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Annals of Biomedical Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924864/a-nociceptive-role-for-integrin-signaling-in-pain-after-mechanical-injury-to-the-spinal-facet-capsular-ligament
#1
Sijia Zhang, Ethan Zhao, Beth A Winkelstein
Integrins modulate chemically-induced nociception in a variety of inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Yet, the role of integrins in mechanically-induced pain remains undefined, despite its well-known involvement in cell adhesion and mechanotransduction. Excessive spinal facet capsular ligament stretch is a common injury that induces morphological and functional changes in its innervating afferent neurons and can lead to pain. However, the local mechanisms underlying the translation from tissue deformation to pain signaling are unclear, impeding effective treatment...
September 18, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924827/dual-contrast-ct-method-enables-diagnostics-of-cartilage-injuries-and-degeneration-using-a-single-ct-image
#2
Annina E A Saukko, Juuso T J Honkanen, Wujun Xu, Sami P Väänänen, Jukka S Jurvelin, Vesa-Pekka Lehto, Juha Töyräs
Cartilage injuries may be detected using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) by observing variations in distribution of anionic contrast agent within cartilage. Currently, clinical CECT enables detection of injuries and related post-traumatic degeneration based on two subsequent CT scans. The first scan allows segmentation of articular surfaces and lesions while the latter scan allows evaluation of tissue properties. Segmentation of articular surfaces from the latter scan is difficult since the contrast agent diffusion diminishes the image contrast at surfaces...
September 18, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924724/development-of-a-high-throughput-magnetic-separation-device-for-malaria-infected-erythrocytes
#3
A Blue Martin, Wei-Tao Wu, Marina V Kameneva, James F Antaki
This study describes a non-dilutive high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) device intended to continuously remove malaria-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) from the circulation. A mesoscale prototype device with disposable photo-etched ferromagnetic grid and reusable permanent magnet was designed with a computationally-optimized magnetic force. The prototype device was evaluated in vitro using a non-pathogenic analog for malaria-infected blood, comprised of 24% healthy RBCs, 6% human methemoglobin RBCs (metRBCs), and 70% phosphate buffer solution (PBS)...
September 18, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924674/spine-posture-influences-tactile-perceptual-sensitivity-of-the-trunk-dorsum
#4
Shawn M Beaudette, Simone G V S Smith, Leah R Bent, Stephen H M Brown
The purpose of the current work was to quantify the influence of posture-mediated skin deformation on trunk dorsum tactile perceptual sensitivity. Twelve young and healthy individuals were assessed while adopting three different spine postures (extension, neutral and flexion). Tactile sensitivity threshold tests (T10 and L4 vertebral levels) included measures of touch sensitivity, spatial acuity and stretch sensitivity. The results demonstrate that tactile sensitivity can differ due to changes in body posture...
September 18, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913691/intestinal-mechanomorphological-remodeling-induced-by-long-term-low-fiber-diet-in-rabbits
#5
Yue Liu, Jingbo Zhao, Donghua Liao, Guixue Wang, Hans Gregersen
Short-term feeding with low-fiber diet remodels the mechanomorphological properties in the rabbit small intestine. The aims were to study the effect of feeding low-fiber diet for 5 months on mechanomorphological properties including the collagen fraction in the rabbit intestines. Fifteen rabbits were divided into an Intervention group (IG, n = 10) fed a low-fiber diet and a Control group (CG, n = 5) fed a normal diet for 5 months. Five months later, four 10-cm-long segments obtained from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and large intestine were used for histological and mechanical analysis, respectively...
September 14, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913606/ranges-of-injury-risk-associated-with-impact-from-unmanned-aircraft-systems
#6
Eamon T Campolettano, Megan L Bland, Ryan A Gellner, David W Sproule, Bethany Rowson, Abigail M Tyson, Stefan M Duma, Steven Rowson
Regulations have allowed for increased unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) operations over the last decade, yet operations over people are still not permitted. The objective of this study was to estimate the range of injury risks to humans due to UAS impact. Three commercially-available UAS models that varied in mass (1.2-11 kg) were evaluated to estimate the range of risk associated with UAS-human interaction. Live flight and falling impact tests were conducted using an instrumented Hybrid III test dummy. On average, live flight tests were observed to be less severe than falling impact tests...
September 14, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905268/fluid-and-biomechanical-analysis-of-ascending-thoracic-aorta-aneurysm-with-concomitant-aortic-insufficiency
#7
F Condemi, S Campisi, M Viallon, T Troalen, G Xuexin, A J Barker, M Markl, P Croisille, O Trabelsi, C Cavinato, A Duprey, S Avril
We present a comprehensive and original framework for the biomechanical analysis of patients affected by ascending thoracic aorta aneurysm and aortic insufficiency. Our aim is to obtain crucial indications about the role played by deranged hemodynamics on the ATAAs risk of rupture. Computational fluid dynamics analysis was performed using patient-specific geometries and boundary conditions derived from 4D MRI. Blood flow helicity and wall shear stress descriptors were assessed. A bulge inflation test was carried out in vitro on the 4 ATAAs after surgical repair...
