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Ambio

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710567/threatened-fish-and-fishers-along-the-brazilian-atlantic-forest-coast
#1
Alpina Begossi, Svetlana Salivonchyk, Gustavo Hallwass, Natalia Hanazaki, Priscila F M Lopes, Renato A M Silvano
Small-scale fisheries of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Coast (BAFC) depend on fish resources for food and income. Thus, if the catch diminishes or if fish species that are a target for fishers are overexploited or impacted, this could affect fishers' livelihoods. The exclusion of threatened fish species from the catch is believed to be a threat to small-scale fisheries, which is likely to be the case along the BAFC. Many fish species are currently listed as threatened or vulnerable, whereas there is not enough biological information available to determine the status of the majority of the other species...
July 14, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647909/organic-matter-export-to-the-seafloor-in-the-baltic-sea-drivers-of-change-and-future-projections
#2
Tobias Tamelander, Kristian Spilling, Monica Winder
The impact of environmental change and anthropogenic stressors on coastal marine systems will strongly depend on changes in the magnitude and composition of organic matter exported from the water column to the seafloor. Knowledge of vertical export in the Baltic Sea is synthesised to illustrate how organic matter deposition will respond to climate warming, climate-related changes in freshwater runoff, and ocean acidification. Pelagic heterotrophic processes are suggested to become more important in a future warmer climate, with negative feedbacks to organic matter deposition to the seafloor...
June 24, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623630/persistency-of-artificial-aeration-at-hypertrophic-lake-tuusulanj%C3%A3-rvi-a-sociohistorical-analysis
#3
Paula Schönach, Petri Tapio, Heidi Holmroos, Jukka Horppila, Juha Niemistö, Nina A Nygrén, Olga Tammeorg, Ilmo Massa
With present-day scientific evidence challenging the efficiency of artificial aeration as an effective restoration method for eutrophicated lakes, our sociohistorical investigation traces the reasons for the persistent support for this method in Finland, where about one hundred lakes are subject to this treatment. Our study employed the concepts of technological path and aeration frame to analyze the extensive restoration and aeration history of the hypertrophic Tuusulanjärvi in southern Finland. Continuously aerated since 1972, it has the longest history of aeration in Finland...
June 16, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620777/concentrations-of-lead-and-other-elements-in-the-liver-of-the-white-tailed-eagle-haliaeetus-albicilla-a-european-flagship-species-wintering-in-eastern-poland
#4
Ignacy Kitowski, Dariusz Jakubas, Dariusz Wiącek, Agnieszka Sujak
As a top predator, the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) may serve as a good indicator species, providing information about the bioavailability of contaminants and their transfer within the food chain. In this study, we aimed to determine the common sources of origin of 17 metals and other elements in the liver of white-tailed eagles, and to compare the variations in their hepatic concentrations by age (adults vs immatures) and sex (males vs females) in groups of white-tailed eagles wintering in Eastern Poland...
June 15, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612326/protecting-aquatic-biodiversity-in-europe-how-much-do-eu-environmental-policies-support-ecosystem-based-management
#5
Josselin Rouillard, Manuel Lago, Katrina Abhold, Lina Röschel, Terri Kafyeke, Verena Mattheiß, Helen Klimmek
The sustainable management of aquatic ecosystems requires better coordination between policies span-ning freshwater, coastal and marine environments. Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has been promoted as a holistic and integrative approach for the safekeeping and protection of aquatic biodiversity. The paper assesses the degree to which key European environmental policies for the aquatic environment, namely the Birds and Habitats Directives, Water Framework Directive and Marine Strategy Framework Directive, individually support EBM and can work synergistically to implement EBM...
June 13, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593501/drying-or-anaerobic-digestion-of-fish-sludge-nitrogen-fertilisation-effects-and-logistics
#6
Eva Brod, Johan Oppen, Annbjørg Øverli Kristoffersen, Trond Knapp Haraldsen, Tore Krogstad
Application of fish sludge as fertiliser to agricultural land can contribute to closing nutrient cycles in fish farming. The effect of different treatment technologies on the nitrogen fertilisation effects of fish sludge was studied by a bioassay with barley (Hordeum vulgare), an incubation and a field experiment. Dried fish sludge resulted in relative agronomic efficiency of 50-80% compared with mineral fertiliser. The anaerobic digestate based on fish sludge (20 vol%) and dairy manure did not increase nitrogen uptake in barley...
June 7, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573600/vulnerability-and-impacts-of-climate-change-on-forest-and-freshwater-wetland-ecosystems-in-nepal-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Pramod Lamsal, Lalit Kumar, Kishor Atreya, Krishna Prasad Pant
Climate change (CC) threatens ecosystems in both developed and developing countries. As the impacts of CC are pervasive, global, and mostly irreversible, it is gaining worldwide attention. Here we review vulnerability and impacts of CC on forest and freshwater wetland ecosystems. We particularly look at investigations undertaken at different geographic regions in order to identify existing knowledge gaps and possible implications from such vulnerability in the context of Nepal along with available adaptation programs and national-level policy supports...
