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Annals of Biomedical Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108943/is-the-assessment-of-5-meters-of-gait-with-a-single-body-fixed-sensor-enough-to-recognize-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease-associated-gait
#1
M E Micó-Amigo, I Kingma, G S Faber, A Kunikoshi, J M T van Uem, R C van Lummel, W Maetzler, J H van Dieën
Quantitative assessment of gait in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is an important step in addressing motor symptoms and improving clinical management. Based on the assessment of only 5 meters of gait with a single body-fixed-sensor placed on the lower back, this study presents a method for the identification of step-by-step kinematic parameters in 14 healthy controls and in 28 patients at early-to-moderate stages of idiopathic PD. Differences between groups in step-by-step kinematic parameters were evaluated to understand gait impairments in the PD group...
January 20, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108942/compartmentalized-culture-of-perivascular-stroma-and-endothelial-cells-in-a-microfluidic-model-of-the-human-endometrium
#2
Juan S Gnecco, Virginia Pensabene, David J Li, Tianbing Ding, Elliot E Hui, Kaylon L Bruner-Tran, Kevin G Osteen
The endometrium is the inner lining of the uterus. Following specific cyclic hormonal stimulation, endometrial stromal fibroblasts (stroma) and vascular endothelial cells exhibit morphological and biochemical changes to support embryo implantation and regulate vascular function, respectively. Herein, we integrated a resin-based porous membrane in a dual chamber microfluidic device in polydimethylsiloxane that allows long term in vitro co-culture of human endometrial stromal and endothelial cells. This transparent, 2-μm porous membrane separates the two chambers, allows for the diffusion of small molecules and enables high resolution bright field and fluorescent imaging...
January 20, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105580/pixel-based-dxa-derived-structural-properties-strongly-correlate-with-pqct-measures-at-the-one-third-distal-femur-site
#3
Alexander M Baker, David W Wagner, B Jenny Kiratli, Gary S Beaupre
While bone mineral density has been traditionally used to quantify fracture risk for individuals with spinal cord injuries, recent studies are including engineering measurements such as section modulus and cross sectional moment of inertia. These are almost exclusively calculated by peripheral QCT scanners which, unlike DXA scanners, are rarely found in clinical settings. Using fifty-four fresh frozen femora, we developed and validated a pixel-by-pixel method to calculate engineering properties at the distal femur using a Hologic QDR-1000 W DXA scanner and compared them against similar parameters measured using a Stratec XCT-3000 peripheral QCT scanner...
January 19, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097526/improved-measurement-of-elastic-properties-of-cells-by-micropipette-aspiration-and-its-application-to-lymphocytes
#4
Gustavo Esteban-Manzanares, Blanca González-Bermúdez, Julia Cruces, Mónica De la Fuente, Qingxuan Li, Gustavo V Guinea, José Pérez-Rigueiro, Manuel Elices, Gustavo R Plaza
Mechanical deformability of cells is an important property for their function and development, as well as a useful marker of cell state. The classical technique of micropipette aspiration allows single-cell studies and we provide here a method to measure the two basic mechanical parameters, elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio. The proposed method, developed from finite-element analysis of micropipette aspiration experiments, may be implemented in future technologies for the automated measurement of mechanical properties of cells, based on the micropipette aspiration technique or on the cell transit through flow constrictions...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097525/automated-bone-segmentation-and-surface-evaluation-of-a-small-animal-model-of-post-traumatic-osteoarthritis
#5
Austin J Ramme, Kevin Voss, Jurinus Lesporis, Matin S Lendhey, Thomas R Coughlin, Eric J Strauss, Oran D Kennedy
MicroCT imaging allows for noninvasive microstructural evaluation of mineralized bone tissue, and is essential in studies of small animal models of bone and joint diseases. Automatic segmentation and evaluation of articular surfaces is challenging. Here, we present a novel method to create knee joint surface models, for the evaluation of PTOA-related joint changes in the rat using an atlas-based diffeomorphic registration to automatically isolate bone from surrounding tissues. As validation, two independent raters manually segment datasets and the resulting segmentations were compared to our novel automatic segmentation process...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097524/pubovisceralis-muscle-fiber-architecture-determination-comparison-between-biomechanical-modeling-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#6
Sofia Brandão, Marco Parente, Elisabete Silva, Thuane Da Roza, Teresa Mascarenhas, João Leitão, João Cunha, Renato Natal Jorge, Rita Gouveia Nunes
Biomechanical analysis of pelvic floor dysfunction requires knowledge of certain biomechanical parameters, such as muscle fiber direction, in order to adequately model function. Magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides an estimate of overall muscle fiber directionality based on the mathematical description of water diffusivity. This work aimed at evaluating the concurrence between pubovisceralis muscle fiber representations obtained from DTI, and the maximum principal stress lines obtained through the finite element method...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091968/load-based-lower-neck-injury-criteria-for-females-from-rear-impact-from-cadaver-experiments
