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Silvio J Crespin, Javier A Simonetti
Land has traditionally been spared to protect biodiversity; however, this approach has not succeeded by itself and requires a complementary strategy in human-dominated landscapes: land-sharing. Human-wildlife conflicts are rampant in a land-sharing context where wildlife co-occur with crops or livestock, but whose resulting interactions adversely affect the wellbeing of land owners, ultimately impeding coexistence. Therefore, true land-sharing only works if coexistence is also considered an end goal. We reviewed the literature on land-sharing and found that conflicts have not yet found their way into the land-sharing/sparing framework, with wildlife and humans co-occurring without coexisting in a dynamic process...
May 11, 2018: Ambio
Jayalaxshmi Mistry, Isabel Belloni Schmidt, Ludivine Eloy, Bibiana Bilbao
Wildfires continue to cause damage to property, livelihoods and environments around the world. Acknowledging that dealing with wildfires has to go beyond fire-fighting, governments in countries with fire-prone ecosystems have begun to recognize the multiple perspectives of landscape burning and the need to engage with local communities and their practices. In this perspective, we outline the experiences of Brazil and Venezuela, two countries where fire management has been highly contested, but where there have been recent advances in fire management approaches...
May 11, 2018: Ambio
Antonia Nyström Sandman, Johan Näslund, Ing-Marie Gren, Karl Norling
Macrofaunal activities in sediments modify nutrient fluxes in different ways including the expression of species-specific functional traits and density-dependent population processes. The invasive polychaete genus Marenzelleria was first observed in the Baltic Sea in the 1980s. It has caused changes in benthic processes and affected the functioning of ecosystem services such as nutrient regulation. The large-scale effects of these changes are not known. We estimated the current Marenzelleria spp. wet weight biomass in the Baltic Sea to be 60-87 kton (95% confidence interval)...
May 5, 2018: Ambio
Zebensui Morales-Reyes, Berta Martín-López, Marcos Moleón, Patricia Mateo-Tomás, Pedro P Olea, Eneko Arrondo, José A Donázar, José A Sánchez-Zapata
Integrating indigenous and local knowledge (ILK) and scientific knowledge (SK) in the evaluation of ecosystem services has been recommended by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. We examined the similarities and contradictions between shepherds' ILK and SK on the scavenging service provided by vertebrates in Spain. We conducted 73 face-to-face surveys with shepherds to evaluate their ILK. We collected scientific information on 20 scavenger species by monitoring the consumption of 45 livestock carcasses with camera traps...
May 5, 2018: Ambio
Silva Larson, Natalie Stoeckl, Diane Jarvis, Jane Addison, Sharon Prior, Michelle Esparon
Combining insights from literature on the Theory of Change, Impact Evaluation, and Wellbeing, we develop a novel approach to assessing impacts. Intended beneficiaries identify and rate factors that are important to their wellbeing, their satisfaction with those factors now, and before an intervention. Qualitative responses to questions about perceived changes and causes of change are linked to quantitative data to draw inferences about the existence and/or importance of impact(s). We use data from 67 Ewamian people, in a case study relating to Indigenous land management, to provide proof of concept...
May 5, 2018: Ambio
Anne H Toomey, María Eugenia Copa Alvaro, Matthew Aiello-Lammens, Oscar Loayza Cossio, Jos Barlow
Current debates in the conservation sciences argue for better integration between research and practice, often citing the importance of the diffusion, dissemination and implementation of scientific knowledge for environmental management and policy. This paper focuses on a relatively well-researched protected area (Madidi National Park) in Bolivia in order to present different interpretations and understandings of the implications and availability of research findings. We draw on findings from quantitative and qualitative methods to determine the extent to which research carried out in the region was disseminated and/or implemented for management actions, and to understand subsequent implications for how local actors perceive the value of research and its role in management and conservation...
April 24, 2018: Ambio
Heikki Mykrä, Romain Sarremejane, Tiina Laamanen, Satu Maaria Karjalainen, Annamari Markkola, Sirkku Lehtinen, Kaisa Lehosmaa, Timo Muotka
We examined how short-term (19 days) nutrient enrichment influences stream fungal and diatom communities, and rates of leaf decomposition and algal biomass accrual. We conducted a field experiment using slow-releasing nutrient pellets to increase nitrate (NO3 -N) and phosphate (PO4 -P) concentrations in a riffle section of six naturally acidic (naturally low pH due to catchment geology) and six circumneutral streams. Nutrient enrichment increased microbial decomposition rate on average by 14%, but the effect was significant only in naturally acidic streams...
