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Annals of Biomedical Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159731/effects-of-population-variability-on-knee-loading-during-simulated-human-gait
#1
Rebecca J Nesbitt, Nathaniel A Bates, Marepalli B Rao, Grant Schaffner, Jason T Shearn
Cadaveric simulation models allow researchers to study native tissues in situ. However, as tests are conducted using donor specimens with unmatched kinematics, techniques that impose population average motions are subject to deviation from true physiologic conditions. This study aimed to identify factors which explain the kinetic variability observed during robotic simulations of a single human gait motion using a sample of human cadaver knees. Twelve human cadaver limbs (58 ± 16 years) were subjected to tibiofemoral geometrical analysis and cyclical stiffness testing in each anatomical degree of freedom...
November 20, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150767/cell-migration-in-1d-and-2d-nanofiber-microenvironments
#2
Horacio M Estabridis, Aniket Jana, Amrinder Nain, David J Odde
Understanding how cells migrate in fibrous environments is important in wound healing, immune function, and cancer progression. A key question is how fiber orientation and network geometry influence cell movement. Here we describe a quantitative, modeling-based approach toward identifying the mechanisms by which cells migrate in fibrous geometries having well controlled orientation. Specifically, U251 glioblastoma cells were seeded onto non-electrospinning Spinneret based tunable engineering parameters fiber substrates that consist of networks of suspended 400 nm diameter nanofibers...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150766/spinobot-an-mri-guided-needle-positioning-system-for-spinal-cellular-therapeutics
#3
Alexander Squires, John N Oshinski, Nicholas M Boulis, Zion Tsz Ho Tse
The neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) results in the death of motor neurons in voluntary muscles. There are no cures for ALS and few available treatments. In studies with small animal models, injection of cellular therapeutics into the anterior horn of the spinal cord has been shown to inhibit the progression of ALS. It was hypothesized that spinal injection could be made faster and less invasive with the aid of a robot. The robotic system presented-SpinoBot-uses MRI guidance to position a needle for percutaneous injection into the spinal cord...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150765/finite-element-design-optimization-of-a-hyaluronic-acid-based-hydrogel-drug-delivery-device-for-improved-retention
#4
Jourdan Colter, Barbara Wirostko, Brittany Coats
Drug-loaded hydrogel devices are emerging as an effective means of localized and sustained drug delivery for the treatment of corneal conditions and injuries. One such device uses a novel, thiolated crosslinked carboxymethylated, hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel (CMHA-S) film to deliver drug to the ocular surface upon placement into the inferior fornix of the eye. While proven to be very safe and effective, the CMHA-S film tends to dislodge in the highly-lubricated ocular environment, thereby reducing drug delivery efficiency and drug efficacy...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147820/cue-signal-response-analysis-in-3d-chondrocyte-scaffolds-with-anabolic-stimuli
#5
Michael Neidlin, Antonion Korcari, Giorgos Macheras, Leonidas G Alexopoulos
Articular cartilage is an avascular connective tissue responsible for bearing loads. Cell signaling plays a central role in cartilage homeostasis and tissue engineering by directing chondrocytes to synthesize/degrade the extracellular matrix or promote inflammatory responses. The aim of this paper was to investigate anabolic, catabolic and inflammatory pathways of well-known and underreported anabolic stimuli in 3D chondrocyte cultures and connect them to diverse cartilage responses including matrix regeneration and cell communication...
November 16, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139013/engineering-analysis-of-tricuspid-annular-dynamics-in-the-beating-ovine-heart
#6
Manuel K Rausch, Marcin Malinowski, Penny Wilton, Asghar Khaghani, Tomasz A Timek
Functional tricuspid regurgitation is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the US. Furthermore, treatment of functional tricuspid regurgitation is suboptimal with significant recurrence rates, which may, at least in part, be due to our limited knowledge of the relationship between valvular shape and function. Here we study the dynamics of the healthy in vivo ovine tricuspid annulus to improve our understanding of normal annular deformations throughout the cardiac cycle. To this end, we determine both clinical as well as engineering metrics of in vivo annular dynamics based on sonomicrometry crystals surgically attached to the annulus...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134294/destabilization-of-the-upright-posture-through-elevation-of-the-center-of-mass
#7
Natalia Dounskaia, Daniel Peterson, Ryan P Bruhns
The inverted pendulum model predicts that the major challenge for neural control of the upright posture is the inherent instability of the body due to the center of mass (COM) being above the base of support (BOS). If so, even slight elevation of the COM may substantially destabilize posture. The destabilizing effect of heavy load positioned above the COM has been demonstrated. We examined sensitivity of posture to light (1-5% of body weight) load by placing weights on the shoulders and assessing functional reach distance in the forward, right, and left directions and postural sway during quiet stance...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124551/mechanical-characterization-and-material-modeling-of-diabetic-aortas-in-a-rabbit-model
#8
Jianhua Tong, F Yang, X Li, X Xu, G X Wang
Diabetes has been recognized as a major risk factor to cause macrovascular diseases and plays a key role in aortic wall remodeling. However, the effects of diabetes on elastic properties of aortas remain largely unknown and quantitative mechanical data are lacking. Thirty adult rabbits (1.6-2.2 kg) were collected and the type 1 diabetic rabbit model was induced by injection of alloxan. A total of 15 control and 15 diabetic rabbit (abdominal) aortas were harvested. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests were performed to measure ultimate tensile strength and to characterize biaxial mechanical behaviors of the aortas...
