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Intervirology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316545/survival-of-viruses-in-water
#1
Anthony Pinon, Michèle Vialette
Water, a frequent vehicle for the transmission of viruses, may permit their survival, but many environmental factors will have an adverse effect on the viral population. Risk evaluation requires identification of these factors and assessment of the inactivation rate of infectious viruses. A higher temperature means a faster reduction of the viral population, as do increased sunlight, higher antimicrobial concentration, or higher oxygen levels. Another documented impact is linked to the presence of indigenous microbial populations: virus survival is higher in sterile water...
January 10, 2018: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306940/preliminary-characterization-of-el-tor-vibriophage-m4
#2
Sayani Das, Amar N Ghosh
AIMS: The aim of the present study is the preliminary characterization of an El Tor vibriophage M4 (ATCC 51352-B4). METHODS: We studied the growth characteristics and sustainability of this phage under various stresses like temperature, pH, and UV. The phage morphology and phage genome were also examined using electron microscopy. RESULTS: Sustainability studies showed that the phage is more stable in acidic conditions, which is very uncommon among vibriophages...
January 6, 2018: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212076/resistance-associated-mutations-and-polymorphisms-among-integrase-inhibitor-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-1-patients-in-kuwait
#3
Wassim Chehadeh, Osama Albaksami, Sonia Elezebeth John, Widad Al-Nakib
OBJECTIVES: Resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) in the integrase of different HIV-1 subtypes were investigated in a cohort of patients never exposed to integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs). METHODS: The viral RNA was extracted from plasma samples of 53 INSTI-naïve patients, and the integrase genetic region was sequenced and analyzed for subtype assignment and drug resistance. RESULTS: The median viral load at sampling was 5.28 × 104 RNA copies/mL...
December 7, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186704/crf35-ad-as-the-main-circulating-genotype-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection-in-iran-a-phylogenetic-and-demographic-based-study
#4
Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani, Seyedeh Arefeh Ebrahimian, Hoda Gudarzi, Seyed Mohammad Jazayeri, Fatemeh Jahanbakhsh, Minoo Mohraz, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Kayhan Azadmanesh, Saber Soltani, Mehdi Norouzi
Finding the predominant circulating subtype of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and surveying co-infection with other infectious viruses are crucial to making preventive decisions. To this end, 50 Iranian HIV-positive patients made up of 37 men and 13 women were selected. Most of the HIV-positive patients (70%) were intravenous drug users (IDUs), and 48 and 32% of patients were co-infected with HCV and HBV, respectively. The rate of simultaneous infection with HIV, HCV, and HBV was found to be 6%...
November 30, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161710/distribution-of-hepatitis-c-virus-genotypes-and-subtypes-in-the-metropolitan-area-of-naples-italy-in-the-era-of-interferon-free-regimens
#5
Elena Grimaldi, Maria Elena Della Pepa, Francesca Martora, Pasqualino Magliocca, Maria Rosaria Iovene, Nicola Coppola, Giovanna Donnarumma, Massimiliano Galdiero
AIMS: The objective of this work was to study the distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and subtypes from 2010 to 2015 in 1,221 anti-HCV/HCV-RNA-positive specimens from patients living in the metropolitan area of Naples, since HCV genotypes and subtypes remain cornerstones in the management of chronic HCV infection even in the directly acting antivirals era. METHODS: The study was carried out on 1,221 anti-HCV/HCV-RNA-positive plasma samples collected between April 2010 and December 2015...
November 22, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161685/intergenotype-recombination-among-new-norovirus-gii-4-variants-in-the-complete-genome
#6
Jinfeng Xu, Tingjun Liu, Hua Wang, Hongxing Shen
GII.4 noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. A new variant of GII.4, the Sydney variant, has recently become more prevalent on a global scale. Intragenotype recombinations are widespread within the pandemic NoV GII.4 lineage, and are likely to be important forces driving the evolution and emergence of novel GII.4 viruses. In this study, we sought to examine the role that intergenotype recombination has played in the emergence of GII.4 Sydney 2012 variants. The results show that the GII...
November 22, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145204/comparing-the-clinical-features-and-outcomes-of-acute-hepatitis-e-viral-infections-with-those-of-acute-hepatitis-a-b-and-c-infections-in-korea
#7
Hye Won Oh, Ra Ri Cha, Sang Soo Lee, Chang Min Lee, Wan Soo Kim, Yun Won Jo, Jin Joo Kim, Jae Min Lee, Hong Jun Kim, Chang Yoon Ha, Hyun Jin Kim, Tae Hyo Kim, Woon Tae Jung, Ok Jae Lee
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the etiology of acute viral hepatitis and compared the clinical features of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections with those of other acute viral hepatitis infections in Korea. METHODS: This study included 2,357 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with acute hepatitis, based on acute illness with jaundice or elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (>100 IU/L), between January 2007 and January 2016. Acute viral infections were observed in 23 (19...
