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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074405/big-concerns-with-small-projects-evaluating-the-socio-ecological-impacts-of-small-hydropower-projects-in-india
#1
Suman Jumani, Shishir Rao, Siddarth Machado, Anup Prakash
Although Small Hydropower Projects (SHPs) are encouraged as sources of clean and green energy, there is a paucity of research examining their socio-ecological impacts. We assessed the perceived socio-ecological impacts of 4 SHPs within the Western Ghats in India by conducting semi-structured interviews with local respondents. Primary interview data were sequentially validated with secondary data, and respondent perceptions were subsequently compared against the expected baseline of assured impacts. We evaluated the level of awareness about SHPs, their perceived socio-economic impacts, influence on resource access and impacts on human-elephant interactions...
January 10, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074404/a-method-for-the-assessment-of-long-term-changes-in-carbon-stock-by-construction-of-a-hydropower-reservoir
#2
Julio Werner Yoshioka Bernardo, Michael Mannich, Stephan Hilgert, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo Fernandes, Tobias Bleninger
Sustainability of hydropower reservoirs has been questioned since the detection of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions which are mainly composed of carbon dioxide and methane. A method to assess the impact on the carbon cycle caused by the transition from a natural river system into a reservoir is presented and discussed. The method evaluates the long term changes in carbon stock instead of the current approach of monitoring and integrating continuous short term fluxes. A case study was conducted in a subtropical reservoir in Brazil, showing that the carbon content within the reservoir exceeds that of the previous landuse...
January 10, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074403/commensal-in-conflict-livestock-depredation-patterns-by-free-ranging-domestic-dogs-in-the-upper-spiti-landscape-himachal-pradesh-india
#3
Chandrima Home, Ranjana Pal, Rishi Kumar Sharma, Kulbhushansingh R Suryawanshi, Yash Veer Bhatnagar, Abi Tamim Vanak
In human-populated landscapes worldwide, domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are the most abundant terrestrial carnivore. Although dogs have been used for the protection of livestock from wild carnivores, they have also been implicated as predators of livestock. We used a combination of methods (field surveys, interview surveys, and data from secondary sources) to examine the patterns and factors driving livestock depredation by free-ranging dogs, as well as economic losses to local communities in a Trans-Himalayan agro-pastoralist landscape in India...
January 10, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074402/riparian-rehabilitation-planning-in-an-urban-rural-gradient-integrating-social-needs-and-ecological-conditions
#4
Bárbara Guida-Johnson, Gustavo A Zuleta
In the present context of global change and search for sustainability, we detected a gap between restoration and society: local communities are usually only considered as threats or disturbances when planning for restoration. To bridge this gap, we propose a landscape design framework for planning riparian rehabilitation in an urban-rural gradient. A spatial multi-criteria analysis was used to assess the priority of riversides by considering two rehabilitation objectives simultaneously-socio-environmental and ecological-and two sets of criteria were designed according to these objectives...
January 10, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995551/shark-recreational-fisheries-status-challenges-and-research-needs
#5
REVIEW
Austin J Gallagher, Neil Hammerschlag, Andy J Danylchuk, Steven J Cooke
For centuries, the primary manner in which humans have interacted with sharks has been fishing. A combination of their slow-growing nature and high use-values have resulted in population declines for many species around the world, and to date the vast majority of fisheries-related work on sharks has focused on the commercial sector. Shark recreational fishing remains an overlooked area of research despite the fact that these practices are popular globally and could present challenges to their populations. Here we provide a topical overview of shark recreational fisheries, highlighting their history and current status...
December 19, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975239/reviewer-acknowledgments
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928654/using-certified-timber-extraction-to-benefit-jaguar-and-ecosystem-conservation
#7
REVIEW
John Polisar, Benoit de Thoisy, Damián I Rumiz, Fabricio Díaz Santos, Roan Balas McNab, Rony Garcia-Anleu, Gabriela Ponce-Santizo, Rosario Arispe, Claudia Venegas
The jaguar Panthera onca requires large areas of relatively intact habitats containing adequate amounts of prey to survive. Since a substantial portion of jaguar range occurs outside of strict protected areas, there is a need for economic incentives for habitat conservation, which carefully managed selective logging can provide. Forest Stewardship Council and Pan European Forest Council certifications intended to regulate wood extraction to maintain the ecological functions of forests require evidence of biodiversity and ecosystem conservation...
