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Annals of Biomedical Engineering

Vitor Mori, Bradford J Smith, Bela Suki, Jason H T Bates
Mechanical ventilation is a crucial tool in the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome, yet it may itself also further damage the lung in a phenomenon known as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). We have previously shown in mice that volutrauma and atelectrauma act synergistically to cause VILI. We have also postulated that this synergy arises because of a rich-get-richer mechanism in which repetitive lung recruitment generates initial small holes in the blood-gas barrier which are then expanded by over-distension in a manner that favors large holes over small ones...
November 12, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Alicia Izquierdo-Álvarez, Diego A Vargas, Álvaro Jorge-Peñas, Ramesh Subramani, Marie-Mo Vaeyens, Hans Van Oosterwyck
Cells interplay with their environment through mechanical and chemical interactions. To characterize this interplay, endothelial cells were cultured on polyacrylamide hydrogels of varying stiffness, coated with either fibronectin or collagen. We developed a novel analysis technique, complementary to traction force microscopy, to characterize the spatiotemporal evolution of cellular tractions: We identified subpopulations of tractions, termed traction foci, and tracked their magnitude and lifetime. Each focus consists of tractions associated with a local single peak of maximal traction...
November 8, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Jason R Franz, Ashish Khanchandani, Hannah McKenny, William H Clark
In this combined in vivo and computational modeling study, we tested the central hypothesis that ankle joint rotation and triceps surae muscle loading have independent and combinatory effects on the calcaneal (i.e., Achilles) tendon moment arm (CTma) that are not fully captured in contemporary musculoskeletal models of human movement. We used motion capture guided ultrasound imaging to estimate instantaneous variations in the CTma during a series of isometric and isotonic contractions compared to predictions from scaled, lower extremity computational models...
November 1, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Ali Jabran, Chris Peach, Zhenmin Zou, Lei Ren
Optimal treatment of proximal humerus fractures remains controversial. Locking plates offer theoretical advantages but are associated with complications in the clinic. This study aimed to perform parametric design optimisation of proximal humerus plates to enhance their mechanical performance. A finite element (FE) model was developed that simulated a two-part proximal humerus fracture that had been treated with a Spatial Subchondral Support (S3) plate and subjected to varus bending. The FE model was validated against in vitro biomechanical test results...
November 1, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Wei Zhao, Songbai Ji
Numerous head injury models exist that vary in mesh density by orders of magnitude. A careful study of the mesh convergence behavior is necessary, especially in terms of strain most relevant to brain injury. To this end, as well as to investigate the effect of element integration scheme on simulated strains, we re-meshed the Worcester Head Injury Model at five mesh densities (~ 7.2-1000 k high-quality hexahedral elements of the brain). Results from explicit dynamic simulations of three cadaveric impacts and an in vivo head rotation were compared...
October 30, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
J Sebastian Giudice, Wei Zeng, Taotao Wu, Ahmed Alshareef, Daniel F Shedd, Matthew B Panzer
Dozens of finite element models of the human brain have been developed for providing insight into the mechanical response of the brain during impact. Many models used in traumatic brain injury research are based on different computational techniques and approaches. In this study, a comprehensive review of the numerical methods implemented in 16 brain models was performed. Differences in element type, mesh size, element formulation, hourglass control, and solver were found. A parametric study using the SIMon FE brain model was performed to quantify the sensitivity of model outputs to differences in numerical implementation...
October 30, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Yue Chen, Isuru Godage, Hao Su, Aiguo Song, Hong Yu
Recent technological developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and stereotactic techniques have significantly improved surgical outcomes. Despite the advantages offered by the conventional MRI-guided stereotactic neurosurgery, the robotic-assisted stereotactic approach has potential to further improve the safety and accuracy of neurosurgeries. This review aims to provide an update on the potential and continued growth of the MRI-guided stereotactic neurosurgical techniques by describing the state of the art in MR conditional stereotactic devices including manual and robotic-assisted...
