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Annals of Biomedical Engineering

Justin D McCallen, Alison Schaefer, Phoebe Lee, Loretta Hing, Samuel K Lai
Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the most popular and indispensable tools in molecular biology. Despite numerous advances in ELISA methods that markedly improve the sensitivity and throughput of detection, a hallmark of all ELISA continues to be repeated pipetting of fluids that is not only cumbersome but can easily introduce errors or contaminations. Robotics, despite obvious advantages, remains expensive. Here, we designed and produced cheap "pillar plates" using stereolithography-based 3D printing that can be readily inserted into conventional 96- and 384- well plates and serve as the substrate for ELISA...
December 2, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
P Sáez, A M Zöllner
Fingertips wrinkle due to long exposure to water. The biological reason for this morphological change is unclear and still not fully understood. There are two main hypotheses for the underlying mechanism of fingertip wrinkling: the 'shrink' model (in which the wrinkling is driven by the contraction of the lower layers of skin, associated with the shrinking of the underlying vasculature), and the 'swell' model (in which the wrinkling is driven by the swelling of the upper layers of the skin, associated with osmosis)...
December 2, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Priscilla A Williams, Kevin T Campbell, Hessam Gharaviram, Justin L Madrigal, Eduardo A Silva
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid, is a potent candidate for treatment of ischemic vascular disease. However, designing biomaterial systems for the controlled release of S1P to achieve therapeutic angiogenesis presents both biological and engineering challenges. Thus, the objective of this study was to design a hydrogel system that provides controlled and sustained release of S1P to establish local concentration gradients that promote neovascularization. Alginate hydrogels have been extensively studied and characterized for delivery of proangiogenic factors...
November 30, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Sahar Vahabzadeh, Susmita Bose
Iron (Fe) is a vital element and its deficiency causes abnormal bone metabolism. We investigated the effects of Fe and its concentration in β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on physicomechanical properties and in vitro proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Our results showed that Fe addition at concentrations of 0.5 wt.% (0.5 Fe-TCP) and 1.0 wt.% (1.0 Fe-TCP) inhibits the β-TCP to α-TCP phase transformation at sintering temperature of 1250 °C. Addition of 0.25 wt.% Fe (0.25 Fe-TCP) increased the compressive strength of β-TCP from 167...
November 28, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Marcia A M M Ferraz, Heiko H W Henning, Tom A E Stout, Peter L A M Vos, Bart M Gadella
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Lakshmi P Dasi, Hoda Hatoum, Arash Kheradvar, Ramin Zareian, S Hamed Alavi, Wei Sun, Caitlin Martin, Thuy Pham, Qian Wang, Prem A Midha, Vrishank Raghav, Ajit P Yoganathan
Transcatheter aortic valves (TAVs) represent the latest advances in prosthetic heart valve technology. TAVs are truly transformational as they bring the benefit of heart valve replacement to patients that would otherwise not be operated on. Nevertheless, like any new device technology, the high expectations are dampened with growing concerns arising from frequent complications that develop in patients, indicating that the technology is far from being mature. Some of the most common complications that plague current TAV devices include malpositioning, crimp-induced leaflet damage, paravalvular leak, thrombosis, conduction abnormalities and prosthesis-patient mismatch...
November 21, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Miina Björninen, Kerry Gilmore, Jani Pelto, Riitta Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Minna Kellomäki, Susanna Miettinen, Gordon Wallace, Dirk Grijpma, Suvi Haimi
We investigated the use of polypyrrole (PPy)-coated polymer scaffolds and electrical stimulation (ES) to differentiate adipose stem cells (ASCs) towards smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Since tissue engineering lacks robust and reusable 3D ES devices we developed a device that can deliver ES in a reliable, repeatable, and cost-efficient way in a 3D environment. Long pulse (1 ms) or short pulse (0.25 ms) biphasic electric current at a frequency of 10 Hz was applied to ASCs to study the effects of ES on ASC viability and differentiation towards SMCs on the PPy-coated scaffolds...
November 14, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Marcia A M M Ferraz, Heiko H W Henning, Tom A E Stout, Peter L A M Vos, Bart M Gadella
The oviduct was long considered a largely passive conduit for gametes and embryos. However, an increasing number of studies into oviduct physiology have demonstrated that it specifically and significantly influences gamete interaction, fertilization and early embryo development. While oviduct epithelial cell (OEC) function has been examined during maintenance in conventional tissue culture dishes, cells seeded into these two-dimensional (2-D) conditions suffer a rapid loss of differentiated OEC characteristics, such as ciliation and secretory activity...
November 14, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Brooks D Lindsey, Sarah E Shelton, K Heath Martin, Kathryn A Ozgun, Juan D Rojas, F Stuart Foster, Paul A Dayton
Mapping blood perfusion quantitatively allows localization of abnormal physiology and can improve understanding of disease progression. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a low-cost, real-time technique for imaging perfusion dynamics with microbubble contrast agents. Previously, we have demonstrated another contrast agent-specific ultrasound imaging technique, acoustic angiography, which forms static anatomical images of the superharmonic signal produced by microbubbles. In this work, we seek to determine whether acoustic angiography can be utilized for high resolution perfusion imaging in vivo by examining the effect of acquisition rate on superharmonic imaging at low flow rates and demonstrating the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced superharmonic perfusion imaging for the first time...