April 16, 2018: Ambio
Rachelle K Gould, Kimberly Coleman, Sonya Buglion Gluck
The field of cultural ecosystem services (CES) explores the non-material benefits that ecosystems provide to people. Human perceptions and valuations change, for many reasons and in many ways; research on CES, however, rarely accounts for this dynamism. In an almost entirely separate academic world, research on environmental education (EE) explores how EE programming affects peoples' attitudes and values toward the natural world. In this review of 119 EE research publications, we explore whether CES (and the adjacent concept of relational values) can be dynamic...
April 11, 2018: Ambio
Markus Gastauer, Pedro Walfir Martins Souza Filho, Silvio Junio Ramos, Cecílio Frois Caldeira, Joyce Reis Silva, José Oswaldo Siqueira, Antonio Eduardo Furtini Neto
Environmental legislation in many countries demands the rehabilitation of degraded areas to minimize environmental impacts. Brazilian laws require the restitution of self-sustaining ecosystems to historical conditions but ignore the emergence of novel ecosystems due to large-scale changes, such as species invasions, extinctions, and land-use or climate changes, although these novel ecosystems might fulfill ecosystem services in similar ways as historic ecosystems. Thorough discussions of rehabilitation goals, target ecosystems, applied methods, and approaches to achieving mine land rehabilitation, as well as dialogues about the advantages and risks of chemical inputs or non-native, non-invasive species that include all political, economic, social, and academic stakeholders are necessary to achieve biological feasibility, sociocultural acceptance, economic viability, and institutional tractability during environmental rehabilitation...
April 11, 2018: Ambio
Kenneth J Bagstad, Darius J Semmens, James E Diffendorfer, Brady J Mattsson, James Dubovsky, Wayne E Thogmartin, Ruscena Wiederholt, John Loomis, Joanna A Bieri, Christine Sample, Joshua Goldstein, Laura López-Hoffman
Migratory species provide important benefits to society, but their cross-border conservation poses serious challenges. By quantifying the economic value of ecosystem services (ESs) provided across a species' range and ecological data on a species' habitat dependence, we estimate spatial subsidies-how different regions support ESs provided by a species across its range. We illustrate this method for migratory northern pintail ducks in North America. Pintails support over $101 million USD annually in recreational hunting and viewing and subsistence hunting in the U...
April 10, 2018: Ambio
Bo Söderström
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2018: Ambio
Brady J Mattsson, Marie Fischborn, Mark Brunson, Harald Vacik
Protected areas (PAs) can generate many benefits inside and outside their borders, and achieving objectives for diverse stakeholders raises many challenges. There are many examples of successful PA management around the globe, although a systematic and comprehensive approach to developing and sharing these solutions has been lacking. We present "solutioning" as a structured process of peer-learning, which can inform management strategies in and around protected areas. We explain how the PANORAMA-Solutions for a Healthy Planet initiative has put solutioning into practice through an interactive community and web portal to learn about protected area solutions around the globe...
March 30, 2018: Ambio
Wiesław Ziaja, Krzysztof Ostafin
A total of 34 new islands (each 0.5 km2 or above) have appeared due to recession of Arctic glaciers under climate warming since the 1960s. Analysis of maps and satellite images of the Arctic coasts has been a basic method of recognizing these islands. Their origin is the final stage of a process which began in the twentieth century. They appear only on the coasts where bedrock elevations above sea level are surrounded by depressions below this level, filled (at least from the landside) with glaciers. Their recession leads to flooding of the depressions by sea water, thus creating straits which separate the new islands from the mainland...
March 29, 2018: Ambio
Marja Isomursu, Juhani Koivusaari, Torsten Stjernberg, Varpu Hirvelä-Koski, Eija-Riitta Venäläinen
The white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) suffered a severe population decline due to environmental pollutants in the Baltic Sea area ca. 50 years ago but has since been recovering. The main threats for the white-tailed eagle in Finland are now often related to human activities. We examined the human impact on the white-tailed eagle by determining mortality factors of 123 carcasses collected during 2000-2014. Routine necropsy with chemical analyses for lead and mercury were done on all carcasses. We found human-related factors accounting for 60% of the causes of death...
