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Memory & Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786022/lost-in-the-supermarket-quantifying-the-cost-of-partitioning-memory-sets-in-hybrid-search
#1
Sage E P Boettcher, Trafton Drew, Jeremy M Wolfe
The items on a memorized grocery list are not relevant in every aisle; for example, it is useless to search for the cabbage in the cereal aisle. It might be beneficial if one could mentally partition the list so only the relevant subset was active, so that vegetables would be activated in the produce section. In four experiments, we explored observers' abilities to partition memory searches. For example, if observers held 16 items in memory, but only eight of the items were relevant, would response times resemble a search through eight or 16 items? In Experiments 1a and 1b, observers were not faster for the partition set; however, they suffered relatively small deficits when "lures" (items from the irrelevant subset) were presented, indicating that they were aware of the partition...
August 7, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770540/collaborative-remembering-revisited-study-context-access-modulates-collaborative-inhibition-and-later-benefits-for-individual-memory
#2
Magdalena Abel, Karl-Heinz T Bäuml
Collaborating groups typically show reduced recall relative to nominal groups, i.e., to the cumulated non-redundant recall of the same number of people remembering in isolation-a finding termed collaborative inhibition. Motivated by the results of several previous studies, this study examined in two experiments whether access to study context at test influences the effects of collaboration. In both experiments, subjects collaborated in triads or recalled previously studied material in isolation. Experiment 1 applied short versus prolonged retention intervals to vary access to study context at test, whereas Experiment 2 used the list-method directed forgetting task and applied remember versus forget instructions to modulate context access...
August 2, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770539/meaning-in-learning-contextual-cueing-relies-on-objects-visual-features-and-not-on-objects-meaning
#3
Tal Makovski
People easily learn regularities embedded in the environment and utilize them to facilitate visual search. Using images of real-world objects, it has been recently shown that this learning, termed contextual cueing (CC), occurs even in complex, heterogeneous environments, but only when the same distractors are repeated at the same locations. Yet it is not clear what exactly is being learned under these conditions: the visual features of the objects or their meaning. In this study, Experiment 1 demonstrated that meaning is not necessary for this type of learning, as a similar pattern of results was found even when the objects' meaning was largely removed...
August 2, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755051/reference-frames-in-spatial-updating-when-body-based-cues-are-absent
#4
Qiliang He, Timothy P McNamara, Jonathan W Kelly
The current study investigated the reference frame used in spatial updating when idiothetic cues to self-motion were minimized (desktop virtual reality). In Experiment 1, participants learned a layout of eight objects from a single perspective (learning heading) in a virtual environment. After learning, they were placed in the same virtual environment and used a keyboard to navigate to two of the learned objects (visible) before pointing to a third object (invisible). We manipulated participants' starting orientation (initial heading) and final orientation (final heading) before pointing, to examine the reference frame used in this task...
July 28, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748447/cross-modal-working-memory-binding-and-l1-l2-word-learning
#5
Shinmin Wang, Richard J Allen, Shin-Yi Fang, Ping Li
The ability to create temporary binding representations of information from different sources in working memory has recently been found to relate to the development of monolingual word recognition in children. The current study explored this possible relationship in an adult word-learning context. We assessed whether the relationship between cross-modal working memory binding and lexical development would be observed in the learning of associations between unfamiliar spoken words and their semantic referents, and whether it would vary across experimental conditions in first- and second-language word learning...
July 26, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744722/temporal-encoding-strategies-result-in-boosts-to-final-free-recall-performance-comparable-to-spatial-ones
#6
Nichole Bouffard, Jared Stokes, Hannah J Kramer, Arne D Ekstrom
The method of loci is a highly effective mnemonic that recruits existing salient memory for spatial locations and uses the information as a scaffold for remembering a list of items (Yates, 1966). One possible account for the effectiveness of the spatial method of loci comes from the perspective that it utilizes evolutionarily preserved mechanisms for spatial navigation within the hippocampus (Maguire et al. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(8), 4398-4403, 2000; O'Keefe & Nadel, 1978; Rodriguez et al...
July 25, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741254/performance-bias-why-judgments-of-learning-are-not-affected-by-learning
#7
Nate Kornell, Hannah Hausman
Past research has shown a performance bias: People expect their future performance level on a task to match their current performance level, even when there are good reasons to expect future performance to differ from current performance. One explanation of this bias is that judgments are controlled by what learners can observe, and while current performance is usually observable, changes in performance (i.e., learning or forgetting) are not. This explanation makes a prediction that we tested here: If learning becomes observable, it should begin to affect judgments...
