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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299748/conflicting-demands-and-shifts-between-policy-and-intra-scientific-orientation-during-conservation-research-programmes
#1
Thomas Ranius, Jörgen Rudolphi, Anna Sténs, Erland Mårald
Conservation scientists must meet the sometimes conflicting demands of policy and science, but not necessarily at the same time. We analysed the policy and intra-scientific orientations of research projects on effects of stump extraction on biodiversity, and found shifts over time associated with these demands. Our results indicate that uncertainties related to both factual issues and human decisions are often ignored in policy-oriented reports and syntheses, which could give misleading indications of the reliability or feasibility of any conclusions...
March 15, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299747/the-measurement-of-water-scarcity-defining-a-meaningful-indicator
#2
REVIEW
Simon Damkjaer, Richard Taylor
Metrics of water scarcity and stress have evolved over the last three decades from simple threshold indicators to holistic measures characterising human environments and freshwater sustainability. Metrics commonly estimate renewable freshwater resources using mean annual river runoff, which masks hydrological variability, and quantify subjectively socio-economic conditions characterising adaptive capacity. There is a marked absence of research evaluating whether these metrics of water scarcity are meaningful...
March 15, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247341/hunting-or-habitat-drivers-of-waterbird-abundance-and-community-structure-in-agricultural-wetlands-of-southern-india
#3
Ramesh Ramachandran, Ajith Kumar, Kolla S Gopi Sundar, Ravinder Singh Bhalla
The relative impacts of hunting and habitat on waterbird community were studied in agricultural wetlands of southern India. We surveyed wetlands to document waterbird community, and interviewed hunters to document hunting intensity, targeted species, and the motivations for hunting. Our results show that hunting leads to drastic declines in waterbird diversity and numbers, and skew the community towards smaller species. Hunting intensity, water spread, and vegetation cover were the three most important determinants of waterbird abundance and community structure...
February 28, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247340/distal-impacts-of-aquarium-trade-exploring-the-emerging-sandhopper-orchestoidea-tuberculata-artisanal-shore-gathering-fishery-in-chile
#4
Sebastián Tapia-Lewin, Karina Vergara, Christian De La Barra, Natalio Godoy, Juan Carlos Castilla, Stefan Gelcich
Artisanal fishery activities support the livelihoods of millions of people worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Within these fisheries, distal global drivers can promote switching between alternative target resources. These drivers can promote the rapid development of new, unregulated and previously unexploited fisheries that pose a threat to the sustainability of ecosystems. In this paper, we describe a new artisanal shore gathering activity that targets a previously unexploited resource: the sandhopper (Orchestoidea tuberculata)...
February 28, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233252/do-frogs-really-eat-cardamom-understanding-the-myth-of-crop-damage-by-amphibians-in-the-western-ghats-india
#5
Arun Kanagavel, Sethu Parvathy, Nithula Nirmal, Nithin Divakar, Rajeev Raghavan
In the Western Ghats of India, amphibians are culled at cardamom plantations since they are perceived to consume cardamom. To better understand the relationship between amphibians and cardamom, a study was undertaken at these plantations, which harbor numerous threatened and range-restricted amphibians. We undertook questionnaire surveys with 298 respondents at 148 plantations across southern India. Time-activity budget and diet analysis surveys were undertaken to determine whether amphibians really consumed cardamom...
February 23, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215020/climate-change-and-national-crop-wild-relative-conservation-planning
#6
Jade Phillips, Joana Magos Brehm, Bob van Oort, Åsmund Asdal, Morten Rasmussen, Nigel Maxted
Climate change is likely to be one of the most important factors affecting our future food security. To mitigate negative impacts, we will require our crops to be more genetically diverse. Such diversity is available in crop wild relatives (CWRs), the wild taxa relatively closely related to crops and from which diverse traits can be transferred to the crop. Conservation of such genetic resources resides within the nation where they are found; therefore, national-level conservation recommendations are fundamental to global food security...
February 18, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211017/examining-adaptations-to-water-stress-among-farming-households-in-sri-lanka-s-dry-zone
#7
Nicholas E Williams, Amanda Carrico
Climate change is increasing water scarcity in Sri Lanka. Whether these changes will undermine national-level food security depends upon the ability of the small-scale farmers that dominate rice production and the institutions that support them to overcome the challenges presented by changing water availability. Analyzing household survey data, this research identifies household, institutional, and agroecological factors that influence how water-stressed farmers are working to adapt to changing conditions and how the strategies they employ impact rice yields...
