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Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214531/the-skeletal-developmental-toxicity-of-chlormequat-chloride-and-its-underlying-mechanisms
#1
Dan Huang, Shuang Wu, Xiaohong Hou, Lixia Jia, Qinghe Meng, Hongqian Chu, Jianjun Jiang, Lanqin Shang, Weidong Hao
Chlormequat Chloride (CCC), a widely used plant growth regulator, could decrease body weight in animals; however, the mechanism has not been well studied. This study was designed to evaluate the skeletal development toxicity of CCC on pubertal male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and to investigate whether CCC impacts the development of chondrocyte, osteoblast and osteoclast through growth hormone (GH) and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-I). Rats from 23 to 70 on postnatal days were exposed to CCC daily by gavage at doses of 0, 75, 150, and 300mg/kg bw/d...
February 15, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212817/in-vivo-toxicity-of-copper-oxide-lead-oxide-and-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-acting-in-different-combinations-and-its-attenuation-with-a-complex-of-innocuous-bio-protectors
#2
Ilzira A Minigalieva, Boris A Katsnelson, Vladimir G Panov, Larisa I Privalova, Anatoly N Varaksin, Vladimir B Gurvich, Marina P Sutunkova, Vladimir Ya Shur, Ekaterina V Shishkina, Irene E Valamina, Ilya V Zubarev, Oleg H Makeyev, Ekaterina Y Meshtcheryakova, Svetlana V Klinova
Stable suspensions of metal oxide nanoparticles (Me-NPs) obtained by laser ablation of 99.99% pure copper, zinc or lead under a layer of deionized water were used separately, in three binary combinations and a triple combination in two independent experiments on rats. In one of the experiments the rats were instilled with Me-NPs intratracheally (i.t.) (for performing a broncho-alveolar lavage in 24hrs to estimate the cytological and biochemical indices of the response of the lower airways), while in the other, Me-NPs were repeatedly injected intraperitoneally (i...
February 14, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202386/paraquat-and-maneb-co-exposure-induces-noradrenergic-locus-coeruleus-neurodegeneration-through-nadph-oxidase-mediated-microglial-activation
#3
Liyan Hou, Cong Zhang, Ke Wang, Xiaofang Liu, Hongwei Wang, Yuning Che, Fuqiang Sun, Xueying Zhou, Xiulan Zhao, Qingshan Wang
Co-exposure to paraquat (PQ) and maneb (Mb) has been shown to increase the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) is observed in PQ and Mb-treated experimental animals. The loss of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC/NE) neurons in brainstem is a common feature shared by multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including PD. However, whether PQ and Mb is able to damage LC/NE neurons remains undefined. In this study, mice treated with combined PQ and Mb displayed progressive LC/NE neurodegeneration...
February 13, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202387/varenicline-enhances-oxidized-ldl-uptake-by-increasing-expression-of-lox-1-and-cd36-scavenger-receptors-through-%C3%AE-7-nachr-in-macrophages
#4
Yuki Kanaoka, Mitsuhisa Koga, Keita Sugiyama, Kaoru Ohishi, Yasufumi Kataoka, Atsushi Yamauchi
Varenicline is a widely used and effective drug for smoking cessation. It is a partial agonist of the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and full agonist of α7 nAChR. We have reported that varenicline aggravates formation of atherosclerotic plaques through α7 nAChR in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. However, little is known about its effects on macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques. Here, we ascertained whether varenicline promotes oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro and clarified its mechanism...
February 12, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189721/1-2-dichloroethane-impairs-glucose-and-lipid-homeostasis-in-the-livers-of-nih-swiss-mice
#5
Ting Wang, Dandan Xu, Qiming Fan, Weifeng Rong, Jiewei Zheng, Chen Gao, Guoliang Li, Ni Zeng, Tao Guo, Lihai Zeng, Fei Wang, Chen Xiao, Li Cai, Shangqing Tang, Xinlei Deng, Xiao Yin, Manqi Huang, Fengrong Lu, Qiansheng Hu, Wen Chen, Zhenlie Huang, Qing Wang
Excessive exposure to 1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCE), a chlorinated organic toxicant, can lead to liver dysfunction. To fully explore the mechanism of 1,2-DCE-induced hepatic abnormalities, 30 male National Institutes of Health (NIH) Swiss mice were exposed to 0, 350, or 700mg/m(3) of 1,2-DCE, via inhalation, 6hr/day for 28 days. Increased liver/body weight ratios, as well as serum AST and serum ALT activity were observed in the 350 and 700mg/m(3) 1,2-DCE exposure group mice, compared with the control group mice...
February 8, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189720/toxic-effects-of-microcystin-lr-on-the-development-of-prostate-in-mice
#6
Hui Zhang, Lihui Wang, Song Shen, Chenchen Wang, Zou Xiang, Xiaodong Han, Dongmei Li
Although it is well known that microcystin-LR (MC-LR) may cause male reproductive toxicity, less is known on its potential impact on the development of prostate. In this study, from the 12th day in the embryonic period to the 21st day after birth, 4 randomly assigned groups of pregnant mice were exposed to 0, 1, 10, and 50μg/L of MC-LR through drinking water followed by the analyses of their 30- and 90-day-old male offspring. The result showed that MC-LR could enter and be accumulated in the offsprings prostate...