July 24, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741253/dissociations-of-the-number-and-precision-of-visual-short-term-memory-representations-in-change-detection
#8
Weizhen Xie, Weiwei Zhang
The present study dissociated the number (i.e., quantity) and precision (i.e., quality) of visual short-term memory (STM) representations in change detection using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and experimental manipulations. Across three experiments, participants performed both recognition and recall tests of visual STM using the change-detection task and the continuous color-wheel recall task, respectively. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the estimates of the number and precision of visual STM representations based on the ROC model of change-detection performance were robustly correlated with the corresponding estimates based on the mixture model of continuous-recall performance...
July 24, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741252/serial-recall-of-colors-two-models-of-memory-for-serial-order-applied-to-continuous-visual-stimuli
#9
Sonja Peteranderl, Klaus Oberauer
This study investigated the effects of serial position and temporal distinctiveness on serial recall of simple visual stimuli. Participants observed lists of five colors presented at varying, unpredictably ordered interitem intervals, and their task was to reproduce the colors in their order of presentation by selecting colors on a continuous-response scale. To control for the possibility of verbal labeling, articulatory suppression was required in one of two experimental sessions. The predictions were derived through simulation from two computational models of serial recall: SIMPLE represents the class of temporal-distinctiveness models, whereas SOB-CS represents event-based models...
July 24, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741251/the-role-of-top-down-suppression-in-mitigating-the-disruptive-effects-of-task-irrelevant-feature-changes-in-visual-working-memory
#10
Andrea Bocincova, Amanda E van Lamsweerde, Jeffrey S Johnson
Studies of change detection have shown that changing the task-irrelevant features of remembered objects impairs change detection for task-relevant features, a phenomenon known as the irrelevant change effect. Although this effect is pronounced at short study-test intervals, it is eliminated at longer delays. This has prompted the proposal that although all features of attended objects are initially stored together in visual working memory (VWM), top-down control can be used to suppress task-irrelevant features over time...
July 24, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721685/breaking-down-unitization-is-the-whole-greater-than-the-sum-of-its-parts
#11
Maria C D'Angelo, Alix Noly-Gandon, Arber Kacollja, Morgan D Barense, Jennifer D Ryan
Memory impairments are often observed in aging. Specifically, older adults have difficulty binding together disparate elements (relational memory). We have recently shown that a cognitive strategy known as unitization can mitigate impaired relational learning in the transverse patterning task (TP) in both amnesia and healthy aging. This strategy allows items to be fused together through an interaction such that one item acts upon another. In the context of TP, unitization is comprised of three component processes: (1) fusion, (2) motion, and (3) semantic comprehension of action/consequence sequences...
July 18, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718172/components-of-competitor-priming-in-task-switching
#12
Morgan L Teskey, Michael E J Masson
Executing an action in response to a stimulus is thought to result in the creation of an event code that integrates stimulus and action features (Allport, 1987; Hommel in Visual Cognition 5: 183-216, 1998). When switching between tasks, competitor priming occurs if a distractor stimulus cues the retrieval of a previously established event code in which that distractor is bound to a competing task, creating a source of interference with the current task whereby the observer is encouraged to apply the competing task to the distractor...
July 17, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710601/the-effects-of-collective-and-personal-transitions-on-the-organization-and-contents-of-autobiographical-memory-in-older-chinese-adults
#13
Xuan Gu, Chi-Shing Tse, Norman R Brown
Life transitions like war, marriage, and immigration presumably organize autobiographical memory. Yet little is known about how the magnitude of a given transition affects this mnemonic impact. To examine this issue, we collected (a) word-cued events, (b) event-dating protocols, (c) personally important events, and (d) transitional impact scores of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) and important events from Chinese adults who had been adolescents during the revolution. There were three main findings. First, rusticated participants, who moved from cities to rural areas during the Cultural Revolution, dated autobiographical memories in relation to this collective transition more frequently than nonrusticated participants, with the former group reporting a greater material (but not psychological) change in their lives due to this collective transition than the latter group...
