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Basic Research in Cardiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242986/pre-and-postconditioning-the-heart-with-hydrogen-sulfide-h2s-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-vivo-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Qutuba G Karwi, Justin S Bice, Gary F Baxter
Conditioning-like infarct limitation by enhanced level of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been demonstrated in many animal models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI) in vivo. We sought to evaluate the effect of H2S on myocardial infarction across in vivo pre-clinical studies of MIRI using a comprehensive systematic review followed by meta-analysis. Embase, Pubmed and Web of Science were searched for pre-clinical investigation of the effect of H2S on MIRI in vivo. Retained records (6031) were subjected to our pre-defined inclusion criteria then were objectively critiqued...
December 14, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224086/role-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Dongling Liu, Xiang Zeng, Xiao Li, Jawahar L Mehta, Xianwei Wang
NLRP3 inflammasome is a key multiprotein signaling platform that tightly controls inflammatory responses and coordinates antimicrobial host defenses by activating caspase-1 for the subsequent maturation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, and induces pyroptosis. The assembly and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome are linked to the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as hypertension and diabetes, and their major consequences-myocardial remodeling. The study of the NLRP3 inflammasome in these cardiovascular disease states may uncover important triggers and endogenous modulators of the disease, and lead to new treatment strategies...
December 9, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164342/survival-pathways-in-cardiac-conditioning-individual-data-vs-meta-analyses-what-do-we-learn
#3
EDITORIAL
Rainer Schulz, Bence Ágg, Péter Ferdinandy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159507/stat3-as-a-common-signal-of-ischemic-conditioning-a-lesson-on-rigor-and-reproducibility-in-preclinical-studies-on-cardioprotection
#4
Petra Kleinbongard, Andreas Skyschally, Sabine Gent, Marion Pesch, Gerd Heusch
Ischemic conditioning before (ischemic preconditioning, IPC) or after (ischemic postconditioning, POCO) sustained myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), induced locally or remotely from the heart (remote IPC, RIPC), reduces infarct size. However, none of the identified signaling steps of ischemic conditioning was robust across models and species to be successfully translated to humans. In prior separate studies in pigs, activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was causal for infarct size reduction by IPC, POCO, and RIPC but it remains unclear whether or not STAT3 is truly a common denominator of cardioprotective signaling...
November 20, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143177/the-risk-pathway-and-beyond
#5
REVIEW
Xavier Rossello, Derek M Yellon
Research on cardioprotection has attracted considerable attention during the past 30 years following the discovery of ischemic preconditioning with great advances being made in the field, particularly in the description of the molecular signalling behind this cardioprotective intervention. In a time when basic research is struggling to translate its findings into therapies in the clinical setting, this viewpoint has the intention of presenting to clinical and basic scientists how the reperfusion injury salvage kinase pathway has been described and dissected, as well as highlighting its relevance in cardioprotection...
November 15, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101484/periostin-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-development-a-tale-of-two-distinct-roles
#6
REVIEW
Natalie M Landry, Smadar Cohen, Ian M C Dixon
Tissue development and homeostasis are dependent upon the concerted synthesis, maintenance, and degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. Cardiac fibrosis is now recognized as a primary contributor to incidence of heart failure, particularly heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, wherein cardiac filling in diastole is compromised. Periostin is a cell-associated protein involved in cell fate determination, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and inflammatory responses. As a non-structural component of the ECM, secreted 90 kDa periostin is emerging as an important matricellular factor in cardiac mesenchymal tissue development...
November 3, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079873/regenerating-the-human-heart-direct-reprogramming-strategies-and-their-current-limitations
#7
REVIEW
Andrea Ghiroldi, Marco Piccoli, Giuseppe Ciconte, Carlo Pappone, Luigi Anastasia
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the Western world. Unfortunately, current therapies are often only palliative, consequently essentially making heart transplantation necessary for many patients. However, several novel therapeutic approaches in the past two decades have yielded quite encouraging results. The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, through the forced expression of stem cell-specific transcription factors, has inspired the most promising strategies for heart regeneration by direct reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes...
October 27, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071437/effect-of-long-term-remote-ischemic-conditioning-in-patients-with-chronic-ischemic-heart-failure
#8
Kasper Pryds, Roni Ranghøj Nielsen, Anders Jorsal, Mona Sahlholdt Hansen, Steffen Ringgaard, Jens Refsgaard, Won Yong Kim, Annemette Krintel Petersen, Hans Erik Bøtker, Michael Rahbek Schmidt
Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) protects against acute ischemia-reperfusion injury and may also have beneficial effects in patients with stable cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effect of long-term RIC treatment in patients with chronic ischaemic heart failure (CIHF). In a parallel group study, 22 patients with compensated CIHF and 21 matched control subjects without heart failure or ischemic heart disease were evaluated by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, skeletal muscle function testing, blood pressure measurement and blood sampling before and after 28 ± 4 days of once daily RIC treatment...
