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Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria, Simone Athayde, Elineide E Marques, Maria Alice Leite Lima, Jynessa Dutka-Gianelli, Mauro Luis Ruffino, David Kaplan, Carlos E C Freitas, Victoria N Isaac
We analyze the invisibility of fisheries and inadequacy of fishers' participation in the process of hydropower development in the Amazon, focusing on gaps between legally mandated and actual outcomes. Using Ostrom's institutional design principles for assessing common-pool resource management, we selected five case studies from Brazilian Amazonian watersheds to conduct an exploratory comparative case-study analysis. We identify similar problems across basins, including deficiencies in the dam licensing process; critical data gaps; inadequate stakeholder participation; violation of human rights; neglect of fishers' knowledge; lack of organization and representation by fishers' groups; and lack of governmental structure and capacity to manage dam construction activities or support fishers after dam construction...
December 5, 2017: Ambio
Lars Brinkmann, David J Rowan
Several cesium and strontium bioaccumulation models are used widely in national and international guidance for ecological and human health risk assessments for radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) and radiostrontium (90Sr), but have not been used to make predictions of radiological risk from nuclear accidents under variable environmental conditions on broad geographical scales. In this paper, we first present models for predicting the bioaccumulation of cesium and strontium by aquatic biota based on ambient concentrations of dissolved potassium and calcium, respectively, and then test these models using independent data from aquatic ecosystems at Canadian nuclear sites...
November 29, 2017: Ambio
Ashley Rivera, Thushara Gunda, George M Hornberger
Climate change coupled with increasing demands for water necessitates an improved understanding of the water-food nexus at a scale local enough to inform farmer adaptations. Such assessments are particularly important for nations with significant small-scale farming and high spatial variability in climate, such as Sri Lanka. By comparing historical patterns of irrigation water requirements (IWRs) to rice planting records, we estimate that shifting rice planting dates to earlier in the season could yield water savings of up to 6%...
November 29, 2017: Ambio
Bruce C Ball, Paul R Hargreaves, Christine A Watson
Globally soil quality and food security continue to decrease indicating that agriculture and the food system need to adapt. Improving connection to the soil by knowledge exchange can help achieve this. We propose a framework of three types of connections that allow the targeting of appropriate messages to different groups of people. Direct connection by, for example, handling soil develops soil awareness for management that can be fostered by farmers joining groups on soil-focused farming such as organic farming or no-till...
November 24, 2017: Ambio
Matthias Kleiner, Susanna Kaasinen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2017: Ambio
Lilian O'Sullivan, David Wall, Rachel Creamer, Francesca Bampa, Rogier P O Schulte
Functional Land Management (FLM) is proposed as an integrator for sustainability policies and assesses the functional capacity of the soil and land to deliver primary productivity, water purification and regulation, carbon cycling and storage, habitat for biodiversity and recycling of nutrients. This paper presents the catchment challenge as a method to bridge the gap between science, stakeholders and policy for the effective management of soils to deliver these functions. Two challenges were completed by a wide range of stakeholders focused around a physical catchment model-(1) to design an optimised catchment based on soil function targets, (2) identify gaps to implementation of the proposed design...
November 24, 2017: Ambio
Sabine von Tucher, Dorothea Hörndl, Urs Schmidhalter
Phosphorus (P), a plant macronutrient, must be adequately supplied for crop growth. In Germany, many soils are high in plant-available P; specifically in arable farming, P fertilizer application has been reduced or even omitted in the last decade. Therefore, it is important to understand how long these soils can support sustainable crop production, and what concentrations of soil P are required for it. We analyzed a 36-year long-term field experiment regarding the effects of different P application and liming rates on plant growth and soil P concentrations with a crop rotation of sugar beet, wheat, and barley...
