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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878448/a-review-of-ecosystem-service-benefits-from-wild-bees-across-social-contexts
#1
REVIEW
Denise Margaret S Matias, Julia Leventon, Anna-Lena Rau, Christian Borgemeister, Henrik von Wehrden
In order to understand the role of wild bees in both social and ecological systems, we conducted a quantitative and qualitative review of publications dealing with wild bees and the benefits they provide in social contexts. We classified publications according to several attributes such as services and benefits derived from wild bees, types of bee-human interactions, recipients of direct benefits, social contexts where wild bees are found, and sources of changes to the bee-human system. We found that most of the services and benefits from wild bees are related to food, medicine, and pollination...
November 22, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854070/the-impact-of-swidden-decline-on-livelihoods-and-ecosystem-services-in-southeast-asia-a-review-of-the-evidence-from-1990-to-2015
#2
REVIEW
Wolfram H Dressler, David Wilson, Jessica Clendenning, Rob Cramb, Rodney Keenan, Sango Mahanty, Thilde Bech Bruun, Ole Mertz, Rodel D Lasco
Global economic change and policy interventions are driving transitions from long-fallow swidden (LFS) systems to alternative land uses in Southeast Asia's uplands. This study presents a systematic review of how these transitions impact upon livelihoods and ecosystem services in the region. Over 17 000 studies published between 1950 and 2015 were narrowed, based on relevance and quality, to 93 studies for further analysis. Our analysis of land-use transitions from swidden to intensified cropping systems showed several outcomes: more households had increased overall income, but these benefits came at significant cost such as reductions of customary practice, socio-economic wellbeing, livelihood options, and staple yields...
November 16, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854069/a-conceptual-framework-for-understanding-illegal-killing-of-large-carnivores
#3
REVIEW
Neil H Carter, José Vicente López-Bao, Jeremy T Bruskotter, Meredith Gore, Guillaume Chapron, Arlyne Johnson, Yaffa Epstein, Mahendra Shrestha, Jens Frank, Omar Ohrens, Adrian Treves
The growing complexity and global nature of wildlife poaching threaten the survival of many species worldwide and are outpacing conservation efforts. Here, we reviewed proximal and distal factors, both social and ecological, driving illegal killing or poaching of large carnivores at sites where it can potentially occur. Through this review, we developed a conceptual social-ecological system framework that ties together many of the factors influencing large carnivore poaching. Unlike most conservation action models, an important attribute of our framework is the integration of multiple factors related to both human motivations and animal vulnerability into feedbacks...
November 16, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854068/fisheries-regulatory-regimes-and-resilience-to-climate-change
#4
Elena Ojea, Isaac Pearlman, Steven D Gaines, Sarah E Lester
Climate change is already producing ecological, social, and economic impacts on fisheries, and these effects are expected to increase in frequency and magnitude in the future. Fisheries governance and regulations can alter socio-ecological resilience to climate change impacts via harvest control rules and incentives driving fisher behavior, yet there are no syntheses or conceptual frameworks for examining how institutions and their regulatory approaches can alter fisheries resilience to climate change. We identify nine key climate resilience criteria for fisheries socio-ecological systems (SES), defining resilience as the ability of the coupled system of interacting social and ecological components (i...
November 16, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848103/international-marine-environmental-governance-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Kjell Grip
Impressive numbers of global and regional governmental and non-governmental organizations are working in the field of the marine environment and its resources. Many of these organizations operate within international legal frameworks ranging from comprehensive global conventions, such as the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to regional agreements aiming at protection and development of regional seas. Characteristic for the management of these seas, both at the national and international level, is that sectoral approaches predominate...
November 15, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848102/can-greening-of-aquaculture-sequester-blue-carbon
#6
Nesar Ahmed, Stuart W Bunting, Marion Glaser, Mark S Flaherty, James S Diana
Globally, blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions have been seriously augmented due to the devastating effects of anthropogenic pressures on coastal ecosystems including mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. The greening of aquaculture, however, including an ecosystem approach to Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) could play a significant role in reversing this trend, enhancing coastal ecosystems, and sequestering blue carbon...
November 15, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844421/environmental-impacts-of-tobacco-product-waste-international-and-australian-policy-responses
#7
REVIEW
Lucinda A Wallbank, Ross MacKenzie, Paul J Beggs
The health risks of tobacco consumption are well established, but there is less awareness of the global environmental impacts of smoking. The by-products of the 6.3 trillion cigarettes smoked annually are filters (butts) that contain benzene, nicotine, cadmium, and dozens of other chemicals. It is estimated that between one- and two-thirds of all filters are discarded on roads, pavements, and green spaces. Butt litter as an environmental and public health hazard is a relatively new field of study, but recent research and findings have clear global implications...
