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Intervirology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278509/evaluation-of-the-automated-qiasymphony-sp-as-workflow-for-cytomegalovirus-dna-extraction-and-amplification-from-dried-blood-spots
#1
Daniela Spalletti-Cernia, Sara Barbato, Rosanna Sorrentino, Luca Vallefuoco, Caterina Rocco, Pasquale Di Costanzo, Antonella Giannattasio, Francesco Raimondi, Claudia Mazzarella, Roberta De Mattia, Giuseppe Portella
OBJECTIVE: Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) can be considered the most important agent of congenital infection. Long-term sequelae of congenital infection occur in about 15% of infants asymptomatic at birth. To avoid long-term sequelae or to reduce their burden, it is necessary to identify infected children for early interventions. CMV DNA can be detected in dried blood spots (DBSs). DBSs have been used in several studies for the retrospective diagnosis of congenital CMV (CCMV). It has been proposed to use DBSs for the newborn screening of CMV infection; however, manual methods are not suitable for newborn screening of CCMV...
March 10, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208132/an-outbreak-of-acute-hepatitis-caused-by-genotype-ib-hepatitis-a-viruses-contaminating-the-water-supply-in-thailand
#2
Kriangsak Ruchusatsawat, Jongkonnee Wongpiyabovorn, Chonthicha Kawidam, Laddawan Thiemsing, Somchai Sangkitporn, Sayaka Yoshizaki, Masashi Tatsumi, Naokazu Takeda, Koji Ishii
BACKGROUND: In 2000, an outbreak of acute hepatitis A was reported in a province adjacent to Bangkok, Thailand. AIMS: To investigate the cause of the 2000 hepatitis A outbreaks in Thailand using molecular epidemiological analysis. METHODS: Serum and stool specimens were collected from patients who were clinically diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis. Water samples from drinking water and deep-drilled wells were also collected. These specimens were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the VP1/2A region of the hepatitis A virus (HAV) genome...
February 17, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208127/prevalence-of-occult-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-blood-donors-in-jiangsu-china
#3
Hong Lin, Xian Chen, Shaowen Zhu, Ping Mao, Shanshan Zhu, Yanchun Liu, Chengyin Huang, Jun Sun, Jin Zhu
OBJECTIVE: In 2010, only 1 donor blood sample was found to be anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) negative and HCV RNA positive, as detected by nucleic acid testing. In occult HCV infection (OCI), HCV RNA is found in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We investigated the prevalence of OCI among blood donors. METHODS: We collected 513 samples from 334 eligible and 179 deferred donors, including 55 anti-HCV-positive, 113 alanine aminotransferase (ALT)-elevated, and 11 hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive blood donors...
February 17, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178699/identification-of-the-nuclear-localization-signal-region-of-duck-enteritis-virus-ul14-and-its-interaction-with-vp16
#4
FangJie Li, YuWei Zhang, Shun Chen, MingShu Wang, RenYong Jia, DeKang Zhu, MaFeng Liu, KunFeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, XiaoYue Chen, AnChun Cheng
OBJECT: Duck enteritis virus (DEV) is a member of the Alphaherpesvirinae viruses. VP16 and pUL14 are both predicted to be tegument proteins of DEV. METHODS: An indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed for preliminary analysis of the colocalization of pUL14 and VP16, which detected their subcellular localization in duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs) during virus replication. The coexpression of pUL14 and VP16 was detected in transfected DEFs. A bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay was used to confirm a direct interaction between pUL14 and VP16...
