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Yulia V Kuzmenko, Olga A Smirnova, Alexander V Ivanov, Elizaveta S Starodubova, Vadim L Karpov
BACKGROUND: Infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes pathological changes in the central nervous system. However, the possible redox alterations in the infected cells that can contribute to the virus pathogenicity remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: In the current study we explored the ability of TBEV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) to induce oxidative stress and activate antioxidant defense via the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived-2)-like 2/antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) pathway...
November 23, 2016: Intervirology
Paul Pumpens, Regina Renhofa, Andris Dishlers, Tatjana Kozlovska, Velta Ose, Peter Pushko, Kaspars Tars, Elmars Grens, Martin F Bachmann
RNA phages are often used as prototypes for modern recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) technologies. Icosahedral RNA phage VLPs can be formed from coat proteins (CPs) and are efficiently produced in bacteria and yeast. Both genetic fusion and chemical coupling have been successfully used for the production of numerous chimeras based on RNA phage VLPs. In this review, we describe advances in RNA phage VLP technology along with the history of the Leviviridae family, including its taxonomical organization, genomic structure, and important role in the development of molecular biology...
November 10, 2016: Intervirology
Mehdi A Benkahla, Famara Sane, Rachel Desailloud, Didier Hober
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure of piglets to enteroviruses-G (EV-G) through the presence of antibodies in their serum. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from the vena cava of 10 piglets at 9 weeks of age and again 39 days later (day 39). They were tested using an immunoassay based on the EV-G1 VP4 peptide, since VP4 is highly conserved among the four Enterovirus capsid proteins, and by using a seroneutralization assay. RESULTS: For each serum collected on day 39 the optical density was high compared to the value obtained in serum collected earlier (p = 0...
October 1, 2016: Intervirology
Lucio Boglione, Jessica Cusato, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D''Avolio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2016: Intervirology
Leesa D Bruggink, Jean M Moselen, John A Marshall
The comparative molecular epidemiology of the related GII.P7_GII.6 and GII.P7_GII.7 noroviruses has not been examined in detail. ORF 1, ORF 2 and ORF 1/ORF 2 RT-PCR as well as sequencing and phylogeny analysis were carried out on faecal specimens from 873 gastroenteritis outbreaks in Victoria, Australia (2012-2014). There were 575 (66%) detected as positive for norovirus by means of ORF 1 RT-PCR and/or ORF 2 RT-PCR. Of these, 24 (4.2%) were GII.6 (ORF 2) outbreaks, 7 (1.2%) were GII.7 (ORF 2) outbreaks, and 1 outbreak (0...
2016: Intervirology
Nimisha Harshadrai Bhoola, Anna Kramvis
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is hyperendemic in southern Africa, with subgenotype A1 prevailing. The precore/core (preC/C) region of A1, encoding for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), has unique sequence characteristics, differentiating it from subgenotypes A2 and D3. Our aim was to follow the expression of HBeAg in vitro by the three subgenotypes. METHODS: Huh7 cells were transfected with plasmids belonging to subgenotypes A1, A2, and D3. Using indirect immunofluorescence, the expression of HBeAg was followed, as was the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and subsequent activation of apoptosis...
2016: Intervirology
Houda Chaouch, Stefania Taffon, Umbertina Villano, Michele Equestre, Roberto Bruni, Manel Belhadj, Naila Hannachi, Mahjoub Aouni, Amel Letaief, Anna Rita Ciccaglione
In Tunisia, the prevalence of naturally occurring surface (S) gene variants of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has not been determined. In the present study, the prevalence of these variants was examined in terms of the clinical and viral state in a series of 99 Tunisian patients with HBV infection. The S genes were amplified and directly sequenced. Genotype D was predominant (98%), 40.4% isolates belonged to subgenotypes D7 and 1 to subgenotype D2. The most common subtype was ayw2 (95.9%). In total, 60.6% of the studied strains harbored S mutations...