November 17, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141246/evaluation-of-temporal-virological-responses-to-interferon-%C3%AE-2b-plus-ribavirin-among-genotype-3a-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-patients
#8
Abida Raza, Muhammad Ovais, Hafsa Aziz, Asim Anwar, Javaid Irfan, Irshad Ahmad, Muhammad Mukhtar
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to examine the impact of rapid virological response (RVR) and early virological response (EVR) on sustained virological response (SVR) in chronic hepatitis C genotype 3a individuals. METHODS: The patients were given antiviral therapy with IFN-α-2b, 3 million units 3 times a week and 800-1,200 mg of ribavirin daily adjusted to the patient's body weight (<60 kg 800 mg day-1, and >60 kg 1,200 day-1). The patients received this combination therapy for 24 weeks...
November 16, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972950/phylogenetic-analysis-of-torque-teno-virus-in-thalassemic-children-in-egypt
#9
Noha A Hassuna, Eman Naguib, Medhat Abdel-Fatah, Suzan M Omar Mousa
OBJECTIVE: Torque teno virus (TTV) is a ubiquitous virus that is commonly associated with blood transfusion. The main aims of this study were to evaluate the incidence of TTV in polytransfused children with thalassemia and to determine for the first time the prevalent TTV genotypes in Egypt. METHODS: TTV was detected in 2 groups by nested PCR: the first group comprised 200 children with thalassemia, and the second included age- and sex-matched healthy children with no history of blood transfusion...
October 4, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957812/humoral-immune-response-in-mice-elicited-by-combined-yeast-derived-hepatitis-b-virus-core-surface-and-mosaic-surface-antigens
#10
Vladimir Granovski, Jonny Yokosawa, Vanessa Rodrigues-Granovski, Carlos Cueto Castro, Alfonso Camacho Urbina, Nikolai Granovski
BACKGROUND: Although successful, the second-generation hepatitis B vaccine programs around the world have a small group of immunized individuals that does not respond efficiently to the vaccination. Other issues of these vaccines are individuals that are low or nonresponders and/or have incomplete protection against heterologous hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes/subtypes and against HBV escape mutants. In addition, there are approximately 240 million people chronically infected with HBV worldwide and 620,000 deaths per year caused by the infection...
September 29, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954265/differential-detection-of-enterovirus-and-herpes-simplex-virus-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-by-real-time-rt-pcr
#11
Brenda Sarquiz-Martínez, César R González-Bonilla, Clara Esperanza Santacruz-Tinoco, José E Muñoz-Medina, Héctor D Pardavé-Alejandre, Elizabeth Barbosa-Cabrera, José Ernesto Ramírez-González, José Alberto Díaz-Quiñonez
BACKGROUND: Enterovirus (EV) and herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2) are the main etiologic agents of central nervous system infections. Early laboratory confirmation of these infections is performed by viral culture of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or the detection of specific antibodies in serum (e.g., HSV). The sensitivity of viral culture ranges from 65 to 75%, with a recovery time varying from 3 to 10 days. Serological tests are faster and easy to carry out, but they exhibit cross-reactivity between HSV1 and HSV2...
September 28, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614823/resistance-of-enteric-viruses-on-fomites
#12
Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou, Famara Sane, Swan Firquet, Pierre-Emmanuel Lobert, Didier Hober
Human enteric viruses are associated with several clinical features, especially gastroenteritis. Large amounts of these viruses can be released in the environment and spread to people. Enteric viruses are nonenveloped viruses and have displayed good survival in the environment. They can be significantly resistant in food and water but also on fomites, and this is thought to play a role in transmission, leading to sporadic cases or outbreaks. The survival of enteric viruses on fomites relies on many factors including the virus itself, fomite properties, and extrinsic environmental factors such as temperature or relative humidity...
June 15, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910810/concurrent-infection-with-plasmodium-vivax-and-the-dengue-and-chikungunya-viruses-in-a-paediatric-patient-from-new-delhi-india-in-2016
#13
Ayesha Tazeen, Mohd Abdullah, Malik Hisamuddin, Sher Ali, Irshad H Naqvi, Hirday N Verma, Anwar Ahmed, Shama Parveen
Dengue and chikungunya fevers are transmitted by the common mosquito vector Aedes and malaria by Anopheles. Concurrent infections are reported due to co-circulation of these pathogens, especially in endemic regions. We report a rare case of triple infection with 3 arthropod-borne pathogens (Plasmodium vivax and the dengue and chikungunya viruses) in a 3-year-old child from New Delhi, India, in August 2016. The viruses were identified by RT-PCR and the parasite by microscopy and antigen detection. The dengue virus serotype 3 sequence was clustered in the genotype III by the phylogenetic analysis...
