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Annals of Biomedical Engineering

Erika Rovini, Carlo Maremmani, Alessandra Moschetti, Dario Esposito, Filippo Cavallo
Millions of people worldwide are affected by Parkinson's disease (PD), which significantly worsens their quality of life. Currently, the diagnosis is based on assessment of motor symptoms, but interest toward non-motor symptoms is increasing, as well. Among them, idiopathic hyposmia (IH) is associated with an increased risk of developing PD in healthy adults. In this work, a wearable inertial device, named SensFoot V2, was used to acquire motor data from 30 healthy subjects, 30 people with IH, and 30 PD patients while performing tasks from the MDS-UPDRS III for lower limb assessment...
July 20, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Hoda Hatoum, Brandon L Moore, Lakshmi Prasad Dasi
This study aims to quantitatively and qualitatively assess energy dissipation in the aortic valve as a function of systolic aortic flow waveform representing pathologies where flow time-to-peak is delayed. A bioprosthetic valve was tested in the aortic position of a left-heart simulator under physiological pressure and flow conditions. The flow loop piston pump was programmed to generate three different flow waveforms each with a different peak time annotated as early peak (EP) with a rapid acceleration, mid peak (MP) and late peak (LP) with a rapid deceleration...
July 20, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Davar Ali, Sadri Sen
In this work, we investigated surface roughness effects on bone scaffold permeability and fluid flow-induced wall shear stress (WSS) using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Scaffolds are made of interconnected microchannels, whose fluid flow can be examined from the perspective of fluid flow dynamics. Given that the roughness of microchannel surfaces serves a non-negligible function in the fluid dynamics within the channels, it is believed that the wall roughness of scaffolds can play an important role in their permeability and WSS...
July 20, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Chih-Kang Chang, Edward P Washabaugh, Andrew Gwozdziowski, C David Remy, Chandramouli Krishnan
Authors would like to correct their acknowledgments. Correct acknowledgments appear here.
July 19, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
F Ahmad, S Soe, N White, R Johnston, I Khan, J Liao, M Jones, R Prabhu, I Maconochie, Peter Theobald
The neonate transitions from placenta-derived oxygen, to supply from the pulmonary system, moments after birth. This requires a series of structural developments to divert more blood through the right heart and onto the lungs, with the tissue quickly remodelling to the changing ventricular workload. In some cases, however, the heart structure does not fully develop causing poor circulation and inefficient oxygenation, which is associated with an increase in mortality and morbidity. This study focuses on developing an enhanced knowledge of the 1-day old heart, quantifying the region-specific microstructural parameters of the tissue...
July 16, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Sara Moccia, Simone Foti, Arpita Routray, Francesca Prudente, Alessandro Perin, Raymond F Sekula, Leonardo S Mattos, Jeffrey R Balzer, Wendy Fellows-Mayle, Elena De Momi, Cameron N Riviere
Microsurgical procedures, such as petroclival meningioma resection, require careful surgical actions in order to remove tumor tissue, while avoiding brain and vessel damaging. Such procedures are currently performed under microscope magnification. Robotic tools are emerging in order to filter surgeons' unintended movements and prevent tools from entering forbidden regions such as vascular structures. The present work investigates the use of a handheld robotic tool (Micron) to automate vessel avoidance in microsurgery...
July 16, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Jessica Trevino, Hyunglae Lee
Ankle stiffness has been known as one of the most important components contributing to the maintenance of lower body stability during postural balance and locomotion. It has been repeatedly shown that women have lower stability and increased risk of injury when compared to men participating in similar sports activities, yet sex differences in neuromuscular control of the ankle, including the modulation of ankle stiffness, and their contribution to stability remain unknown. To identify sex differences in human ankle stiffness, this study quantified multi-dimensional ankle stiffness in 20 young, healthy men and 20 young, healthy women over a range of ankle muscle contractions, from relaxed to 20% of maximum voluntary co-contraction of ankle muscles...