#7
Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A Pintar, Anjishnu Banerjee
The objectives of this study were to derive lower neck injury metrics/criteria and injury risk curves for the force, moment, and interaction criterion in rear impacts for females. Biomechanical data were obtained from previous intact and isolated post mortem human subjects and head-neck complexes subjected to posteroanterior accelerative loading. Censored data were used in the survival analysis model. The primary shear force, sagittal bending moment, and interaction (lower neck injury criterion, LNic) metrics were significant predictors of injury...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091967/balancing-ethical-pros-and-cons-of-stem-cell-derived-gametes
#8
Seppe Segers, Heidi Mertes, Guido de Wert, Wybo Dondorp, Guido Pennings
In this review we aim to provide an overview of the most important ethical pros and cons of stem cell derived gametes (SCD-gametes), as a contribution to the debate about reproductive tissue engineering. Derivation of gametes from stem cells holds promising applications both for research and for clinical use in assisted reproduction. We explore the ethical issues connected to gametes derived from embryonic stem cells (both patient specific and non-patient specific) as well as those related to gametes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091966/aortic-regurgitation-generates-a-kinematic-obstruction-which-hinders-left-ventricular-filling
#9
Ikechukwu Okafor, Vrishank Raghav, Jose F Condado, Prem A Midha, Gautam Kumar, Ajit P Yoganathan
An incompetent aortic valve (AV) results in aortic regurgitation (AR), where retrograde flow of blood into the left ventricle (LV) is observed. In this work, we parametrically characterized the detailed changes in intra-ventricular flow during diastole as a result of AR in a physiological in vitro left-heart simulator (LHS). The loss of energy within the LV as the level of AR increased was also assessed. The validated LHS consisted of an optically-clear, flexible wall LV and a modular AV holder. Two-component, planar, digital particle image velocimetry was used to visualize and quantify intra-ventricular flow...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091965/deformability-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-is-dependent-on-vimentin-intermediate-filaments
#10
Poonam Sharma, Zachary T Bolten, Diane R Wagner, Adam H Hsieh
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being studied extensively due to their potential as a therapeutic cell source for many load-bearing tissues. Compression of tissues and the subsequent deformation of cells are just one type physical strain MSCs will need to withstand in vivo. Mechanotransduction by MSCs and their mechanical properties are partially controlled by the cytoskeleton, including vimentin intermediate filaments (IFs). Vimentin IF deficiency has been tied to changes in mechanosensing and mechanical properties of cells in some cell types...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083858/effect-of-view-scan-orientation-and-analysis-volume-on-digital-tomosynthesis-dts-based-textural-analysis-of-bone
#11
Woong Kim, Daniel Oravec, George W Divine, Michael J Flynn, Yener N Yeni
Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) derived textural parameters of human vertebral cancellous bone have been previously correlated to the finite element (FE) stiffness and 3D microstructure. The objective of this study was to optimize scanning configuration and use of multiple image slices in the analysis, so that FE stiffness prediction using DTS could be maximized. Forty vertebrae (T6, T8, T11, and L3) from ten cadavers (63-90 years) were scanned using microCT to obtain trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and FE stiffness...
January 12, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070774/restoring-fertility-with-cryopreserved-prepubertal-testicular-tissue-perspectives-with-hydrogel-encapsulation-nanotechnology-and-bioengineered-scaffolds
#12
Maxime Vermeulen, Jonathan Poels, Francesca de Michele, Anne des Rieux, Christine Wyns
New and improved oncological therapies are now able to cure more than 80% of cancer-affected children in Europe. However, such treatments are gonadotoxic and result in fertility issues, especially in boys who are not able to provide a sperm sample before starting chemo/radiotherapy because of their prepubertal state. For these boys, cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue (ITT) is the only available option, aiming to preserve spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Both slow-freezing and vitrification have been investigated to this end and are now applied in a clinical setting for SSC cryopreservation...
January 9, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070773/challenges-and-opportunities-building-a-relationship-between-a-department-of-biomedical-engineering-and-a-medical-school
#13
EDITORIAL
Steven C George, M Elizabeth Meyerand
A department of biomedical engineering can significantly enhance the impact of their research and training programs if a productive relationship with a medical school can be established. In order to develop such a relationship, significant hurdles must be overcome. This editorial summarizes some of the major challenges and opportunities for a department of biomedical engineering as they seek to build or enhance a relationship with a medical school. The ideas were formulated by engaging the collective wisdom from the Council of Chairs of the biomedical engineering departments...
