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Annals of Biomedical Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786777/the-biomechanics-of-the-inter-lamellar-matrix-and-the-lamellae-during-progression-to-lumbar-disc-herniation-which-is-the-weakest-structure
#1
Javad Tavakoli, Dhara B Amin, Brian J C Freeman, John J Costi
While microstructural observations have improved our understanding of possible pathways of herniation progression, no studies have measured the mechanical failure properties of the inter-lamellar matrix (ILM), nor of the adjacent lamellae during progression to herniation. The aim of this study was to employ multiscale, biomechanical and microstructural techniques to evaluate the effects of progressive induced herniation on the ILM and lamellae in control, pre-herniated and herniated discs (N = 7), using 2 year-old ovine spines...
May 21, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786776/a-framework-for-image-based-modeling-of-acute-myocardial-ischemia-using-intramurally-recorded-extracellular-potentials
#2
Brett M Burton, Kedar K Aras, Wilson W Good, Jess D Tate, Brian Zenger, Rob S MacLeod
The biophysical basis for electrocardiographic evaluation of myocardial ischemia stems from the notion that ischemic tissues develop, with relative uniformity, along the endocardial aspects of the heart. These injured regions of subendocardial tissue give rise to intramural currents that lead to ST segment deflections within electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings. The concept of subendocardial ischemic regions is often used in clinical practice, providing a simple and intuitive description of ischemic injury; however, such a model grossly oversimplifies the presentation of ischemic disease-inadvertently leading to errors in ECG-based diagnoses...
May 21, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786775/stormram-4-an-mr-safe-robotic-system-for-breast-biopsy
#3
Vincent Groenhuis, Françoise J Siepel, Jeroen Veltman, Jordy K van Zandwijk, Stefano Stramigioli
Suspicious lesions in the breast that are only visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) need to be biopsied under MR guidance with high accuracy and efficiency for accurate diagnosis. The aim of this study is to present a novel robotic system, the Stormram 4, and to perform preclinical tests in an MRI environment. Excluding racks and needle, its dimensions are 72 × 51 × 40 mm. The Stormram 4 is driven by two linear and two curved pneumatic stepper motors. The linear motor is capable of exerting 63 N of force at a pressure of 0...
May 21, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786774/computational-fluid-dynamics-modeling-of-the-human-pulmonary-arteries-with-experimental-validation
#4
Alifer D Bordones, Matthew Leroux, Vitaly O Kheyfets, Yu-An Wu, Chia-Yuan Chen, Ender A Finol
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a chronic progressive disease characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure, caused by an increase in pulmonary arterial impedance. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to identify metrics representative of the stage of PH disease. However, experimental validation of CFD models is often not pursued due to the geometric complexity of the model or uncertainties in the reproduction of the required flow conditions. The goal of this work is to validate experimentally a CFD model of a pulmonary artery phantom using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique...
May 21, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766347/towards-alternative-approaches-for-coupling-of-a-soft-robotic-sleeve-to-the-heart
#5
Markus A Horvath, Claudia E Varela, Eimear B Dolan, William Whyte, David S Monahan, Christopher J Payne, Isaac A Wamala, Nikolay V Vasilyev, Frank A Pigula, David J Mooney, Conor J Walsh, Garry P Duffy, Ellen T Roche
Efficient coupling of soft robotic cardiac assist devices to the external surface of the heart is crucial to augment cardiac function and represents a hurdle to translation of this technology. In this work, we compare various fixation strategies for local and global coupling of a direct cardiac compression sleeve to the heart. For basal fixation, we find that a sutured Velcro band adheres the strongest to the epicardium. Next, we demonstrate that a mesh-based sleeve coupled to the myocardium improves function in an acute porcine heart failure model...
May 15, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761422/computational-pre-surgical-planning-of-arterial-patch-reconstruction-parametric-limits-and-in-vitro-validation
#6
S Samaneh Lashkarinia, Senol Piskin, Tijen A Bozkaya, Ece Salihoglu, Can Yerebakan, Kerem Pekkan
Surgical treatment of congenital heart disease (CHD) involves complex vascular reconstructions utilizing artificial and native surgical materials. A successful surgical reconstruction achieves an optimal hemodynamic profile through the graft in spite of the complex post-operative vessel growth pattern and the altered pressure loading. This paper proposes a new in silico patient-specific pre-surgical planning framework for patch reconstruction and investigates its computational feasibility. The proposed protocol is applied to the patch repair of main pulmonary artery (MPA) stenosis in the Tetralogy of Fallot CHD template...
May 14, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761421/correction-to-predictive-simulations-of-neuromuscular-coordination-and-joint-contact-loading-in-human-gait
#7
Yi-Chung Lin, Jonathan P Walter, Marcus G Pandy
In the "Materials and Methods" section, the link provided at the bottom of the second paragraph should be https://simtk.org/home/dcwithjtcontact/ .