October 25, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043508/the-role-of-pi3k%C3%AE-isoform-in-cardioprotection
#9
Xavier Rossello, Jaime A Riquelme, Zhenhe He, Stasa Taferner, Bart Vanhaesebroeck, Sean M Davidson, Derek M Yellon
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) limits myocardial infarct size through the activation of the PI3K-Akt signal cascade; however, little is known about the roles of individual PI3K isoforms in cardioprotection. We aimed, therefore, to elucidate the role of the PI3Kα isoform in cardioprotection Pharmacological PI3Kα inhibition was assessed in isolated-perfused mouse hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), either during the IPC procedure or at reperfusion. PI3Kα inhibition abrogated the IPC-induced protective effect at reperfusion, but not when given only during the IPC protocol...
October 17, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965130/regulation-of-myocardial-oxygen-delivery-in-response-to-graded-reductions-in-hematocrit-role-of-k-channels
#10
Alexander M Kiel, Adam G Goodwill, Jillian N Noblet, April L Barnard, Daniel J Sassoon, Johnathan D Tune
This study was designed to identify mechanisms responsible for coronary vasodilation in response to progressive decreases in hematocrit. Isovolemic hemodilution was produced in open-chest, anesthetized swine via concurrent removal of 500 ml of arterial blood and the addition of 500 ml of 37 °C saline or synthetic plasma expander (Hespan, 6% hetastarch in 0.9% sodium chloride). Progressive hemodilution with Hespan resulted in an increase in coronary flow from 0.39 ± 0.05 to 1.63 ± 0.16 ml/min/g (P < 0...
September 30, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952016/the-impact-of-irreproducibility-and-competing-protection-from-p2y12-antagonists-on-the-discovery-of-cardioprotective-interventions
#11
REVIEW
Michael V Cohen, James M Downey
Scientists and clinicians have been concerned by the lack of a clinically suitable strategy for cardioprotection in patients with acute myocardial infarction despite decades of intensive pre-clinical investigations and a surprising number of clinical trials based on those observations which have uniformly been disappointing. However, it would be a mistake to abandon this search. Rather it would be useful to examine these past efforts and determine reasons for the multiple failures. It appears that earlier clinical trials were often based on results from a single experimental laboratory, thus minimizing the importance of establishing reproducibility in multiple laboratories by multiple scientists and in multiple models...
September 26, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913715/oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-oxldl-affects-load-free-cell-shortening-of-cardiomyocytes-in-a-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-9-pcsk9-dependent-way
#12
Klaus-Dieter Schlüter, Annemarie Wolf, Martin Weber, Rolf Schreckenberg, Rainer Schulz
Recent studies have documented that oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (oxLDL) levels directly impact myocardial structure and function. However, the molecular mechanisms by which oxLDL affects cardiac myocytes are not well established. We addressed the question whether oxLDL modifies load-free cell shortening, a standardized readout of cardiac cellular function, and investigated whether proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-9 (PCSK9) is involved on oxLDL-dependent processes. Adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated and incubated for 24 h with oxLDL...
September 14, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913553/dual-inhibition-of-cathepsin-g-and-chymase-reduces-myocyte-death-and-improves-cardiac-remodeling-after-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#13
Bahman Hooshdaran, Mikhail A Kolpakov, Xinji Guo, Sonni A Miller, Tao Wang, Douglas G Tilley, Khadija Rafiq, Abdelkarim Sabri
Early reperfusion of ischemic cardiac tissue increases inflammatory cell infiltration which contributes to cardiomyocyte death and loss of cardiac function, referred to as ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Neutrophil- and mast cell-derived proteases, cathepsin G (Cat.G) and chymase, are released early after IR, but their function is complicated by potentially redundant actions and targets. This study investigated whether a dual inhibition of Cat.G and chymase influences cardiomyocyte injury and wound healing after experimental IR in mice...
September 14, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905113/influence-of-increased-heart-rate-and-aortic-pressure-on-resting-indices-of-functional-coronary-stenosis-severity
#14
Lorena Casadonte, Bart-Jan Verhoeff, Jan J Piek, Ed VanBavel, Jos A E Spaan, Maria Siebes
Baseline assessment of functional stenosis severity has been proposed as a practical alternative to hyperemic indices. However, intact autoregulation mechanisms may affect intracoronary hemodynamics. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changes in aortic pressure (Pa) and heart rate (HR) on baseline coronary hemodynamics and functional stenosis assessment. In 15 patients (55 ± 3% diameter stenosis) Pa, intracoronary pressure (Pd) and flow velocity were obtained at control, and during atrial pacing at 120 bpm, increased Pa (+30 mmHg) with intravenous phenylephrine (PE), and elevated Pa while pacing at sinus heart rate (PE + sHR)...