November 14, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844420/a-review-of-contamination-of-surface-ground-and-drinking-water-in-sweden-by-perfluoroalkyl-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-pfass
#8
REVIEW
Stefan Banzhaf, Marko Filipovic, Jeffrey Lewis, Charlotte J Sparrenbom, Roland Barthel
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are found in aquatic systems, flora, and fauna worldwide. These potentially harmful compounds are also frequently detected in Sweden and have already resulted in severe problems for public drinking water supply, i.e., some wells had to be closed due to high PFAS concentrations both in raw water and produced drinking water. Knowledge on PFAS occurrence in Sweden is still quite low, although monitoring is currently ongoing. This work describes potential sources for PFASs to enter the drinking water supply in Sweden and compares different occurrences of PFASs in raw and drinking water in the country...
November 14, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804097/differentiating-the-effects-of-climate-and-land-use-change-on-european-biodiversity-a-scenario-analysis
#9
Jan E Vermaat, Fritz A Hellmann, Astrid J A van Teeffelen, Jelle van Minnen, Rob Alkemade, Regula Billeter, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Luigi Boitani, Mar Cabeza, Christian K Feld, Brian Huntley, James Paterson, Michiel F WallisDeVries
Current observed as well as projected changes in biodiversity are the result of multiple interacting factors, with land use and climate change often marked as most important drivers. We aimed to disentangle the separate impacts of these two for sets of vascular plant, bird, butterfly and dragonfly species listed as characteristic for European dry grasslands and wetlands, two habitats of high and threatened biodiversity. We combined articulations of the four frequently used SRES climate scenarios and associated land use change projections for 2030, and assessed their impact on population trends in species (i...
November 1, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804096/destabilising-automobility-the-emergent-mobilities-of-generation-y
#10
Debbie Hopkins
This paper uses empirical material gathered with young adults in New Zealand to examine a potential sustainability transition-in-practice. It draws from two frameworks; the actor-centred Energy Cultures Framework to explore mobility behaviours, and the multi-level perspective (MLP) to situate behaviour change within the socio-technical transitions literature. The MLP has traditionally been used to analyse historical transitions (e.g. from the horse and cart to the motor vehicle), but in this paper, it is used to explore an on-going change trend; the emergent mobilities of young adults who appear to be aspiring for different types of mobility...
November 1, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804095/land-use-influences-macroinvertebrate-community-composition-in-boreal-headwaters-through-altered-stream-conditions
#11
Micael Jonsson, Ryan M Burrows, Johan Lidman, Emma Fältström, Hjalmar Laudon, Ryan A Sponseller
Land use is known to alter the nature of land-water interactions, but the potential effects of widespread forest management on headwaters in boreal regions remain poorly understood. We evaluated the importance of catchment land use, land cover, and local stream variables for macroinvertebrate community and functional trait diversity in 18 boreal headwater streams. Variation in macroinvertebrate metrics was often best explained by in-stream variables, primarily water chemistry (e.g. pH). However, variation in stream variables was, in turn, significantly associated with catchment-scale forestry land use...
November 1, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804094/climate-change-induced-salinity-variation-impacts-on-a-stenoecious-mangrove-species-in-the-indian-sundarbans
#12
Kakoli Banerjee, Roberto Cazzolla Gatti, Abhijit Mitra
The alterations in the salinity profile are an indirect, but potentially sensitive, indicator for detecting changes in precipitation, evaporation, river run-off, glacier retreat, and ice melt. These changes have a high impact on the growth of coastal plant species, such as mangroves. Here, we present estimates of the variability of salinity and the biomass of a stenoecious mangrove species (Heritiera fomes, commonly referred to as Sundari) in the aquatic subsystem of the lower Gangetic delta based on a dataset from 2004 to 2015...
November 1, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787668/mangroves-as-a-protection-from-storm-surges-in-a-changing-climate
#13
Brian Blankespoor, Susmita Dasgupta, Glenn-Marie Lange
Adaptation to climate change includes addressing sea-level rise (SLR) and increased storm surges in many coastal areas. Mangroves can substantially reduce vulnerability of the adjacent coastal land from inundation but SLR poses a threat to the future of mangroves. This paper quantifies coastal protection services of mangroves for 42 developing countries in the current climate, and a future climate change scenario with a 1-m SLR and 10  % intensification of storms. Findings demonstrate that while SLR and increased storm intensity would increase storm surge areas, the greatest impact is from the expected loss of mangroves...