May 14, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748869/classification-of-breast-masses-using-a-computer-aided-diagnosis-scheme-of-contrast-enhanced-digital-mammograms
#8
Gopichandh Danala, Bhavika Patel, Faranak Aghaei, Morteza Heidari, Jing Li, Teresa Wu, Bin Zheng
Contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) is a promising imaging modality in breast cancer diagnosis. This study aims to investigate how to optimally develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme of CEDM images to classify breast masses. A CEDM dataset of 111 patients was assembled, which includes 33 benign and 78 malignant cases. Each CEDM includes two types of images namely, low energy (LE) and dual-energy subtracted (DES) images. A CAD scheme was applied to segment mass regions depicting on LE and DES images separately...
May 10, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736693/feasibility-testing-of-hydrophobic-carbon-electrodes-for-acquisition-of-underwater-surface-electromyography-data
#9
Hugo Posada-Quintero, Yeonsik Noh, Caitlin Eaton-Robb, John P Florian, Ki H Chon
Underwater surface electromyography (sEMG) signals are especially of interest for rehabilitation and sports medicine applications. Silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) hydrogel electrodes, although the gold standard for sEMG data collection, require waterproofing for underwater applications. Having to apply waterproof tape over electrodes impedes the deployment of sEMG in immersed conditions. As a better alternative for underwater applications, we have developed carbon black/polydimethylsiloxane (CB/PDMS) electrodes for collecting sEMG signals under water...
May 7, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736692/design-modelling-and-teleoperation-of-a-2-mm-diameter-compliant-instrument-for-the-da-vinci-platform
#10
P Francis, K W Eastwood, V Bodani, T Looi, J M Drake
This work explores the feasibility of creating and accurately controlling an instrument for robotic surgery with a 2 mm diameter and a three degree-of-freedom (DoF) wrist which is compatible with the da Vinci platform. The instrument's wrist is composed of a two DoF bending notched-nitinol tube pattern, for which a kinematic model has been developed. A base mechanism for controlling the wrist is designed for integration with the da Vinci Research Kit. A basic teleoperation task is successfully performed using two of the miniature instruments...
May 7, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728785/enhanced-in-vivo-bone-and-blood-vessel-formation-by-iron-oxide-and-silica-doped-3d-printed-tricalcium-phosphate-scaffolds
#11
Susmita Bose, Dishary Banerjee, Samuel Robertson, Sahar Vahabzadeh
Calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics show significant promise towards bone graft applications because of the compositional similarity to inorganic materials of bone. With 3D printing, it is possible to create ceramic implants that closely mimic the geometry of human bone and can be custom-designed for unusual injuries or anatomical sites. The objective of the study was to optimize the 3D-printing parameters for the fabrication of scaffolds, with complex geometry, made from synthesized tricalcium phosphate (TCP) powder...
May 4, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713830/developments-and-control-of-biocompatible-conducting-polymer-for-intracorporeal-continuum-robots
#12
Mohamed Taha Chikhaoui, Amine Benouhiba, Patrick Rougeot, Kanty Rabenorosoa, Morvan Ouisse, Nicolas Andreff
Dexterity of robots is highly required when it comes to integration for medical applications. Major efforts have been conducted to increase the dexterity at the distal parts of medical robots. This paper reports on developments toward integrating biocompatible conducting polymers (CP) into inherently dexterous concentric tube robot paradigm. In the form of tri-layer thin structures, CP micro-actuators produce high strains while requiring less than 1 V for actuation. Fabrication, characterization, and first integrations of such micro-actuators are presented...
April 30, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704187/torso-tank-validation-of-high-resolution-electrogastrography-egg-forward-modelling-methodology-and-results
#13
Stefan Calder, Greg O'Grady, Leo K Cheng, Peng Du
Electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive method for measuring gastric electrical activity. Recent simulation studies have attempted to extend the current clinical utility of the EGG, in particular by providing a theoretical framework for distinguishing specific gastric slow wave dysrhythmias. In this paper we implement an experimental setup called a 'torso-tank' with the aim of expanding and experimentally validating these previous simulations. The torso-tank was developed using an adult male torso phantom with 190 electrodes embedded throughout the torso...
April 27, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704186/immersive-virtual-reality-to-improve-walking-abilities-in-cerebral-palsy-a-pilot-study
#14
Chiara Gagliardi, Anna Carla Turconi, Emilia Biffi, Cristina Maghini, Alessia Marelli, Ambra Cesareo, Eleonora Diella, Daniele Panzeri
Immersive virtual reality (IVR) offers new possibilities to perform treatments in an ecological and interactive environment with multimodal online feedbacks. Sixteen school-aged children (mean age 11 ± 2.4 years) with Bilateral CP-diplegia, attending mainstream schools were recruited for a pilot study in a pre-post treatment experimental design. The intervention was focused on walking competences and endurance and performed by the Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab (GRAIL), an innovative treadmill platform based on IVR...