November 9, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119363/the-effects-of-visual-feedback-distortion-with-unilateral-leg-loading-on-gait-symmetry
#9
Carlos Tobar, Eva Martinez, Nada Rhouni, Seung-Jae Kim
Our prior work provides evidence that visual feedback distortion drives an implicit adaptation; a gradual distortion of visual representation of step length modulated subjects' step lengths away from symmetry. To further explore the effect of the visual feedback distortion on unconscious change in step symmetry, we investigated whether such adaptation would occur even in the presence of altered limb mechanics by adding mass to one side of the leg. 26 subjects performed three 8-min trials (weight only, weight plus visual feedback, and weight plus visual feedback distortion) of treadmill walking...
November 8, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110266/reparative-effects-of-poloxamer-p188-in-astrocytes-exposed-to-controlled-microcavitation
#10
Johnwesly Kanagaraj, Bo Chen, Shu Xiao, Michael Cho
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a neurological dysfunction that can result from a sudden exposure to shockwave and lead to adverse health consequences. Currently, there are no preventive measures that specifically target bTBI. Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain such injuries, including the generation of microcavitation (e.g., microbubbles) in the brain that subsequently collapses with high pressure. This study was designed to explore and elucidate potential therapeutic effects of surfactants (poloxamers P188) to partially repair the damaged brain tissue due to bTBI...
November 6, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101497/using-a-teaching-intervention-and-calibrated-peer-review%C3%A2-diagnostics-to-improve-visual-communication-skills
#11
Ann Saterbak, Anoosha Moturu, Tracy Volz
Rice University's bioengineering department incorporates written, oral, and visual communication instruction into its undergraduate curriculum to aid student learning and to prepare students to communicate their knowledge and discoveries precisely and persuasively. In a tissue culture lab course, we used a self- and peer-review tool called Calibrated Peer Review™ (CPR) to diagnose student learning gaps in visual communication skills on a poster assignment. We then designed an active learning intervention that required students to practice the visual communication skills that needed improvement and used CPR to measure the changes...
November 3, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094293/blood-pump-design-variations-and-their-influence-on-hydraulic-performance-and-indicators-of-hemocompatibility
#12
L Wiegmann, S Boës, D de Zélicourt, B Thamsen, M Schmid Daners, M Meboldt, V Kurtcuoglu
Patients with ventricular assist devices still suffer from high rates of adverse events. Since many of these complications are linked to the flow field within the pump, optimization of the device geometry is essential. To investigate design aspects that influence the flow field, we developed a centrifugal blood pump using industrial guidelines. We then systematically varied selected design parameters and investigated their effects on hemodynamics and hydraulic performance using computational fluid dynamics...
November 1, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094292/the-advantages-of-viscous-dissipation-rate-over-simplified-power-loss-as-a-fontan-hemodynamic-metric
#13
Zhenglun Alan Wei, Michael Tree, Phillip M Trusty, Wenjun Wu, Shelly Singh-Gryzbon, Ajit Yoganathan
Flow efficiency through the Fontan connection is an important factor related to patient outcomes. It can be quantified using either a simplified power loss or a viscous dissipation rate metric. Though practically equivalent in simplified Fontan circulation models, these metrics are not identical. Investigation is needed to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these metrics for their use in in vivo or more physiologically-accurate Fontan modeling. Thus, simplified power loss and viscous dissipation rate are compared theoretically, computationally, and statistically in this study...
November 1, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086223/role-of-re-entry-tears-on-the-dynamics-of-type-b-dissection-flap
#14
Saranya Canchi, Xiaomei Guo, Matt Phillips, Zachary Berwick, Jarin Kratzberg, Joshua Krieger, Blayne Roeder, Stephan Haulon, Sean Chambers, Ghassan S Kassab
Mortality during follow-up after acute Type B aortic dissection is substantial with aortic expansion observed in over 59% of the patients. Lumen pressure differential is considered a prime contributing factor for aortic dilation after propagation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between changes in vessel geometry with and without lumen pressure differential post propagation in an ex vivo porcine model with comparison with patient clinical data. A pulse duplicator system was utilized to propagate the dissection within descending thoracic porcine aortic vessels for set proximal (%circumference of the entry tear: 40%, axial length: 2 cm) and re-entry (50% of distal vessel circumference) tear geometry...
