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Annals of Biomedical Engineering

Jinny Robson, Parham Aram, Martyn P Nash, Chris P Bradley, Martin Hayward, David J Paterson, Peter Taggart, Richard H Clayton, Visakan Kadirkamanathan
In this paper, we present a novel approach to quantify the spatio-temporal organization of electrical activation during human ventricular fibrillation (VF). We propose three different methods based on correlation analysis, graph theoretical measures and hierarchical clustering. Using the proposed approach, we quantified the level of spatio-temporal organization during three episodes of VF in ten patients, recorded using multi-electrode epicardial recordings with 30 s coronary perfusion, 150 s global myocardial ischaemia and 30 s reflow...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Xiaotian Wu, Joseph A Paydarfar, Ryan J Halter
For a variety of head and neck cancers, specifically those of the oropharynx, larynx, and hypopharynx, minimally invasive trans-oral approaches have been developed to reduce perioperative and long-term morbidity. However, in trans-oral surgical approaches anatomical deformation due to instrumentation, specifically placement of laryngoscopes and retractors, present a significant challenge for surgeons relying on preoperative imaging to resect tumors to negative margins. Quantifying the deformation due to instrumentation is needed in order to develop predictive models of operative deformation...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Maria E Piroli, Ehsan Jabbarzadeh
Human stem cells hold significant potential for the treatment of various diseases. However, their use as a therapy is hampered because of limited understanding of the mechanisms by which they respond to environmental stimuli. Efforts to understand extracellular biophysical cues have demonstrated the critical roles of geometrical and mechanical signals in determining the fate of stem cells. The goal of this study was to explore the interplay between cell polarity and matrix stiffness in stem cell lineage specification...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Ioannis Georgilas, Giulio Dagnino, Payam Tarassoli, Roger Atkins, Sanja Dogramadzi
The design of medical devices is a complex and crucial process to ensure patient safety. It has been shown that improperly designed devices lead to errors and associated accidents and costs. A key element for a successful design is incorporating the views of the primary and secondary stakeholders early in the development process. They provide insights into current practice and point out specific issues with the current processes and equipment in use. This work presents how information from a user-study conducted in the early stages of the RAFS (Robot Assisted Fracture Surgery) project informed the subsequent development and testing of the system...
March 9, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Kang Zhang, Yidan Chen, Tian Zhang, Lu Huang, Yi Wang, Tieying Yin, Juhui Qiu, Hans Gregersen, Guixue Wang
Inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (Id1) has been shown to be involved in adipogenesis and metabolism, which may contribute to atherosclerotic progression. However, it remains unclear how Id1 regulates endothelial cell functions and atherosclerosis in response to oscillatory shear stress. The current study aims to evaluate the effects of oscillatory shear stress on LDL uptake by endothelial cells and to delineate the roles of Id1 in this process. Using an in vivo ligation model of ApoE-/- mice and applying low and oscillatory shear stress (OSS) in vitro, we found that OSS can effectively promote lipid uptake...
March 5, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Hyung Joon Cho, Scott S Verbridge, Rafael V Davalos, Yong W Lee
To analyze complex inflammatory responses in an in vitro system, we constructed a new 3D in vitro brain tissue model that exhibits in vivo-like tissue responses (e.g. immune cell phenotypes, and molecular response) to inflammatory stimuli. Finite element modeling of oxygen diffusion and cellular oxygen consumption predicted the oxygen profile within 3D structures, consisting of Type I collagen hydrogel embedded with murine microglia. Viability and cytotoxicity analyses supported the mathematical analysis, determining optimal cell growth conditions for 3D construct development...
March 2, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Paul A Turner, Michael R Garrett, Sean P Didion, Amol V Janorkar
This study highlights functional differences between 2-D monolayer and 3-D spheroid 3T3-L1 adipocyte culture models and explores the underlying genomic mechanisms responsible for the different phenotypes present. The spheroids showed higher triglyceride accumulation than the monolayer culture and further increase with larger spheroid size. Whole transcriptome analysis indicated significant differential expression of genes related to adipogenesis, including adipocytokine signaling, fatty acid metabolism, and PPAR-γ signaling...
