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Annals of Biomedical Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421394/waveform-integrity-in-atrial-fibrillation-the-forgotten-issue-of-cardiac-electrophysiology
#1
Miguel Martínez-Iniesta, Juan Ródenas, Raúl Alcaraz, José J Rieta
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in clinical practice with an increasing prevalence of about 15% in the elderly. Despite other alternatives, catheter ablation is currently considered as the first-line therapy for the treatment of AF. This strategy relies on cardiac electrophysiology systems, which use intracardiac electrograms (EGM) as the basis to determine the cardiac structures contributing to sustain the arrhythmia. However, the noise-free acquisition of these recordings is impossible and they are often contaminated by different perturbations...
April 18, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409291/laser-sintered-porous-ti-6al-4v-implants-stimulate-vertical-bone-growth
#2
Alice Cheng, David J Cohen, Adrian Kahn, Ryan M Clohessy, Kaan Sahingur, Joseph B Newton, Sharon L Hyzy, Barbara D Boyan, Zvi Schwartz
The objective of this study was to examine the ability of 3D implants with trabecular-bone-inspired porosity and micro-/nano-rough surfaces to enhance vertical bone ingrowth. Porous Ti-6Al-4V constructs were fabricated via laser-sintering and processed to obtain micro-/nano-rough surfaces. Male and female human osteoblasts were seeded on constructs to analyze cell morphology and response. Implants were then placed on rat calvaria for 10 weeks to assess vertical bone ingrowth, mechanical stability and osseointegration...
April 13, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405773/failure-and-fatigue-properties-of-immature-human-and-porcine-parasagittal-bridging-veins
#3
Stephanie A Pasquesi, Susan S Margulies
Tearing of the parasagittal bridging veins (BVs) is thought to be a source of extra-axial hemorrhage (EAH) associated with abusive traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in children. However, the pediatric BV mechanical properties are unknown. We subjected porcine adult, porcine newborn, and human infant BVs to either a low rate pull to failure, a high rate pull to failure, or 30 s of cyclic loading followed by a pull to failure. An additional subset of human infant BVs was examined for viscoelastic recovery between two cycling episodes...
April 12, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397021/neck-muscle-moment-arms-obtained-in-vivo-from-mri-effect-of-curved-and-straight-modeled-paths
#4
Bethany L Suderman, Anita N Vasavada
Musculoskeletal models of the cervical spine commonly represent neck muscles with straight paths. However, straight lines do not best represent the natural curvature of muscle paths in the neck, because the paths are constrained by bone and soft tissue. The purpose of this study was to estimate moment arms of curved and straight neck muscle paths using different moment arm calculation methods: tendon excursion, geometric, and effective torque. Curved and straight muscle paths were defined for two subject-specific cervical spine models derived from in vivo magnetic resonance images (MRI)...
April 10, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397020/erratum-to-anisotropic-permeability-of-trabecular-bone-and-its-relationship-to-fabric-and-architecture-a-computational-study
#5
T C Kreipke, G L Niebur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374279/design-analysis-and-testing-of-a-novel-mitral-valve-for-transcatheter-implantation
#6
Selim Bozkurt, Georgia L Preston-Maher, Ryo Torii, Gaetano Burriesci
Mitral regurgitation is a common mitral valve dysfunction which may lead to heart failure. Because of the rapid aging of the population, conventional surgical repair and replacement of the pathological valve are often unsuitable for about half of symptomatic patients, who are judged high-risk. Transcatheter valve implantation could represent an effective solution. However, currently available aortic valve devices are inapt for the mitral position. This paper presents the design, development and hydrodynamic assessment of a novel bi-leaflet mitral valve suitable for transcatheter implantation...
April 3, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364375/longitudinal-motion-assessment-of-the-carotid-artery-using-speckle-tracking-and-scale-invariant-feature-transform
#7
Salvatore Scaramuzzino, Claudio Carallo, Giampaolo Pileggi, Agostino Gnasso, Maria Francesca Spadea
The purpose of this work is to present and validate a novel approach for ultra-sound-based speckle tracking to measure the carotid artery longitudinal displacement, and to assess the apparent sliding between of Intima-Media Complex (IMC) and Adventitia (Ad) layers. This method utilizes feature detectors and descriptors to localize and track keypoints for local motion quantification. The procedure was tested and validated on an in silico dataset and on 18 heathy volunteers and 16 patients. Accuracy measured on in silico data gave a mean ± standard deviation of 23 ± 15 and 19 ± 18 μm for IMC and Ad respectively, and thus smaller than the pixel size (0...