February 9, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142135/frequency-and-genotype-of-human-parvovirus-b19-among-iranian-hemodialysis-and-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#5
Alireza Sharif, Arezoo Aghakhani, Ali Akbar Velayati, Mohammad Banifazl, Mohammad Reza Sharif, Effat Razeghi, Davood Kheirkhah, Monireh Kazemimanesh, Anahita Bavand, Amitis Ramezani
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and genotype of human parvovirus B19 and its relation with anemia among Iranian patients under dialysis. METHODS: Fifty hemodialysis (HD) and 33 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients were enrolled. B19 IgG and IgM antibodies were assessed by ELISA, and the presence of B19 DNA was evaluated by nested PCR. PCR products were sequenced directly and phylogenetic analysis was performed. RESULTS: In the HD group, the prevalence of B19 antibodies was 54% for IgG and 4% for IgM...
2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132064/genotype-distribution-and-prevalence-of-human-pegivirus-among-high-risk-populations-in-tunisia
#6
Imen Ben Dhifallah, Kaouther Ayouni, Anissa Chouiha, Amel Sadraoui, Nahed Hogga, Walid Hammami, Ahlem Ben Yahya, Henda Triki
OBJECTIVE: A recently discovered non-A-E hepatitis virus has been designated as human Pegivirus (HPgV). HPgV is prevalent in high-risk groups such as patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and it is of interest for patients who are at risk for transmitted infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HPgV as well as the genotype distribution among patients in the Tunisian population who are infected with HCV and also in multitransfused patients. METHODS: A total of 144 patients were screened using RTPCR/nested PCR of the 5'-untranslated region (UTR); 14 cases were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed...
2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103598/coronavirus-infections-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-respiratory-tract-show-distinct-features-in-hospitalized-children
#7
Yuanyuan Li, Haipeng Li, Ruyan Fan, Bo Wen, Jian Zhang, Xiaoying Cao, Chengwu Wang, Zhanyi Song, Shuochi Li, Xiaojie Li, Xinjun Lv, Xiaowang Qu, Renbin Huang, Wenpei Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Coronavirus (CoV) infections induce respiratory tract illnesses and central nervous system (CNS) diseases. We aimed to explore the cytokine expression profiles in hospitalized children with CoV-CNS and CoV-respiratory tract infections. METHODS: A total of 183 and 236 hospitalized children with acute encephalitis-like syndrome and respiratory tract infection, respectively, were screened for anti-CoV IgM antibodies. The expression profiles of multiple cytokines were determined in CoV-positive patients...
2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095374/human-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-nonimmunocompromised-patients-a-retrospective-analysis-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
REVIEW
Konstantin Zedtwitz-Liebenstein, Magda Diab-Elschahaw, Michael Frass
In a retrospective analysis of patients visiting the Outpatient Department of the Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine over a period of 3 years, we found a high incidence of symptomatic nonsevere human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in nonimmunocompromised patients. We present 11 symptomatic cases of HCMV infection in nonimmunocompromised patients with non-life-threatening symptoms like long-lasting depletion, fatigue, and subfebrile fever with or without muscular pain and arthralgia. Although the symptoms were not life-threatening, all of the patients suffered a prolonged duration of the disease until improvement...
2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081531/viral-nucleic-acids-in-the-serum-are-dependent-on-blood-sampling-site-in-patients-with-clinical-suspicion-of-myocarditis
#9
Agnieszka Pawlak, Maciej Przybylski, Marek Durlik, Katarzyna Gil, Anna M Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Katarzyna Byczkowska, Andrzej Ziemba, Robert J Gil
BACKGROUND: The meaning of viral nucleic acids in the myocardium in many cases is difficult for clinical interpretation, whereas the presence of viral nucleic acids in the serum is a marker of active infection. We determined the diagnostic value of viral nucleic acids in ventricular serum and peripheral serum samples in comparison with endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) specimens in patients with clinically suspected myocarditis. METHODS: The viral nucleic acid evaluation was performed in serum samples and EMB specimens by real-time PCR in 70 patients (age: 47 ± 16 years)...