2016: Intervirology
Jane F Cavender, Mary J Tevethia
BACKGROUND: Amino acids 1-107 of the SV40 T antigen constitute a functionally important and complex region. Cellular proteins, Hsc70, Bub-1, Cul-7, and Rb, each of which is involved in cell growth control or genomic stability, bind within this portion of the T antigen. Mutational analysis has mapped the J domain/Hsc70, Bub-1, and the Rb binding motifs. Two regions of the T antigen have been implicated in Cul-7 binding. Mutation of F98A diminished Cul-7 binding, and deletion of amino acids 68-83 abolished it...
2016: Intervirology
Antônio Augusto Fonseca, Marcelo Fernandes Camargos, Aline Aparecida Silva Barbosa, Valdênia Lopes Silva Gonçalves, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Jenner K Pimenta Dos Reis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to use partial Ul44 sequences (glycoprotein C) of Suid herpesvirus 1 to examine the evolution and dynamics of the virus in different periods and hosts. METHODS: Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the software MrBayes after analysis in the software jModelTest to evaluate the best phylogenetic models. The software SplitsTree 4.0 was used to create phylogenetic networks, and the BEAST program was used to generate data on phylogeography...
2016: Intervirology
Jorge I Castañeda-Sánchez, Diana Alhelí Domínguez-Martínez, Nataly Olivar-Espinosa, Blanca Estela García-Pérez, María Alba Loroño-Pino, Julieta Luna-Herrera, Ma Isabel Salazar
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The innate immune response is remarkably important for controlling infections. Information about the participation of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in response to dengue virus (DENV) is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the AMP response to DENV-2 in human THP-1 cells and neutrophils. METHODS: Protein and mRNA levels of two AMPs - hBD-1 and cathelicidin LL-37 - were assessed in DENV-infected macrophage-like THP-1 cells using qRT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence...
2016: Intervirology
Zhi-Hua Jiang, Qin-Yan Chen, Tim J Harrison, Guo-Jian Li, Xue-Yan Wang, Hai Li, Li-Ping Hu, Kai-Wen Li, Qing-Li Yang, Chao Tan, Zhong-Liao Fang
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify serum proteins with differential concentrations between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and HBsAg asymptomatic carriers among individuals infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) with basal core promoter (BCP) double mutations (A1762T, G1764A). METHODS: iTRAQ and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify differentially expressed protein, and an ELISA test was used for the validation test...
2016: Intervirology
Joelma Carvalho Santos, Dayse Maria Vasconcelos de Deus, Izolda Maria Fernandes de Moura, Edmundo Pessoa Lopes, Maria Rosileide Bezerra Alves, Maria Rosângela Cunha Duarte Coêlho
BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms and variant expression of some interferon (IFN) genes in individuals with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection might be related to higher viral load and disease complications. Thereby, whole blood samples of 208 patients (94 chronic HBV-infected patients and 114 HBV immune subjects) were analyzed to investigate the association between IFNG (-5Ax2192;G), IFNA1 (-2Cx2192;T) and IFNAR1 (-97Tx2192;C) genes with their expression levels and HBV viral load...
2015: Intervirology
Xiaoyan Li, Liru Guo, Mei Kong, Xu Su, Dongjing Yang, Ming Zou, Yinghua Liu, Likun Lu
OBJECTIVES: No licensed vaccines or therapeutic agents for human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infection exist to date. We aimed to construct a multi-epitope peptide (MEP) of hMPV to show promising results for epitope-based vaccine development. METHODS: Six independent algorithms were screened to predict B-cell epitopes of hMPV, and three algorithms were used to predict cytotoxic T lymphocyte and T helper (Th) lymphocyte epitopes. Predicted epitopes were assembled in series with the spacers GPGPG and KK introduced, termed MEP...
2015: Intervirology
Guocai Wu, Xia Liu, Song Liu, Jun Shu, Zhifu Sun, Bing Luo
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the specific Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) polymorphisms from nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients and healthy donors in Southern China, and to explore the relationship between EBV genotypes and NPC. METHODS: The EBNA-2 gene of 32 EBV-positive NPCs and 39 EBV-positive throat washing (TW) samples from healthy individuals from Southern China was analyzed using PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: We found E2-A to be the predominant subtype in Southern China...