September 13, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905242/poly-n-acetyl-glucosamine-snag-enhances-early-rotator-cuff-tendon-healing-in-a-rat-model
#8
C A Nuss, J Huegel, J F Boorman-Padgett, D S Choi, S N Weiss, J Vournakis, L J Soslowsky
Rotator cuff injuries frequently require surgical repairs which have a high failure rate. Biological augmentation has been utilized in an attempt to improve tendon repair. Poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (sNAG) polymer containing nanofibers has been shown to increase the rate for healing of venous leg ulcers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the healing and analgesic properties of sNAG in a rat rotator cuff injury and repair model. 144 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a transection and repair of their left supraspinatus tendons...
September 13, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900782/why-are-antagonist-muscles-co-activated-in-my-simulation-a-musculoskeletal-model-for-analysing-human-locomotor-tasks
#9
Adrian K M Lai, Allison S Arnold, James M Wakeling
Existing "off-the-shelf" musculoskeletal models are problematic when simulating movements that involve substantial hip and knee flexion, such as the upstroke of pedalling, because they tend to generate excessive passive fibre force. The goal of this study was to develop a refined musculoskeletal model capable of simulating pedalling and fast running, in addition to walking, which predicts the activation patterns of muscles better than existing models. Specifically, we tested whether the anomalous co-activation of antagonist muscles, commonly observed in simulations, could be resolved if the passive forces generated by the underlying model were diminished...
September 12, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900761/a-novel-multi-objective-physiological-control-system-for-rotary-left-ventricular-assist-devices
#10
Anastasios Petrou, Marcial Monn, Mirko Meboldt, Marianne Schmid Daners
Various control and monitoring algorithms have been proposed to improve the left-ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy by reducing the still-occurring adverse events. We developed a novel multi-objective physiological control system that relies on the pump inlet pressure (PIP). Signal-processing algorithms have been implemented to extract the required features from the PIP. These features then serve for meeting various objectives: pump flow adaptation to the perfusion requirements, aortic valve opening for a predefined time, augmentation of the aortic pulse pressure, and monitoring of the LV pre- and afterload conditions as well as the cardiac rhythm...
September 12, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884239/nano-composite-foam-sensor-system-in-football-helmets
#11
A Jake Merrell, William F Christensen, Matthew K Seeley, Anton E Bowden, David T Fullwood
American football has both the highest rate of concussion incidences as well as the highest number of concussions of all contact sports due to both the number of athletes and nature of the sport. Recent research has linked concussions with long term health complications such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy and early onset Alzheimer's. Understanding the mechanical characteristics of concussive impacts is critical to help protect athletes from these debilitating diseases and is now possible using helmet-based sensor systems...
September 7, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884233/in-vivo-strain-analysis-of-dilated-ascending-thoracic-aorta-by-ecg-gated-ct-angiographic-imaging
#12
Salvatore Pasta, Valentina Agnese, Marzio Di Giuseppe, Giovanni Gentile, Giuseppe M Raffa, Diego Bellavia, Michele Pilato
Accurate assessment of aortic extensibility is a requisite first step for elucidating the pathophysiology of an ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (ATAA). This study aimed to develop a framework for the in vivo evaluation of the full-field distribution of the aortic wall strain by imaging analysis of electrocardiographic- (ECG) gated thoracic data of 34 patients with ATAA. Seven healthy controls (i.e., non-aneurysmal aorta) from patients who underwent ECG-gated CT angiography for coronary artery diseases were included for comparison...
September 7, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884207/kinematic-outcome-measures-using-target-reaching-arm-movement-in-stroke
#13
Qianqian Yang, Yuan Yang, Jie Luo, Le Li, Tiebin Yan, Rong Song
This study aimed to quantitatively investigate upper extremity motor performance and disclose the abnormality of motor control induced by stroke. Ten patients and ten healthy subjects were instructed to perform target-reaching tasks at nine difficulty levels, and coordinates of the shoulder, elbow and tip of the index finger were recorded. Age-matched control performed significantly better than patients, as indicated by lower movement time (MT) and normalized jerk score (NJS) and higher peak velocity (V peak), percentage time to peak velocity (PTPV), fuzzy approximate entropy (fApEn) and relative joint angles correlation (RJAC); also, significant effects of difficulty on all parameters except RJAC and fApEn, were observed in two groups...