December 7, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878448/a-review-of-ecosystem-service-benefits-from-wild-bees-across-social-contexts
#8
REVIEW
Denise Margaret S Matias, Julia Leventon, Anna-Lena Rau, Christian Borgemeister, Henrik von Wehrden
In order to understand the role of wild bees in both social and ecological systems, we conducted a quantitative and qualitative review of publications dealing with wild bees and the benefits they provide in social contexts. We classified publications according to several attributes such as services and benefits derived from wild bees, types of bee-human interactions, recipients of direct benefits, social contexts where wild bees are found, and sources of changes to the bee-human system. We found that most of the services and benefits from wild bees are related to food, medicine, and pollination...
November 22, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854070/the-impact-of-swidden-decline-on-livelihoods-and-ecosystem-services-in-southeast-asia-a-review-of-the-evidence-from-1990-to-2015
#9
REVIEW
Wolfram H Dressler, David Wilson, Jessica Clendenning, Rob Cramb, Rodney Keenan, Sango Mahanty, Thilde Bech Bruun, Ole Mertz, Rodel D Lasco
Global economic change and policy interventions are driving transitions from long-fallow swidden (LFS) systems to alternative land uses in Southeast Asia's uplands. This study presents a systematic review of how these transitions impact upon livelihoods and ecosystem services in the region. Over 17 000 studies published between 1950 and 2015 were narrowed, based on relevance and quality, to 93 studies for further analysis. Our analysis of land-use transitions from swidden to intensified cropping systems showed several outcomes: more households had increased overall income, but these benefits came at significant cost such as reductions of customary practice, socio-economic wellbeing, livelihood options, and staple yields...
November 16, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854069/a-conceptual-framework-for-understanding-illegal-killing-of-large-carnivores
#10
REVIEW
Neil H Carter, José Vicente López-Bao, Jeremy T Bruskotter, Meredith Gore, Guillaume Chapron, Arlyne Johnson, Yaffa Epstein, Mahendra Shrestha, Jens Frank, Omar Ohrens, Adrian Treves
The growing complexity and global nature of wildlife poaching threaten the survival of many species worldwide and are outpacing conservation efforts. Here, we reviewed proximal and distal factors, both social and ecological, driving illegal killing or poaching of large carnivores at sites where it can potentially occur. Through this review, we developed a conceptual social-ecological system framework that ties together many of the factors influencing large carnivore poaching. Unlike most conservation action models, an important attribute of our framework is the integration of multiple factors related to both human motivations and animal vulnerability into feedbacks...
November 16, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854068/fisheries-regulatory-regimes-and-resilience-to-climate-change
#11
Elena Ojea, Isaac Pearlman, Steven D Gaines, Sarah E Lester
Climate change is already producing ecological, social, and economic impacts on fisheries, and these effects are expected to increase in frequency and magnitude in the future. Fisheries governance and regulations can alter socio-ecological resilience to climate change impacts via harvest control rules and incentives driving fisher behavior, yet there are no syntheses or conceptual frameworks for examining how institutions and their regulatory approaches can alter fisheries resilience to climate change. We identify nine key climate resilience criteria for fisheries socio-ecological systems (SES), defining resilience as the ability of the coupled system of interacting social and ecological components (i...
November 16, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848103/international-marine-environmental-governance-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Kjell Grip
Impressive numbers of global and regional governmental and non-governmental organizations are working in the field of the marine environment and its resources. Many of these organizations operate within international legal frameworks ranging from comprehensive global conventions, such as the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to regional agreements aiming at protection and development of regional seas. Characteristic for the management of these seas, both at the national and international level, is that sectoral approaches predominate...
November 15, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848102/can-greening-of-aquaculture-sequester-blue-carbon
#13
Nesar Ahmed, Stuart W Bunting, Marion Glaser, Mark S Flaherty, James S Diana
Globally, blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions have been seriously augmented due to the devastating effects of anthropogenic pressures on coastal ecosystems including mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. The greening of aquaculture, however, including an ecosystem approach to Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) could play a significant role in reversing this trend, enhancing coastal ecosystems, and sequestering blue carbon...
November 15, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844421/environmental-impacts-of-tobacco-product-waste-international-and-australian-policy-responses
#14
REVIEW
Lucinda A Wallbank, Ross MacKenzie, Paul J Beggs
The health risks of tobacco consumption are well established, but there is less awareness of the global environmental impacts of smoking. The by-products of the 6.3 trillion cigarettes smoked annually are filters (butts) that contain benzene, nicotine, cadmium, and dozens of other chemicals. It is estimated that between one- and two-thirds of all filters are discarded on roads, pavements, and green spaces. Butt litter as an environmental and public health hazard is a relatively new field of study, but recent research and findings have clear global implications...