2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877517/the-histopathological-characteristics-caused-by-trionyx-sinensis-hemorrhagic-syndrome-virus-tshsv-and-comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-liver-tissue-in-tshsv-infected-chinese-soft-shelled-turtles-pelodiscus-sinensis
#14
Li Liu, Zheng Cao, Feng Lin, Xueping Ye, Shujuan Lu, Sunjian Lyv
Trionyx sinensis hemorrhagic syndrome virus (TSHSV) is a pathogen that causes severe hemorrhagic syndrome and irreversible damage to different infected tissues of Pelodis cus sinensis, ending in the death of affected organisms. In the present study, the histopathological characteristics of TSHSV-infected P. sinensis were analyzed and compared by HE staining. Relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis was employed to explore the molecular pathology of liver injury. Anatomical features indicated that TSHSV caused obvious congestion in the liver, kidney, intestine, and other tissues of P...
2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869960/syncytia-induction-by-clinical-isolates-of-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-a
#15
Talita Bianca Gagliardi, Miriã Ferreira Criado, José Luiz Proença-Módena, Ariane Mirela Saranzo, Marisa Akiko Iwamoto, Flávia Escremim de Paula, Ricardo Souza Cardoso, Luana Sela Delcaro, Maria Lúcia Silva, Ataide Ademir Câmara, Eurico Arruda
OBJECTIVE: Syncytia formation is the hallmark of the cytopathic effect caused by human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), which is the most important viral respiratory pathogen in children. This article reports methodological improvements in primary HRSV isolation and the importance of syncytia formation and mRNA levels of F protein for the progeny yield, using clinical isolates of HRSV. METHODS: The A and B strains of HRSV were isolated in HEp-2 cell cultures from fresh and frozen nasopharyngeal aspirates...
2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869941/identifying-attenuating-mutations-tools-for-a-new-vaccine-design-against-flaviviruses
#16
Cécile Khou, Nathalie Pardigon
Emerging Flaviviruses pose an increasing threat to global human health. To date, human vaccines against yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), dengue virus (DV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) exist. However, there is no human vaccine against other Flaviviruses such as Zika virus (ZIKV) and West Nile virus (WNV). In order to restrict their spread and to protect populations against the diseases they induce, vaccines against these emerging viruses must be designed. Obtaining new live attenuated Flavivirus vaccines using molecular biology methods is now possible...
2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848176/transformation-of-cells-by-photoinactivated-murine-gamma-herpesvirus-68-during-nonproductive-and-quiescent-infection
#17
Veronika Mrázová, Marcela Kúdelová, Miroslava Smolinská, Eva Nováková, Miroslava Šupolíková, Michaela Vrbová, František Golais
Infection of human MRC-5 cells and mouse NIH-3T3 cells with a murine gamma-herpesvirus (MuHV-4 strain 68; MHV-68) photoinactivated by visible light in the presence of methylene blue (MB) resulted in nonproductive infection and the appearance of morphologically transformed cells. Two stably transformed cell lines were derived from both of these cell types and were confirmed to contain both viral DNA and antigen. Next, a quiescent MHV-68 infection in MRC-5 and NIH-3T3 cells was established after cultivation at 41°C in the presence of phosphonoacetic acid...
2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848124/detection-of-merkel-cell-polyomavirus-in-respiratory-tract-specimens
#18
Evelina Shikova, Djanan Emin, Dora Alexandrova, Mihail Shindov, Аntoniya Kumanova, Andrey Lekov, Ugo Moens
OBJECTIVE: The role of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) as a respiratory pathogen is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MCPyV in patients with acute respiratory diseases and chronic lung diseases, including lung cancer, in order to evaluate the association between MCPyV infection and respiratory diseases. METHODS: This study included 221 specimens (133 nasopharyngeal swabs and 88 lung biopsy specimens) obtained from patients with acute respiratory diseases and chronic lung diseases, including lung cancer...
2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813716/no-correlation-of-the-disease-severity-of-influenza-a-virus-infection-with-the-rs12252-polymorphism-of-the-interferon-induced-transmembrane-protein-3-gene
#19
Yong-Chan Kim, Byung-Hoon Jeong
The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, which involved a more pathogenic virus than seasonal influenza viruses, rapidly spread around the world and caused many deaths in humans. The members of the interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) protein family prevent viral replication and are crucial for defending the host cell against influenza A virus (IAV). Several studies suggest that the CC genotype at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs12252 of IFITM3 confers a genetic predisposition to pandemic influenza A in Europeans and Han Chinese, although one study in a British cohort failed to show an association...
2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795954/the-first-characterization-of-hiv-1-subtypes-and-drug-resistance-mutations-among-antiretrovirally-treated-patients-in-kermanshah-iran
#20
Reza Golmohammadi, Kazem Baesi, Abdolvahab Moradi, Molood Farrokhi, Willi McFarland, Shahryar Parsamajd
BACKGROUND: Insufficient therapy during HIV-1 replication can promote the emergence of drug-resistant strains, reduce the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment (ART), and increase the likelihood of the onward transmission of drug-resistant viruses. We characterized, for the first time, the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes and drug resistance mutations in a western region of Iran. METHODS: This study was conducted among 122 patients on ART at a major referral center in Kermanshah, Iran...
2017: Intervirology
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