporadic cases or outbreaks. The survival of enteric viruses on fomites relies on many factors including the virus itself, fomite properties, and extrinsic environmental factors such as temperature or relative humidity...
June 15, 2017: Intervirology
Anamarija Slovic, Tanja Kosutic-Gulija, Maja Santak, Jelena Ivancic-Jelecki, Maja Jagusic, Sunčanica Ljubin-Sternak, Gordana Mlinarić-Galinović, Tatjana Vilibić-Čavlek, Irena Tabain, Dubravko Forcic
BACKGROUND: The families Paramyxoviridae and Pneumoviridae comprise a broad spectrum of viral pathogens that affect human health. The matrix (M) protein of these viruses has a central role in their life cycle. In line with this, molecular characteristics of the M proteins from variable viruses that circulated in Croatia were investigated. METHODS: Sequences of the M proteins of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) 1-3 within the family Paramyxoviridae, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and human respiratory syncytial virus from the family Pneumoviridae were obtained and analyzed...
2017: Intervirology
Jiyue Wen, Weizhuo Lu, Zhenzhen Liu, Jihong Meng
AIMS: To confirm the different characteristics of genotype-specific and common neutralizing epitopes of hepatitis E virus (HEV). METHODS: A competitive binding assay was established with known genotype-common neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 3G1 and 5G5 as well as genotype-specific neutralizing mAbs 2B1 and 4C5. HEV ORF2 recombinant p166W01 derived from genotype 1 and p166Chn derived from genotype 4 were used as coated antigens, to determine whether the mAbs recognize independent, similar, or overlapping epitopes...
2017: Intervirology
Massimiliano Bergallo, Ilaria Galliano, Paola Montanari, Marco Rassu, Valentina Daprà
OBJECTIVE: Since its discovery, Aichivirus (AiV) A has been detected, with an incidence of 0.9-4.1%, primarily when studying outbreaks of diarrhea in children or young adults. In this paper, we report the first detection of AiV in Piedmont, Italy, in pediatric patients. METHODS: A total of 159 fecal specimens (from 96 males and 63 females) previously screened for rotaviruses, adenoviruses, noroviruses, human parechoviruses, saliviruses, and sapoviruses were collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis...
2017: Intervirology
Ruchi Pathak, Pradip V Barde
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: An acute hepatitis, caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV), is a significant global health concern, especially in developing countries. HEV has 1 serotype and 8 genotypes, which are further divided into subtypes. Despite the availability of sporadic cases and outbreak data from India, specific information regarding HEV epidemiological data is lacking from central India. This study was conducted to understand epidemiological and molecular features of HEV in central India...
2017: Intervirology
Fern Baedyananda, Arkom Chaiwongkot, Parvapan Bhattarakosol
OBJECTIVES: The primary replication protein, HPV E1, has been shown to play a role in mitigating host defence and disrupting normal cell cycle processes, leading to the development of cancer. This study investigated the expression profile of HPV16 E1 in various stages of cervical cancer development and the factors that control E1 expression. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-four HPV16-positive cervical samples ranging from normal to CIN 1, CIN 2/3, and SCC lesions were studied...
2017: Intervirology
Mohammed A Hamad, Ahmed Majeed Al-Shammari, Shoni M Odisho, Nahi Y Yaseen
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide a molecular and epidemiological characterization of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) infections in Iraq. METHODS: The present study focuses on identifying BPV based on clinical and epidemiological manifestations, histopathological examinations, and polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Samples were collected from 163 animals suffering from cutaneous bovine papillomatosis, including 129 females (79.14%) with an age range of 16-40 months and 34 males (20...
2017: Intervirology
Marco Ciotti, Eleonora Cella, Massimo Rittà, Massimo Ciccozzi, Rossana Cavallo, Carlo Federico Perno, Cristina Costa
BACKGROUND: The cytomegalovirus (CMV) UL55 gene encodes for a glycoprotein implicated in virus pathogenesis. Based on UL55 polymorphism, CMV has been divided into 4 genotypes. Previous studies investigated the possible role of genotypes in the clinical outcome of infection in different categories of patients; however, few data are available, particularly in the transplant setting and Italian case records. METHODS: Phylogenetic analysis through a maximum likelihood tree was used to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of CMV genotypes in whole blood specimens from 47 transplant patients and investigate the relation with demographic and clinical features...