January 9, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054160/antithrombotic-protein-filter-composed-of-hybrid-tissue-fabric-material-has-a-long-lifetime
#14
Yusuke Inoue, Tomoyuki Yokota, Tsuyoshi Sekitani, Akiko Kaneko, Taeseong Woo, Shingo Kobayashi, Tomokazu Shibuya, Masaru Tanaka, Hiroyuki Kosukegawa, Itsuro Saito, Takashi Isoyama, Yusuke Abe, Tomoyuki Yambe, Takao Someya, Masaki Sekino
There are recent reports of hybrid tissue-fabric materials with good performance-high biocompatibility and high mechanical strength. In this study, we demonstrate the capability of a hybrid material as a long-term filter for blood proteins. Polyester fabrics were implanted into rats to fabricate hybrid tissue-fabric material sheets. The hybrid materials comprised biological tissue grown on the fabric. The materials were extracted from the rat's body, approximately 100 days post-implantation. The tissues were decellularized to prevent immunological rejection...
January 4, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050727/energy-harvesting-by-subcutaneous-solar-cells-a-long-term-study-on-achievable-energy-output
#15
L Bereuter, S Williner, F Pianezzi, B Bissig, S Buecheler, J Burger, R Vogel, A Zurbuchen, A Haeberlin
Active electronic implants are powered by primary batteries, which induces the necessity of implant replacement after battery depletion. This causes repeated interventions in a patients' life, which bears the risk of complications and is costly. By using energy harvesting devices to power the implant, device replacements may be avoided and the device size may be reduced dramatically. Recently, several groups presented prototypes of implants powered by subcutaneous solar cells. However, data about the expected real-life power output of subcutaneously implanted solar cells was lacking so far...
January 3, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028713/magnetically-controlled-endourethral-artificial-urinary-sphincter
#16
T Mazzocchi, Leonardo Ricotti, N Pinzi, A Menciassi
Urinary incontinence is a largely spread disfunction that affects more than 300 million people worldwide. At present, no technological solutions are able to restore continence in a minimally invasive and effective way. In this article the authors report the design, fabrication, and testing of a novel artificial endourethral urinary sphincter able to fully restore continence. The device can be inserted/retracted in a minimally invasive fashion without hospital admission, does not alter the body scheme and can be applied to both women and men...
December 27, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028712/numerical-study-of-blood-clots-influence-on-the-flow-pattern-and-platelet-activation-on-a-stented-bifurcation-model
#17
P García Carrascal, J García García, J Sierra Pallares, F Castro Ruiz, F J Manuel Martín
Stent implantation is a common procedure followed in arteries affected by atherosclerosis. This procedure can lead to other stenting-related problems. One of these is the deposition and accumulation of blood clots over stent struts. This process can have further consequences, in so far as it can introduce modifications to the flow pattern. This problem is especially critical in stented bifurcations, where resulting stent geometry is more complex. In this regard, a numerical study is presented of the effect on the flow pattern and platelet activation of blood clot depositions on the stent struts of a stented coronary bifurcation...
December 27, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028711/bioengineering-the-uterus-an-overview-of-recent-advances-and-future-perspectives-in-reproductive-medicine
#18
Hannes Campo, Irene Cervelló, Carlos Simón
Since the initial in vitro attempts to more complex models, research on uterine regeneration is moving towards the creation of a functional bioengineered uterus with possible clinical applications. We describe here the most relevant advances in bioengineering of the uterus published in the last decades considering the use of stem cells and biomaterials as well as future developing techniques in Regenerative Medicine.
December 27, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028710/restoring-ovarian-endocrine-function-with-encapsulated-ovarian-allograft-in-immune-competent-mice
#19
Anu David, James Ronald Day, Alexa Leigh Cichon, Adam Lefferts, Marilia Cascalho, Ariella Shikanov
Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a major complication of cytotoxic treatments due to extreme ovarian sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation. In pediatric cancer patients modern therapy has improved the long-term survival to over 80% in the United States. However, these cancer survivors face long-term health problems related to treatment toxicity. In female cancer survivors POI leads to sterility, along with the consequences of estrogen deficiency such as premature osteopenia, muscle wasting, accelerated cardiovascular diseases and a vast array of other health and developmental problems...
December 27, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008545/a-tri-leaflet-nitinol-mesh-scaffold-for-engineering-heart-valves
#20
S Hamed Alavi, Marc Soriano Baliarda, Noemi Bonessio, Lorenzo Valdevit, Arash Kheradvar
The epidemiology of valvular heart disease has significantly changed in the past few decades with aging as one of the main contributing factors. The available options for replacement of diseased valves are currently limited to mechanical and bioprosthetic valves, while the tissue engineered ones that are under study are currently far from clinical approval. The main problem with the tissue engineered heart valves is their progressive deterioration that leads to regurgitation and/or leaflet thickening a few months after implantation...
December 22, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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