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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434184/complex-problems-and-unchallenged-solutions-bringing-ecosystem-governance-to-the-forefront-of-the-un-sustainable-development-goals
#1
Liette Vasseur, Darwin Horning, Mary Thornbush, Emmanuelle Cohen-Shacham, Angela Andrade, Ed Barrow, Steve R Edwards, Piet Wit, Mike Jones
Sustainable development aims at addressing economic, social, and environmental concerns, but the current lack of responsive environmental governance hinders progress. Short-term economic development has led to limited actions, unsustainable resource management, and degraded ecosystems. The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) may continue to fall short of achieving significant progress without a better understanding of how ecosystems contribute to achieving sustainability for all people. Ecosystem governance is an approach that integrates the social and ecological components for improved sustainability and includes principles such as adaptive ecosystem co-management, subsidiarity, and telecoupling framework, as well as principles of democracy and accountability...
April 22, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434183/impacts-of-forestry-on-boreal-forests-an-ecosystem-services-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Tähti Pohjanmies, María Triviño, Eric Le Tortorec, Adriano Mazziotta, Tord Snäll, Mikko Mönkkönen
Forests are widely recognized as major providers of ecosystem services, including timber, other forest products, recreation, regulation of water, soil and air quality, and climate change mitigation. Extensive tracts of boreal forests are actively managed for timber production, but actions aimed at increasing timber yields also affect other forest functions and services. Here, we present an overview of the environmental impacts of forest management from the perspective of ecosystem services. We show how prevailing forestry practices may have substantial but diverse effects on the various ecosystem services provided by boreal forests...
April 22, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421543/changing-and-partially-successful-local-institutions-for-harvest-of-thatch-palm-leaves
#3
Anders H Sirén
In some cases, users of common-pool resources (CPR) successfully govern and manage these for collective benefit but in other cases they fail to do so. When evaluating the success of local institutions for CPR management, however, researchers have not always clearly distinguished between success in terms of compliance and endurance, and success in terms of the socio-economic and environmental outcomes of the management. This study focused on the governance and management of wayuri palms (Pholidostachys synanthera robusta), whose leaves are harvested for roof thatch, in Ecuadorian Amazonia...
April 18, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364264/seagrass-metabolism-and-carbon-dynamics-in-a-tropical-coastal-embayment
#4
Dipnarayan Ganguly, Gurmeet Singh, Purvaja Ramachandran, Arumughan Paneer Selvam, Kakolee Banerjee, Ramesh Ramachandran
Net ecosystem metabolism and subsequent changes in environmental variables were studied seasonally in the seagrass-dominated Palk Bay, located along the southeast coast of India. The results showed that although the water column was typically net heterotrophic, the ecosystem as a whole displayed autotrophic characteristics. The mean net community production from the seagrass meadows was 99.31 ± 45.13 mM C m(-2) d(-1), while the P/R ratio varied between 1.49 and 1.56. Oxygen produced through in situ photosynthesis, exhibited higher dependence over dissolved CO2 and available light...
March 31, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361495/on-the-tragedy-of-the-commons-when-predation-and-livestock-loss-may-improve-the-economic-lot-of-herders
#5
Anders Skonhoft, Anne Borge Johannesen, Jon Olaf Olaussen
This paper studies the practice of semi-domestic reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus) herding in Finnmark county in northern Norway. In this area, the Saami reindeer herders compete for space and grazing areas and keep large herds, while at the same time, the reindeer population is heavily exposed to carnivore predation by the lynx (Lynx lynx), the wolverine (Gulo gulo), and the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). It is demonstrated that predation actually may improve the economic lot of livestock holders in this unmanaged local common setting...
March 30, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343340/a-lake-centric-geospatial-database-to-guide-research-and-inform-management-decisions-in-an-arctic-watershed-in-northern-alaska-experiencing-climate-and-land-use-changes
#6
Benjamin M Jones, Christopher D Arp, Matthew S Whitman, Debora Nigro, Ingmar Nitze, John Beaver, Anne Gädeke, Callie Zuck, Anna Liljedahl, Ronald Daanen, Eric Torvinen, Stacey Fritz, Guido Grosse
Lakes are dominant and diverse landscape features in the Arctic, but conventional land cover classification schemes typically map them as a single uniform class. Here, we present a detailed lake-centric geospatial database for an Arctic watershed in northern Alaska. We developed a GIS dataset consisting of 4362 lakes that provides information on lake morphometry, hydrologic connectivity, surface area dynamics, surrounding terrestrial ecotypes, and other important conditions describing Arctic lakes. Analyzing the geospatial database relative to fish and bird survey data shows relations to lake depth and hydrologic connectivity, which are being used to guide research and aid in the management of aquatic resources in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska...