March 29, 2018: Ambio
Mika Nieminen, Sirpa Piirainen, Ulf Sikström, Stefan Löfgren, Hannu Marttila, Sakari Sarkkola, Ari Laurén, Leena Finér
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of different water management options to mitigate sediment and nutrient exports from ditch network maintenance (DNM) areas in boreal peatland forests. Available literature was reviewed, past data reanalyzed, effects of drainage intensity modeled, and major research gaps identified. The results indicate that excess downstream loads may be difficult to prevent. Water protection structures constructed to capture eroded matter are either inefficient (sedimentation ponds) or difficult to apply (wetland buffers)...
March 27, 2018: Ambio
Louise Eriksson, Johanna Boberg, Thomas L Cech, Tamara Corcobado, Marie-Laure Desprez-Loustau, Ari M Hietala, Marília Horta Jung, Thomas Jung, Hatice Tuğba Doğmuş Lehtijarvi, Funda Oskay, Slavtcho Slavov, Halvor Solheim, Jan Stenlid, Jonàs Oliva
Political action can reduce introductions of diseases caused by invasive forest pathogens (IPs) and public support is important for effective prevention. The public's awareness of IP problems and the acceptability of policies aiming to combat these pathogens were surveyed in nine European countries (N = 3469). Although awareness of specific diseases (e.g., ash dieback) varied, problem awareness and policy acceptability were similar across countries. The public was positive towards policies for informational measures and stricter standards for plant production, but less positive towards restricting public access to protected areas...
March 23, 2018: Ambio
Anne-Lise Mariet, Anne-Véronique Walter-Simonnet, Frédéric Gimbert, Christophe Cloquet, Carole Bégeot
Iron mining activities in the Bruche valley (Vosges Mountains, France) date historically from the Roman period to the mid-nineteenth century. The geochemical and palynological study of a core from the peat bog of Le Champ du Feu allows highlighting impacts of these activities over the past millennium. Trace metal contamination is recorded for lead (Pb), arsenic, zinc, and antimony during the Middle Ages, the sixteenth century, and from cal. AD 1750-1900, with several sources distinguished by Pb isotope analyses...
March 17, 2018: Ambio
Pablo Iribarren Anacona, Josie Kinney, Marius Schaefer, Stephan Harrison, Ryan Wilson, Alexis Segovia, Bruno Mazzorana, Felipe Guerra, David Farías, John M Reynolds, Neil F Glasser
The environmental, socioeconomic and cultural significance of glaciers has motivated several countries to regulate activities on glaciers and glacierized surroundings. However, laws written to specifically protect mountain glaciers have only recently been considered within national political agendas. Glacier Protection Laws (GPLs) originate in countries where mining has damaged glaciers and have been adopted with the aim of protecting the cryosphere from harmful activities. Here, we analyze GPLs in Argentina (approved) and Chile (under discussion) to identify potential environmental conflicts arising from law restrictions and omissions...
March 13, 2018: Ambio
Jaime Paneque-Gálvez, Irene Pérez-Llorente, Ana Catarina Luz, Maximilien Guèze, Jean-François Mas, Manuel J Macía, Martí Orta-Martínez, Victoria Reyes-García
It has been suggested that traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) may play a key role in forest conservation. However, empirical studies assessing to what extent TEK is associated with forest conservation compared with other variables are rare. Furthermore, to our knowledge, the spatial overlap of TEK and forest conservation has not been evaluated at fine scales. In this paper, we address both issues through a case study with Tsimane' Amerindians in the Bolivian Amazon. We sampled 624 households across 59 villages to estimate TEK and used remote sensing data to assess forest conservation...
March 12, 2018: Ambio
Niels Kanstrup, John Swift, David A Stroud, Melissa Lewis
Much evidence demonstrates the adverse effects of lead ammunition on wildlife, their habitats and human health, and confirms that the use of such ammunition has no place within sustainable hunting. We identify the provisions that define sustainable hunting according to European law and international treaties, together with their guidance documents. We accept the substantial evidence for lead's actual and potential effects on wildlife, habitats and health as persuasive and assess how these effects relate to stated provisions for sustainability and hunting...
March 12, 2018: Ambio
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