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Jessica DiCarlo, Kathleen Epstein, Robin Marsh, Inger Måren
In Spring 2015, a series of earthquakes and aftershocks struck Nepal. The earthquakes caused significant changes in labor and land availability, cash income needs, and land quality. We examine how these post-earthquake impacts converged with ongoing agricultural shifts. Earthquake-related socio-economic and landscape changes specifically motivate the adoption of cardamom, Amomum subulatum, a high-value ecologically beneficial, and low labor commercial crop. We investigate reasons for the increased interest in cardamom post-earthquake, and challenges associated with it...
February 19, 2018: Ambio
Glenn Althor, Simon Mahood, Bradd Witt, Rebecca M Colvin, James E M Watson
Cambodian subsistence communities within the Tonle Sap Great Lake area rely on resource extraction from the lake to meet livelihood needs. These fishing communities-many of which consist of dwellings floating on the lake-face potentially profound livelihood challenges because of climate change and changing hydrology due to dam construction for hydroelectricity within the Mekong Basin. We conducted interviews across five village communities, with local subsistence fisher people in the Tonle Sap in 2015, and used thematic analysis methods to reveal a fishery system that is undergoing rapid ecological decline, with local fishing communities increasingly experiencing reductions in available fish stocks...
February 19, 2018: Ambio
Sonja Ayeb-Karlsson, Christopher D Smith, Dominic Kniveton
First mooted in 2011, the concept of Trapped Populations referring to people unable to move from environmentally high-risk areas broadened the study of human responses to environmental change. While a seemingly straightforward concept, the underlying discourses around the reasons for being 'trapped', and the language describing the concept have profound influences on the way in which policy and practice approaches the needs of populations at risk from environmental stresses and shocks. In this article, we apply a Critical Discourse Analysis to the academic literature on the subject to reveal some of the assumptions implicit within discussing 'trapped' populations...
February 12, 2018: Ambio
Chelsey Walden-Schreiner, Sebastian Dario Rossi, Agustina Barros, Catherine Pickering, Yu-Fai Leung
Managing protected areas effectively requires information about patterns of visitor use, but these data are often limited. We explore how geotagged photos on Flickr, a popular photo-sharing social-media site, can generate hotspot maps and distribution models of temporal and spatial patterns of use in two mountain-protected areas of high conservation value. In Aconcagua Provincial Park (Argentina), two routes to the summit of Aconcagua were used in summer, but most visitors stayed close to the main road, using formal and informal walking trails and the Visitor Centre, while in winter, there was very limited visitation...
February 12, 2018: Ambio
Jian Liu, Peter J A Kleinman, Helena Aronsson, Don Flaten, Richard W McDowell, Marianne Bechmann, Douglas B Beegle, Timothy P Robinson, Ray B Bryant, Hongbin Liu, Andrew N Sharpley, Tamie L Veith
Winter manure application elevates nutrient losses and impairment of water quality as compared to manure applications in other seasons. In conjunction with reviewing global distribution of animal densities, we reviewed worldwide mandatory regulations and voluntary guidelines on efforts to reduce off-site nutrient losses associated with winter manure applications. Most of the developed countries implement regulations or guidelines to restrict winter manure application, which range from a regulative ban to guidelines based upon weather and field management conditions...
February 3, 2018: Ambio
O Magnus Karlsson, J Mikael Malmaeus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2018: Ambio
Roger Cropp, Albert Gabric, Dien van Tran, Graham Jones, Hilton Swan, Harry Butler
We investigate the correlation between stress-related compounds produced by corals of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and local atmospheric properties-an issue that goes to the core of the coral ecosystem's ability to survive climate change. We relate the variability in a satellite decadal time series of fine-mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) to a coral stress metric, formulated as a function of irradiance, water clarity, and tide, at Heron Island in the southern GBR. We found that AOD was correlated with the coral stress metric, and the correlation increased at low wind speeds, when horizontal advection of air masses was low and the production of non-biogenic aerosols was minimal...
February 3, 2018: Ambio
Constantina Alina Hossu, Ioan Cristian Ioja, Lawrence E Susskind, Denisa L Badiu, Anna M Hersperger
A critical challenge in natural resource management is to bring all stakeholders together to negotiate solutions to critical problems. However, various collaborative approaches to heading off conflicts and resolving natural resource management disputes have been used. What drives these efforts, however, still needs further research. Our study provides a systematic look at the drivers likely to initiate collaborative problem-solving efforts in four cases in Romania. We use Emerson's et al. (2012) framework for collaborative governance and multi-value qualitative comparative analysis (mvQCA) to analyze cases involving endangered species, restrictions on forest harvest, conflicts associated with infrastructure development projects, and disputes over the management of environmentally sensitive areas...
February 3, 2018: Ambio
Rosario Sanchez, Laura Rodriguez, Cecilia Tortajada
"Transboundariness" refers to a new approach that identifies and prioritizes transboundary aquifers using socio-economic and political criteria, improving their characterization by using other variables in addition to their mere physical boundaries. This approach is applied to the hydrogeological units/aquifers shared by Mexico and Texas, with the following results. First, the rankings agree with the current level of attention to transboundary aquifers in the region by both countries, providing a quantifiable system that could be tested in other transboundary aquifers...
February 3, 2018: Ambio
Esther N Githumbi, Colin J Courtney Mustaphi, Kevin J Yun, Veronica Muiruri, Stephen M Rucina, Rob Marchant
The semi-arid Amboseli landscape, southern Kenya, is characterised by intermittent groundwater-fed wetlands that form sedimentary geoarchives recording past ecosystem changes. We present a 5000-year environmental history of a radiocarbon dated sediment core from Esambu Swamp adjacent to Amboseli National Park. Although radiocarbon dates suggest an unconformity or sedimentary gap that spans between 3800 and 500 cal year BP, the record provides a unique insight into the long-term ecosystem history and wetland processes, particularly the past 500 years...