September 13, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887652/disruption-of-adenylyl-cyclase-type-5-mimics-exercise-training
#15
John J Guers, Jie Zhang, Sara C Campbell, Marko Oydanich, Dorothy E Vatner, Stephen F Vatner
Exercise training is key to healthful longevity. Since exercise training compliance is difficult, it would be useful to have a therapeutic substitute that mimicked exercise training. We compared the effects of exercise training in wild-type (WT) littermates with adenylyl cyclase type 5 knock out (AC5 KO) mice, a model of enhanced exercise performance. Exercise performance, measured by maximal distance and work to exhaustion, was increased in exercise-trained WT to levels already attained in untrained AC5 KO...
September 8, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887629/microrna-143-promotes-cardiac-ischemia-mediated-mitochondrial-impairment-by-the-inhibition-of-protein-kinase-cepsilon
#16
Hong Hong, Ting Tao, Si Chen, Chaoqi Liang, Yue Qiu, Yuhong Zhou, Rong Zhang
The cardioprotection of protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCε) against myocardial infarction (MI) mediated by its anti-apoptotic property and underlying mechanism of targeted regulation by microRNA (miRNA) are not established. MI-induced injury, PKCε expression, and targeted regulation of miRNA-143 (miR-143) to PKCε have been evaluated using animal MI and cellular hypoxic models conjugated with series of state-of-art molecular techniques. The results demonstrated that PKCε significantly downregulated along with increased infarcted area and apoptotic and necrotic damage in MI model, and the targeted relationship and potential binding profile were established between miR-143 and PKCε...
September 8, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871329/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-mediated-cd44-stat3-signaling-contributes-to-the-development-of-atrial-fibrosis-and-fibrillation
#17
Shang-Hung Chang, Yung-Hsin Yeh, Jia-Lin Lee, Yu-Juei Hsu, Chi-Tai Kuo, Wei-Jan Chen
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with atrial fibrosis. Inhibition of atrial fibrosis might be a plausible approach for AF prevention and therapy. This study is designed to evaluate the potential role of CD44, a membrane receptor known to regulate fibrosis, and its related signaling in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrosis and AF. Treatment of cultured rat atrial fibroblasts with transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, a key mediator of atrial fibrosis) led to a higher expression of hyaluronan (HA), CD44, STAT3, and collagen (a principal marker of fibrosis) than that of ventricular fibroblasts...
September 4, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864889/methylglyoxal-derived-advanced-glycation-end-products-contribute-to-negative-cardiac-remodeling-and-dysfunction-post-myocardial-infarction
#18
Nick J R Blackburn, Branka Vulesevic, Brian McNeill, Cagla Eren Cimenci, Ali Ahmadi, Mayte Gonzalez-Gomez, Aleksandra Ostojic, Zhiyuan Zhong, Michael Brownlee, Paul J Beisswenger, Ross W Milne, Erik J Suuronen
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been associated with poorer outcomes after myocardial infarction (MI), and linked with heart failure. Methylglyoxal (MG) is considered the most important AGE precursor, but its role in MI is unknown. In this study, we investigated the involvement of MG-derived AGEs (MG-AGEs) in MI using transgenic mice that over-express the MG-metabolizing enzyme glyoxalase-1 (GLO1). MI was induced in GLO1 mice and wild-type (WT) littermates. At 6 h post-MI, mass spectrometry revealed that MG-H1 (a principal MG-AGE) was increased in the hearts of WT mice, and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that this persisted for 4 weeks...
September 1, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756533/long-term-spironolactone-treatment-reduces-coronary-trpc-expression-vasoconstriction-and-atherosclerosis-in-metabolic-syndrome-pigs
#19
Wennan Li, Xingjuan Chen, Ashley M Riley, S Christopher Hiett, Constance J Temm, Eleni Beli, Xin Long, Saikat Chakraborty, Mouhamad Alloosh, Fletcher A White, Maria B Grant, Michael Sturek, Alexander G Obukhov
Coronary transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel expression is elevated in metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, differential contribution of TRPCs to coronary pathology in MetS is not fully elucidated. We investigated the roles of TRPC1 and TRPC6 isoforms in coronary arteries of MetS pigs and determined whether long-term treatment with a mineralocorticoid receptor inhibitor, spironolactone, attenuates coronary TRPC expression and associated dysfunctions. MetS coronary arteries exhibited significant atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and increased histamine-induced contractions...
September 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721633/erratum-to-exogenous-gdf11-induces-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-dysfunction-and-wasting
#20
Teresa A Zimmers, Yanlin Jiang, Meijing Wang, Tiffany W Liang, Joseph E Rupert, Ernie D Au, Francesco E Marino, Marion E Couch, Leonidas G Koniaris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
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