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Yuanyuan Li, Haipeng Li, Ruyan Fan, Bo Wen, Jian Zhang, Xiaoying Cao, Chengwu Wang, Zhanyi Song, Shuochi Li, Xiaojie Li, Xinjun Lv, Xiaowang Qu, Renbin Huang, Wenpei Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Coronavirus (CoV) infections induce respiratory tract illnesses and central nervous system (CNS) diseases. We aimed to explore the cytokine expression profiles in hospitalized children with CoV-CNS and CoV-respiratory tract infections. METHODS: A total of 183 and 236 hospitalized children with acute encephalitis-like syndrome and respiratory tract infection, respectively, were screened for anti-CoV IgM antibodies. The expression profiles of multiple cytokines were determined in CoV-positive patients...
January 20, 2017: Intervirology
Konstantin Zedtwitz-Liebenstein, Magda Diab-Elschahaw, Michael Frass
In a retrospective analysis of patients visiting the Outpatient Department of the Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine over a period of 3 years, we found a high incidence of symptomatic nonsevere human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in nonimmunocompromised patients. We present 11 symptomatic cases of HCMV infection in nonimmunocompromised patients with non-life-threatening symptoms like long-lasting depletion, fatigue, and subfebrile fever with or without muscular pain and arthralgia. Although the symptoms were not life-threatening, all of the patients suffered a prolonged duration of the disease until improvement...
January 18, 2017: Intervirology
Agnieszka Pawlak, Maciej Przybylski, Marek Durlik, Katarzyna Gil, Anna M Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Katarzyna Byczkowska, Andrzej Ziemba, Robert J Gil
BACKGROUND: The meaning of viral nucleic acids in the myocardium in many cases is difficult for clinical interpretation, whereas the presence of viral nucleic acids in the serum is a marker of active infection. We determined the diagnostic value of viral nucleic acids in ventricular serum and peripheral serum samples in comparison with endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) specimens in patients with clinically suspected myocarditis. METHODS: The viral nucleic acid evaluation was performed in serum samples and EMB specimens by real-time PCR in 70 patients (age: 47 ± 16 years)...
January 13, 2017: Intervirology
Md Imam Faizan, Mohd Abdullah, Sher Ali, Irshad H Naqvi, Anwar Ahmed, Shama Parveen
Zika virus is an arthropod-borne re-emerging pathogen associated with the global pandemic of 2015-2016. The devastating effect of Zika viral infection is reflected by its neurological manifestations such as microcephaly in newborns. This scenario evoked our interest to uncover the neurotropic localization, multiplication of the virus, and the mechanism of microcephaly. The present report provides an overview of a possible molecular mechanism of Zika virus-induced microcephaly based on recent publications. Transplacental transmission of Zika viral infection from mother to foetus during the first trimester of pregnancy results in propagation of the virus in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), where entry is facilitated by the receptor (AXL protein) leading to the alteration of signalling and immune pathways in host cells...
January 13, 2017: Intervirology
Veronika Lachová, Darina Svetlíková, František Golais, Miroslava Šupolíková, Lucia Turianová, Tatiana Betáková
Murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) can transform cells in vitro and in vivo. We investigated putative murine herpesvirus growth factors (MHGFs) obtained by the separation of cell-free media from MHV-68-transformed cells on an FPLC Sephadex G15 column. The transforming activity of the MHGFA fraction was related to depolymerization of actin, disruption of the microtubule network, and punctate-reticular changes of the Golgi. The MHGFW fraction had only repressing activity on the transformed phenotype. Incubation of MRC-5 cells with MHGFW resulted in reticular changes of the Golgi apparatus, minor depolymerization of actin filaments, and no detectable changes of the microtubule network...
January 5, 2017: Intervirology
Molood Farrokhi, Samaneh Moallemi, Kazem Baesi, Sara Ahsani-Nasab, Mohammad Gholami, Leila Sadeghi, Minoo Mohraz
BACKGROUND: Increasing the accessibility of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has caused the emergence of drug resistance in patients receiving ART and in naïve patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate HIV subtype and drug resistance between naïve patients and ART-experienced patients. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 78 antiretroviral and naïve HIV-1 patients; antiretroviral-resistant mutations and subtyping were then determined by sequencing pol regions...