February 3, 2018: Ambio
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2018: Ambio
Henrik Selin, Susan Egan Keane, Shuxiao Wang, Noelle E Selin, Kenneth Davis, Dominique Bally
The Minamata Convention on Mercury, with its objective to protect human health and the environment from the dangers of mercury (Hg), entered into force in 2017. The Convention outlines a life-cycle approach to the production, use, emissions, releases, handling, and disposal of Hg. As it moves into the implementation phase, scientific work and information are critically needed to support decision-making and management. This paper synthesizes existing knowledge and examines three areas in which researchers across the natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences can mobilize and disseminate knowledge in support of Hg abatement and the realization of the Convention's objective: (1) uses, emissions, and releases; (2) support, awareness raising, and education; and (3) impacts and effectiveness...
January 31, 2018: Ambio
Collin A Eagles-Smith, Ellen K Silbergeld, Niladri Basu, Paco Bustamante, Fernando Diaz-Barriga, William A Hopkins, Karen A Kidd, Jennifer F Nyland
Environmental mercury (Hg) contamination is an urgent global health threat. The complexity of Hg in the environment can hinder accurate determination of ecological and human health risks, particularly within the context of the rapid global changes that are altering many ecological processes, socioeconomic patterns, and other factors like infectious disease incidence, which can affect Hg exposures and health outcomes. However, the success of global Hg-reduction efforts depends on accurate assessments of their effectiveness in reducing health risks...
January 31, 2018: Ambio
Heileen Hsu-Kim, Chris S Eckley, Dario Achá, Xinbin Feng, Cynthia C Gilmour, Sofi Jonsson, Carl P J Mitchell
The environmental cycling of mercury (Hg) can be affected by natural and anthropogenic perturbations. Of particular concern is how these disruptions increase mobilization of Hg from sites and alter the formation of monomethylmercury (MeHg), a bioaccumulative form of Hg for humans and wildlife. The scientific community has made significant advances in recent years in understanding the processes contributing to the risk of MeHg in the environment. The objective of this paper is to synthesize the scientific understanding of how Hg cycling in the aquatic environment is influenced by landscape perturbations at the local scale, perturbations that include watershed loadings, deforestation, reservoir and wetland creation, rice production, urbanization, mining and industrial point source pollution, and remediation...
January 31, 2018: Ambio
Daniel Obrist, Jane L Kirk, Lei Zhang, Elsie M Sunderland, Martin Jiskra, Noelle E Selin
We review recent progress in our understanding of the global cycling of mercury (Hg), including best estimates of Hg concentrations and pool sizes in major environmental compartments and exchange processes within and between these reservoirs. Recent advances include the availability of new global datasets covering areas of the world where environmental Hg data were previously lacking; integration of these data into global and regional models is continually improving estimates of global Hg cycling. New analytical techniques, such as Hg stable isotope characterization, provide novel constraints of sources and transformation processes...
January 31, 2018: Ambio
Celia Y Chen, Charles T Driscoll
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2018: Ambio
Pramod Lamsal, Lalit Kumar, Achyut Aryal, Kishor Atreya
Climate change will impact the dynamics of invasive alien plant species (IAPS). However, the ability of IAPS under changing climate to invade mountain ecosystems, particularly the Himalayan region, is less known. This study investigates the current and future habitat of five IAPS of the Himalayan region using MaxEnt and two representative concentration pathways (RCPs). Two invasive species, Ageratum conyzoides and Parthenium hysterophorus, will lose overall suitable area by 2070, while Ageratina adenophora, Chromolaena odorata and Lantana camara will gain suitable areas and all of them will retain most of the current habitat as stable...
January 25, 2018: Ambio
Shaurabh Anand, Vilakkathala Vijayan Binoy, Sindhu Radhakrishna
Attitudinal differences toward wildlife have important implications for conflict management and when the species in question have strong cultural and religious associations, conflict mitigation becomes a challenging endeavor. We investigated farmers' attitudes toward two different crop-raiding macaque species, the rhesus macaque in northern India, and the bonnet macaque in southern India. Apart from regional differences in attitudes, we also assessed temporal changes in attitude toward the rhesus macaque. We carried out household surveys using a semistructured questionnaire to collect data...
January 13, 2018: Ambio
Dilermando Pereira Lima Junior, André Lincoln Barroso Magalhães, Fernando Mayer Pelicice, Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule, Valter M Azevedo-Santos, Mário Luís Orsi, Daniel Simberloff, Angelo Antônio Agostinho
The Convention on Biological Diversity proposed the Aichi Biodiversity Targets to improve conservation policies and to balance economic development, social welfare, and the maintenance of biodiversity/ecosystem services. Brazil is a signatory of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and is the most diverse country in terms of freshwater fish, but its national policies have supported the development of unsustainable commercial and ornamental aquaculture, which has led to serious disturbances to inland ecosystems and natural resources...
January 6, 2018: Ambio
Jan A van Franeker, Elisa L Bravo Rebolledo, Eileen Hesse, Lonneke L IJsseldijk, Susanne Kühn, Mardik Leopold, Lara Mielke
Stomach contents of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) collected in the Netherlands between 2003 and 2013 were inspected for the presence of plastic and other man-made litter. In 654 stomach samples the frequency of occurrence of plastic litter was 7% with less than 0.5% additional presence of non-synthetic man-made litter. However, we show that when a dedicated standard protocol for the detection of litter is followed, a considerably higher percentage (15% of 81 harbour porpoise stomachs from the period 2010-2013) contained plastic litter...
January 5, 2018: Ambio
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