February 8, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179188/diacetyl-and-related-flavorant-%C3%AE-diketones-biotransformation-cellular-interactions-and-respiratory-tract-toxicity
#7
M W Anders
Exposure to diacetyl and related α-diketones causes respiratory-tract damage in humans and experimental animals. Chemical toxicity is often associated with covalent modification of cellular nucleophiles by electrophilic chemicals. Electrophilic α-diketones may covalently modify nucleophilic arginine residues in critical proteins and, thereby, produce the observed respiratory-tract pathology. The major pathway for the biotransformation of α-diketones is reduction to α-hydroxyketones (acyloins), which is catalyzed by NAD(P)H-dependent enzymes of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) and the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamilies...
February 5, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174063/use-of-early-phenotypic-in-vivo-markers-to-assess-human-relevance-of-an-unusual-rodent-non-genotoxic-carcinogen-in-vitro
#8
Franziska Boess, Barbara Lenz, Juergen Funk, Urs Niederhauser, Simon Bassett, Jitao David Zhang, Thomas Singer, Adrian B Roth
Foci of altered hepatocytes (FAH) are considered putative, pre-neoplastic lesions that can occur spontaneously in aging rodents, but can also be induced by chemicals or drugs. Progression of FAH to hepatocellular neoplasms has been reported repeatedly but increases in foci in rodents do not necessarily lead to tumors in carcinogenicity studies and the relevance for humans often remains unclear. Here we present the case of RG3487, a molecule which induced FAH and, later on, tumors in rats. Because the molecule was negative in genotoxicity assays it was classified as a non-genotoxic carcinogen...
February 5, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163111/a-compromised-liver-alters-polychlorinated-biphenyl-mediated-toxicity
#9
Banrida Wahlang, Jordan T Perkins, Michael C Petriello, Jessie B Hoffman, Arnold J Stromberg, Bernhard Hennig
Exposure to environmental toxicants namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is correlated with multiple health disorders including liver and cardiovascular diseases. The liver is important for both xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism. However, the responses of an injured liver to subsequent environmental insults has not been investigated. The current study aims to evaluate the role of a compromised liver in PCB-induced toxicity and define the implications on overall body homeostasis. Male C57Bl/6 mice were fed either an amino acid control diet (CD) or a methionine-choline deficient diet (MCD) during the 12-week study...
February 2, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163110/cadmium-impairs-the-survival-and-proliferation-of-cultured-adult-subventricular-neural-stem-cells-through-activation-of-the-jnk-and-p38-map-kinases
#10
Hao Wang, Anna K Engstrom, Zhengui Xia
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal with a long biological half-life in humans and is recognized as a toxic pollutant. Cd is also a potential neurotoxicant and its exposure is associated with olfactory impairment in humans. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of Cd neurotoxicity are not well defined. Adult neurogenesis is a process that generates functional neurons from adult neural stem/progenitor cells (aNPCs). It occurs in specific regions of the adult brain including the subventricular zone (SVZ) along the lateral ventricles in mammals, a process that is critical for olfaction...
February 2, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161448/autophagy-induced-by-silica-nanoparticles-protects-raw264-7-macrophages-from-cell-death
#11
Clarissa Marquardt, Susanne Fritsch-Decker, Marco Al-Rawi, Silvia Diabaté, Carsten Weiss
Although the technological and economic benefits of engineered nanomaterials are obvious, concerns have been raised about adverse effects if such material is inhaled, ingested, applied to the skin or even released into the environment. Here we studied the cytotoxic effects of the most abundant nanomaterial, silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs), in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. SiO2-NPs dose-dependently induce membrane leakage and cell death without obvious involvement of reactive oxygen species. Interestingly, at low concentrations SiO2-NPs trigger autophagy, evidenced by morphological and biochemical hallmarks such as autophagolysosomes or increased levels of LC3-II, which serves to protect cells from cytotoxicity...
February 1, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153600/role-of-oxidative-stress-and-dna-hydroxymethylation-in-the-neurotoxicity-of-fine-particulate-matter
#12
Hongying Wei, Yan Feng, Fan Liang, Wei Cheng, Xiaomeng Wu, Ren Zhou, Yan Wang
Epidemiological studies have implicated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) as a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and the influences of different components remain largely elusive. Here, we extended our previous work to investigate the role of oxidative stress and DNA hydroxymethylation in neuronal pathology of PM2.5. We found PM2.5 and its extracts (water-soluble extracts, organic extracts and carbon core component) differentially caused cell cycle arrest, cell apoptosis and the cell proliferation inhibition in neuronal cells...
