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Annals of Biomedical Engineering

Alexander Thesleff, Rickard Brånemark, Bo Håkansson, Max Ortiz-Catalan
Bone-anchored limb prostheses allow for the direct transfer of external loads from the prosthesis to the skeleton, eliminating the need for a socket and the associated problems of poor fit, discomfort, and limited range of movement. A percutaneous implant system for direct skeletal attachment of an external limb must provide a long-term, mechanically stable interface to the bone, along with an infection barrier to the external environment. In addition, the mechanical integrity of the implant system and bone must be preserved despite constant stresses induced by the limb prosthesis...
January 11, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Rui Li, Sheng Xu, William F Pritchard, John W Karanian, Venkatesh P Krishnasamy, Bradford J Wood, Zion Tsz Ho Tse
As a low-cost needle navigation system, AngleNav may be used to improve the accuracy, speed, and ease of CT-guided needle punctures. The AngleNav hardware includes a wireless device with a microelectromechanical (MEMS) tracker that can be attached to any standard needle. The physician defines the target, desired needle path and skin entry point on a CT slice image. The accuracy of AngleNav was first tested in a 3D-printed calibration platform in a benchtop setting. An abdominal phantom study was then performed in a CT scanner to validate the accuracy of the device's angular measurement...
January 5, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Like Wang, Lei Tian, Yanping Huang, Yifei Huang, Yongping Zheng
Biomechanical properties are important for the cornea to maintain its normal shape and function. There is still a need to develop better methods for accurate measurement of corneal mechanical properties. In this study, we propose to introduce the optical coherence tomography (OCT) in inflation test for the imaging of corneal deformation in order to measure its biomechanical properties. Ten cornea-mimicking silicone phantoms with different stiffness and five fresh porcine corneas were tested using the proposed method...
January 2, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Poonam Sharma, Zachary T Bolten, Diane R Wagner, Adam H Hsieh
This erratum is to correct the following: (1) in the Western Blotting subsection under the Materials and Methods section, the concentration of protein from each sample loaded into Criterion Tris-HCl gels was incorrectly stated as 155 µg of protein. The correct value is 9.7 µg; (2) in Fig. 1b, the bar graph showed incorrect values for semi-quantitation of Western blots. Figure 1 has been updated with a corrected graph in Fig. 1b only.
January 2, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Olesya Klets, Mika E Mononen, Mimmi K Liukkonen, Mika T Nevalainen, Miika T Nieminen, Simo Saarakkala, Rami K Korhonen
Evaluation of the subject-specific biomechanical effects of obesity on the progression of OA is challenging. The aim of this study was to create 3D MRI-based finite element models of the knee joints of seven obese subjects, who had developed OA at 4-year follow-up, and of seven normal weight subjects, who had not developed OA at 4-year follow-up, to test the sensitivity of cumulative maximum principal stresses in cartilage in quantitative risk evaluation of the initiation and progression of knee OA. Volumes of elements with cumulative stresses over 5 MPa in tibial cartilage were significantly (p < 0...
December 26, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Jessica M Oakes, Steven C Roth, Shawn C Shadden
The airway structure continuously evolves from birth to adulthood, influencing airflow dynamics and respiratory mechanics. We currently know very little about how airflow patterns change throughout early life and its impact on airway resistance, namely because of experimental limitations. To uncover differences in respiratory dynamics between age groups, we performed subject-specific airflow simulations in an infant, child, and adult conducting airways. Airflow throughout the respiration cycle was calculated by coupling image-based models of the conducting airways to the global respiratory mechanics, where flow was driven by a pressure differential...
December 20, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Derek P Zwambag, Shawn M Beaudette, Diane E Gregory, Stephen H M Brown
A novel method of recording intersegmental spine kinematics was developed. The method was required to: (1) have similar accuracy and precision as current methods that record gross spine kinematics; (2) be reasonably insensitive to errors associated with marker detection or misplacement; and (3) be reasonably insensitive to skin movement artefacts. Four healthy participants performed trunk flexion, lateral bending, and axial twist movements; data were collected using the intersegmental method as well as electromagnetic sensors...