June 1, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573599/mapping-policies-for-surface-water-protection-zones-on-forest-land-in-the-nordic-baltic-region-large-differences-in-prescriptiveness-and-zone-width
#8
Eva Ring, Johanna Johansson, Camilla Sandström, Brynhildur Bjarnadóttir, Leena Finér, Zane Lībiete, Elve Lode, Inge Stupak, Magne Sætersdal
The forest landscape across the Nordic and Baltic regions hosts numerous lakes and watercourses, which must be included in forest management. In this study, national policy designs regarding protection zones for surface waters on forest land were reviewed and compared for the Nordic countries, Estonia and Latvia. The focus was how each country regulates protection zones, whether they are voluntary or mandatory, and the rationale behind adopting a low or high degree of prescriptiveness. Iceland and Denmark had a low degree of policy prescriptiveness, whereas Norway, Estonia and Latvia had a high degree of prescriptiveness...
June 1, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573598/ecological-dissimilarity-among-land-use-land-cover-types-improves-a-heterogeneity-index-for-predicting-biodiversity-in-agricultural-landscapes
#9
Akira Yoshioka, Keita Fukasawa, Yoshio Mishima, Keiko Sasaki, Taku Kadoya
Land-use/land-cover heterogeneity is among the most important factors influencing biodiversity in agricultural landscapes and is the key to the conservation of multi-habitat dwellers that use both terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Heterogeneity indices based on land-use/land-cover maps typically do not integrate ecological dissimilarity between land-use/land-cover types. Here, we applied the concept of functional diversity to an existing land-use/land-cover diversity index (Satoyama index) to incorporate ecological dissimilarity and proposed a new index called the dissimilarity-based Satoyama index (DSI)...
June 1, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503701/incorporating-threat-in-hotspots-and-coldspots-of-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-services
#10
Matthias Schröter, Roland Kraemer, Silvia Ceauşu, Graciela M Rusch
Spatial prioritization could help target conservation actions directed to maintain both biodiversity and ecosystem services. We delineate hotspots and coldspots of two biodiversity conservation features and five regulating and cultural services by incorporating an indicator of 'threat', i.e. timber harvest profitability for forest areas in Telemark (Norway). We found hotspots, where high values of biodiversity, ecosystem services and threat coincide, ranging from 0.1 to 7.1% of the area, depending on varying threshold levels...
May 13, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497433/marine-protected-areas-in-costa-rica-how-do-artisanal-fishers-respond
#11
Róger Madrigal-Ballestero, Heidi J Albers, Tabaré Capitán, Ariana Salas
Costa Rica is considering expanding their marine protected areas (MPAs) to conserve marine resources. Due to the importance of households' responses to an MPA in defining the MPA's ecological and economic outcomes, this paper uses an economic decision framework to interpret data from near-MPA household surveys to inform this policy discussion. The model and data suggest that the impact of expanding MPAs relies on levels of enforcement and on-shore wages. If larger near-shore MPAs can produce high wages through increased tourism, MPA expansions could provide ecological benefits with low burdens to communities...
May 11, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477322/governance-of-agro-pesticide-through-private-environmental-and-social-standards-in-the-global-cut-flower-chain-from-ethiopia
#12
Belay T Mengistie, Arthur P J Mol, Peter Oosterveer
The international cut flower industry is strongly criticized because of its environmental impacts and unsafe working conditions. Increasing certification of cut flowers is used to improve the growers' environmental and social performance. But what is the impact of this private governance instrument on regulating the use of pesticides? This paper assesses the potential of private certification on governing the environmental and social problems from pesticide use along the global cut flower supply chain. We use detailed farm-level data to analyse the environmental and social impacts of flower certification in Ethiopia by comparing different national and international certification schemes...
May 5, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470360/the-impact-of-climate-change-and-aquatic-salinization-on-mangrove-species-in-the-bangladesh-sundarbans
#13
Susmita Dasgupta, Istiak Sobhan, David Wheeler
This paper investigates the possible impacts of climate change on aquatic salinity and mangrove species in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. The impact analysis combines the salinity tolerance ranges of predominant mangrove species with aquatic salinity measures in 27 scenarios of climate change by 2050. The estimates indicate significant overall losses for Heritiera fomes; substantial gains for Excoecaria agallocha; modest changes for Avicennia alba, A. marina, A. officinalis, Ceriops decandra, and Sonneratia apetala; and mixed results for species combinations...