2017: Intervirology
Rasool Hamkar, Zabihollah Shoja, Nastaran Ghavami, Nasrin Heydari, Mohammad Farahmand, Somayeh Jalilvand
OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is currently not included in the national vaccination program in Iran. Regional data on the distribution of HPV types in women are important as they can predict the impact of currently available vaccines and help health policy makers to consider all the possibilities with regard to HPV vaccination. METHODS: A total of 1,218 Iranian women with normal cervical cytology were included in this study. The presence of the HPV genome was investigated in all specimens by PCR assay, and all HPV-positive samples were genotyped...
2017: Intervirology
Sayani Das, Amar N Ghosh
AIMS: The aim of the present study is the preliminary characterization of an El Tor vibriophage M4 (ATCC 51352-B4). METHODS: We studied the growth characteristics and sustainability of this phage under various stresses like temperature, pH, and UV. The phage morphology and phage genome were also examined using electron microscopy. RESULTS: Sustainability studies showed that the phage is more stable in acidic conditions, which is very uncommon among vibriophages...
2017: Intervirology
Wassim Chehadeh, Osama Albaksami, Sonia Elezebeth John, Widad Al-Nakib
OBJECTIVES: Resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) in the integrase of different HIV-1 subtypes were investigated in a cohort of patients never exposed to integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs). METHODS: The viral RNA was extracted from plasma samples of 53 INSTI-naïve patients, and the integrase genetic region was sequenced and analyzed for subtype assignment and drug resistance. RESULTS: The median viral load at sampling was 5.28 × 104 RNA copies/mL...
2017: Intervirology
Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani, Seyedeh Arefeh Ebrahimian, Hoda Gudarzi, Seyed Mohammad Jazayeri, Fatemeh Jahanbakhsh, Minoo Mohraz, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Kayhan Azadmanesh, Saber Soltani, Mehdi Norouzi
Finding the predominant circulating subtype of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and surveying co-infection with other infectious viruses are crucial to making preventive decisions. To this end, 50 Iranian HIV-positive patients made up of 37 men and 13 women were selected. Most of the HIV-positive patients (70%) were intravenous drug users (IDUs), and 48 and 32% of patients were co-infected with HCV and HBV, respectively. The rate of simultaneous infection with HIV, HCV, and HBV was found to be 6%...
2017: Intervirology
Elena Grimaldi, Maria Elena Della Pepa, Francesca Martora, Pasqualino Magliocca, Maria Rosaria Iovene, Nicola Coppola, Giovanna Donnarumma, Massimiliano Galdiero
AIMS: The objective of this work was to study the distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and subtypes from 2010 to 2015 in 1,221 anti-HCV/HCV-RNA-positive specimens from patients living in the metropolitan area of Naples, since HCV genotypes and subtypes remain cornerstones in the management of chronic HCV infection even in the directly acting antivirals era. METHODS: The study was carried out on 1,221 anti-HCV/HCV-RNA-positive plasma samples collected between April 2010 and December 2015...
2017: Intervirology
Jinfeng Xu, Tingjun Liu, Hua Wang, Hongxing Shen
GII.4 noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. A new variant of GII.4, the Sydney variant, has recently become more prevalent on a global scale. Intragenotype recombinations are widespread within the pandemic NoV GII.4 lineage, and are likely to be important forces driving the evolution and emergence of novel GII.4 viruses. In this study, we sought to examine the role that intergenotype recombination has played in the emergence of GII.4 Sydney 2012 variants. The results show that the GII...
2017: Intervirology
Hye Won Oh, Ra Ri Cha, Sang Soo Lee, Chang Min Lee, Wan Soo Kim, Yun Won Jo, Jin Joo Kim, Jae Min Lee, Hong Jun Kim, Chang Yoon Ha, Hyun Jin Kim, Tae Hyo Kim, Woon Tae Jung, Ok Jae Lee
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the etiology of acute viral hepatitis and compared the clinical features of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections with those of other acute viral hepatitis infections in Korea. METHODS: This study included 2,357 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with acute hepatitis, based on acute illness with jaundice or elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (>100 IU/L), between January 2007 and January 2016. Acute viral infections were observed in 23 (19...
2017: Intervirology
Abida Raza, Muhammad Ovais, Hafsa Aziz, Asim Anwar, Javaid Irfan, Irshad Ahmad, Muhammad Mukhtar
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to examine the impact of rapid virological response (RVR) and early virological response (EVR) on sustained virological response (SVR) in chronic hepatitis C genotype 3a individuals. METHODS: The patients were given antiviral therapy with IFN-α-2b, 3 million units 3 times a week and 800-1,200 mg of ribavirin daily adjusted to the patient's body weight (<60 kg 800 mg day-1, and >60 kg 1,200 day-1). The patients received this combination therapy for 24 weeks...
2017: Intervirology
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