December 18, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Francisco Sahli Costabal, Junaid A B Zaman, Ellen Kuhl, Sanjiv M Narayan
Atrial fibrillation is the most common rhythm disorder of the heart associated with a rapid and irregular beating of the upper chambers. Activation mapping remains the gold standard to diagnose and interpret atrial fibrillation. However, fibrillatory activation maps are highly sensitive to far-field effects, and often disagree with other optical mapping modalities. Here we show that computational modeling can identify spurious non-local components of atrial fibrillation electrograms and improve activation mapping...
December 6, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Adam J Dixon, John Marschner Robert Rickel, Brian D Shin, Alexander L Klibanov, John A Hossack
Therapeutic approaches that enhance thrombolysis by combining recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), ultrasound, and/or microbubbles (MBs) are known as sonothrombolysis techniques. To date, sonothrombolysis approaches have primarily utilized commercially available MB formulations (or derivatives thereof) with diameters in the range 1-4 µm and circulation lifetimes between 5 and 15 min. The present study evaluated the in vitro sonothrombolysis efficacy of large diameter MBs (d MB ≥ 10 µm) with much shorter lifetimes that were produced on demand and in close proximity to the blood clot using a flow-focusing microfluidic device...
November 30, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Gregory J Wright, Matthew C Coombs, Yongren Wu, Brooke J Damon, Thierry H Bacro, Michael J Kern, Xiaojing Chen, Hai Yao
To investigate potential mechanisms associated with the increased prevalence of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders among women, the study objective was to determine sex-dependent and region-dependent differences in fixed charge density (FCD) using an electrical conductivity method. Seventeen TMJ discs were harvested from nine males (77 ± 4 years) and eight females (86 ± 4 years). Specimens were prepared from the anterior band, posterior band, intermediate zone, medial disc and lateral disc. FCD was determined using an electrical conductivity method, assessing differences among disc regions and between sexes...
November 27, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Shani E Ross, Zhonghua Ouyang, Sai Rajagopalan, Tim M Bruns
A closed-loop device for bladder control may offer greater clinical benefit compared to current open-loop stimulation devices. Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using single-unit recordings from sacral-level dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for decoding bladder pressure. Automatic online sorting, to differentiate single units, can be computationally heavy and unreliable, in contrast to simple multi-unit thresholded activity. In this study, the feasibility of using DRG multi-unit recordings to decode bladder pressure was examined...
November 27, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Hassan Bahaloo, W S Enns-Bray, I Fleps, O Ariza, S Gilchrist, R Widmer Soyka, P Guy, H Palsson, S J Ferguson, P A Cripton, B Helgason
The limitations of areal bone mineral density measurements for identifying at-risk individuals have led to the development of alternative screening methods for hip fracture risk including the use of geometrical measurements from the proximal femur and subject specific finite element analysis (FEA) for predicting femoral strength, based on quantitative CT data (qCT). However, these methods need more development to gain widespread clinical applications. This study had three aims: To investigate whether proximal femur geometrical parameters correlate with obtained femur peak force during the impact testing; to examine whether or not failure of the proximal femur initiates in the cancellous (trabecular) bone; and finally, to examine whether or not surface fracture initiates in the places where holes perforate the cortex of the proximal femur...
November 27, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
John J E Mulvihill, Julia Raykin, Eric J Snider, Lisa A Schildmeyer, Irsham Zaman, Manu O Platt, Daniel J Kelly, C Ross Ethier
Glaucoma is a common optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell death. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), a key risk factor for glaucoma, leads to significant biomechanical deformation of optic nerve head (ONH) cells and tissues. ONH astrocytes respond to this deformation by transforming to a reactive, proliferative phenotype, which has been implicated in the progression of glaucomatous vision loss. However, little is known about the mechanisms of this transformation. In this study, we developed a 3D collagen gel culture system to mimic features of ONH deformation due to elevated IOP...