January 30, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137618/astrocyte-neuron-interaction-in-diphenyl-ditelluride-toxicity-directed-to-the-cytoskeleton
#13
Luana Heimfarth, Fernanda da Silva Ferreira, Paula Pierozan, Moara Rodrigues Mingori, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira, João Batista Teixeira da Rocha, Regina Pessoa-Pureur
Diphenylditelluride (PhTe)2 is a neurotoxin that disrupts cytoskeletal homeostasis. We are showing that different concentrations of (PhTe)2 caused hypophosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin and neurofilament subunits (NFL, NFM and NFH) and altered actin organization in co-cultured astrocytes and neurons from cerebral cortex of rats. These mechanisms were mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors without participation of either L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (L-VDCC) or metabotropic glutamate receptors...
January 27, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126264/corrigendum-to-dose-dependent-clearance-kinetics-of-intratracheally-administered-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-in-rat-lung-toxicology-325-2014-1-11
#14
Naohide Shinohara, Yutaka Oshima, Toshio Kobayashi, Nobuya Imatanaka, Makoto Nakai, Takayuki Ichinose, Takeshi Sasaki, Guihua Zhang, Hiroko Fukui, Masashi Gamo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119078/modulation-of-immunological-activity-on-macrophages-induced-by-diazinon
#15
Nanako Ogasawara, Miyoko Matsushima, Nami Kawamura, Kazuko Atsumi, Takehiro Yamaguchi, Haruka Ochi, Yuto Kusatsugu, Sayaka Oyabu, Naozumi Hashimoto, Yoshinori Hasegawa, Jun Ueyama, Tsutomu Kawabe
Diazinon is an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide and is widely used not only in agriculture but also homes and garden in Japan. Diazinon has been reported to increase TNF-α production in rat serum and brain, suggesting that it can modify the proinflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the effects of diazinon on macrophage functions, such as cytokine production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions, cell-surface molecule expressions, and phagocytosis in RAW264...
January 21, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115242/arsenic-downregulates-tight-junction-claudin-proteins-through-p38-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-intestinal-epithelial-cell-line-ht-29
#16
Chang Hee Jeong, Jin Sil Seok, Michael C Petriello, Sung Gu Han
Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid that often is found in foods and drinking water. Human exposure to arsenic is associated with the development of gastrointestinal problems such as fluid loss, diarrhea and gastritis. Arsenic is also known to induce toxic responses including oxidative stress in cells of the gastrointestinal track. Tight junctions (TJs) regulate paracellular permeability and play a barrier role by inhibiting the movement of water, solutes and microorganisms in the paracellular space...
January 20, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115241/poly-and-perfluorinated-compounds-activate-human-pregnane-x-receptor
#17
Yi-Ming Zhang, Xiao-Yu Dong, Li-Juan Fan, Zhi-Lei Zhang, Qian Wang, Nan Jiang, Xu-Shu Yang
Poly- and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), which have been detected worldwide in human blood, surface water and house dust, are suspected to induce potential endocrine-disrupting hormonal effects. In this study, cell-based reporter gene assays were used to determine the activity of a variety of PFCs against the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) to identify the critical structural feature of PFCs related to their hPXR activity. Molecular docking studies combined with site-directed mutagenesis were employed to investigate the mechanism by which PFCs interact with and activate hPXR...
January 20, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089772/anxiety-like-behavior-due-to-perinatal-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-is-associated-with-decrease-in-excitatory-to-inhibitory-synaptic-density-of-male-mouse-brain
#18
Dhiraj Kumar, M K Thakur
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a synthetic endocrine disruptor which causes anxiety like behavior in rodents, though the underlying mechanism is not clearly understood. As excitatory-inhibitory synaptic proteins are the key regulators of anxiety, we have examined the effect of perinatal exposure to BPA on this behavior and the expression of excitatory (PSD95), inhibitory (gephyrin) and presynaptic density marker (synaptophysin) proteins in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of 3 and 8 weeks postnatal male mice. In open field (OF) test, BPA exposure reduced the time spent, number of entries and distance travelled in the central zone as compared to control in 8 weeks mice...
January 13, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088388/activation-of-gr-but-not-pxr-by-dexamethasone-attenuated-acetaminophen-hepatotoxicities-via-fgf21-induction
#19
Saurabh G Vispute, Pengli Bu, Yuan Le, Xingguo Cheng
Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling is indispensable for cell growth and development, and plays important roles in drug metabolism. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21, an important regulator of glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism, plays a cytoprotective role by attenuating toxicities induced by chemicals such as dioxins, acetaminophen (APAP), and alcohols. The present study investigates the impact of dexamethasone (DEX)-activated GR on Fgf21 expression and how it affects the progression of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity...
January 11, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087464/mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-regulate-fungal-protease-induced-inflammatory-responses
#20
Yun Hee Kim, Seung-Hyo Lee
Epidemiological studies have shown that fungal infections are a main cause of respiratory tract diseases, such as asthma, bronchopneumonia, intoxication, and invasive fungal disease. Fungi such as Aspergillus and Candida species have become increasingly important pathogens as the global climate changes. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the toxicological potential of Aspergillus protease in the lower respiratory tract. Exposure of Aspergillus protease to A549 cells induced upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 mRNAs and increased production of interleukin (IL)-8 and MCP-1 protein through enhanced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and activator protein (AP)-1...
January 10, 2017: Toxicology
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