May 3, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444643/fostering-incidental-experiences-of-nature-through-green-infrastructure-planning
#14
Thomas H Beery, Christopher M Raymond, Marketta Kyttä, Anton Stahl Olafsson, Tobias Plieninger, Mattias Sandberg, Marie Stenseke, Maria Tengö, K Ingemar Jönsson
Concern for a diminished human experience of nature and subsequent decreased human well-being is addressed via a consideration of green infrastructure's potential to facilitate unplanned or incidental nature experience. Incidental nature experience is conceptualized and illustrated in order to consider this seldom addressed aspect of human interaction with nature in green infrastructure planning. Special attention has been paid to the ability of incidental nature experience to redirect attention from a primary activity toward an unplanned focus (in this case, nature phenomena)...
April 25, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150137/the-progress-of-interdisciplinarity-in-invasion-science
#15
REVIEW
Ana S Vaz, Christoph Kueffer, Christian A Kull, David M Richardson, Stefan Schindler, A Jesús Muñoz-Pajares, Joana R Vicente, João Martins, Cang Hui, Ingolf Kühn, João P Honrado
Interdisciplinarity is needed to gain knowledge of the ecology of invasive species and invaded ecosystems, and of the human dimensions of biological invasions. We combine a quantitative literature review with a qualitative historical narrative to document the progress of interdisciplinarity in invasion science since 1950. Our review shows that 92.4% of interdisciplinary publications (out of 9192) focus on ecological questions, 4.4% on social ones, and 3.2% on social-ecological ones. The emergence of invasion science out of ecology might explain why interdisciplinarity has remained mostly within the natural sciences...
May 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144903/meeting-the-aichi-targets-pushing-for-zero-extinction-conservation
#16
REVIEW
Stephan M Funk, Dalia Conde, John Lamoreux, John E Fa
Effective protection of the ~19 000 IUCN-listed threatened species has never been more pressing. Ensuring the survival of the most vulnerable and irreplaceable taxa and places, such as those identified by the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species and their associated sites (AZEs&s), is an excellent opportunity to achieve the Aichi 2020 Targets T11 (protected areas) and T12 (preventing species extinctions). AZE taxa have small, single-site populations that are especially vulnerable to human-induced extinctions, particularly for the many amphibians...
May 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074405/big-concerns-with-small-projects-evaluating-the-socio-ecological-impacts-of-small-hydropower-projects-in-india
#17
Suman Jumani, Shishir Rao, Siddarth Machado, Anup Prakash
Although Small Hydropower Projects (SHPs) are encouraged as sources of clean and green energy, there is a paucity of research examining their socio-ecological impacts. We assessed the perceived socio-ecological impacts of 4 SHPs within the Western Ghats in India by conducting semi-structured interviews with local respondents. Primary interview data were sequentially validated with secondary data, and respondent perceptions were subsequently compared against the expected baseline of assured impacts. We evaluated the level of awareness about SHPs, their perceived socio-economic impacts, influence on resource access and impacts on human-elephant interactions...
May 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995551/shark-recreational-fisheries-status-challenges-and-research-needs
#18
REVIEW
Austin J Gallagher, Neil Hammerschlag, Andy J Danylchuk, Steven J Cooke
For centuries, the primary manner in which humans have interacted with sharks has been fishing. A combination of their slow-growing nature and high use-values have resulted in population declines for many species around the world, and to date the vast majority of fisheries-related work on sharks has focused on the commercial sector. Shark recreational fishing remains an overlooked area of research despite the fact that these practices are popular globally and could present challenges to their populations. Here we provide a topical overview of shark recreational fisheries, highlighting their history and current status...
May 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878448/a-review-of-ecosystem-service-benefits-from-wild-bees-across-social-contexts
#19
REVIEW
Denise Margaret S Matias, Julia Leventon, Anna-Lena Rau, Christian Borgemeister, Henrik von Wehrden
In order to understand the role of wild bees in both social and ecological systems, we conducted a quantitative and qualitative review of publications dealing with wild bees and the benefits they provide in social contexts. We classified publications according to several attributes such as services and benefits derived from wild bees, types of bee-human interactions, recipients of direct benefits, social contexts where wild bees are found, and sources of changes to the bee-human system. We found that most of the services and benefits from wild bees are related to food, medicine, and pollination...
May 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854068/fisheries-regulatory-regimes-and-resilience-to-climate-change
#20
Elena Ojea, Isaac Pearlman, Steven D Gaines, Sarah E Lester
Climate change is already producing ecological, social, and economic impacts on fisheries, and these effects are expected to increase in frequency and magnitude in the future. Fisheries governance and regulations can alter socio-ecological resilience to climate change impacts via harvest control rules and incentives driving fisher behavior, yet there are no syntheses or conceptual frameworks for examining how institutions and their regulatory approaches can alter fisheries resilience to climate change. We identify nine key climate resilience criteria for fisheries socio-ecological systems (SES), defining resilience as the ability of the coupled system of interacting social and ecological components (i...
May 2017: Ambio
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