March 2, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Antonia Trotta, Dimitris Zouzias, Guido De Bruyne, Aisling Ní Annaidh
The best way to reduce the risk of head injury (up to 69% reduction) is to wear a helmet. In recent years, the improvement of helmet standard tests focused on reproducing realistic impact conditions and including the effect of rotational acceleration. However, less importance has been given to the development of a realistic headform. The goal of this work was to evaluate the role of scalp tissue in head impact kinematics; both with respect to its mechanical properties and with respect to its sliding properties...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Johanna Clauser, Marius S Knieps, Martin Büsen, Andreas Ding, Thomas Schmitz-Rode, Ulrich Steinseifer, Jutta Arens, Giorgio Cattaneo
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a commonly used method for in vitro investigation of fluid dynamics in biomedical devices, such as flow diverters for intracranial aneurysm treatment. Since it is limited to transparent blood substituting fluids like water-glycerol mixture, the influence of coagulation and platelet aggregation is neglected. We aimed at the development and the application of a modified platelet rich plasma as a new PIV fluid with blood-like rheological and coagulation properties. In standardized intracranial aneurysm silicone models, the effect of this new PIV plasma on the fluid dynamics before and after flow diverter implantation was evaluated and compared with water-glycerol measurements...
February 27, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Matthew T McKenna, Jared A Weis, Vito Quaranta, Thomas E Yankeelov
We develop a combined experimental-mathematical framework to investigate heterogeneity in the context of breast cancer treated with doxorubicin. We engineer a cell line to over-express the multi-drug resistance 1 protein (MDR1), an ATP-dependent pump that effluxes intracellular drug. Co-culture experiments mixing the MDR1-overexpressing line with its parental line are evaluated via fluorescence microscopy. To quantify the impact of population heterogeneity on therapy response, these data are analyzed with a coupled pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics model...
February 26, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Yongtao Lu, Yue Liu, Chengwei Wu, Junyan Li
Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease. However, the mechanism of osteoporosis-induced alterations in bone is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of osteoporosis on the structural, densitometric and mechanical properties of the whole tibia using in vivo μCT imaging, spatiotemporal analysis and finite element modeling. Twelve C57Bl/6 female mice were adopted. At 14 weeks of age, half of the mice were ovariectomized (OVX), and the other half were SHAM-operated. The whole right tibia was scanned using an in vivo μCT imaging system at 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22 weeks...
February 22, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Maria Kalli, Panagiotis Papageorgis, Vasiliki Gkretsi, Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos
Pancreatic fibroblasts are continuously gaining ground as an important component of tumor microenvironment that dynamically interact with cancer cells to promote tumor progression. In addition, these tumor-infiltrated fibroblasts can acquire an activated phenotype and produce excessive amounts of extracellular matrix creating a highly dense stroma, a situation known as desmoplasia. Desmoplasia, along with the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells, leads to the development of compressive forces within the tumor, generating the so-called solid stress...
February 22, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Kaspars Maleckis, Eric Anttila, Paul Aylward, William Poulson, Anastasia Desyatova, Jason MacTaggart, Alexey Kamenskiy
Endovascular stenting has matured into a commonly used treatment for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) due to its minimally invasive nature and associated reductions in short-term morbidity and mortality. The mechanical properties of the superelastic Nitinol alloy have played a major role in the explosion of peripheral artery stenting, with modern stents demonstrating reasonable resilience and durability. Yet in the superficial femoral and popliteal arteries, even the newest generation Nitinol stents continue to demonstrate clinical outcomes that leave significant room for improvement...