July 12, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Navein Arumugasaamy, Leila E Ettehadieh, Che-Ying Kuo, Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Shannon M Kitchen, Marco Santoro, Jesse K Placone, Paola P Silveira, Renato S Aguiar, Douglas F Nixon, John P Fisher, Peter C W Kim
Recent global epidemics of viral infection such as Zika virus (ZIKV) and associated birth defects from maternal-fetal viral transmission highlights the critical unmet need for experimental models that adequately recapitulates the biology of the human maternal-fetal interface and downstream fetal development. Herein, we report an in vitro biomimetic placenta-fetus model of the maternal-fetal interface and downstream fetal cells. Using a tissue engineering approach, we built a 3D model incorporating placental trophoblast and endothelial cells into an extracellular matrix environment and validated formation of the maternal-fetal interface...
July 12, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Cai Li, Jeny Shklover, Mojtaba Parvizi, Benjamin E Sherlock, Alba Alfonso Garcia, Anne K Haudenschild, Leigh G Griffiths, Laura Marcu
The extracellular matrix architecture of bovine pericardium (BP) has distinct biochemical and biomechanical properties that make it a useful biomaterial in the field of regenerative medicine. Collagen represents the dominant structural protein of BP and is therefore intimately associated with the properties of this biomaterial. Enzymatic degradation of collagen molecules is critical for extracellular matrix turnover, remodeling and ultimately tissue regeneration. We present a quantitative, label-free and non-destructive method for monitoring changes in biochemical and biomechanical properties of BP during tissue degradation, based on multi-spectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (ms-FLIm)...
July 12, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Hossein Mohammadi, Simon Lessard, Eric Therasse, Rosaire Mongrain, Gilles Soulez
Endovascular aneurysm repair is rapidly emerging as the primary preferred method for treating abdominal aortic aneurysm. In this image-guided interventional procedure, to obtain the roadmap and decrease contrast injections, preoperative CT images are overlaid onto live fluoroscopy images using various 2D/3D image fusion techniques. However, the structural changes due to the insertion of stiff tools degrade the fusion accuracy. To correct the mismatch and quantify the intraoperative deformations, we present a patient-specific biomechanical model of the aorto-iliac structure and its surrounding tissues...
July 11, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Sina G Yazdi, P H Geoghegan, P D Docherty, Mark Jermy, Adib Khanafer
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. In the last three decades, fluid dynamics investigations have been an important component in the study of the cardiovascular system and CVD. A large proportion of studies have been restricted to computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling of blood flow. However, with the development of flow measurement techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV), and recent advances in additive manufacturing, experimental investigation of such flow systems has become of interest to validate CFD studies, testing vascular implants and using the data for therapeutic procedures...
July 9, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Smriti Ghimire, Saeed Miramini, Martin Richardson, Priyan Mendis, Lihai Zhang
After fracture, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and growth factors migrate into the fracture callus to exert their biological actions. Previous studies have indicated that dynamic loading induced tissue deformation and interstitial fluid flow could produce a biomechanical environment which significantly affects the healing outcomes. However, the fundamental relationship between the various loading regimes and different healing outcomes has not still been fully understood. In this study, we present an integrated computational model to investigate the effect of dynamic loading on early stage of bone fracture healing...
July 9, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
J M Szafron, R Khosravi, J Reinhardt, C A Best, M R Bersi, Tai Yi, C K Breuer, J D Humphrey
In vivo development of a neovessel from an implanted biodegradable polymeric scaffold depends on a delicate balance between polymer degradation and native matrix deposition. Studies in mice suggest that this balance is dictated by immuno-driven and mechanotransduction-mediated processes, with neotissue increasingly balancing the hemodynamically induced loads as the polymer degrades. Computational models of neovessel development can help delineate relative time-dependent contributions of the immunobiological and mechanobiological processes that determine graft success or failure...
July 9, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Anita N Vasavada, Ellis Hughes, Derek D Nevins, Steven M Monda, David C Lin
Spine musculoskeletal models used to estimate loads and displacements require many simplifying assumptions. We examined how assumptions about subject size and vertebral positions can affect the model outcomes. Head and neck models were developed to represent 30 subjects (15 males and 15 females) in neutral posture and in forward head postures adopted while using tablet computers. We examined the effects of (1) subject size-specific parameters for head mass and muscle strength; and (2) vertebral positions obtained either directly from X-ray or estimated from photographs...