April 27, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704185/the-effect-of-heated-co-2-insufflation-in-minimising-surgical-wound-contamination-during-open-surgery
#15
Monika Baumann, John E Cater
The primary source of infections in open surgeries has been found to be bacteria and viruses carried into the surgical wound on the surfaces of skin particles shed by patients and surgical staff. In open cardiac surgeries, insufflation of the wound with carbon dioxide is used to limit the quantity of air able to enter into the heart, avoiding air embolisms when the heart is restarted. This surgical technique has been evaluated as a method of limiting the number of skin particles able to enter into the wound, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and experimental testing...
April 27, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691788/tissue-identification-in-a-porcine-model-by-differential-ion-mobility-spectrometry-analysis-of-surgical-smoke
#16
Anton Kontunen, Markus Karjalainen, Jukka Lekkala, Antti Roine, Niku Oksala
Electrosurgery is widely used in various surgical operations. When tissue is cut with high-frequency current, the cell contents at the incision area evaporate and together with water and possible soot particles, form surgical smoke. The smoke contains cell metabolites, and therefore, possible biomarkers for cancer or bacterial infection. Thus, the analysis of surgical smoke could be used in intraoperative medical diagnostics. We present a method that can be used to detect the characteristics of various tissue types by means of differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) analysis of surgical smoke...
April 24, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691787/the-role-of-circle-of-willis-anatomy-variations-in-cardio-embolic-stroke-a-patient-specific-simulation-based-study
#17
Debanjan Mukherjee, Neel D Jani, Jared Narvid, Shawn C Shadden
We describe a patient-specific simulation based investigation on the role of Circle of Willis anatomy in cardioembolic stroke. Our simulation framework consists of medical image-driven modeling of patient anatomy including the Circle, 3D blood flow simulation through patient vasculature, embolus transport modeling using a discrete particle dynamics technique, and a sampling based approach to incorporate parametric variations. A total of 24 (four patients and six Circle anatomies including the complete Circle) models were considered, with cardiogenic emboli of varying sizes and compositions released virtually and tracked to compute distribution to the brain...
April 24, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691786/mechanical-and-clinical-evaluation-of-a-shape-memory-alloy-and-conventional-struts-in-a-flexible-scoliotic-brace
#18
Wing-Yu Chan, Joanne Yip, Kit-Lun Yick, Sun-Pui Ng, Lu Lu, Kenneth Man-Chee Cheung, Kenny Yat-Hong Kwan, Jason Pui-Yin Cheung, Kelvin Wai-Kwok Yeung, Chi-Yung Tse
Smart materials have attracted considerable attention in the medical field. In particular, shape memory alloys (SMAs) are most commonly utilized for their superelasticity (SE) in orthopaedic treatment. In this study, the resin struts of a flexible brace for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) are replaced with different conventional materials and an SMA. The corrective mechanism mainly depends on the compressive force applied by the brace at the desired location. Therefore, the mechanical properties of the materials used and the interface pressure are both critical factors that influence the treatment effectiveness...
April 24, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687239/the-development-of-a-four-electrode-bio-impedance-sensor-for-identification-and-localization-of-deep-pulmonary-nodules
#19
Rasool Baghbani, Mohammad Hassan Moradi, Mohammad Behgam Shadmehr
Identifying and localizing of deep pulmonary nodules are among the main challenges that thoracic surgeons face during operations, particularly in thoracoscopic procedures. To facilitate this, we have tried to introduce a non-invasive and safe method by measuring the lung electrical bio-impedance spectrum with a four-electrode array sensor. To study the feasibility of this method, since any change in the depth or diameter of the nodule in the lung tissue is not practical, we used the finite element modeling of the lung tissue and pulmonary nodule to allow changes in the depth and diameter of the nodule, as well as the distance in between the injection electrodes...
April 23, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687238/a-skull-mounted-robot-with-a-compact-and-lightweight-parallel-mechanism-for-positioning-in-minimally-invasive-neurosurgery
#20
Changsheng Li, Nicolas Kon Kam King, Hongliang Ren
Robotic systems play an increasingly important role in improving feasibility and effectiveness of minimally invasive neurosurgery (MIN). However, large footprint, bulky size, and complex mechanisms limit the clinical application of existing robotic neurosurgery solutions. This paper proposes a novel skull-mounted robot with a compact and lightweight parallel mechanism for positioning of surgical tools in MIN. The system serves as a mechanical guide for automatic positioning of needles, catheters, probes, or electrodes...
April 23, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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