September 7, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856486/the-automated-assessment-of-postural-stability-balance-detection-algorithm
#14
Alessandro Napoli, Stephen M Glass, Carole Tucker, Iyad Obeid
Impaired balance is a common indicator of mild traumatic brain injury, concussion and musculoskeletal injury. Given the clinical relevance of such injuries, especially in military settings, it is paramount to develop more accurate and reliable on-field evaluation tools. This work presents the design and implementation of the automated assessment of postural stability (AAPS) system, for on-field evaluations following concussion. The AAPS is a computer system, based on inexpensive off-the-shelf components and custom software, that aims to automatically and reliably evaluate balance deficits, by replicating a known on-field clinical test, namely, the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS)...
August 30, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852889/objective-assessment-of-bradykinesia-estimated-from-the-wrist-extension-in-older-adults-and-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Amanda Gomes Rabelo, Lucio Pereira Neves, Ana Paula S Paixão, Fábio Henrique Monteiro Oliveira, Luciane Aparecida Pascucci Sande de Souza, Marcus Fraga Vieira, Adriano A Pereira, Adriano O Andrade
Parkinson's disease (PD) presents several motor signs, including tremor and bradykinesia. However, these signs can also be found in other motor disorders and in neurologically healthy older adults. The incidence of bradykinesia in PD is relatively high in all stages of the disorder, even when compared to tremor. Thus, this research proposes an objective assessment of bradykinesia in patients with PD (G PD: 15 older adults with Parkinson's disease, 65.3 ± 9.1 years) and older adults (G HV: 12 healthy older adults, 60...
August 29, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849421/review-of-mechanical-testing-and-modelling-of-thrombus-material-for-vascular-implant-and-device-design
#16
REVIEW
S Johnson, S Duffy, G Gunning, M Gilvarry, J P McGarry, P E McHugh
A thrombus or blood clot is a solid mass, made up of a network of fibrin, platelets and other blood components. Blood clots can form through various pathways, for example as a result of exposed tissue factor from vascular injury, as a result of low flow/stasis, or in very high shear flow conditions. Embolization of cardiac or vascular originating blood clots, causing an occlusion of the neurovasculature, is the major cause of stroke and accounts for 85% of all stroke. With mechanical thrombectomy emerging as the new standard of care in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), the need to generate a better understanding of the biomechanical properties and material behaviour of thrombus material has never been greater, as it could have many potential benefits for the analysis and performance of these treatment devices...
August 28, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849398/an-enhanced-method-of-transcutaneously-stimulating-the-tibial-nerve-for-the-treatment-of-overactive-bladder
#17
Mario Kovacevic, Richard Lin, Paul B Yoo
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) can be used to electrically stimulate the tibial nerve for the purpose of treating overactive bladder. Although clinical benefits can be achieved, the overall therapeutic efficacy of TENS is limited. Inconsistent activation of the intended neural target and co-activation of cutaneous sensory fibers are considered key limiting factors. In this study, we propose a novel approach that combines TENS with an implanted, electrically-conductive nerve cuff to reduce the stimulation amplitude needed to activate the tibial nerve...
August 28, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849321/an-approach-to-integrating-health-disparities-within-undergraduate-biomedical-engineering-education
#18
Maribel Vazquez, Otto Marte, Joseph Barba, Karen Hubbard
Health disparities are preventable differences in the incidence, prevalence and burden of disease among communities targeted by gender, geographic location, ethnicity and/or socio-economic status. While biomedical research has identified partial origin(s) of divergent burden and impact of disease, the innovation needed to eradicate health disparities in the United States requires unique engagement from biomedical engineers. Increasing awareness of the prevalence and consequences of health disparities is particularly attractive to today's undergraduates, who have undauntedly challenged paradigms believed to foster inequality...
August 28, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849278/the-feasibility-of-enhancing-susceptibility-of-glioblastoma-cells-to-ire-using-a-calcium-adjuvant
#19
Elisa M Wasson, Jill W Ivey, Scott S Verbridge, Rafael V Davalos
Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a cellular ablation method used to treat a variety of cancers. IRE works by exposing tissues to pulsed electric fields which cause cell membrane disruption. Cells exposed to lower energies become temporarily permeable while greater energy exposure results in cell death. For IRE to be used safely in the brain, methods are needed to extend the area of ablation without increasing applied voltage, and thus, thermal damage. We present evidence that IRE used with adjuvant calcium (5 mM CaCl2) results in a nearly twofold increase in ablation area in vitro compared to IRE alone...
August 28, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831732/erratum-to-%C3%A2-an-mr-conditional-high-torque-pneumatic-stepper-motor-for-mri-guided-and-robot-assisted-intervention
#20
Yue Chen, Ka-Wai Kwok, Zion Tsz Ho Tse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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