February 22, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Jonathan G Beckwith, Wei Zhao, Songbai Ji, Amaris G Ajamil, Richard P Bolander, Jeffrey J Chu, Thomas W McAllister, Joseph J Crisco, Stefan M Duma, Steven Rowson, Steven P Broglio, Kevin M Guskiewicz, Jason P Mihalik, Scott Anderson, Brock Schnebel, P Gunnar Brolinson, Michael W Collins, Richard M Greenwald
Kinematic measurements of head impacts are sensitive to sports concussion, but not highly specific. One potential reason is these measures reflect input conditions only and may have varying degrees of correlation to regional brain tissue deformation. In this study, previously reported head impact data recorded in the field from high school and collegiate football players were analyzed using two finite element head models (FEHM). Forty-five impacts associated with immediately diagnosed concussion were simulated along with 532 control impacts without identified concussion obtained from the same players...
February 22, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Shawn M Beaudette, Brendan L Pinto, Stephen H M Brown
This experiment investigates the efficacy of tactile feedback in affecting changes to dynamic spine movements. A sample of (n = 24) young, healthy males were assessed while completing targeted spine flexion movements with instruction to minimize stretching of the skin beneath an applied tactile stimulus (liquid bandage). Localized tactile stimuli were placed bilaterally at either lumbar (L4), lower thoracic (T10) or upper thoracic (T4) levels. Results demonstrate that localized tactile feedback elicited a re-distribution of spine flexion movement across spine sub-sections (e...
February 20, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Ryan A Orizondo, Guy Gino, Garret Sultzbach, Shalv P Madhani, Brian J Frankowski, William J Federspiel
Gas transfer through hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) can be increased via fiber oscillation. Prior work, however, does not directly translate to present-day, full-scale artificial lungs. This in vitro study characterized the effects of HFM oscillations on oxygenation and hemolysis for a pediatric-sized HFM bundle. Effects of oscillation stroke length (2-10 mm) and frequency (1-25 Hz) on oxygen transfer were measured according to established standards. The normalized index of hemolysis was measured for select conditions...
February 20, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Haakon Karlsen, Tao Dong, Zhenhe Suo
The high prevalence of urinary tract infection in aging adults is a challenging aspect of geriatric care. Incontinence and cognitive/functional impairment make collection of urine samples difficult and often require either catheterization for sample collection, which is a risk factor for infections, or more lenient criteria for initiating antibiotic treatment. We report the development of a diaper inlay with absorbent materials, superabsorbent polymer-based valve and chemical reaction pads for rapid screening of urinary tract infection of incontinent diaper-wearing elderly receivers of home care services...
February 20, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Daming Sun, Jingbo Zhao, Donghua Liao, Zhiyong Huang, Hans Gregersen
Intestinal obstruction prompts luminal dilation and wall remodeling proximal to the site of obstruction. Studies on temporal and spatial morphomechanical remodeling are needed for comprehending the pathophysiology of acute intestinal obstruction. The aim was to estimate the no-load and zero-stress morphomechanical properties in circumferential and longitudinal direction at 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after complete intestinal obstruction. Obstruction of the distal ileum was created surgically by placement of a polyethylene ring for up to 48 h in 30 rats...
February 9, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Lorenza Henao-Murillo, Keita Ito, Corrinus C van Donkelaar
Collagen damage in articular cartilage is considered nearly irreversible and may be an early indication of cartilage degeneration. Surface fibrillation and internal collagen damage may both develop after overloading. This study hypothesizes that damage develops at these different locations, because the distribution of excessive strains varies with loading rate as a consequence of time-dependent cartilage properties. The objective is to explore whether collagen damage could preferentially occur superficially or internally, depending on the magnitude and rate of overloading...
February 8, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Catriona S Czyrnyj, Michel R Labrosse, Ryan B Graham, Linda McLean
Transperineal ultrasound (TPUS) allows for objective quantification of mid-sagittal urogenital mechanics, yet current practice omits dynamic motion information in favor of analyzing only a rest and a peak motion frame. This work details the development of UROKIN, a semi-automated software which calculates kinematic curves of urogenital landmark motion. A proof of concept analysis, performed using UROKIN on TPUS video recorded from 20 women with and 10 women without stress urinary incontinence (SUI) performing maximum voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles...
February 7, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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