March 31, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361184/impact-of-fiber-structure-on-the-material-stability-and-rupture-mechanisms-of-coronary-atherosclerotic-plaques
#8
Graeham R Douglas, Adam J Brown, Jonathan H Gillard, Martin R Bennett, Michael P F Sutcliffe, Zhongzhao Teng
The rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary circulation remains the main cause of heart attack. As a fiber-oriented structure, the fiber structure, in particular in the fibrous cap (FC), may affect both loading and material strength in the plaque. However, the role of fiber orientation and dispersion in plaque rupture is unclear. Local orientation and dispersion of fibers were calculated for the shoulder regions, mid FC, and regions with intimal thickening (IT) from histological images of 16 human coronary atherosclerotic lesions...
March 30, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361183/handheld-electrical-impedance-myography-probe-for-assessing-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#9
Zhao Li, Lingfen Chen, Yu Zhu, Qingquan Wei, Wenwen Liu, Dong Tian, Yude Yu
Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a novel, noninvasive, and painless technique for quantitatively assessing muscle health as well as disease status and progression. The preparatory work for commercial adhesive electrodes used in previous EIM measurements is tedious, as the electrodes need to be cut, repeatedly applied, and removed. Moreover, the electrode distances need to be measured many times. To overcome these problems, we developed a convenient and practical handheld EIM probe for assessing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in the small hand muscles...
March 30, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361182/stiffness-of-protease-sensitive-and-cell-adhesive-peg-hydrogels-promotes-neovascularization-in-vivo
#10
Ryan M Schweller, Zi Jun Wu, Bruce Klitzman, Jennifer L West
Materials that support the assembly of new vasculature are critical for regenerative medicine. Controlling the scaffold's mechanical properties may help to optimize neovascularization within implanted biomaterials. However, reducing the stiffness of synthetic hydrogels usually requires decreasing polymer densities or increasing chain lengths, both of which accelerate degradation. We synthesized enzymatically-degradable poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels with compressive moduli from 2 to 18 kPa at constant polymer density, chain length, and proteolytic degradability by inserting an allyloxycarbonyl functionality into the polymer backbone...
March 30, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349327/a-theoretical-study-on-inhibition-of-melanoma-with-controlled-and-targeted-delivery-of-sirna-via-skin-using-space-egf
#11
Juanjuan Liu, Weiping Ding, Renquan Ruan, Lili Zou, Ming Chen, Pengfei Wei, Longping Wen
Melanoma is a potentially lethal skin cancer with high mortality rate. Recently, the peptide-mediated transdermal delivery of small interference RNA (siRNA) emerges as a promising strategy to treat melanoma by inducing the apoptosis of tumor cells, but the related theoretical model describing the delivery of siRNA under the effect of SPACE-EGF, the growth inhibition of melanoma and the dynamic expanding of the bump on the skin due to the growth of melanoma has not been reported yet. In this article, a theoretical model is developed to describe the percutaneous siRNA delivery mediated by SPACE-EGF to melanoma and the growth inhibition of melanoma...
March 27, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341914/the-injury-tolerance-of-the-tibia-under-off-axis-impact-loading
#12
Avery B Chakravarty, Alberto A Martinez, Cheryl E Quenneville
During a frontal collision, there are a range of lower extremity postures that the vehicle's occupant may assume, potentially changing the way load is transmitted to this region of the body. While most experimental studies on the tibia's injury tolerance assume that load is directed along the leg's long axis, the effects of off-axis loading due to non-standard postures have not been well quantified, and commonly-cited injury criteria such as the Tibia Index do not directly account for posture. Therefore, twelve cadaveric tibias (paired from six donors) were subjected to off-axis impact loading in a custom-built test apparatus...
March 24, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324193/hemodynamic-characterization-of-peripheral-arterio-venous-malformations
#13
Sabrina Frey, A Haine, R Kammer, H von Tengg-Kobligk, D Obrist, I Baumgartner
Peripheral arterio-venous malformations (pAVMs) are congenital vascular anomalies that require treatment, due to their severe clinical consequences. The complexity of lesions often leads to misdiagnosis and ill-planned treatments. To improve disease management, we developed a computational model to quantify the hemodynamic effects of key angioarchitectural features of pAVMs. Hemodynamic results were used to predict the transport of contrast agent (CA), which allowed us to compare our findings to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) recordings of patients...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321583/microfluidic-encapsulation-of-ovarian-follicles-for-3d-culture
#14
Xiaoming He
The ovarian follicle that contains one single oocyte is the fundamental functional tissue unit of mammalian ovary. Therefore, isolation and in vitro culture of ovarian follicles to obtain fertilizable oocytes are regarded as a promising strategy for women to combat infertility. In this communication, we performed a brief survey of studies on microfluidic encapsulation of ovarian follicles in core-shell hydrogel microcapsules for biomimetic 3D culture. These studies highlighted that recapitulation of the mechanical heterogeneity of the extracellular matrix in ovary is crucial for in vitro culture to develop early pre-antral follicles to the antral stage, and for the release of cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) from antral follicles in vitro...