October 27, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778238/a-livelihood-in-a-risky-environment-farmers-preferences-for-irrigation-with-wastewater-in-hyderabad-india
#14
Cecilia Saldías, Stijn Speelman, Pay Drechsel, Guido Van Huylenbroeck
Most cities in developing countries fail to treat their wastewater comprehensively. Consequently, farmers downstream use poor-quality water for irrigation. This practice implies risks for farmers, consumers and the environment. Conversely, this water supply supports the livelihood of these farmers and other stakeholders along the value chains. Linking safer options for wastewater management with irrigation could therefore be a win-win solution: removing the risks for society and maintaining the benefits for farmers...
October 24, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704403/grazing-and-abandonment-determine-different-tree-dynamics-in-wood-pastures
#15
Anna Oldén, Atte Komonen, Kaisa Tervonen, Panu Halme
Wood-pastures are threatened biotopes in which trees and livestock grazing maintain high conservation values. However, browsing may threaten tree regeneration, whereas abandonment leads to tree encroachment. We studied the regeneration of trees in a grazed and abandoned boreal wood-pastures. In grazed sites, the density of young spruces (Picea abies) was high, while the density of young birches (Betula spp.) was very low. Sprucification can be prevented only by removing spruces. The number of young birches and pines (Pinus sylvestris) was correlated with the number of junipers (Juniperus communis), probably because thorny junipers protect palatable seedlings from browsing...
October 4, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686731/rehabilitating-mussel-beds-in-coffee-bay-south-africa-towards-fostering-cooperative-small-scale-fisheries-governance-and-enabling-community-upliftment
#16
Gurutze Calvo-Ugarteburu, Serge Raemaekers, Christina Halling
Along the coast of South Africa, marine resources play a significant role in supporting livelihoods and contributing to food security in impoverished rural communities. Post-apartheid fisheries laws and policies have begun to address traditional fishing rights and development needs, and new management arrangements are being implemented. One such initiative has been the Mussel Rehabilitation Project in Coffee Bay, which piloted a resource rehabilitation technique at several over-exploited fishing sites. Mussel stocks in these exploited areas had dropped to under 1 % mussel cover, and during the project period, stocks increased to >80 % cover, supporting a sustainable harvest well above national daily bag limits...
September 29, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686730/publish-in-english-or-perish-the-effect-on-citation-rate-of-using-languages-other-than-english-in-scientific-publications
#17
Mario S Di Bitetti, Julián A Ferreras
There is a tendency for non-native English scientists to publish exclusively in English, assuming that this will make their articles more visible and cited. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the effect of language on the number of citations of articles published in six natural sciences journals from five countries that publish papers in either English or other languages. We analyzed the effect of language (English vs non-English), paper length, and year of publication on the number of citations. The articles published in English have a higher number of citations than those published in other languages, when the effect of journal, year of publication, and paper length are statistically controlled...
September 29, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665583/organic-textile-waste-as-a-resource-for-sustainable-agriculture-in-arid-and-semi-arid-areas
#18
Bo G Eriksson
New vegetation in barren areas offers possibilities for sequestering carbon in the soil. Arid and semi-arid areas (ASAs) are candidates for new vegetation. The possibility of agriculture in ASAs is reviewed, revealing the potential for cultivation by covering the surface with a layer of organic fibres. This layer collects more water from humidity in the air than does the uncovered mineral surface, and creates a humid environment that promotes microbial life. One possibility is to use large amounts of organic fibres for soil enhancement in ASAs...
September 24, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663231/what-is-at-stake-status-and-threats-to-south-china-sea-marine-fisheries
#19
Louise S L Teh, Allison Witter, William W L Cheung, U Rashid Sumaila, Xueying Yin
Governance of South China Sea (SCS) fisheries remains weak despite acknowledgement of their widespread overexploitation for the past few decades. This review incorporates unreported fish catches to provide an improved baseline of the current status and societal contribution of SCS marine fisheries, so that the socio-economic and ecological consequences of continued fisheries unsustainability may be understood. Potential fisheries contribution to food and livelihoods include 11-17 million t in fisheries catch and USD 12-22 × 10(9) in fisheries landed value annually in the 2000s, and close to 3 million jobs...
September 23, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663230/patterns-of-crop-cover-under-future-climates
#20
Luciana L Porfirio, David Newth, Ian N Harman, John J Finnigan, Yiyong Cai
We study changes in crop cover under future climate and socio-economic projections. This study is not only organised around the global and regional adaptation or vulnerability to climate change but also includes the influence of projected changes in socio-economic, technological and biophysical drivers, especially regional gross domestic product. The climatic data are obtained from simulations of RCP4.5 and 8.5 by four global circulation models/earth system models from 2000 to 2100. We use Random Forest, an empirical statistical model, to project the future crop cover...
September 23, 2016: Ambio
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