2015: Intervirology
Julie H Wu, Rebecca A Simonette, Thomas Hsiao, Hung Q Doan, Peter L Rady, Stephen K Tyring
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV), human polyomavirus 6 (HPyV6), and human polyomavirus 7 (HPyV7) are implicated in the pathogeneses of distinct hyperproliferative cutaneous growths and encode small tumor (sT) antigens. The current study demonstrates that the four sT antigens differentially regulate 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) serine 65 hyperphosphorylation. MCPyV and HPyV7 sT antigens were found to promote the presence of the hyperphosphorylated 4E-BP1-δ isoform, while TSPyV and HPyV6 sT antigens had no significant effects...
2015: Intervirology
Vo Duy Thong, Kittiyod Poovorawan, Pisit Tangkijvanich, Rujipat Wasitthankasem, Sompong Vongpunsawad, Yong Poovorawan
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the influence of host and viral factors on the sustained virologic response (SVR) in hepatitis C virus genotype 6 (HCV-6) patients treated with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV). METHODS: Data were retrieved from Medline, Embase, PubMed and the Cochrane Library for 'genotype 6' studies published up to December 2014 and for abstracts from international scientific meetings. Inclusion criteria were efficacy of PEG-IFN+RBV based on SVR, 24- or 48-week therapy and treatment-naïve patients...
2015: Intervirology
László Egyed, Viktor Zöldi, Levente Szeredi
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the dose dependence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection in one of the reservoirs, i.e. Apodemus agrarius, a small rodent species. METHODS: The animals were challenged with TBEV per os and intramuscularly with infectious doses ranging from 1 to 1,500 plaque-forming units (pfu). Clinical signs were recorded and clinical and pathological features were evaluated by histological, immunohistochemical, and serological methods...
2015: Intervirology
Yong-Ning Deng, Jun-Yan Zeng, Hua Su, Qiu-Min Qu
Virus-like particle (VLP) of JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is capable of packaging and delivering exogenous DNA into human cells and can be used for mediating therapeutic gene expression. However, many human cells express the JCPyV receptor. Thus, wild-type VLP can transduce a wide range of human cells nonspecifically. This study tested the feasibility of using a modified VLP with a IgG binding domain (Z domain) of protein A in its capsid for targeted gene delivery. The Z domain of protein A isolated from the membrane of Staphylococcus aureus was inserted into the NH3-terminus of VP1, the major JCPyV capsular protein...
2015: Intervirology
Jesús Salvador Velarde-Félix, Silvestre Guadalupe Cázarez-Salazar, Sylvia Páz Díaz-Camacho, Ignacio Osuna-Ramírez, Luis Antonio Ochoa-Ramírez, Jorge Guillermo Sánchez-Zazueta, Martín Ramírez
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1)-3'A polymorphism to HIV-1 infection, CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts, and viral load levels in a northwestern Mexican population. METHODS: We investigated allele and genotype frequencies of the SDF1-3'A polymorphism in 634 mestizo individuals from Northwest Mexico (204 HIV-1 infected persons, 256 uninfected blood donors, and 174 uninfected female sex workers) by the PCR- RFLP method and compared them using a x(2) test...
2015: Intervirology
Ewa Nowalany-Kozielska, Monika Kozieł, Dorota Domal-Kwiatkowska, Celina Wojciechowska, Wojciech Jacheć, Damian Kawecki, Andrzej Tomasik, Brygida Przywara-Chowaniec, Ludmiła Węglarz, Edyta Reichman-Warmusz, Romuald Wojnicz
BACKGROUND: The impact of myocardial viral persistence on the clinical outcome of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is still open to question. METHODS: Fifty-two patients with DCM were enrolled and followed for a median of 3.8 years with respect to death or heart transplantation. Studied patients were clinically stable for at least 6 months before hospitalization. They underwent coronary angiography and endomyocardial biopsy. Specimens were examined by histo- and immunohistochemistry, and the viral genomes of parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Coxsackie B virus (CVB), and hepatitis B and C viruses were studied by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
2015: Intervirology
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