March 20, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293752/acoustic-emission-signatures-during-failure-of-vertebra-and-long-bone
#15
Brian D Goodwin, Frank A Pintar, Narayan Yoganandan
Clinical classification of an injury has traditionally involved medical imaging, patient history, and physical examination. The pathogenesis or process of injury has been viewed as a crucial component to estimating fracture stability and direct treatment. However, injury classification systems generally exclude pathogenesis and injury mechanisms because these components are often difficult to elucidate. Furthermore, the development of bone damage relative to the mechanical response is difficult to quantify, which limits the ability to define injury and develop injury criteria...
March 14, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293751/linear-and-nonlinear-gait-features-in-older-adults-walking-on-inclined-surfaces-at-different-speeds
#16
Marcus Fraga Vieira, Fábio Barbosa Rodrigues, Gustavo Souto de Sá E Souza, Rina Márcia Magnani, Georgia Cristina Lehnen, Adriano O Andrade
This study evaluated linear and nonlinear gait features in healthy older adults walking on inclined surfaces at different speeds. Thirty-seven active older adults (experimental group) and fifty young adults (control group) walked on a treadmill at 100% and ±20% of their preferred walking speed for 4 min under horizontal (0%), upward (UP) (+8%), and downward (DOWN) (-8%) conditions. Linear gait variability was assessed using the average standard deviation of trunk acceleration between strides (VAR). Gait stability was assessed using the margin of stability (MoS)...
March 14, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271306/fibrin-in-reproductive-tissue-engineering-a-review-on-its-application-as-a-biomaterial-for-fertility-preservation
#17
M C Chiti, M M Dolmans, J Donnez, C A Amorim
In recent years, reproductive medicine has made good use of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine techniques to develop alternatives to restore fertility in cancer patients. For young female cancer patients who cannot undergo any of the currently applied strategies due to the possible presence of malignant cells in their ovaries, the challenge is creating an in vitro or in vivo artificial ovary using carefully selected biomaterials. Thanks to its numerous qualities, fibrin has been widely used as a scaffold material for fertility preservation applications...
March 7, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255679/computational-parametric-studies-investigating-the-global-hemodynamic-effects-of-applied-apical-torsion-for-cardiac-assist
#18
Elaine Soohoo, Lewis K Waldman, Dennis R Trumble
Healthy hearts have an inherent twisting motion that is caused by large changes in muscle fiber orientation across the myocardial wall and is believed to help lower wall stress and increase cardiac output. It was demonstrated that applied apical torsion (AAT) of the heart could potentially treat congestive heart failure (CHF) by improving hemodynamic function. We report the results of parametric computational experiments where the effects of using a torsional ventricular assist device (tVAD) to treat CHF were examined using a patient-specific bi-ventricular computational model...
March 2, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247039/alginate-a-versatile-biomaterial-to-encapsulate-isolated-ovarian-follicles
#19
Julie Vanacker, Christiani A Amorim
In vitro culture of ovarian follicles isolated or enclosed in ovarian tissue fragments and grafting of isolated ovarian follicles represent a potential alternative to restore fertility in cancer patients who cannot undergo cryopreservation of embryos or oocytes or transplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue. In this regard, respecting the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of isolated follicles is crucial to maintaining their proper follicular physiology. To this end, alginate hydrogel has been widely investigated using follicles from numerous animal species, yielding promising results...
February 28, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243826/differentiation-of-mouse-primordial-germ-cells-into-functional-oocytes-in-vitro
#20
Kanako Morohaku, Yuji Hirao, Yayoi Obata
Various complex molecular events in oogenesis cannot be observed in vivo. As a bioengineering technique for female reproductive tissues, in vitro culture systems for female germ cells have been used to analyze oogenesis and preserve germ cells for over 20 years. Recently, we have established a new methodological approach for the culture of primordial germ cells (PGCs) and successfully obtained offspring. Our PGC culture system will be useful to clarify unresolved mechanisms of fertility and sterility from the beginning of mammalian oogenesis, before meiosis...
February 27, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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