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Memory & Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913967/the-texture-of-causal-construals-domain-specific-biases-shape-causal-inferences-from-discourse
#1
Brent Strickland, Ike Silver, Frank C Keil
We conducted five sets of experiments asking whether psychological and physical events are construed in broadly different manners concerning the underlying textures of their causes. In Experiments 1a-1d, we found a robust tendency to estimate fewer causes (but not effects) for psychological than for physical events; Experiment 2 showed a similar pattern of results when participants were asked to generate hypothetical causes and effects; Experiment 3 revealed a greater tendency to ascribe linear chains of causes (but not effects) to physical events; Experiment 4 showed that the expectation of linear chains was related to intuitions about deterministic processes; and Experiment 5 showed that simply framing a given ambiguous event in psychological versus physical terms is sufficient to induce changes in the patterns of causal inferences...
December 2, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913966/validating-presupposed-versus-focused-text-information
#2
Murray Singer, Kevin G Solar, Jackie Spear
There is extensive evidence that readers continually validate discourse accuracy and congruence, but that they may also overlook conspicuous text contradictions. Validation may be thwarted when the inaccurate ideas are embedded sentence presuppositions. In four experiments, we examined readers' validation of presupposed ("given") versus new text information. Throughout, a critical concept, such as a truck versus a bus, was introduced early in a narrative. Later, a character stated or thought something about the truck, which therefore matched or mismatched its antecedent...
December 2, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909981/the-effect-of-working-memory-load-on-the-snarc-effect-maybe-tasks-have-a-word-to-say
#3
Zhijun Deng, Yinghe Chen, Xiaoshuang Zhu, Yanjun Li
We investigated the effect of working memory load on the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect under different number judgment tasks (parity judgment and magnitude comparison), using a novel dual task. Instead of exerting load over the whole block of number judgment trials, in this dual task, number judgment trials were inserted into each interstimulus interval of an n-back task, which served as the working memory load. We varied both load type (verbal and spatial) and amount (1-load, 2-load, and 3-load)...
December 1, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896710/how-social-network-heterogeneity-facilitates-lexical-access-and-lexical-prediction
#4
Shiri Lev-Ari, Zeshu Shao
People learn language from their social environment. As individuals differ in their social networks, they might be exposed to input with different lexical distributions, and these might influence their linguistic representations and lexical choices. In this article we test the relation between linguistic performance and 3 social network properties that should influence input variability, namely, network size, network heterogeneity, and network density. In particular, we examine how these social network properties influence lexical prediction, lexical access, and lexical use...
November 28, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873189/learning-multiple-rules-simultaneously-affixes-are-more-salient-than-reduplications
#5
Judit Gervain, Ansgar D Endress
Language learners encounter numerous opportunities to learn regularities, but need to decide which of these regularities to learn, because some are not productive in their native language. Here, we present an account of rule learning based on perceptual and memory primitives (Endress, Dehaene-Lambertz, & Mehler, Cognition, 105(3), 577-614, 2007; Endress, Nespor, & Mehler, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(8), 348-353, 2009), suggesting that learners preferentially learn regularities that are more salient to them, and that the pattern of salience reflects the frequency of language features across languages...
November 21, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873188/imagining-the-personal-past-episodic-counterfactuals-compared-to-episodic-memories-and-episodic-future-projections
#6
Müge Özbek, Annette Bohn, Dorthe Berntsen
Episodic counterfactuals are imagined events that could have happened, but did not happen, in a person's past. Such imagined past events are important aspects of mental life, affecting emotions, decisions, and behaviors. However, studies examining their phenomenological characteristics and content have been few. Here we introduced a new method to systematically compare self-generated episodic counterfactuals to self-generated episodic memories and future projections with regard to their phenomenological characteristics (e...
November 21, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873187/explaining-the-forgetting-bias-effect-on-value-judgments-the-influence-of-memory-for-a-past-test
#7
Matthew G Rhodes, Amber E Witherby, Alan D Castel, Kou Murayama
People often feel that information that was forgotten is less important than remembered information. Prior work has shown that participants assign higher importance to remembered information while undervaluing forgotten information. The current study examined two possible accounts of this finding. In three experiments, participants studied lists of words in which each word was randomly assigned a point value denoting the value of remembering the word. Following the presentation of each list participants engaged in a free recall test...