March 25, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299748/conflicting-demands-and-shifts-between-policy-and-intra-scientific-orientation-during-conservation-research-programmes
#7
Thomas Ranius, Jörgen Rudolphi, Anna Sténs, Erland Mårald
Conservation scientists must meet the sometimes conflicting demands of policy and science, but not necessarily at the same time. We analysed the policy and intra-scientific orientations of research projects on effects of stump extraction on biodiversity, and found shifts over time associated with these demands. Our results indicate that uncertainties related to both factual issues and human decisions are often ignored in policy-oriented reports and syntheses, which could give misleading indications of the reliability or feasibility of any conclusions...
March 15, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299747/the-measurement-of-water-scarcity-defining-a-meaningful-indicator
#8
REVIEW
Simon Damkjaer, Richard Taylor
Metrics of water scarcity and stress have evolved over the last three decades from simple threshold indicators to holistic measures characterising human environments and freshwater sustainability. Metrics commonly estimate renewable freshwater resources using mean annual river runoff, which masks hydrological variability, and quantify subjectively socio-economic conditions characterising adaptive capacity. There is a marked absence of research evaluating whether these metrics of water scarcity are meaningful...
March 15, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247341/hunting-or-habitat-drivers-of-waterbird-abundance-and-community-structure-in-agricultural-wetlands-of-southern-india
#9
Ramesh Ramachandran, Ajith Kumar, Kolla S Gopi Sundar, Ravinder Singh Bhalla
The relative impacts of hunting and habitat on waterbird community were studied in agricultural wetlands of southern India. We surveyed wetlands to document waterbird community, and interviewed hunters to document hunting intensity, targeted species, and the motivations for hunting. Our results show that hunting leads to drastic declines in waterbird diversity and numbers, and skew the community towards smaller species. Hunting intensity, water spread, and vegetation cover were the three most important determinants of waterbird abundance and community structure...
February 28, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247340/distal-impacts-of-aquarium-trade-exploring-the-emerging-sandhopper-orchestoidea-tuberculata-artisanal-shore-gathering-fishery-in-chile
#10
Sebastián Tapia-Lewin, Karina Vergara, Christian De La Barra, Natalio Godoy, Juan Carlos Castilla, Stefan Gelcich
Artisanal fishery activities support the livelihoods of millions of people worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Within these fisheries, distal global drivers can promote switching between alternative target resources. These drivers can promote the rapid development of new, unregulated and previously unexploited fisheries that pose a threat to the sustainability of ecosystems. In this paper, we describe a new artisanal shore gathering activity that targets a previously unexploited resource: the sandhopper (Orchestoidea tuberculata)...
February 28, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233252/do-frogs-really-eat-cardamom-understanding-the-myth-of-crop-damage-by-amphibians-in-the-western-ghats-india
#11
Arun Kanagavel, Sethu Parvathy, Nithula Nirmal, Nithin Divakar, Rajeev Raghavan
In the Western Ghats of India, amphibians are culled at cardamom plantations since they are perceived to consume cardamom. To better understand the relationship between amphibians and cardamom, a study was undertaken at these plantations, which harbor numerous threatened and range-restricted amphibians. We undertook questionnaire surveys with 298 respondents at 148 plantations across southern India. Time-activity budget and diet analysis surveys were undertaken to determine whether amphibians really consumed cardamom...
February 23, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215020/climate-change-and-national-crop-wild-relative-conservation-planning
#12
Jade Phillips, Joana Magos Brehm, Bob van Oort, Åsmund Asdal, Morten Rasmussen, Nigel Maxted
Climate change is likely to be one of the most important factors affecting our future food security. To mitigate negative impacts, we will require our crops to be more genetically diverse. Such diversity is available in crop wild relatives (CWRs), the wild taxa relatively closely related to crops and from which diverse traits can be transferred to the crop. Conservation of such genetic resources resides within the nation where they are found; therefore, national-level conservation recommendations are fundamental to global food security...
February 18, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211017/examining-adaptations-to-water-stress-among-farming-households-in-sri-lanka-s-dry-zone
#13
Nicholas E Williams, Amanda Carrico
Climate change is increasing water scarcity in Sri Lanka. Whether these changes will undermine national-level food security depends upon the ability of the small-scale farmers that dominate rice production and the institutions that support them to overcome the challenges presented by changing water availability. Analyzing household survey data, this research identifies household, institutional, and agroecological factors that influence how water-stressed farmers are working to adapt to changing conditions and how the strategies they employ impact rice yields...
