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Mejs Hasan, Aaron Moody, Larry Benninger, Heloise Hedlund
The fast-paced conflicts in the Middle East can disrupt management and supply of water, particularly on dams and barrages along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers that have experienced threats or changes in sovereignty. Water supply is also under pressure from upstream water management, drought, and structural decline. In this research, we used a satellite-based algorithm, the normalized difference water index (NDWI), to monitor changes in the extent of surface reservoirs (1985-present). We compared the timeline of reservoir fluctuations with the timeline of events related to conflicts, droughts, and dam management...
July 12, 2018: Ambio
Mauro Fois, Giuseppe Fenu, Gianluigi Bacchetta
While cost estimation is a very positive tool for spatial conservation prioritisation, there are few examples where costs (in monetary terms) are applied. We present a repeatable method to estimate and map field values in monetary terms using common correlative models. We modelled, with a resolution of 1 km2 , the information obtained by several real estate's agencies with a set of eleven environmental, climatic, and anthropogenic variables. Land cover was the main influencing factor, but further variables were affecting bids on field sales according to the socio-economic specificity of each administrative province...
July 10, 2018: Ambio
Yong Zhang, Anthony D Fox, Lei Cao, Qiang Jia, Changhu Lu, Herbert H T Prins, Willem F de Boer
Continuing declines in abundance of many waterbird species on wetland ecosystems require explanations to support effective management interventions. We used 6 year survey data from Shengjin Lake National Nature Reserve in the Yangtze River Floodplain, China, to study the effects of ecological and anthropogenic variables as determinants of waterbird species abundance. Our results showed that effects were guild-dependent, although distance to nearest human settlements had the largest adverse effects on bird abundance across all guilds...
July 9, 2018: Ambio
Christopher Lant, Jacopo Baggio, Megan Konar, Alfonso Mejia, Benjamin Ruddell, Richard Rushforth, John L Sabo, Tara J Troy
Food, energy, and water (FEW) are interdependent and must be examined as a coupled natural-human system. This perspective essay defines FEW systems and outlines key findings about them as a blueprint for future models to satisfy six key objectives. The first three focus on linking the FEW production and consumption to impacts on Earth cycles in a spatially specific manner in order to diagnose problems and identify potential solutions. The second three focus on describing the evolution of FEW systems to identify risks, thus empowering the FEW actors to better achieve the goals of resilience and sustainability...
July 6, 2018: Ambio
James Henty Williams, Thorsten J S Balsby, Helle Ørsted Nielsen, Tommy Asferg, Jesper Madsen
As many goose populations across the northern Hemisphere continue to rise, the role of hunters to manage these populations is increasingly being considered. We studied recreational goose hunters in Denmark to assess their behavioural and motivational characteristics, willingness to alter their hunting effort, as well as their ability to act as stewards of a rapidly increasing goose population. We identified several behavioural characteristics that typify effective goose hunting practices. We suggest a degree of specialization is necessary to increase goose harvests, as well as mitigating animal welfare issues (e...
July 3, 2018: Ambio
Eduardo Jaramillo, Cristian Duarte, Fabio A Labra, Nelson A Lagos, Bruno Peruzzo, Ricardo Silva, Carlos Velasquez, Mario Manzano, Daniel Melnick
In mid-2004, anthropogenically induced changes in water quality of the Río Cruces wetland, a Ramsar site located in southern Chile (ca. 40°S), enhanced the resuspension of iron-enriched sediments, which were subsequently deposited over the most abundant aquatic macrophyte of the wetland (Egeria densa Planch. 1849). This event triggered the formation of brownish, necrotic patches and increased iron contents in the leaves and stems of E. densa, which contributed to a significant demise of the plant within the wetland...
July 3, 2018: Ambio
M Nils Peterson, Erica von Essen, Hans Peter Hansen, Tarla Rai Peterson
Self-policing is essential for addressing wildlife-related crime where illegal activity is extremely diffuse, and limited resources are available for monitoring and enforcement. Emerging research on self-policing suggest key drivers including economics, folk traditions, and socio-political resistance. We build on this research with a case study evaluating potential drivers of self-policing illegal wolf killing among Swedish hunting teams. Swedish hunters marginally leaned toward considering illegal hunting of wolves an expression of resistance (10...
