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Jie Song, Xi Jiang, Yajie Hu, Hui Li, Xuemei Zhang, Jingwen Xu, Weiyu Li, Xuelin Zheng, Shaozhong Dong
OBJECTIVES: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) remain the major pathogens in hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases, but the mechanisms of the different pathogeneses that follow EV71 and CA16 infection remain largely unknown. METHODS: Herein, we utilized microRNA (miRNA) deep sequencing to investigate the roles of novel differentially expressed miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected with EV71 and CA16. RESULTS: The results identified 13 novel differentially expressed miRNAs in each group...
November 7, 2018: Intervirology
Yi-Quan Xiong, Min-Yi Zhang, Jun-Hua Zhou, Yong-Zhi Li, Fang-Fei You, Yu-Qi Wen, Wen-Qiao He, Qing Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of the adeno-associated virus (AAV) in murine rodents and house shrews in 4 provinces of China. METHODS: A total of 469 murine rodents and 19 house shrews were captured between May 2015 and May 2017. Cap gene of AAV sequences was obtained to evaluate the genetic characteristics of rat AAV. RESULTS: Rat AAVs were found in 54.7% (267/488) of throat swabs, 14.3% (70/488) of fecal samples, and 18.4% (41/223) of serum samples...
November 7, 2018: Intervirology
Hui-Hua Jia, Kai-Wen Li, Qin-Yan Chen, Xue-Yan Wang, Tim J Harrison, Shu-Jia Liang, Qing-Li Yang, Chao Wang, Li-Ping Hu, Chuang-Chuang Ren, Zhong-Liao Fang
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) drug-resistant mutations in patients co- infected with HBV/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), including both drug-naïve subjects and those who received antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Guangxi, where the prevalence of HIV/HBV co-infection is highest in China. METHODS: Two hundred and three subjects co-infected with HBV/HIV were recruited, including 123 drug-naïve patients (group 1) and 80 who received ART (group 2)...
October 26, 2018: Intervirology
Yuanyuan Lu, Xinglou Liu, Yuan Huang, Yi Liao, Ting Xi, Yanan Zhang, Sainan Shu, Feng Fang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine which factors lead to the susceptibility to mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) in the spleens of BALB/c mice. METHODS: BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into a control group and an infection group and sacrificed on day 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 postinfection. The cytotoxicity of NK cells was determined by evaluating lactate dehydrogenase contents. Flow cytometry was used to analyze activated NK cells, IFNγ+ NK cells, and total NK cells in the spleen...
October 18, 2018: Intervirology
Mauricio Realpe-Quintero, Santiago Mirazo, Oliver Viera-Segura, Edgar D Copado-Villagrana, Arturo Panduro, Sonia Roman, Juan Arbiza, Nora A Fierro
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to detect and characterize hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA in sera samples from a pediatric population infected with the hepatitis A virus (HAV) exhibiting acute hepatitis and to correlate the infection status with the clinical outcome. METHODS: Seventy-five ELISA-positive samples from children containing anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgM were used to amplify and characterize partial regions within HEV ORF2. A statistical comparison of clinical data between HEV IgM-positive/HEV RNA-positive patients and HEV IgM-positive/HEV RNA-negative patients was performed...
October 2, 2018: Intervirology
Kathleen M Nitschinsk, Daniel T Clarke, Adi Idris, Nigel A McMillan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is an important human respiratory pathogen and is implicated in an array of respiratory illnesses, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe bronchiolitis. Currently, there is no reliable vaccine or specific antiviral therapy for hMPV infection and treatment is supportive. The use of ribonucleic acid interference has the potential to change that with the targeting of essential viral genes via small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) offering the ability to directly and rapidly treat viral infections...
August 24, 2018: Intervirology
Anthony Pinon, Michèle Vialette
Water, a frequent vehicle for the transmission of viruses, may permit their survival, but many environmental factors will have an adverse effect on the viral population. Risk evaluation requires identification of these factors and assessment of the inactivation rate of infectious viruses. A higher temperature means a faster reduction of the viral population, as do increased sunlight, higher antimicrobial concentration, or higher oxygen levels. Another documented impact is linked to the presence of indigenous microbial populations: virus survival is higher in sterile water...
