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Peng Yuan, Zhou Yang, Han Song, Kai Wang, Yang Yang, Luyi Xie, Shilei Huang, Jia Liu, Lin Ran, Zhenhui Song
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are similar coronaviruses, causing diseases characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, and death from severe dehydration in piglets. Thus, they have caused huge losses to the swine-breeding industry worldwide. Nowadays, they are easily transmitted among the continents via vehicles, equipment, and cargo. Both viruses establish an infection in porcine enterocytes in the small intestine, and their spike (S) proteins play a key role in the virus-cell binding process under unfavorable conditions when the intestine with a low pH is filled with a thick layer of mucus and proteases...
September 3, 2018: Intervirology
Kathleen M Nitschinsk, Daniel T Clarke, Adi Idris, Nigel A McMillan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is an important human respiratory pathogen and is implicated in an array of respiratory illnesses, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe bronchiolitis. Currently, there is no reliable vaccine or specific antiviral therapy for hMPV infection and treatment is supportive. The use of ribonucleic acid interference has the potential to change that with the targeting of essential viral genes via small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) offering the ability to directly and rapidly treat viral infections...
August 24, 2018: Intervirology
Yeh Fong Tan, Chai Ying Lim, Chun Wie Chong, Patricia Kim Chooi Lim, Ivan Kok Seng Yap, Pooi Pooi Leong, Kenny Voon
BACKGROUND: The giant amoebal viruses of Mimivirus and Marseillevirus are large DNA viruses and have been documented in water, soil, and sewage samples. The trend of discovering these giant amoebal viruses has been increasing throughout Asia with Japan, India, and Saudi Arabia being the latest countries to document the presence of these viruses. To date, there have been no reports of large amoebal viruses being isolated in South East Asia. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to discover these viruses from soil samples in an aboriginal village (Serendah village) in Peninsular -Malaysia...
August 17, 2018: Intervirology
Jorge Soares, João Vasco Santos, António Sarmento, Altamiro Costa-Pereira
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Spontaneous viral clearance of the chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is a rare event. We aimed to identify the clinical, therapeutic, demographic, and laboratory features associated with spontaneous HCV clearance in 16 HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC, the largest case series, to our knowledge). METHODS: This case series study reports the findings from 16 HIV/HCV coinfected patients with CHC who experienced spontaneous clearance of HCV infection...
August 16, 2018: Intervirology
Jiayi Wang, Wen Liu, Zhenzhen Zhao, Yan Zhang, Bing Luo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Aquaporins are widely expressed in a variety of cancers and were found to play an important role in cell migration, angiogenesis, tumor formation, and tumor development. Thus, they have been proposed as a potential biomarker for some cancers. Accordingly, we analyzed the association between a single-nucleotide polymorphism locus of aquaporin 3 (rs2231231) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (EBVaNPC), lymphoma (EBVaL), and gastric carcinoma in China...
August 15, 2018: Intervirology
Anthony Pinon, Michèle Vialette
Water, a frequent vehicle for the transmission of viruses, may permit their survival, but many environmental factors will have an adverse effect on the viral population. Risk evaluation requires identification of these factors and assessment of the inactivation rate of infectious viruses. A higher temperature means a faster reduction of the viral population, as do increased sunlight, higher antimicrobial concentration, or higher oxygen levels. Another documented impact is linked to the presence of indigenous microbial populations: virus survival is higher in sterile water...
January 10, 2018: Intervirology
Asha Maria Mathew, Amol Baburao Mun, Anukumar Balakrishnan
OBJECTIVE: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging arbovirus causing millions of infections in more than 40 countries. CHIKV is typically a biosafety level 3 pathogen in many countries and handling of CHIKV requires a high standard of laboratory safety settings. Many studies require the whole virus to be handled in a biosafety level 2 setting. A potential solution for managing this problem is pathogen inactivation without affecting its antigenicity. In the present study, we attempted to inactivate CHIKV by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation...