July 14, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710599/task-relevant-perceptual-features-can-define-categories-in-visual-memory-too
#14
Karla B Antonelli, Carrick C Williams
Although Konkle, Brady, Alvarez, and Oliva (2010, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139(3), 558) claim that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is organized on underlying conceptual, not perceptual, information, visual memory results from visual search tasks are not well explained by this theory. We hypothesized that when viewing an object, any task-relevant visual information is critical to the organizational structure of VLTM. In two experiments, we examined the organization of VLTM by measuring the amount of retroactive interference created by objects possessing different combinations of task-relevant features...
July 14, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707178/life-span-retrieval-of-public-events-reminiscence-bump-for-high-impact-events-recency-for-others
#15
Ali I Tekcan, Aysecan Boduroglu, Aysu Mutlutürk, Aslı Aktan Erciyes
Although substantial evidence exists showing a reliable reminiscence bump for personal events, data regarding retrieval distributions for public events have been equivocal. The primary aim of the present study was to address life-span retrieval distributions of different types of public events in comparison to personal events, and to test whether the existing accounts of the bump can explain the distribution of public events. We asked a large national sample to report the most important, happiest, and saddest personal events and the most important, happiest, saddest, most proud, most fearful, and most shameful public events...
July 13, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707177/do-people-use-category-learning-judgments-to-regulate-their-learning-of-natural-categories
#16
Kayla Morehead, John Dunlosky, Nathaniel L Foster
Although research has established that people can accurately judge how well they have learned categories, no research has examined whether people use their category-learning judgments (CLJs) to regulate their restudy of natural categories. Thus, in five experiments we investigated the relationship between people's CLJs and selections of categories for restudy. Participants first attempted to learn natural categories (bird families; e.g., finches, grosbeaks, and warblers) so that they could categorize new exemplars on a final test...
July 13, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707176/estimating-the-average-need-of-semantic-knowledge-from-distributional-semantic-models
#17
Geoff Hollis
Continuous bag of words (CBOW) and skip-gram are two recently developed models of lexical semantics (Mikolov, Chen, Corrado, & Dean, Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, 26, 3111-3119, 2013). Each has been demonstrated to perform markedly better at capturing human judgments about semantic relatedness than competing models (e.g., latent semantic analysis; Landauer & Dumais, Psychological Review, 104(2), 1997 211; hyperspace analogue to language; Lund & Burgess, Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 28(2), 203-208, 1996)...
July 13, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695350/early-markers-of-lexical-stress-in-visual-word-recognition
#18
Simone Sulpizio, Lucia Colombo
The goal of the present study was to investigate the time-course of suprasegmental information in visual word recognition. To this aim we measured event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during a simple lexical decision task in Italian. Two factors were manipulated: Stress dominance (the most frequent stress type) and stress neighborhood consistency (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern). Participants were presented with target words either bearing dominant (on the penultimate syllable; 'graNIta,' 'seNIle,' slush, senile) or non-dominant stress (on the antepenultimate syllable; 'MISsile,' 'BIbita,' missile, drink), and either having a consistent (graNIta, MISsile) or an inconsistent stress neighborhood (seNIle, BIbita)...
July 10, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685249/memory-for-conversation-and-the-development-of-common-ground
#19
Geoffrey L McKinley, Sarah Brown-Schmidt, Aaron S Benjamin
Efficient conversation is guided by the mutual knowledge, or common ground, that interlocutors form as a conversation progresses. Characterized from the perspective of commonly used measures of memory, efficient conversation should be closely associated with item memory-what was said-and context memory-who said what to whom. However, few studies have explicitly probed memory to evaluate what type of information is maintained following a communicative exchange. The current study examined how item and context memory relate to the development of common ground over the course of a conversation, and how these forms of memory vary as a function of one's role in a conversation as speaker or listener...
July 6, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660397/no-evidence-for-binding-of-items-to-task-irrelevant-backgrounds-in-visual-working-memory
#20
Rob Udale, Simon Farrell, Christopher Kent
When representing visual features such as color and shape in visual working memory (VWM), participants also represent the locations of those features as a spatial configuration of the locations of those features in the display. In everyday life, we encounter objects against some background, yet it is unclear whether the configural representation in memory obligatorily constitutes the entire display, including that (often task-irrelevant) background information. In three experiments, participants completed a change detection task on color and shape; the memoranda were presented in front of uniform gray backgrounds, a textured background (Exp...
June 28, 2017: Memory & Cognition
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