June 28, 2018: Ambio
Daniel P Faith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2018: Ambio
Diego Montecino-Latorre, William San Martín
We surveyed professionals from the Chilean Ministry of Agriculture working with small-scale farmers to characterize the attacks of free-ranging dogs across Chile. Nationwide, in a single year, free-ranging dogs attacked 25% of the ca. 8500 farms included in the survey, killing or injuring about 10 000 small ruminants. These dogs were ranked as the main cause of animal losses for small-scale farmers, representing a threat to the livelihoods of this vulnerable group. Further, free-ranging dogs attacking small ruminants were considered as human-subsidized, since they would be recruited by irresponsible ownership and abandonment from urban centers...
June 15, 2018: Ambio
Rose A Graves, Scott M Pearson, Monica G Turner
Biodiversity-based cultural ecosystem services (CES), such as birdwatching, are strongly influenced by biotic community dynamics. However, CES models are largely static, relying on single estimates of species richness or land-use/land-cover proxies, and may be inadequate for landscape management of CES supply. Using bird survey data from the Appalachian Mountains (USA), we developed spatial-temporal models of five CES indicators (total bird species richness, and richness of migratory, infrequent, synanthrope, and resident species), reflecting variation in birdwatcher preferences...
June 13, 2018: Ambio
Nandini Velho, Ruth S DeFries, Anja Tolonen, Umesh Srinivasan, Aditi Patil
A large number of economically disadvantaged people live around protected areas. Conservation efforts that focus on poverty alleviation, work on the premise that an increase in household wealth decreases use of forest resources. We surveyed 1222 households across four tiger reserves to test the paradigm that an increase in assets leads to reduced forest use and we also assess the effects of other socio-economic factors. We find that increase in assets may reduce Non-timber Forest Product (NTFP) collection, but may not necessarily reduce livestock numbers or use of wood as a cooking fuel...
June 13, 2018: Ambio
Vanessa M Adams, Morena Mills, Rebecca Weeks, Daniel B Segan, Robert L Pressey, Georgina G Gurney, Craig Groves, Frank W Davis, Jorge G Álvarez-Romero
The field of systematic conservation planning has grown substantially, with hundreds of publications in the peer-reviewed literature and numerous applications to regional conservation planning globally. However, the extent to which systematic conservation plans have influenced management is unclear. This paper analyses factors that facilitate the transition from assessment to implementation in conservation planning, in order to help integrate assessment and implementation into a seamless process. We propose a framework for designing implementation strategies, taking into account three critical planning aspects: processes, inputs, and context...
June 9, 2018: Ambio
Paul Jepson
Rewilding may signify the emergence of a new environmental narrative. Discussion of underlying policy narratives is important because they shape understandings of the state of world and how society should act. I summarise the origins of twentieth century environmental narratives and argue that their influence derives from components telling of the dire state of nature, the catastrophic consequences of this and the need for competent authorities to act to govern the perpetrators of harm. Reflecting on my engagements with rewilding science and practice, I posit that stories of rewilding are adopting a quite different narrative structure: one that involves components telling of feelings of despondency and processes of awakening, action, and reassessment leading to the recovery of natural and social well-being...
June 9, 2018: Ambio
Pandian Krishnan, Pachampalayam Shanmugam Ananthan, Ramachandran Purvaja, Jeyapaul Joyson Joe Jeevamani, John Amali Infantina, Cherukumalli Srinivasa Rao, Arur Anand, Ranganalli Somashekharappa Mahendra, Iyyapa Sekar, Kalakada Kareemulla, Amit Biswas, Regulagedda Kalpana Sastry, Ramachandran Ramesh
The impacts of climate change are of particular concern to the coastal region of tropical countries like India, which are exposed to cyclones, floods, tsunami, seawater intrusion, etc. Climate-change adaptation presupposes comprehensive assessment of vulnerability status. Studies so far relied either on remote sensing-based spatial mapping of physical vulnerability or on certain socio-economic aspects with limited scope for upscaling or replication. The current study is an attempt to develop a holistic and robust framework to assess the vulnerability of coastal India at different levels...