July 9, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Breton M Asken, Zechariah S Brooke, Taylor C Stevens, Paul G Silvestri, Matthew J Graham, Michael S Jaffee, James R Clugston
This study investigated drill-specific head impact biomechanics in a Division 1 collegiate football team using the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS). A total of 32,083 impacts were recorded across 2 years of practices. Precise tracking of instrumented athletes, head impacts, and drill participation allowed quantification of hits sustained per person per minute (H/P/M) for each specific drill. We found significant H/P/M variability between 14 drills and player position, ranging from 0.02 to 0.41 H/P/M for Linemen and 0...
July 9, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Charlot Philips, Fernando Campos, Annelies Roosens, María Del Carmen Sánchez-Quevedo, Heidi Declercq, Víctor Carriel
Tissue engineering is an emerging strategy for the development of nerve substitutes for peripheral nerve repair. Especially decellularized peripheral nerve allografts are interesting alternatives to replace the gold standard autografts. In this study, a novel decellularization protocol was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated by histological, biochemical, ultrastructural and mechanical methods and compared to the protocol described by Sondell et al. and a modified version of the protocol described by Hudson et al...
July 9, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Fan Pan, Fei Chen, Chen Liu, Zhipeng Yang, Zhihong Liu, Dingchang Zheng
The underlying principles of Korotkoff sound (KorS) during blood pressure measurement and its waveform characteristic changes with cuff pressure and stethoscope position have not been fully understood. This study aimed to quantify the effects of cuff pressure and stethoscope position on the measured KorS waveform characteristics. Thirty healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Four stethoscopes were placed on the circumferential direction around the arm (m1, m2, m3 and m4; m1 was above the artery, and equal distance between each other), and then sequentially at three different longitudinal positions ('upper', 'middle' and 'low' part under the cuff)...
June 29, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
P Khoddam-Khorasani, N Arjmand, A Shirazi-Adl
Biomechanical models of the spine either simplify intervertebral joints (using spherical joints or deformable beams) in musculoskeletal (MS) or overlook musculature in geometrically-detailed passive finite element (FE) models. These distinct active and passive models therefore fail to determine in vivo stresses and strains within and load-sharing among the joint structures (discs, ligaments, and facets). A novel hybrid active-passive spine model is therefore developed in which estimated trunk muscle forces from a MS model for in vivo activities drive a mechanically-equivalent passive FE model to quantify in vivo T12-S1 compression/shear loads, intradiscal pressures (IDP), centers of rotation (CoR), ligament/facet forces, and annulus fiber strains...
June 26, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Guoan Li, Jing-Sheng Li, Martin Torriani, Ali Hosseini
Investigation of the development of cartilage degeneration after ACL reconstruction is important for improving current surgical treatment of ACL injuries to prevent long-term knee joint degeneration. This pilot study examined the relationship between the changes in weight-bearing knee contact kinematics 6 months after ACL reconstruction and the biochemical composition changes in the knee cartilage measured using T2 relaxation values 3 years after the surgery in seven patients. The analysis indicated that the change of the knee contact kinematics in short-term after ACL reconstruction is associated with an increase of T2 values of the cartilage in longer follow up times...
June 26, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
T Horeman, E C Buiter, B Pouran, M Stijntjes, J Dankelman, G J M Tuijthof
This experimental work focused on the sensor selection for the development of a needle-like instrument to treat small isolated cartilage defects with hydrogels. The aim was to identify the most accurate and sensitive imaging method to determine the location and size of defects compared to a gold standard (µCT). Only intravascular ultrasound imaging (IVUS) vs. optical coherent tomography (OCT) were looked at, as they fulfilled the criteria for integration in the needle design. An in-vitro study was conducted on six human cadaveric tali that were dissected and submerged in saline...
June 26, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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