November 27, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Ahmad Nazmi Bin Ahmad Fuad, Hariprashanth Elangovan, Kamal Deep, Wei Yao
This paper presents a robotic flexible drill and its navigation system for total hip arthroplasty (THA). The new robotic system provides an unprecedented and unique capability to perform curved femoral milling under the guidance of a multimodality navigation system. The robotic system consists of three components. Firstly, a flexible drill manipulator comprises multiple rigid segments that act as a sheath to a flexible shaft with a drill/burr attached to the end. The second part of the robotic system is a hybrid tracking system that consists of an optical tracking system and a position tracking system...
November 22, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Rebecca J Nesbitt, Nathaniel A Bates, Marepalli B Rao, Grant Schaffner, Jason T Shearn
Cadaveric simulation models allow researchers to study native tissues in situ. However, as tests are conducted using donor specimens with unmatched kinematics, techniques that impose population average motions are subject to deviation from true physiologic conditions. This study aimed to identify factors which explain the kinetic variability observed during robotic simulations of a single human gait motion using a sample of human cadaver knees. Twelve human cadaver limbs (58 ± 16 years) were subjected to tibiofemoral geometrical analysis and cyclical stiffness testing in each anatomical degree of freedom...
November 20, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Horacio M Estabridis, Aniket Jana, Amrinder Nain, David J Odde
Understanding how cells migrate in fibrous environments is important in wound healing, immune function, and cancer progression. A key question is how fiber orientation and network geometry influence cell movement. Here we describe a quantitative, modeling-based approach toward identifying the mechanisms by which cells migrate in fibrous geometries having well controlled orientation. Specifically, U251 glioblastoma cells were seeded onto non-electrospinning Spinneret based tunable engineering parameters fiber substrates that consist of networks of suspended 400 nm diameter nanofibers...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Alexander Squires, John N Oshinski, Nicholas M Boulis, Zion Tsz Ho Tse
The neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) results in the death of motor neurons in voluntary muscles. There are no cures for ALS and few available treatments. In studies with small animal models, injection of cellular therapeutics into the anterior horn of the spinal cord has been shown to inhibit the progression of ALS. It was hypothesized that spinal injection could be made faster and less invasive with the aid of a robot. The robotic system presented-SpinoBot-uses MRI guidance to position a needle for percutaneous injection into the spinal cord...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Jourdan Colter, Barbara Wirostko, Brittany Coats
Drug-loaded hydrogel devices are emerging as an effective means of localized and sustained drug delivery for the treatment of corneal conditions and injuries. One such device uses a novel, thiolated crosslinked carboxymethylated, hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel (CMHA-S) film to deliver drug to the ocular surface upon placement into the inferior fornix of the eye. While proven to be very safe and effective, the CMHA-S film tends to dislodge in the highly-lubricated ocular environment, thereby reducing drug delivery efficiency and drug efficacy...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Michael Neidlin, Antonion Korcari, Giorgos Macheras, Leonidas G Alexopoulos
Articular cartilage is an avascular connective tissue responsible for bearing loads. Cell signaling plays a central role in cartilage homeostasis and tissue engineering by directing chondrocytes to synthesize/degrade the extracellular matrix or promote inflammatory responses. The aim of this paper was to investigate anabolic, catabolic and inflammatory pathways of well-known and underreported anabolic stimuli in 3D chondrocyte cultures and connect them to diverse cartilage responses including matrix regeneration and cell communication...
November 16, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Manuel K Rausch, Marcin Malinowski, Penny Wilton, Asghar Khaghani, Tomasz A Timek
Functional tricuspid regurgitation is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the US. Furthermore, treatment of functional tricuspid regurgitation is suboptimal with significant recurrence rates, which may, at least in part, be due to our limited knowledge of the relationship between valvular shape and function. Here we study the dynamics of the healthy in vivo ovine tricuspid annulus to improve our understanding of normal annular deformations throughout the cardiac cycle. To this end, we determine both clinical as well as engineering metrics of in vivo annular dynamics based on sonomicrometry crystals surgically attached to the annulus...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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