May 31, 2018: Ambio
Jordi Guillen, Fabrizio Natale, Natacha Carvalho, John Casey, Johann Hofherr, Jean-Noël Druon, Gianluca Fiore, Maurizio Gibin, Antonella Zanzi, Jann Th Martinsohn
To ensure food security and nutritional quality for a growing world population in the face of climate change, stagnant capture fisheries production, increasing aquaculture production and competition for natural resources, countries must be accountable for what they consume rather than what they produce. To investigate the sustainability of seafood consumption, we propose a methodology to examine the impact of seafood supply chains across national boundaries: the seafood consumption footprint. The seafood consumption footprint is expressed as the biomass of domestic and imported seafood production required to satisfy national seafood consumption, and is estimated using a multi-regional input output model...
May 29, 2018: Ambio
Fritz Kleinschroth, Claude Garcia, Jaboury Ghazoul
In 2014, the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) added a new criterion to its principles that requires protection of intact forest landscapes (IFLs). An IFL is an extensive area of forest that lacks roads and other signs of human activity as detected through remote sensing. In the Congo basin, our analysis of road networks in formally approved concessionary logging areas revealed greater loss of IFL in certified than in noncertified concessions. In areas of informal (i.e., nonregulated) extraction, road networks are known to be less detectable by remote sensing...
May 29, 2018: Ambio
Zali Fung, Teerapong Pomun, Katrina J Charles, Julian Kirchherr
The social impacts of large dams have been studied extensively. However, small dams' social impacts have been largely neglected by the academic community. Our paper addresses this gap. We examine the social impacts of multiple small dams in one upstream and one downstream village in Thailand's Ing River basin. Our research is based on semi-structured interviews with beneficiaries, government and NGOs. We argue that small dams' social impacts are multi-faceted and unequal. The dams were perceived to reduce fish abundance and provide flood mitigation benefits...
May 24, 2018: Ambio
Silvio J Crespin, Javier A Simonetti
Land has traditionally been spared to protect biodiversity; however, this approach has not succeeded by itself and requires a complementary strategy in human-dominated landscapes: land-sharing. Human-wildlife conflicts are rampant in a land-sharing context where wildlife co-occur with crops or livestock, but whose resulting interactions adversely affect the wellbeing of land owners, ultimately impeding coexistence. Therefore, true land-sharing only works if coexistence is also considered an end goal. We reviewed the literature on land-sharing and found that conflicts have not yet found their way into the land-sharing/sparing framework, with wildlife and humans co-occurring without coexisting in a dynamic process...
May 11, 2018: Ambio
Jayalaxshmi Mistry, Isabel Belloni Schmidt, Ludivine Eloy, Bibiana Bilbao
Wildfires continue to cause damage to property, livelihoods and environments around the world. Acknowledging that dealing with wildfires has to go beyond fire-fighting, governments in countries with fire-prone ecosystems have begun to recognize the multiple perspectives of landscape burning and the need to engage with local communities and their practices. In this perspective, we outline the experiences of Brazil and Venezuela, two countries where fire management has been highly contested, but where there have been recent advances in fire management approaches...
May 11, 2018: Ambio
Antonia Nyström Sandman, Johan Näslund, Ing-Marie Gren, Karl Norling
Macrofaunal activities in sediments modify nutrient fluxes in different ways including the expression of species-specific functional traits and density-dependent population processes. The invasive polychaete genus Marenzelleria was first observed in the Baltic Sea in the 1980s. It has caused changes in benthic processes and affected the functioning of ecosystem services such as nutrient regulation. The large-scale effects of these changes are not known. We estimated the current Marenzelleria spp. wet weight biomass in the Baltic Sea to be 60-87 kton (95% confidence interval)...
May 5, 2018: Ambio
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