January 10, 2018: Intervirology
Heléne Norder, Cristina Galli, Ellen Magnil, Per Sikora, Elisabet Ekvärn, Kristina Nyström, Lars O Magnius
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a pathogen that causes hepatitis worldwide. Molecular studies have identified HEV RNA in blood products although its significance is not understood. This study was undertaken to characterize HEV genomes in asymptomatic plasma donors from Sweden and Germany lacking anti-HEV. Complete open reading frames (ORFs) were obtained from HEV strains in 5 out of 18 plasma donors who tested positive for HEV RNA. All strains had CUG as the start codon of ORF3, while 147 GenBank strains all had AUG as the start codon (p < 0...
2018: Intervirology
Anirban Mandal, Binay Chaubey
BACKGROUND: The RNAi-based transient therapeutic approach has been well explored for its potential against the hepatitis V virus (HCV). However, to achieve a sustained virological response, a consistent presence of siRNA is needed and it can be achieved by constitutively expressing shRNAs. In this context, the lentiviral vector has emerged as an attractive tool for shRNA delivery against HCV. METHODS: We monitored HCV inhibition after single and multiple rounds of siRNA treatments against La autoantigen and HCV-NS5B in Huh-7...
2018: Intervirology
Peng Yuan, Zhou Yang, Han Song, Kai Wang, Yang Yang, Luyi Xie, Shilei Huang, Jia Liu, Lin Ran, Zhenhui Song
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are similar coronaviruses, causing diseases characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, and death from severe dehydration in piglets. Thus, they have caused huge losses to the swine-breeding industry worldwide. Nowadays, they are easily transmitted among the continents via vehicles, equipment, and cargo. Both viruses establish an infection in porcine enterocytes in the small intestine, and their spike (S) proteins play a key role in the virus-cell binding process under unfavorable conditions when the intestine with a low pH is filled with a thick layer of mucus and proteases...
2018: Intervirology
Yeh Fong Tan, Chai Ying Lim, Chun Wie Chong, Patricia Kim Chooi Lim, Ivan Kok Seng Yap, Pooi Pooi Leong, Kenny Voon
BACKGROUND: The giant amoebal viruses of Mimivirus and Marseillevirus are large DNA viruses and have been documented in water, soil, and sewage samples. The trend of discovering these giant amoebal viruses has been increasing throughout Asia with Japan, India, and Saudi Arabia being the latest countries to document the presence of these viruses. To date, there have been no reports of large amoebal viruses being isolated in South East Asia. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to discover these viruses from soil samples in an aboriginal village (Serendah village) in Peninsular -Malaysia...
2018: Intervirology
Jorge Soares, João Vasco Santos, António Sarmento, Altamiro Costa-Pereira
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Spontaneous viral clearance of the chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is a rare event. We aimed to identify the clinical, therapeutic, demographic, and laboratory features associated with spontaneous HCV clearance in 16 HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC, the largest case series, to our knowledge). METHODS: This case series study reports the findings from 16 HIV/HCV coinfected patients with CHC who experienced spontaneous clearance of HCV infection...
2018: Intervirology
Jiayi Wang, Wen Liu, Zhenzhen Zhao, Yan Zhang, Bing Luo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Aquaporins are widely expressed in a variety of cancers and were found to play an important role in cell migration, angiogenesis, tumor formation, and tumor development. Thus, they have been proposed as a potential biomarker for some cancers. Accordingly, we analyzed the association between a single-nucleotide polymorphism locus of aquaporin 3 (rs2231231) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (EBVaNPC), lymphoma (EBVaL), and gastric carcinoma in China...
2018: Intervirology
Asha Maria Mathew, Amol Baburao Mun, Anukumar Balakrishnan
OBJECTIVE: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging arbovirus causing millions of infections in more than 40 countries. CHIKV is typically a biosafety level 3 pathogen in many countries and handling of CHIKV requires a high standard of laboratory safety settings. Many studies require the whole virus to be handled in a biosafety level 2 setting. A potential solution for managing this problem is pathogen inactivation without affecting its antigenicity. In the present study, we attempted to inactivate CHIKV by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation...