October 30, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Paul S Sung, Pamela Danial
This erratum is to correct the force plate device presented in the Methods section, subsection "Data Collection." A pressure mat, rather than a force plate was used with the ActiveStep® treadmill to measure ground reaction forces. The third sentence of the second paragraph should read as: "The pressure mat (GAITRite, Sparta, NJ) was installed, and a computer-controlled triggering mechanism would release the movable belt on the platform." Additionally, the first sentence of the third paragraph in the same section should read as: "The flexion angle was measured at heel strike of the first step only, and flexion angle at toe-off was measured at first step only (represented in degrees) by the IMU sensor and the pressure mat...
October 30, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Nikolas K Knowles, Kenneth Ip, Louis M Ferreira
Preclinical and clinical bone strength predictions can be elucidated by understanding bone mechanics at a variety of hierarchical levels. As such, down-sampled micro-CT images are often used to make comparisons across image resolutions or used to reduce computational resources in micro finite element models (µFEMs). Therefore, the objectives of this study were to compare trabecular apparent modulus among (i) hexahedral and tetrahedral µFEMs, (ii) µFEMs generated from 32, 64, and 64 µm down-sampled from 32 µm µCT scans, and (iii) µFEMs with homogeneous and heterogeneous tissue moduli...
October 25, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Tyler P Morris, Ryan A Gellner, Steven Rowson
Infield softball masks are intended to reduce facial fracture risk, but are rarely worn. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of infield masks' ability to attenuate facial fracture risk over a range of designs and materials. To simulate batted ball impacts, a customized pitching machine was used to propel softballs at 24.6 ± 0.51 m/s. The balls impacted locations centered over the maxilla and zygoma bones of a FOCUS headform. The FOCUS headform was attached to a 50th percentile Hybrid III neck and secured to a slider table...
October 25, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Jonas Lantz, Vikas Gupta, Lilian Henriksson, Matts Karlsson, Anders Persson, Carl-Johan Carlhäll, Tino Ebbers
Blood flow simulations are making their way into the clinic, and much attention is given to estimation of fractional flow reserve in coronary arteries. Intracardiac blood flow simulations also show promising results, and here the flow field is expected to depend on the pulmonary venous (PV) flow rates. In the absence of in vivo measurements, the distribution of the flow from the individual PVs is often unknown and typically assumed. Here, we performed intracardiac blood flow simulations based on time-resolved computed tomography on three patients, and investigated the effect of the distribution of PV flow rate on the flow field in the left atrium and ventricle...
October 24, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Brian D Stemper, Alok S Shah, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Steven Rowson, Jason P Mihalik, Stefan M Duma, Larry D Riggen, Alison Brooks, Kenneth L Cameron, Darren Campbell, John P DiFiori, Christopher C Giza, Kevin M Guskiewicz, Jonathan Jackson, Gerald T McGinty, Steven J Svoboda, Thomas W McAllister, Steven P Broglio, Michael McCrea
Studies of football athletes have implicated repetitive head impact exposure in the onset of cognitive and brain structural changes, even in the absence of diagnosed concussion. Those studies imply accumulating damage from successive head impacts reduces tolerance and increases risk for concussion. Support for this premise is that biomechanics of head impacts resulting in concussion are often not remarkable when compared to impacts sustained by athletes without diagnosed concussion. Accordingly, this analysis quantified repetitive head impact exposure in a cohort of 50 concussed NCAA Division I FBS college football athletes compared to controls that were matched for team and position group...
October 22, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Zhongyuan Ping, Haibo Wang, Xin Chen, Shuxin Wang, Siyang Zuo
Optical biopsy methods, such as probe-based endomicroscopy, can be used for the identification of early mucosal dysplasia in various gastrointestinal conditions and have potential applications in the screening of early-stage gastric cancer in vivo. However, it is difficult to scan a large area of the gastric mucosa for mosaicing during standard endoscopy. This paper proposes a novel 'snap-on' robotic scanning device that can integrate distally with a commercial endoscope. A customized low-cost endomicroscopy system is used for obtaining micro imaging...
October 22, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Taylor C Harris, Rijk de Rooij, Ellen Kuhl
Cerebral atrophy in response to traumatic brain injury is a well-documented phenomenon in both primary investigations and review articles. Recent atrophy studies focus on exploring the region-specific patterns of cerebral atrophy; yet, there is no study that analyzes and synthesizes the emerging atrophy patterns in a single comprehensive review. Here we attempt to fill this gap in our current knowledge by integrating the current literature into a cohesive theory of preferential brain tissue loss and by identifying common risk factors for accelerated atrophy progression...