November 14, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844420/a-review-of-contamination-of-surface-ground-and-drinking-water-in-sweden-by-perfluoroalkyl-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-pfass
#15
REVIEW
Stefan Banzhaf, Marko Filipovic, Jeffrey Lewis, Charlotte J Sparrenbom, Roland Barthel
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are found in aquatic systems, flora, and fauna worldwide. These potentially harmful compounds are also frequently detected in Sweden and have already resulted in severe problems for public drinking water supply, i.e., some wells had to be closed due to high PFAS concentrations both in raw water and produced drinking water. Knowledge on PFAS occurrence in Sweden is still quite low, although monitoring is currently ongoing. This work describes potential sources for PFASs to enter the drinking water supply in Sweden and compares different occurrences of PFASs in raw and drinking water in the country...
November 14, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804097/differentiating-the-effects-of-climate-and-land-use-change-on-european-biodiversity-a-scenario-analysis
#16
Jan E Vermaat, Fritz A Hellmann, Astrid J A van Teeffelen, Jelle van Minnen, Rob Alkemade, Regula Billeter, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Luigi Boitani, Mar Cabeza, Christian K Feld, Brian Huntley, James Paterson, Michiel F WallisDeVries
Current observed as well as projected changes in biodiversity are the result of multiple interacting factors, with land use and climate change often marked as most important drivers. We aimed to disentangle the separate impacts of these two for sets of vascular plant, bird, butterfly and dragonfly species listed as characteristic for European dry grasslands and wetlands, two habitats of high and threatened biodiversity. We combined articulations of the four frequently used SRES climate scenarios and associated land use change projections for 2030, and assessed their impact on population trends in species (i...
November 1, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804096/destabilising-automobility-the-emergent-mobilities-of-generation-y
#17
Debbie Hopkins
This paper uses empirical material gathered with young adults in New Zealand to examine a potential sustainability transition-in-practice. It draws from two frameworks; the actor-centred Energy Cultures Framework to explore mobility behaviours, and the multi-level perspective (MLP) to situate behaviour change within the socio-technical transitions literature. The MLP has traditionally been used to analyse historical transitions (e.g. from the horse and cart to the motor vehicle), but in this paper, it is used to explore an on-going change trend; the emergent mobilities of young adults who appear to be aspiring for different types of mobility...
November 1, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804095/land-use-influences-macroinvertebrate-community-composition-in-boreal-headwaters-through-altered-stream-conditions
#18
Micael Jonsson, Ryan M Burrows, Johan Lidman, Emma Fältström, Hjalmar Laudon, Ryan A Sponseller
Land use is known to alter the nature of land-water interactions, but the potential effects of widespread forest management on headwaters in boreal regions remain poorly understood. We evaluated the importance of catchment land use, land cover, and local stream variables for macroinvertebrate community and functional trait diversity in 18 boreal headwater streams. Variation in macroinvertebrate metrics was often best explained by in-stream variables, primarily water chemistry (e.g. pH). However, variation in stream variables was, in turn, significantly associated with catchment-scale forestry land use...
November 1, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804094/climate-change-induced-salinity-variation-impacts-on-a-stenoecious-mangrove-species-in-the-indian-sundarbans
#19
Kakoli Banerjee, Roberto Cazzolla Gatti, Abhijit Mitra
The alterations in the salinity profile are an indirect, but potentially sensitive, indicator for detecting changes in precipitation, evaporation, river run-off, glacier retreat, and ice melt. These changes have a high impact on the growth of coastal plant species, such as mangroves. Here, we present estimates of the variability of salinity and the biomass of a stenoecious mangrove species (Heritiera fomes, commonly referred to as Sundari) in the aquatic subsystem of the lower Gangetic delta based on a dataset from 2004 to 2015...
November 1, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787668/mangroves-as-a-protection-from-storm-surges-in-a-changing-climate
#20
Brian Blankespoor, Susmita Dasgupta, Glenn-Marie Lange
Adaptation to climate change includes addressing sea-level rise (SLR) and increased storm surges in many coastal areas. Mangroves can substantially reduce vulnerability of the adjacent coastal land from inundation but SLR poses a threat to the future of mangroves. This paper quantifies coastal protection services of mangroves for 42 developing countries in the current climate, and a future climate change scenario with a 1-m SLR and 10  % intensification of storms. Findings demonstrate that while SLR and increased storm intensity would increase storm surge areas, the greatest impact is from the expected loss of mangroves...
October 27, 2016: Ambio
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