December 15, 2016: Intervirology
Andrea Hettmann, Anett Demcsák, Ádám Bach, Gábor Decsi, Ágnes Dencs, Dóra Pálinkó, László Rovó, Katalin Nagy, Janos Minarovits, Mária Takács
OBJECTIVES: Because torque teno virus (TTV) has been implicated in tumorigenesis as a cocarcinogen, we studied TTV prevalence in saliva and biopsy samples from head and neck cancer (HNCC) patients, patients with premalignant lesions of oral cancer, and controls. We also wished to determine the TTV genotypes in HNCC patients. METHODS: A seminested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying the N22 region of the TTV genome, as well as direct sequencing of PCR fragments, was used...
2016: Intervirology
Catherine Tamalet, Isabelle Ravaux, Catherine Dhiver, Amelie Menard, Philippe Colson, Andreas Stein
OBJECTIVES: Anal cancer incidence is increasing among HIV-positive patients. No consensus currently exists for the screening of anal dysplasia. This study aimed at evaluating the feasibility and acceptability of anal self-sampling and assessing the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types among HIV-positive patients from Marseille University Hospitals. METHODS: Between October 2013 and March 2014, during their regular visits for the monitoring of their HIV infection in an HIV outpatient clinical unit of Marseille University Hospitals, patients were asked to self-sample anal swabs for HPV detection...
2016: Intervirology
Yulia V Kuzmenko, Olga A Smirnova, Alexander V Ivanov, Elizaveta S Starodubova, Vadim L Karpov
BACKGROUND: Infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes pathological changes in the central nervous system. However, the possible redox alterations in the infected cells that can contribute to the virus pathogenicity remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: In the current study we explored the ability of TBEV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) to induce oxidative stress and activate antioxidant defense via the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived-2)-like 2/antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) pathway...
2016: Intervirology
Paul Pumpens, Regina Renhofa, Andris Dishlers, Tatjana Kozlovska, Velta Ose, Peter Pushko, Kaspars Tars, Elmars Grens, Martin F Bachmann
RNA phages are often used as prototypes for modern recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) technologies. Icosahedral RNA phage VLPs can be formed from coat proteins (CPs) and are efficiently produced in bacteria and yeast. Both genetic fusion and chemical coupling have been successfully used for the production of numerous chimeras based on RNA phage VLPs. In this review, we describe advances in RNA phage VLP technology along with the history of the Leviviridae family, including its taxonomical organization, genomic structure, and important role in the development of molecular biology...
2016: Intervirology
Mehdi A Benkahla, Famara Sane, Rachel Desailloud, Didier Hober
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure of piglets to enteroviruses-G (EV-G) through the presence of antibodies in their serum. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from the vena cava of 10 piglets at 9 weeks of age and again 39 days later (day 39). They were tested using an immunoassay based on the EV-G1 VP4 peptide, since VP4 is highly conserved among the four Enterovirus capsid proteins, and by using a seroneutralization assay. RESULTS: For each serum collected on day 39 the optical density was high compared to the value obtained in serum collected earlier (p = 0...
2016: Intervirology
Lucio Boglione, Jessica Cusato, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D'Avolio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Intervirology
Leesa D Bruggink, Jean M Moselen, John A Marshall
The comparative molecular epidemiology of the related GII.P7_GII.6 and GII.P7_GII.7 noroviruses has not been examined in detail. ORF 1, ORF 2 and ORF 1/ORF 2 RT-PCR as well as sequencing and phylogeny analysis were carried out on faecal specimens from 873 gastroenteritis outbreaks in Victoria, Australia (2012-2014). There were 575 (66%) detected as positive for norovirus by means of ORF 1 RT-PCR and/or ORF 2 RT-PCR. Of these, 24 (4.2%) were GII.6 (ORF 2) outbreaks, 7 (1.2%) were GII.7 (ORF 2) outbreaks, and 1 outbreak (0...