October 17, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Eric L Pierce, Keshav Kohli, Beatrice Ncho, Vahid Sadri, Charles H Bloodworth, Fiona E Mangan, Ajit P Yoganathan
Transcatheter mitral valve (TMV) replacement technology has great clinical potential for surgically inoperable patients suffering from mitral regurgitation. An important goal for robust TMV design is maximizing the likelihood of achieving a geometry post-implant that facilitates optimal performance. To support this goal, improved understanding of the annular forces that oppose TMV radial expansion is necessary. In Part II of this study, novel circular and D-shaped Radial Expansion Force Transducers (C-REFT and D-REFT) were developed and employed in porcine hearts (N = 12), to detect the forces required to radially expand the mitral annulus to discrete oversizing levels...
October 17, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Eric L Pierce, Vahid Sadri, Beatrice Ncho, Keshav Kohli, Siddhi Shah, Ajit P Yoganathan
While transcatheter mitral valve (TMV) replacement technology has great clinical potential for surgically inoperable patients suffering from mitral regurgitation, no TMV has yet achieved regulatory approval. The diversity of devices currently under development reflects a lack of consensus regarding optimal design approaches. In Part I of this two-part study, a test system was developed for the quantification of paravalvular leakage (PVL) following deployment of a TMV or TMV-like device in pressurized, explanted porcine hearts (N = 7)...
October 17, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
J Sebastian Giudice, Gwansik Park, Kevin Kong, Ann Bailey, Richard Kent, Matthew B Panzer
The objective of this study was to develop and validate a set of Hybrid-III head and neck (HIII-HN) and impactor models that can be used to assess American football design modifications with established dummy-based injury metrics. The model was validated in two bare-head impact test configurations used by the National Football League and research groups to rank and assess helmet performance. The first configuration was a rigid pendulum impact to three locations on the HIII head (front, rear, side) at 3 m/s...
October 16, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Zhaoke Pi, Yongpeng Huang, Yuanyuan Shen, Xiaojun Zeng, Yaxin Hu, Tie Chen, Chenyang Li, Hao Yu, Siping Chen, Xin Chen
Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is a promising noninvasive method for cancer treatment. The anti-tumor effect of sinoporphyrin sodium (DVDMS)-mediated SDT on nude mice bearing intracranial U87 MG-Red-FLuc human glioblastoma was investigated. Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles (MBs) was utilized to open the blood-brain barrier for enhancing the delivery of the sonosensitizer DVDMS to the brain tumor first, and then the SDT treatment was performed. The in vitro study showed obvious cytotoxicity of DVDMS-mediated SDT (center frequency: 0...
October 12, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
S P D Chrisman, K G Harmon, J D Schmidt, T W Kaminski, T A Buckley, A P Kontos, J R Clugston, M McCrea, T McAllister, S P Broglio, J Ortega
The King-Devick (K-D) test is often used as part of a multimodal assessment to screen for sport-related concussion. However, the test involves reading numbers, and little is known about variation in baseline performance on the K-D by reading skill level. We conducted a cross-sectional study analyzing data from the Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium to assess differences in baseline performance on the K-D associated with factors that impact reading skill level (learning disorder [LD] and primary home language other than English [PHLOTE]), while controlling for covariates (gender, type of sport, attentional issues, history of concussion and modality of administration)...
October 12, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Daming Sun, Zhiyong Huang, Zhuoli Zhuang, Zhiyao Ma, Lo Kar Man, Donghua Liao, Hans Gregersen
During defecation, solid, semisolid or liquid stools are eliminated via the anus in a complex physiological process. Up to 25% of the population are affected by anorectal disorders that are poorly recognized and treated. We developed a new bionics device, a simulated stool named Fecobionics, to replace several current tests of anorectal function. Fecobionics was developed to simulate the defecation process that depends on rectal forces, the anorectal size angle, and anorectal size and sensitivity. Fecobionics provided axial pressure signatures, measurement of bending (anorectal angle) and geometric mapping in a single examination...
October 11, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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