2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081529/zika-virus-induced-microcephaly-and-its-possible-molecular-mechanism
#10
REVIEW
Md Imam Faizan, Mohd Abdullah, Sher Ali, Irshad H Naqvi, Anwar Ahmed, Shama Parveen
Zika virus is an arthropod-borne re-emerging pathogen associated with the global pandemic of 2015-2016. The devastating effect of Zika viral infection is reflected by its neurological manifestations such as microcephaly in newborns. This scenario evoked our interest to uncover the neurotropic localization, multiplication of the virus, and the mechanism of microcephaly. The present report provides an overview of a possible molecular mechanism of Zika virus-induced microcephaly based on recent publications. Transplacental transmission of Zika viral infection from mother to foetus during the first trimester of pregnancy results in propagation of the virus in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), where entry is facilitated by the receptor (AXL protein) leading to the alteration of signalling and immune pathways in host cells...
2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052265/transforming-activity-of-murine-herpesvirus-68-putative-growth-factor-is-related-to-the-ability-to-change-cytoskeletal-structure
#11
Veronika Lachová, Darina Svetlíková, František Golais, Miroslava Šupolíková, Lucia Turianová, Tatiana Betáková
Murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) can transform cells in vitro and in vivo. We investigated putative murine herpesvirus growth factors (MHGFs) obtained by the separation of cell-free media from MHV-68-transformed cells on an FPLC Sephadex G15 column. The transforming activity of the MHGFA fraction was related to depolymerization of actin, disruption of the microtubule network, and punctate-reticular changes of the Golgi. The MHGFW fraction had only repressing activity on the transformed phenotype. Incubation of MRC-5 cells with MHGFW resulted in reticular changes of the Golgi apparatus, minor depolymerization of actin filaments, and no detectable changes of the microtubule network...
2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974715/hiv-drug-resistance-and-phylogeny-profile-in-na%C3%A3-ve-and-antiretroviral-experienced-patients-in-tehran-iran
#12
Molood Farrokhi, Samaneh Moallemi, Kazem Baesi, Sara Ahsani-Nasab, Mohammad Gholami, Leila Sadeghi, Minoo Mohraz
BACKGROUND: Increasing the accessibility of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has caused the emergence of drug resistance in patients receiving ART and in naïve patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate HIV subtype and drug resistance between naïve patients and ART-experienced patients. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 78 antiretroviral and naïve HIV-1 patients; antiretroviral-resistant mutations and subtyping were then determined by sequencing pol regions...
2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924796/detection-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-torque-teno-virus-in-salivary-and-tumor-biopsy-samples-from-head-and-neck-carcinoma-patients
#13
Andrea Hettmann, Anett Demcsák, Ádám Bach, Gábor Decsi, Ágnes Dencs, Dóra Pálinkó, László Rovó, Katalin Nagy, Janos Minarovits, Mária Takács
OBJECTIVES: Because torque teno virus (TTV) has been implicated in tumorigenesis as a cocarcinogen, we studied TTV prevalence in saliva and biopsy samples from head and neck cancer (HNCC) patients, patients with premalignant lesions of oral cancer, and controls. We also wished to determine the TTV genotypes in HNCC patients. METHODS: A seminested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying the N22 region of the TTV genome, as well as direct sequencing of PCR fragments, was used...
2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923228/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-anal-self-sampling-for-human-papillomavirus-screening-in-hiv-infected-patients
#14
Catherine Tamalet, Isabelle Ravaux, Catherine Dhiver, Amelie Menard, Philippe Colson, Andreas Stein
OBJECTIVES: Anal cancer incidence is increasing among HIV-positive patients. No consensus currently exists for the screening of anal dysplasia. This study aimed at evaluating the feasibility and acceptability of anal self-sampling and assessing the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types among HIV-positive patients from Marseille University Hospitals. METHODS: Between October 2013 and March 2014, during their regular visits for the monitoring of their HIV infection in an HIV outpatient clinical unit of Marseille University Hospitals, patients were asked to self-sample anal swabs for HPV detection...