November 24, 2017: Ambio
Qidong Wang, Zhongjie Li, Jian-Fang Gui, Jiashou Liu, Shaowen Ye, Jing Yuan, Sena S De Silva
Contribution of fisheries and aquaculture to global food security is linked to increased fish consumption. Projections indicate that an additional 30-40 million tonnes of fish will be required by 2030. China leads global aquaculture production accounting for 60% in volume and 45% in value. Many changes in the Chinese aquaculture sector are occurring to strive towards attaining environmental integrity and prudent use of resources. We focus on changes introduced in freshwater aquaculture developments in China, the main source of food fish supplies...
November 22, 2017: Ambio
Maximilian Berthold, Ulf Karsten, Mario von Weber, Alexander Bachor, Rhena Schumann
The EU-water framework directive aims at nutrient reductions, since anthropogenically induced eutrophication is a major threat for coastal waters. However, phytoplankton biomass in southern Baltic Sea coastal water bodies (CWB) remains high and the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Therefore, a CWB data set was analysed regarding changes in phytoplankton biomass and nutrient concentration of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from 2000 to 2014. It was expected to find imbalances between produced phytoplankton biomass and total nutrient concentrations...
November 21, 2017: Ambio
Dag Dolmen, Anders Gravbrøt Finstad, Jon Kristian Skei
We here report the first sign of amphibian recovery after a strong decline due to acidic precipitation over many decades and peaking around 1980-90. In 2010, the pH level of ponds and small lakes in two heavily acidified areas in southwestern Scandinavia (Aust-Agder and Østfold in Norway) had risen significantly at an (arithmetic) average of 0.14 since 1988-89. Parallel with the general rise in pH, amphibians (Rana temporaria, R. arvalis, Bufo bufo, Lissotriton vulgaris, and Triturus cristatus) had become significantly more common: the frequency of amphibian localities rose from 33% to 49% (n = 115), and the average number of amphibian species per locality had risen from 0...
November 21, 2017: Ambio
Pia Geranmayeh, Karin M Johannesson, Barbro Ulén, Karin S Tonderski
To improve understanding of phosphorus (P) retention processes in small constructed wetlands (CWs), we analysed variations in sediment deposition and accumulation in four CWs on clay soils in east-central Sweden. Sediment deposition (in traps) generally exceeded the total suspended solids (TSS) load suggesting that resuspension and wetland base erosion were important. This was confirmed by quantification of particle accumulation (on plates) (1-23 kg m(-2) year(-1)), which amounted to only 13-23% of trap deposition...
November 21, 2017: Ambio
Hisao Ohtake, Kenji Okano, Masashi Kunisada, Hiroyuki Takano, Masaya Toda
A simple technology for phosphate (P i ) recovery has been developed using a bifunctional adsorption-aggregation agent. The bifunctional agent was prepared by soaking calcium silicates in hydrochloric acid solution. Importantly, recyclable calcium silicates were available almost free of charge from the cement industry and also from the steel industry. The acid treatment was essential not only for enhancing the ability of calcium silicates to remove P i from aqueous solution but also for enabling the high settleability of removed P i ...
November 21, 2017: Ambio
Mark River, Curtis J Richardson
Particulate phosphorus (PP) is often the largest component of the total phosphorus (P) load in stormwater. Fine-resolution measurement of particle sizes allows us to investigate the mechanisms behind the removal of PP in stormwater wetlands, since the diameter of particles influences the settling velocity and the amount of sorbed P on a particle. In this paper, we present a novel method to estimate PP, where we measure and count individual particles in stormwater and use the total surface area as a proxy for PP...
November 21, 2017: Ambio
Michael Cramer, Tatyana Koegst, Jens Traenckner
Rural wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are recognized as a significant phosphorous (P)-emission source in the German sub-catchments of the Baltic Sea. But enhancement of P-removal is cost intensive especially for small communities. This study proposes a concept to efficiently reduce P-emissions from WWTP by introducing low-cost non-constructional measures and assessing the resulting change of ambient water quality on a river basin scale. As case study, we choose the Warnow catchment in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Germany) where 76 % of WWTP-emissions originate from treatment plants without P-discharge limits...