October 30, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086222/low-intensity-ultrasound-modulates-ca-2-dynamics-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-connexin-43-hemichannel
#15
Chi Woo Yoon, Hayong Jung, Kyosuk Goo, Sunho Moon, Kweon Mo Koo, Nan Sook Lee, Andrew C Weitz, K Kirk Shung
In recent years, ultrasound has gained attention in new biological applications due to its ability to induce specific biological responses at the cellular level. Although the biophysical mechanisms underlying the interaction between ultrasound and cells are not fully understood, many agree on a pivotal role of Ca(2+) signaling through mechanotransduction pathways. Because Ca(2+) regulates a vast range of downstream cellular processes, a better understanding of how ultrasound influences Ca(2+) signaling could lead to new applications for ultrasound...
October 30, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110265/correction-to-impact-performance-of-modern-football-helmets
#16
David C Viano, Chris Withnall, David Halstead
This erratum is to correct headings listing the impact location and speed in Figs. 5 and 6. The following provides corrected Figs. 5 and 6. The data is unchanged. The authors apologize for any inconvenience this might have caused.
October 25, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071529/beat-by-beat-estimation-of-the-left-ventricular-pressure-volume-loop-under-clinical-conditions
#17
Shaun Davidson, Chris Pretty, Shun Kamoi, Thomas Desaive, J Geoffrey Chase
This paper develops a method for the minimally invasive, beat-by-beat estimation of the left ventricular pressure-volume loop. This method estimates the left ventricular pressure and volume waveforms that make up the pressure-volume loop using clinically available inputs supported by a short, baseline echocardiography reading. Validation was performed across 142,169 heartbeats of data from 11 Piétrain pigs subject to two distinct protocols encompassing sepsis, dobutamine administration and clinical interventions...
October 25, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071528/should-we-ignore-what-we-cannot-measure-how-non-uniform-stretch-non-uniform-wall-thickness-and-minor-side-branches-affect-computational-aortic-biomechanics-in-mice
#18
Mauro Ferraro, Bram Trachet, Lydia Aslanidou, Heleen Fehervary, Patrick Segers, Nikolaos Stergiopulos
In order to advance the state-of-the-art in computational aortic biomechanics, we investigated the influence of (i) a non-uniform wall thickness, (ii) minor aortic side branches and (iii) a non-uniform axial stretch distribution on the location of predicted hotspots of principal strain in a mouse model for dissecting aneurysms. After 3 days of angiotensin II infusion, a murine abdominal aorta was scanned in vivo with contrast-enhanced micro-CT. The animal was subsequently sacrificed and its aorta was scanned ex vivo with phase-contrast X-ray tomographic microscopy (PCXTM)...
October 25, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067563/using-a-novel-in-vitro-fontan-model-and-condition-specific-real-time-mri-data-to-examine-hemodynamic-effects-of-respiration-and-exercise
#19
Michael Tree, Zhenglun Alan Wei, Phillip M Trusty, Vrishank Raghav, Mark Fogel, Kevin Maher, Ajit Yoganathan
Several studies exist modeling the Fontan connection to understand its hemodynamic ties to patient outcomes (Chopski in: Experimental and Computational Assessment of Mechanical Circulatory Assistance of a Patient-Specific Fontan Vessel Configuration. Dissertation, 2013; Khiabani et al. in J Biomech 45:2376-2381, 2012; Taylor and Figueroa in Annu Rev Biomed 11:109-134, 2009; Vukicevic et al. in ASAIO J 59:253-260, 2013). The most patient-accurate of these studies include flexible, patient-specific total cavopulmonary connections...
October 24, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067562/knee-implant-loosening-detection-a-vibration-analysis-investigation
#20
Arash Arami, Jean-Romain Delaloye, Hossein Rouhani, Brigitte M Jolles, Kamiar Aminian
Knee implant loosening is mainly caused by the weakness of the prosthesis-bone interface and is the main reason for surgical revisions. However, pre-operative diagnosis is difficult due to lack of accurate tests. In this study, we developed a vibration-based system to detect the loosening of the tibial implant of an instrumented knee prosthesis. The proposed system includes an instrumented vibrator for transcutaneous stimulation of the bone in a repeatable manner, and accelerometer sensors integrated into the implants to measure the propagated vibration...
October 24, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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