November 21, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858379/effects-of-varying-presentation-time-on-long-term-recognition-memory-for-scenes-verbatim-and-gist-representations
#8
Fahad N Ahmad, Morris Moscovitch, William E Hockley
Konkle, Brady, Alvarez and Oliva (Psychological Science, 21, 1551-1556, 2010) showed that participants have an exceptional long-term memory (LTM) for photographs of scenes. We examined to what extent participants' exceptional LTM for scenes is determined by presentation time during encoding. In addition, at retrieval, we varied the nature of the lures in a forced-choice recognition task so that they resembled the target in gist (i.e., global or categorical) information, but were distinct in verbatim information (e...
November 17, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826953/failures-of-explaining-away-and-screening-off-in-described-versus-experienced-causal-learning-scenarios
#9
Bob Rehder, Michael R Waldmann
Causal Bayes nets capture many aspects of causal thinking that set them apart from purely associative reasoning. However, some central properties of this normative theory routinely violated. In tasks requiring an understanding of explaining away and screening off, subjects often deviate from these principles and manifest the operation of an associative bias that we refer to as the rich-get-richer principle. This research focuses on these two failures comparing tasks in which causal scenarios are merely described (via verbal statements of the causal relations) versus experienced (via samples of data that manifest the intervariable correlations implied by the causal relations)...
November 8, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822732/action-relevance-induces-an-attentional-weighting-of-representations-in-visual-working-memory
#10
Anna Heuer, J Douglas Crawford, Anna Schubö
Information maintained in visual working memory (VWM) can be strategically weighted according to its task-relevance. This is typically studied by presenting cues during the maintenance interval, but under natural conditions, the importance of certain aspects of our visual environment is mostly determined by intended actions. We investigated whether representations in VWM are also weighted with respect to their potential action relevance. In a combined memory and movement task, participants memorized a number of items and performed a pointing movement during the maintenance interval...
November 7, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815818/effects-of-outcome-and-trial-frequency-on-the-inverse-base-rate-effect
#11
Hilary J Don, Evan J Livesey
The inverse base-rate effect is a bias in contingency learning in which participants tend to predict a rare outcome for a conflicting set of perfectly predictive cues. Although the effect is often explained by attention biases during learning, inferential strategies at test may also contribute substantially to the effect. In three experiments, we manipulated the frequencies of outcomes and trial types to determine the critical conditions for the effect, thereby providing novel tests of the reasoning processes that could contribute to it...
November 4, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787683/modulation-of-additive-and-interactive-effects-by-trial-history-revisited
#12
Michael E J Masson, Maximilian M Rabe, Reinhold Kliegl
Masson and Kliegl (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 898-914, 2013) reported evidence that the nature of the target stimulus on the previous trial of a lexical decision task modulates the effects of independent variables on the current trial, including additive versus interactive effects of word frequency and stimulus quality. In contrast, recent reanalyses of previously published data from experiments that, unlike the Masson and Kliegl experiments, did not include semantic priming as a factor, found no evidence for modulation of additive effects of frequency and stimulus quality by trial history (Balota, Aschenbrenner, & Yap, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 1563-1571, 2013; O'Malley & Besner, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 1400-1411, 2013)...
October 27, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787682/when-high-working-memory-capacity-is-and-is-not-beneficial-for-predicting-nonlinear-processes
#13
Helen Fischer, Daniel V Holt
Predicting the development of dynamic processes is vital in many areas of life. Previous findings are inconclusive as to whether higher working memory capacity (WMC) is always associated with using more accurate prediction strategies, or whether higher WMC can also be associated with using overly complex strategies that do not improve accuracy. In this study, participants predicted a range of systematically varied nonlinear processes based on exponential functions where prediction accuracy could or could not be enhanced using well-calibrated rules...
October 27, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770254/updating-metacognitive-control-in-response-to-expected-retention-intervals
#14
Joshua L Fiechter, Aaron S Benjamin
In five experiments, we investigated whether expected retention intervals affect subjects' encoding strategies. In the first four experiments, our subjects studied paired associates consisting of words from the Graduate Record Exam and a synonym. They were told to expect a test on a word pair after either a short or a longer interval. Subjects were tested on most pairs after the expected retention interval. For some pairs, however, subjects were tested after the other retention interval, allowing for a comparison of performance at a given retention interval conditional upon the expected retention interval...