2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875810/nonstructural-protein-1-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-induces-oxidative-stress-and-activates-antioxidant-defense-by-the-nrf2-are-pathway
#15
Yulia V Kuzmenko, Olga A Smirnova, Alexander V Ivanov, Elizaveta S Starodubova, Vadim L Karpov
BACKGROUND: Infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes pathological changes in the central nervous system. However, the possible redox alterations in the infected cells that can contribute to the virus pathogenicity remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: In the current study we explored the ability of TBEV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) to induce oxidative stress and activate antioxidant defense via the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived-2)-like 2/antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) pathway...
2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829245/the-true-story-and-advantages-of-rna-phage-capsids-as-nanotools
#16
REVIEW
Paul Pumpens, Regina Renhofa, Andris Dishlers, Tatjana Kozlovska, Velta Ose, Peter Pushko, Kaspars Tars, Elmars Grens, Martin F Bachmann
RNA phages are often used as prototypes for modern recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) technologies. Icosahedral RNA phage VLPs can be formed from coat proteins (CPs) and are efficiently produced in bacteria and yeast. Both genetic fusion and chemical coupling have been successfully used for the production of numerous chimeras based on RNA phage VLPs. In this review, we describe advances in RNA phage VLP technology along with the history of the Leviviridae family, including its taxonomical organization, genomic structure, and important role in the development of molecular biology...
2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694750/exposure-of-piglets-to-enteroviruses-investigated-by-an-immunoassay-based-on-the-ev-g1-vp4-peptide
#17
Mehdi A Benkahla, Famara Sane, Rachel Desailloud, Didier Hober
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure of piglets to enteroviruses-G (EV-G) through the presence of antibodies in their serum. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from the vena cava of 10 piglets at 9 weeks of age and again 39 days later (day 39). They were tested using an immunoassay based on the EV-G1 VP4 peptide, since VP4 is highly conserved among the four Enterovirus capsid proteins, and by using a seroneutralization assay. RESULTS: For each serum collected on day 39 the optical density was high compared to the value obtained in serum collected earlier (p = 0...
2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603672/the-role-of-il28b-genotype-in-hcv-rna-baseline-levels
#18
LETTER
Lucio Boglione, Jessica Cusato, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D'Avolio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553653/the-comparative-molecular-epidemiology-of-gii-p7_gii-6-and-gii-p7_gii-7-norovirus-outbreaks-in-victoria-australia-2012-2014
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Leesa D Bruggink, Jean M Moselen, John A Marshall
The comparative molecular epidemiology of the related GII.P7_GII.6 and GII.P7_GII.7 noroviruses has not been examined in detail. ORF 1, ORF 2 and ORF 1/ORF 2 RT-PCR as well as sequencing and phylogeny analysis were carried out on faecal specimens from 873 gastroenteritis outbreaks in Victoria, Australia (2012-2014). There were 575 (66%) detected as positive for norovirus by means of ORF 1 RT-PCR and/or ORF 2 RT-PCR. Of these, 24 (4.2%) were GII.6 (ORF 2) outbreaks, 7 (1.2%) were GII.7 (ORF 2) outbreaks, and 1 outbreak (0...
2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553619/hepatitis-b-e-antigen-expression-by-hepatitis-b-virus-subgenotype-a1-relative-to-subgenotypes-a2-and-d3-in-cultured-hepatocellular-carcinoma-huh7-cells
#20
Nimisha Harshadrai Bhoola, Anna Kramvis
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is hyperendemic in southern Africa, with subgenotype A1 prevailing. The precore/core (preC/C) region of A1, encoding for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), has unique sequence characteristics, differentiating it from subgenotypes A2 and D3. Our aim was to follow the expression of HBeAg in vitro by the three subgenotypes. METHODS: Huh7 cells were transfected with plasmids belonging to subgenotypes A1, A2, and D3. Using indirect immunofluorescence, the expression of HBeAg was followed, as was the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and subsequent activation of apoptosis...
2016: Intervirology
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