February 16, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188582/attitudes-toward-jaguars-and-pumas-and-the-acceptability-of-killing-big-cats-in-the-brazilian-atlantic-forest-an-application-of-the-potential-for-conflict-index2
#8
Monica T Engel, Jerry J Vaske, Alistair J Bath, Silvio Marchini
We explored the overall acceptability of killing jaguars and pumas in different scenarios of people-big cat interactions, the influence of attitudes toward big cats on acceptability, and the level of consensus on the responses. Data were obtained from 326 self-administered questionnaires in areas adjacent to Intervales State Park and Alto Ribeira State Park. Overall, people held slightly positive attitudes toward jaguars and pumas and viewed the killing of big cats as unacceptable. However, individuals that held negative attitudes were more accepting of killing...
February 10, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150137/the-progress-of-interdisciplinarity-in-invasion-science
#9
REVIEW
Ana S Vaz, Christoph Kueffer, Christian A Kull, David M Richardson, Stefan Schindler, A Jesús Muñoz-Pajares, Joana R Vicente, João Martins, Cang Hui, Ingolf Kühn, João P Honrado
Interdisciplinarity is needed to gain knowledge of the ecology of invasive species and invaded ecosystems, and of the human dimensions of biological invasions. We combine a quantitative literature review with a qualitative historical narrative to document the progress of interdisciplinarity in invasion science since 1950. Our review shows that 92.4% of interdisciplinary publications (out of 9192) focus on ecological questions, 4.4% on social ones, and 3.2% on social-ecological ones. The emergence of invasion science out of ecology might explain why interdisciplinarity has remained mostly within the natural sciences...
February 1, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144903/meeting-the-aichi-targets-pushing-for-zero-extinction-conservation
#10
REVIEW
Stephan M Funk, Dalia Conde, John Lamoreux, John E Fa
Effective protection of the ~19 000 IUCN-listed threatened species has never been more pressing. Ensuring the survival of the most vulnerable and irreplaceable taxa and places, such as those identified by the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species and their associated sites (AZEs&s), is an excellent opportunity to achieve the Aichi 2020 Targets T11 (protected areas) and T12 (preventing species extinctions). AZE taxa have small, single-site populations that are especially vulnerable to human-induced extinctions, particularly for the many amphibians...
January 31, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138931/long-term-development-of-hypolimnetic-oxygen-depletion-rates-in-the-large-lake-constance
#11
Justin Rhodes, Harald Hetzenauer, Marieke A Frassl, Karl-Otto Rothhaupt, Karsten Rinke
This study investigates over 30 years of dissolved oxygen dynamics in the deep interior of Lake Constance (max. depth: 250 m). This lake supplies approximately four million people with drinking water and has undergone strong re-oligotrophication over the past decades. We calculated depth-specific annual oxygen depletion rates (ODRs) during the period of stratification and found that 50% of the observed variability in ODR was already explained by a simple separation into a sediment- and volume-related oxygen consumption...
January 30, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124238/economic-effects-of-ocean-acidification-publication-patterns-and-directions-for-future-research
#12
REVIEW
Laura J Falkenberg, Adeline Tubb
Human societies derive economic benefit from marine systems, yet these benefits may be modified as humans drive environmental change. Here, we conducted the first systematic review of literature on the potential economic effects of ocean acidification. We identified that while there is a growing literature discussing this topic, assessments of the direction and magnitude of anticipated economic change remain limited. The few assessments which have been conducted indicate largely negative economic effects of ocean acidification...
January 25, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074405/big-concerns-with-small-projects-evaluating-the-socio-ecological-impacts-of-small-hydropower-projects-in-india
#13
Suman Jumani, Shishir Rao, Siddarth Machado, Anup Prakash
Although Small Hydropower Projects (SHPs) are encouraged as sources of clean and green energy, there is a paucity of research examining their socio-ecological impacts. We assessed the perceived socio-ecological impacts of 4 SHPs within the Western Ghats in India by conducting semi-structured interviews with local respondents. Primary interview data were sequentially validated with secondary data, and respondent perceptions were subsequently compared against the expected baseline of assured impacts. We evaluated the level of awareness about SHPs, their perceived socio-economic impacts, influence on resource access and impacts on human-elephant interactions...
January 10, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074404/a-method-for-the-assessment-of-long-term-changes-in-carbon-stock-by-construction-of-a-hydropower-reservoir
#14
Julio Werner Yoshioka Bernardo, Michael Mannich, Stephan Hilgert, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo Fernandes, Tobias Bleninger
Sustainability of hydropower reservoirs has been questioned since the detection of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions which are mainly composed of carbon dioxide and methane. A method to assess the impact on the carbon cycle caused by the transition from a natural river system into a reservoir is presented and discussed. The method evaluates the long term changes in carbon stock instead of the current approach of monitoring and integrating continuous short term fluxes. A case study was conducted in a subtropical reservoir in Brazil, showing that the carbon content within the reservoir exceeds that of the previous landuse...