2018: Intervirology
Meshal Beidas, Wassim Chehadeh
OBJECTIVES: The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) infection are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the ability of HCoV-OC43 to antagonize the transcriptional activation of antiviral response elements. METHODS: HCoV-OC43 structural (membrane M and nucleocapsid N) and accessory proteins (ns2a and ns5a) were expressed individually in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells. The transcriptional activation of antiviral response elements was assessed by measuring the levels of firefly luciferase expressed under the control of interferon (IFN)-stimulated response element (ISRE), IFN-β promoter, or nuclear factor kappa B response element (NF-κB-RE)...
2018: Intervirology
Massimiliano Bergallo, Valentina Daprà, Marco Rassu, Stefano Bonamin, Roberto Cuccu, Cristina Calvi, Paola Montanari, Ilaria Galliano
OBJECTIVE: Human Salivirus (SalV) has been associated with gastroenteritis on all continents. METHODS: This paper presents the real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of SalV in clinical fecal samples collected from 192 hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in Piedmont, Italy. RESULTS: The most commonly detected virus was Norovirus genogroup II (GII) (33.8%), followed by Rotavirus (21.3%), Sapovirus (10.9%), Parechovirus (8%), Norovirus GI (6...
2018: Intervirology
Deborah D'Aliberti, Irene Cacciola, Cristina Musolino, Giuseppina Raffa, Roberto Filomia, Angela Alibrandi, Salvatore Benfatto, Concetta Beninati, Carlo Saitta, Domenico Giosa, Orazio Romeo, Giovanni Raimondo, Teresa Pollicino
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) reduce HCV susceptibility to protease inhibitors. Little is known about NS3 RASs in viral isolates from the liver of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients infected with HCV genotype-1a (G1a). AIM: The objective of this work was to study NS3 variability in isolates from the serum and liver of HCV-G1a-infected patients naïve to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). METHODS: NS3 variability of HCV-G1a isolates from the serum and liver of 11 naïve CHC patients, and from sera of an additional 20 naïve CHC patients, was investigated by next-generation sequencing...
2018: Intervirology
Bruna Letícia Domingues Molinari, Alice Fernandes Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri
Rotaviruses (RVs), a common cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans and animals, are classified into 9 established groups/species (RVA-RVI). Although RVB has been found in several countries, genetic variation among RVB field strains remains poorly characterized. RVB strains can be classified into G genotypes based on a nucleotide (nt) homology that exceeds a cutoff value of 80% for the gene that encodes the structural protein VP7. In this study, we determined the VP7 nt and deduced amino acid sequences of one RVB strain (RB62) identified in a diarrheic fecal sample obtained from a piglet in Brazil in 2012...
2018: Intervirology
Érica Benassi-Zanqueta, Caroline Fernandes Marques, Samara Requena Nocchi, Benedito Prado Dias Filho, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Tania Ueda-Nakamura
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Parthenolide is a sesquiterpene lactone that is present in plants of the Tanacetum genus, for which many biological effects have already been reported, including antiherpetic activity. Although the effectiveness of parthenolide against Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has already been demonstrated, such findings are still controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate the ways in which parthenolide exerts anti-HSV-1 activity. METHODS: The cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of parthenolide were determined by the MTT method and plaque reduction assay, respectively...
2018: Intervirology
Massimiliano Bergallo, Valentina Daprà, Cristina Calvi, Paola Montanari, Ilaria Galliano, Paolo Ravanini
According to the latest update, 2,578 unique mature micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are currently annotated in the human genome and participate in the regulation of multiple events, such as cellular proliferation or apoptosis. A previous study analyzing global miRNA expression patterns in GH cells (high human endogenous retrovirus, HERV, K vs. low) showed that 2 miRNAs (miR-663 and miR-638) are differentially regulated and exhibit expression parallel to that of HERV-K. The aim of this study was to evaluate HERV-K and -W pol gene and miR-155 expression in kidney transplant recipients and the possible relationship between them...