February 16, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188582/attitudes-toward-jaguars-and-pumas-and-the-acceptability-of-killing-big-cats-in-the-brazilian-atlantic-forest-an-application-of-the-potential-for-conflict-index2
#14
Monica T Engel, Jerry J Vaske, Alistair J Bath, Silvio Marchini
We explored the overall acceptability of killing jaguars and pumas in different scenarios of people-big cat interactions, the influence of attitudes toward big cats on acceptability, and the level of consensus on the responses. Data were obtained from 326 self-administered questionnaires in areas adjacent to Intervales State Park and Alto Ribeira State Park. Overall, people held slightly positive attitudes toward jaguars and pumas and viewed the killing of big cats as unacceptable. However, individuals that held negative attitudes were more accepting of killing...
February 10, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138931/long-term-development-of-hypolimnetic-oxygen-depletion-rates-in-the-large-lake-constance
#15
Justin Rhodes, Harald Hetzenauer, Marieke A Frassl, Karl-Otto Rothhaupt, Karsten Rinke
This study investigates over 30 years of dissolved oxygen dynamics in the deep interior of Lake Constance (max. depth: 250 m). This lake supplies approximately four million people with drinking water and has undergone strong re-oligotrophication over the past decades. We calculated depth-specific annual oxygen depletion rates (ODRs) during the period of stratification and found that 50% of the observed variability in ODR was already explained by a simple separation into a sediment- and volume-related oxygen consumption...
January 30, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150137/the-progress-of-interdisciplinarity-in-invasion-science
#16
REVIEW
Ana S Vaz, Christoph Kueffer, Christian A Kull, David M Richardson, Stefan Schindler, A Jesús Muñoz-Pajares, Joana R Vicente, João Martins, Cang Hui, Ingolf Kühn, João P Honrado
Interdisciplinarity is needed to gain knowledge of the ecology of invasive species and invaded ecosystems, and of the human dimensions of biological invasions. We combine a quantitative literature review with a qualitative historical narrative to document the progress of interdisciplinarity in invasion science since 1950. Our review shows that 92.4% of interdisciplinary publications (out of 9192) focus on ecological questions, 4.4% on social ones, and 3.2% on social-ecological ones. The emergence of invasion science out of ecology might explain why interdisciplinarity has remained mostly within the natural sciences...
May 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144903/meeting-the-aichi-targets-pushing-for-zero-extinction-conservation
#17
REVIEW
Stephan M Funk, Dalia Conde, John Lamoreux, John E Fa
Effective protection of the ~19 000 IUCN-listed threatened species has never been more pressing. Ensuring the survival of the most vulnerable and irreplaceable taxa and places, such as those identified by the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species and their associated sites (AZEs&s), is an excellent opportunity to achieve the Aichi 2020 Targets T11 (protected areas) and T12 (preventing species extinctions). AZE taxa have small, single-site populations that are especially vulnerable to human-induced extinctions, particularly for the many amphibians...
May 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074405/big-concerns-with-small-projects-evaluating-the-socio-ecological-impacts-of-small-hydropower-projects-in-india
#18
Suman Jumani, Shishir Rao, Siddarth Machado, Anup Prakash
Although Small Hydropower Projects (SHPs) are encouraged as sources of clean and green energy, there is a paucity of research examining their socio-ecological impacts. We assessed the perceived socio-ecological impacts of 4 SHPs within the Western Ghats in India by conducting semi-structured interviews with local respondents. Primary interview data were sequentially validated with secondary data, and respondent perceptions were subsequently compared against the expected baseline of assured impacts. We evaluated the level of awareness about SHPs, their perceived socio-economic impacts, influence on resource access and impacts on human-elephant interactions...
May 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995551/shark-recreational-fisheries-status-challenges-and-research-needs
#19
REVIEW
Austin J Gallagher, Neil Hammerschlag, Andy J Danylchuk, Steven J Cooke
For centuries, the primary manner in which humans have interacted with sharks has been fishing. A combination of their slow-growing nature and high use-values have resulted in population declines for many species around the world, and to date the vast majority of fisheries-related work on sharks has focused on the commercial sector. Shark recreational fishing remains an overlooked area of research despite the fact that these practices are popular globally and could present challenges to their populations. Here we provide a topical overview of shark recreational fisheries, highlighting their history and current status...
May 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878448/a-review-of-ecosystem-service-benefits-from-wild-bees-across-social-contexts
#20
REVIEW
Denise Margaret S Matias, Julia Leventon, Anna-Lena Rau, Christian Borgemeister, Henrik von Wehrden
In order to understand the role of wild bees in both social and ecological systems, we conducted a quantitative and qualitative review of publications dealing with wild bees and the benefits they provide in social contexts. We classified publications according to several attributes such as services and benefits derived from wild bees, types of bee-human interactions, recipients of direct benefits, social contexts where wild bees are found, and sources of changes to the bee-human system. We found that most of the services and benefits from wild bees are related to food, medicine, and pollination...
May 2017: Ambio
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