October 21, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770253/experts-memory-superiority-for-domain-specific-random-material-generalizes-across-fields-of-expertise-a-meta-analysis
#15
Giovanni Sala, Fernand Gobet
Experts' remarkable ability to recall meaningful domain-specific material is a classic result in cognitive psychology. Influential explanations for this ability have focused on the acquisition of high-level structures (e.g., schemata) or experts' capability to process information holistically. However, research on chess players suggests that experts maintain some reliable memory advantage over novices when random stimuli (e.g., shuffled chess positions) are presented. This skill effect cannot be explained by theories emphasizing high-level memory structures or holistic processing of stimuli, because random material does not contain large structures nor wholes...
October 21, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761792/questioning-the-preparatory-function-of-counterfactual-thinking
#16
Hugo Mercier, Jonathan J Rolison, Marta Stragà, Donatella Ferrante, Clare R Walsh, Vittorio Girotto
Why do individuals mentally modify reality (e.g., "If it hadn't rained, we would have won the game")? According to the dominant view, counterfactuals primarily serve to prepare future performance. In fact, individuals who have just failed a task tend to modify the uncontrollable features of their attempt (e.g., "If the rules of the game were different, I would have won it"), generating counterfactuals that are unlikely to play any preparatory role. By contrast, they generate prefactuals that focus on the controllable features of their ensuing behavior (e...
October 19, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752962/physician-bayesian-updating-from-personal-beliefs-about-the-base-rate-and-likelihood-ratio
#17
Benjamin Margolin Rottman
Whether humans can accurately make decisions in line with Bayes' rule has been one of the most important yet contentious topics in cognitive psychology. Though a number of paradigms have been used for studying Bayesian updating, rarely have subjects been allowed to use their own preexisting beliefs about the prior and the likelihood. A study is reported in which physicians judged the posttest probability of a diagnosis for a patient vignette after receiving a test result, and the physicians' posttest judgments were compared to the normative posttest calculated from their own beliefs in the sensitivity and false positive rate of the test (likelihood ratio) and prior probability of the diagnosis...
October 17, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752961/skilled-adult-readers-activate-the-meanings-of-high-frequency-words-using-phonology-evidence-from-eye-tracking
#18
Debra Jared, Katrina O'Donnell
We examined whether highly skilled adult readers activate the meanings of high-frequency words using phonology when reading sentences for meaning. A homophone-error paradigm was used. Sentences were written to fit 1 member of a homophone pair, and then 2 other versions were created in which the homophone was replaced by its mate or a spelling-control word. The error words were all high-frequency words, and the correct homophones were either higher-frequency words or low-frequency words-that is, the homophone errors were either the subordinate or dominant member of the pair...
October 17, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752960/tracking-the-dynamics-of-divergent-thinking-via-semantic-distance-analytic-methods-and-theoretical-implications
#19
Richard W Hass
Divergent thinking has often been used as a proxy measure of creative thinking, but this practice lacks a foundation in modern cognitive psychological theory. This article addresses several issues with the classic divergent-thinking methodology and presents a new theoretical and methodological framework for cognitive divergent-thinking studies. A secondary analysis of a large dataset of divergent-thinking responses is presented. Latent semantic analysis was used to examine the potential changes in semantic distance between responses and the concept represented by the divergent-thinking prompt across successive response iterations...
October 17, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739039/tone-matters-for-cantonese-english-bilingual-children-s-english-word-reading-development-a-unified-model-of-phonological-transfer
#20
Xiuli Tong, Xinjie He, S Hélène Deacon
Languages differ considerably in how they use prosodic features, or variations in pitch, duration, and intensity, to distinguish one word from another. Prosodic features include lexical tone in Chinese and lexical stress in English. Recent cross-sectional studies show a surprising result that Mandarin Chinese tone sensitivity is related to Mandarin-English bilingual children's English word reading. This study explores the mechanism underlying this relation by testing two explanations of these effects: the prosodic hypothesis and segmental phonological awareness transfer...
October 13, 2016: Memory & Cognition
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