2018: Intervirology
Yongbo Kang, Yue Cai
Group A rotavirus (RVA) is a serious public problem in China, with a prevalence of 29.7% in diarrhea cases under 5 years of age. A total of 1,224 fecal specimens were collected in 2015 from children under 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis in Kunming, China, for detection and characterization of rotavirus. The prevalence of RVA was 28.5%. The frequency of RVA detection was greatest (52%) among children aged 7-12 months. The following strains were the most common types: G9P(8) (58.2%), G3P(8) (14.9%), and G1P(8) (6...
2018: Intervirology
Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou, Famara Sane, Swan Firquet, Pierre-Emmanuel Lobert, Didier Hober
Human enteric viruses are associated with several clinical features, especially gastroenteritis. Large amounts of these viruses can be released in the environment and spread to people. Enteric viruses are nonenveloped viruses and have displayed good survival in the environment. They can be significantly resistant in food and water but also on fomites, and this is thought to play a role in transmission, leading to sporadic cases or outbreaks. The survival of enteric viruses on fomites relies on many factors including the virus itself, fomite properties, and extrinsic environmental factors such as temperature or relative humidity...
June 15, 2017: Intervirology
Ayushman Ghosh, Anita Desai, Vasanthapuram Ravi, Gayathri Narayanappa, Brij Kishore Tyagi
AIM: The study was designed to identify putative Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) receptor/s on C6/36 cells that facilitate viral entry. METHODS: The virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) was adopted to identify CHIKV-interacting bands present in C6/36 cell membrane and identity of the protein was established by mass spectrometry. The role of this protein as a putative CHIKV receptor on C6/36 cells was confirmed by infection inhibition assay. Cell surface localization of the identified protein was studied by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) on nonpermeabilized cells and by flow cytometry...
2017: Intervirology
Laura Conde-Ferraez, Ramón Pacheco-Arjona, Cinthia Novelo Canul, Jesus Gomez-Carballo, Jorge Humberto Ramirez-Prado, Guadalupe Ayora-Talavera, Maria Del Refugio González-Losa
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The study aimed to describe human papillomavirus (HPV) 58 genetic variability in E6 and E7 oncogenes from women in southeast Mexico and their phylogenetic relationships with the sequences from other geographical regions. METHODS: The E6-E7 region was amplified by nested PCR, and sequenced for identification of polymorphisms, phylogenetic trees construction, and haplotype and fixation tests. RESULTS: HPV58 positive samples were obtained from a repository, 54 were amplified, 47 sequences for the E6 gene, and 51 sequences for the E7 gene were obtained...
2017: Intervirology
Amita Jain, Shantanu Prakash, Bhawana Jain
OBJECTIVE: The study was conducted to analyze changes in HA and NA genes of pandemic pH1N1 strains, collected from North Indian tertiary care hospital during 2015 and studied the nucleotide change since 2009. Differences in clinical features of cases positive and negative for influenza viruses were also studied. METHODS: All samples referred for H1N1 testing, were tested for influenza viruses. Randomly selected 25 strains of pH1N1 were studied for nucleotide sequences of HA & NA gene...
2017: Intervirology
Antoine Enfissi, Marie-Line Joffret, Déborah Delaune, Francis Delpeyroux, Dominique Rousset, Maël Bessaud
In 2017, numerous cases of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) were reported in the Caribbean and in South America. Preliminary reports identified adenoviruses and enteroviruses in some patient samples but, until now, none of the etiologic agents have been fully characterized. We report the full-length genomic sequences of 4 coxsackievirus A24 (CV-A24) isolates collected from AHC patients in French Guiana during this outbreak (May and June 2017). These isolates are very closely related and belong to the genotype IV of CV-A24 variant, which consists of strains sampled worldwide during AHC outbreaks in the 2000s and 2010s...
2017: Intervirology
Ahmed S Abdel-Moneim, Anupam Varma, Flor H Pujol, George K Lewis, Janusz T Paweska, Jesús L Romalde, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, Matthew D Moore, Michael M Nevels, Vikram N Vakharia, Vinod Joshi, Yashpal Singh Malik, Zhengli Shi, Ziad A Memish
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Intervirology
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