2016: Intervirology
Nimisha Harshadrai Bhoola, Anna Kramvis
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is hyperendemic in southern Africa, with subgenotype A1 prevailing. The precore/core (preC/C) region of A1, encoding for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), has unique sequence characteristics, differentiating it from subgenotypes A2 and D3. Our aim was to follow the expression of HBeAg in vitro by the three subgenotypes. METHODS: Huh7 cells were transfected with plasmids belonging to subgenotypes A1, A2, and D3. Using indirect immunofluorescence, the expression of HBeAg was followed, as was the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and subsequent activation of apoptosis...
2016: Intervirology
Houda Chaouch, Stefania Taffon, Umbertina Villano, Michele Equestre, Roberto Bruni, Manel Belhadj, Naila Hannachi, Mahjoub Aouni, Amel Letaief, Anna Rita Ciccaglione
In Tunisia, the prevalence of naturally occurring surface (S) gene variants of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has not been determined. In the present study, the prevalence of these variants was examined in terms of the clinical and viral state in a series of 99 Tunisian patients with HBV infection. The S genes were amplified and directly sequenced. Genotype D was predominant (98%), 40.4% isolates belonged to subgenotypes D7 and 1 to subgenotype D2. The most common subtype was ayw2 (95.9%). In total, 60.6% of the studied strains harbored S mutations...
2016: Intervirology
Jane F Cavender, Mary J Tevethia
BACKGROUND: Amino acids 1-107 of the SV40 T antigen constitute a functionally important and complex region. Cellular proteins, Hsc70, Bub-1, Cul-7, and Rb, each of which is involved in cell growth control or genomic stability, bind within this portion of the T antigen. Mutational analysis has mapped the J domain/Hsc70, Bub-1, and the Rb binding motifs. Two regions of the T antigen have been implicated in Cul-7 binding. Mutation of F98A diminished Cul-7 binding, and deletion of amino acids 68-83 abolished it...
2016: Intervirology
Antônio Augusto Fonseca, Marcelo Fernandes Camargos, Aline Aparecida Silva Barbosa, Valdênia Lopes Silva Gonçalves, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Jenner K Pimenta Dos Reis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to use partial Ul44 sequences (glycoprotein C) of Suid herpesvirus 1 to examine the evolution and dynamics of the virus in different periods and hosts. METHODS: Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the software MrBayes after analysis in the software jModelTest to evaluate the best phylogenetic models. The software SplitsTree 4.0 was used to create phylogenetic networks, and the BEAST program was used to generate data on phylogeography...
2016: Intervirology
Jorge I Castañeda-Sánchez, Diana Alhelí Domínguez-Martínez, Nataly Olivar-Espinosa, Blanca Estela García-Pérez, María Alba Loroño-Pino, Julieta Luna-Herrera, Ma Isabel Salazar
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The innate immune response is remarkably important for controlling infections. Information about the participation of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in response to dengue virus (DENV) is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the AMP response to DENV-2 in human THP-1 cells and neutrophils. METHODS: Protein and mRNA levels of two AMPs - hBD-1 and cathelicidin LL-37 - were assessed in DENV-infected macrophage-like THP-1 cells using qRT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence...
2016: Intervirology
Zhi-Hua Jiang, Qin-Yan Chen, Tim J Harrison, Guo-Jian Li, Xue-Yan Wang, Hai Li, Li-Ping Hu, Kai-Wen Li, Qing-Li Yang, Chao Tan, Zhong-Liao Fang
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify serum proteins with differential concentrations between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and HBsAg asymptomatic carriers among individuals infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) with basal core promoter (BCP) double mutations (A1762T, G1764A). METHODS: iTRAQ and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify differentially expressed protein, and an ELISA test was used for the validation test...
2016: Intervirology
Joelma Carvalho Santos, Dayse Maria Vasconcelos de Deus, Izolda Maria Fernandes de Moura, Edmundo Pessoa Lopes, Maria Rosileide Bezerra Alves, Maria Rosângela Cunha Duarte Coêlho
BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms and variant expression of some interferon (IFN) genes in individuals with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection might be related to higher viral load and disease complications. Thereby, whole blood samples of 208 patients (94 chronic HBV-infected patients and 114 HBV immune subjects) were analyzed to investigate the association between IFNG (-5Ax2192;G), IFNA1 (-2Cx2192;T) and IFNAR1 (-97Tx2192;C) genes with their expression levels and HBV viral load...
2015: Intervirology
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