November 21, 2017: Ambio
Barbro Ulén, Mats Larsbo, Johannes Koestel, Qarin Hellner, Maria Blomberg, Pia Geranmayeh
Assessing mitigation of phosphorus (P) leaching from subsurface drainage systems is challenging due to high spatial and temporal variation in leaching. Mean measured total P leaching from a clayey soil in an eight-year study period (four replicates per treatment) was (kg ha(-1) year(-1)): 1.21 from shallow autumn tillage (ShT), 0.84 from unfertilised fallow (UF), 0.81 from conventional autumn ploughing (CT) and 0.57 from structure liming (SL-CT). Treatment was not significant using Richards-Baker flow index or a distance factor as covariate (p = 0...
November 20, 2017: Ambio
Holger Rupp, Ralph Meissner, Peter Leinweber
This study aimed to demonstrate the impact of phosphorus (P) mineral fertilization on topsoil P content and P leaching. We evaluated 83 datasets from 25 years from lysimeter experiments involving different cropping systems (winter crop, summer crop and autumn tillage, harvested grass) or unfertilized fallow, four types of soil texture, and three levels of applied mineral P fertilizer. A positive monotonic and significant correlation was indicated between P in the topsoil determined by the double lactate method (P DL) and the yearly flow-weight total (TP) concentrations in leachates with Spearman rank correlations r s (r s > 0...
November 20, 2017: Ambio
Christian Vogel, Camille Rivard, Verena Wilken, Andreas Muskolus, Christian Adam
A pot experiment was carried out with maize to determine the phosphorus (P) plant-availability of different secondary P-fertilizers derived from wastewater. We analyzed the respective soils by P K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy to determine the P chemical forms that were present and determine the transformation processes. Macro- and micro-XANES spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical state of the overall soil P and identify P compounds in P-rich spots. Mainly organic P and/or P adsorbed on organic matter or other substrates were detected in unfertilized and fertilized soils...
November 20, 2017: Ambio
Andrea Ceci, Flavia Pinzari, Fabiana Russo, Oriana Maggi, Anna Maria Persiani
Modern agriculture is dependent on phosphate rock (PR), which is a nonrenewable resource. Improvement of phosphorus (P) availability for crops in agricultural soils represents a key strategy to slow down the depletion of PR. The aim of this study was to identify potential P biofertilisers among saprotrophic fungal species. We tested 30 fungal strains belonging to 28 taxa (4 Zygomycota and 24 Ascomycota) and with different life strategies. The study showed that many saprotrophic fungi have the ability to mobilise P from insoluble forms according to a variety of mechanisms...
November 20, 2017: Ambio
Uwe Buczko, Michael van Laak, Bettina Eichler-Löbermann, Wolfgang Gans, Ines Merbach, Kerstin Panten, Edgar Peiter, Thomas Reitz, Heide Spiegel, Sabine von Tucher
Phosphorus (P) fertilizer recommendations in most European countries are based on plant-available soil P contents and long-term field experiments. Site-specific conditions are often neglected, resulting in excessive P fertilizer applications. P fertilization experiments including relevant site and soil parameters were evaluated in order to analyze the yield response. The database comprises about 2000 datasets from 30 field experiments from Germany and Austria. Statistical evaluations using a classification and regression tree approach, and multiple linear regression analysis indicate that besides plant-available soil P content, soil texture and soil organic matter content have a large influence on the effectiveness of P fertilization...
November 20, 2017: Ambio
Michael Oster, Christian Gerlinger, Kaja Heide, Franziska Just, Luisa Borgelt, Petra Wolf, Christian Polley, Brigitte Vollmar, Eduard Muráni, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Klaus Wimmers
Dietary phosphorus frequently exceeds age-specific requirements and pig manure often contains high phosphorus load which causes environmental burden at regional scales. Therefore, feeding strategies towards improved phosphorus efficiency and reduced environmental phosphorus load have to be developed. A 5-week feeding trial was conducted: piglets received medium, lower (-25%), or higher (+25%) amounts of phosphorus and calcium. Dietary responses were reflected by performance parameters, bone characteristics, and molecular data retrieved from serum, intestinal mucosa, and kidney cortex (p < 0...
November 20, 2017: Ambio
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