2018: Intervirology
Meshal Beidas, Wassim Chehadeh
OBJECTIVES: The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) infection are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the ability of HCoV-OC43 to antagonize the transcriptional activation of antiviral response elements. METHODS: HCoV-OC43 structural (membrane M and nucleocapsid N) and accessory proteins (ns2a and ns5a) were expressed individually in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells. The transcriptional activation of antiviral response elements was assessed by measuring the levels of firefly luciferase expressed under the control of interferon (IFN)-stimulated response element (ISRE), IFN-β promoter, or nuclear factor kappa B response element (NF-κB-RE)...
2018: Intervirology
Massimiliano Bergallo, Valentina Daprà, Marco Rassu, Stefano Bonamin, Roberto Cuccu, Cristina Calvi, Paola Montanari, Ilaria Galliano
OBJECTIVE: Human Salivirus (SalV) has been associated with gastroenteritis on all continents. METHODS: This paper presents the real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of SalV in clinical fecal samples collected from 192 hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in Piedmont, Italy. RESULTS: The most commonly detected virus was Norovirus genogroup II (GII) (33.8%), followed by Rotavirus (21.3%), Sapovirus (10.9%), Parechovirus (8%), Norovirus GI (6...
2018: Intervirology
Deborah D'Aliberti, Irene Cacciola, Cristina Musolino, Giuseppina Raffa, Roberto Filomia, Angela Alibrandi, Salvatore Benfatto, Concetta Beninati, Carlo Saitta, Domenico Giosa, Orazio Romeo, Giovanni Raimondo, Teresa Pollicino
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) reduce HCV susceptibility to protease inhibitors. Little is known about NS3 RASs in viral isolates from the liver of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients infected with HCV genotype-1a (G1a). AIM: The objective of this work was to study NS3 variability in isolates from the serum and liver of HCV-G1a-infected patients naïve to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). METHODS: NS3 variability of HCV-G1a isolates from the serum and liver of 11 naïve CHC patients, and from sera of an additional 20 naïve CHC patients, was investigated by next-generation sequencing...
2018: Intervirology
Bruna Letícia Domingues Molinari, Alice Fernandes Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri
Rotaviruses (RVs), a common cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans and animals, are classified into 9 established groups/species (RVA-RVI). Although RVB has been found in several countries, genetic variation among RVB field strains remains poorly characterized. RVB strains can be classified into G genotypes based on a nucleotide (nt) homology that exceeds a cutoff value of 80% for the gene that encodes the structural protein VP7. In this study, we determined the VP7 nt and deduced amino acid sequences of one RVB strain (RB62) identified in a diarrheic fecal sample obtained from a piglet in Brazil in 2012...
2018: Intervirology
Érica Benassi-Zanqueta, Caroline Fernandes Marques, Samara Requena Nocchi, Benedito Prado Dias Filho, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Tania Ueda-Nakamura
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Parthenolide is a sesquiterpene lactone that is present in plants of the Tanacetum genus, for which many biological effects have already been reported, including antiherpetic activity. Although the effectiveness of parthenolide against Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has already been demonstrated, such findings are still controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate the ways in which parthenolide exerts anti-HSV-1 activity. METHODS: The cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of parthenolide were determined by the MTT method and plaque reduction assay, respectively...
2018: Intervirology
Massimiliano Bergallo, Valentina Daprà, Cristina Calvi, Paola Montanari, Ilaria Galliano, Paolo Ravanini
According to the latest update, 2,578 unique mature micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are currently annotated in the human genome and participate in the regulation of multiple events, such as cellular proliferation or apoptosis. A previous study analyzing global miRNA expression patterns in GH cells (high human endogenous retrovirus, HERV, K vs. low) showed that 2 miRNAs (miR-663 and miR-638) are differentially regulated and exhibit expression parallel to that of HERV-K. The aim of this study was to evaluate HERV-K and -W pol gene and miR-155 expression in kidney transplant recipients and the possible relationship between them...
2018: Intervirology
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