November 10, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Fabian Adams, Tian Qiu, Andrew Mark, Benjamin Fritz, Lena Kramer, Daniel Schlager, Ulrich Wetterauer, Arkadiusz Miernik, Peer Fischer
Organ models are used for planning and simulation of operations, developing new surgical instruments, and training purposes. There is a substantial demand for in vitro organ phantoms, especially in urological surgery. Animal models and existing simulator systems poorly mimic the detailed morphology and the physical properties of human organs. In this paper, we report a novel fabrication process to make a human kidney phantom with realistic anatomical structures and physical properties. The detailed anatomical structure was directly acquired from high resolution CT data sets of human cadaveric kidneys...
November 9, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Thomas Wyss Balmer, Juan Ansó, Enric Muntane, Kate Gavaghan, Stefan Weber, Andreas Stahel, Philippe Büchler
Nerve monitoring is a safety mechanism to detect the proximity between surgical instruments and important nerves during surgical bone preparation. In temporal bone, this technique is highly specific and sensitive at distances below 0.1 mm, but remains unreliable for distances above this threshold. A deeper understanding of the patient-specific bone electric properties is required to improve this range of detection. A sheep animal model has been used to characterize bone properties in vivo. Impedance measurements have been performed at low frequencies (<1 kHz) between two electrodes placed inside holes drilled into the sheep mastoid bone...
November 9, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Julio Carballido-Gamio, Serena Bonaretti, Galateia J Kazakia, Sundeep Khosla, Sharmila Majumdar, Thomas F Lang, Andrew J Burghardt
HR-pQCT enables in vivo multi-parametric assessments of bone microstructure in the distal radius and distal tibia. Conventional HR-pQCT image analysis approaches summarize bone parameters into global scalars, discarding relevant spatial information. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) techniques for HR-pQCT studies, which enable population-based local comparisons of bone properties. We present voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess trabecular and cortical bone voxel-based features, and a surface-based framework to assess cortical bone features both in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies...
November 9, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
H T Kokkonen, H C Chin, J Töyräs, J S Jurvelin, T M Quinn
Solute transport through the extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial to chondrocyte metabolism. Cartilage injury affects solute transport in cartilage due to alterations in ECM structure and solute-matrix interactions. Therefore, cartilage injury may be detected by using contrast agent-based clinical imaging. In the present study, effects of mechanical injury on transport of negatively charged contrast agents in cartilage were characterized. Using cartilage plugs injured by mechanical compression protocol, effective partition coefficients and diffusion fluxes of iodine- and gadolinium-based contrast agents were measured using high resolution microCT imaging...
November 8, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Rebecca Y Wang, Rosalyn D Abbott, Adam Zieba, Francis E Borowsky, David L Kaplan
Obesity is a rising issue especially in the United States that can lead to heart problems, type II diabetes, and respiratory problems. Since the 1970s, obesity rates in the United States have more than doubled in adults and children. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to certain chemicals, termed "obesogens," in utero may alter metabolic processes, predisposing individuals to weight gain. There is a need to develop a three-dimensional human tissue system that is able to model the effects of obesogens in vitro in order to better understand the impact of obesogens on early development...
November 4, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Srikara V Peelukhana, Yanmin Wang, Zachary Berwick, Jarin Kratzberg, Joshua Krieger, Blayne Roeder, Rachel E Clough, Albert Hsiao, Sean Chambers, Ghassan S Kassab
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Ryan M Pedrigi, Konstantinos I Papadimitriou, Avinash Kondiboyina, Sukhjinder Sidhu, James Chau, Miten B Patel, Daniel C Baeriswyl, Emmanuel M Drakakis, Rob Krams
Exposure of endothelial cells to low and multidirectional blood flow is known to promote a pro-atherogenic phenotype. The mechanics of the vessel wall is another important mechano-stimulus within the endothelial cell environment, but no study has examined whether changes in the magnitude and direction of cell stretch can be pro-atherogenic. Herein, we developed a custom cell stretching device to replicate the in vivo stretch environment of the endothelial cell and examined whether low and multidirectional stretch promote nuclear translocation of NF-κB...
October 27, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Scott I Simon, Antonios G Mikos, Larry V McIntire
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Lauren E Marshall, Roy Koomullil, Andra R Frost, Joel L Berry
A preclinical testing model for cancer therapeutics that replicates in vivo physiology is needed to accurately describe drug delivery and efficacy prior to clinical trials. To develop an in vitro model of breast cancer that mimics in vivo drug/nutrient delivery as well as physiological size and bio-composition, it is essential to describe the mass transport quantitatively. The objective of the present study was to develop in vitro and computational models to measure mass transport from a perfusion system into a 3D extracellular matrix (ECM)...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Minoo Heidari Kani, Eng-Cheng Chan, Roger C Young, Trent Butler, Roger Smith, Jonathan W Paul
Research insights into uterine function and the mechanisms of labour have been hindered by the lack of suitable animal and cellular models. The use of traditional culturing methods limits the exploration of complex uterine functions, such as cell interactions, connectivity and contractile behaviour, as it fails to mimic the three-dimensional (3D) nature of uterine cell interactions in vivo. Animal models are an option, however, use of these models is constrained by ethical considerations as well as translational limitations to humans...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Yushu Yin, Georgia Papavasiliou, Olga Y Zaborina, John C Alverdy, Fouad Teymour
The human gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of colonization of multidrug resistant pathogens and the major source of life-threatening complications in critically ill and immunocompromised patients. Eradication measures using antibiotics carry further risk of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, antibiotic treatment can adversely shift the intestinal microbiome toward domination by resistant pathogens. Therefore, approaches directed to prevent replacement of health promoting microbiota with resistant pathogens should be developed...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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