January 10, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074403/commensal-in-conflict-livestock-depredation-patterns-by-free-ranging-domestic-dogs-in-the-upper-spiti-landscape-himachal-pradesh-india
#15
Chandrima Home, Ranjana Pal, Rishi Kumar Sharma, Kulbhushansingh R Suryawanshi, Yash Veer Bhatnagar, Abi Tamim Vanak
In human-populated landscapes worldwide, domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are the most abundant terrestrial carnivore. Although dogs have been used for the protection of livestock from wild carnivores, they have also been implicated as predators of livestock. We used a combination of methods (field surveys, interview surveys, and data from secondary sources) to examine the patterns and factors driving livestock depredation by free-ranging dogs, as well as economic losses to local communities in a Trans-Himalayan agro-pastoralist landscape in India...
January 10, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074402/riparian-rehabilitation-planning-in-an-urban-rural-gradient-integrating-social-needs-and-ecological-conditions
#16
Bárbara Guida-Johnson, Gustavo A Zuleta
In the present context of global change and search for sustainability, we detected a gap between restoration and society: local communities are usually only considered as threats or disturbances when planning for restoration. To bridge this gap, we propose a landscape design framework for planning riparian rehabilitation in an urban-rural gradient. A spatial multi-criteria analysis was used to assess the priority of riversides by considering two rehabilitation objectives simultaneously-socio-environmental and ecological-and two sets of criteria were designed according to these objectives...
January 10, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236260/varying-rotation-lengths-in-northern-production-forests-implications-for-habitats-provided-by-retention-and-production-trees
#17
Adam Felton, Johan Sonesson, Urban Nilsson, Tomas Lämås, Tomas Lundmark, Annika Nordin, Thomas Ranius, Jean-Michel Roberge
Because of the limited spatial extent and comprehensiveness of protected areas, an increasing emphasis is being placed on conserving habitats which promote biodiversity within production forest. For this reason, alternative silvicultural programs need to be evaluated with respect to their implications for forest biodiversity, especially if these programs are likely to be adopted. Here we simulated the effect of varied rotation length and associated thinning regimes on habitat availability in Scots pine and Norway spruce production forests, with high and low productivity...
April 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854070/the-impact-of-swidden-decline-on-livelihoods-and-ecosystem-services-in-southeast-asia-a-review-of-the-evidence-from-1990-to-2015
#18
REVIEW
Wolfram H Dressler, David Wilson, Jessica Clendenning, Rob Cramb, Rodney Keenan, Sango Mahanty, Thilde Bech Bruun, Ole Mertz, Rodel D Lasco
Global economic change and policy interventions are driving transitions from long-fallow swidden (LFS) systems to alternative land uses in Southeast Asia's uplands. This study presents a systematic review of how these transitions impact upon livelihoods and ecosystem services in the region. Over 17 000 studies published between 1950 and 2015 were narrowed, based on relevance and quality, to 93 studies for further analysis. Our analysis of land-use transitions from swidden to intensified cropping systems showed several outcomes: more households had increased overall income, but these benefits came at significant cost such as reductions of customary practice, socio-economic wellbeing, livelihood options, and staple yields...
April 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854069/a-conceptual-framework-for-understanding-illegal-killing-of-large-carnivores
#19
REVIEW
Neil H Carter, José Vicente López-Bao, Jeremy T Bruskotter, Meredith Gore, Guillaume Chapron, Arlyne Johnson, Yaffa Epstein, Mahendra Shrestha, Jens Frank, Omar Ohrens, Adrian Treves
The growing complexity and global nature of wildlife poaching threaten the survival of many species worldwide and are outpacing conservation efforts. Here, we reviewed proximal and distal factors, both social and ecological, driving illegal killing or poaching of large carnivores at sites where it can potentially occur. Through this review, we developed a conceptual social-ecological system framework that ties together many of the factors influencing large carnivore poaching. Unlike most conservation action models, an important attribute of our framework is the integration of multiple factors related to both human motivations and animal vulnerability into feedbacks...
April 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844421/environmental-impacts-of-tobacco-product-waste-international-and-australian-policy-responses
#20
REVIEW
Lucinda A Wallbank, Ross MacKenzie, Paul J Beggs
The health risks of tobacco consumption are well established, but there is less awareness of the global environmental impacts of smoking. The by-products of the 6.3 trillion cigarettes smoked annually are filters (butts) that contain benzene, nicotine, cadmium, and dozens of other chemicals. It is estimated that between one- and two-thirds of all filters are discarded on roads, pavements, and green spaces. Butt litter as an environmental and public health hazard is a relatively new field of study, but recent research and findings have clear global implications...
April 2017: Ambio
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