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Memory & Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752660/classification-errors-and-response-times-over-multiple-distributed-sessions-as-a-function-of-category-structure
#1
Derek E Zeigler, Ronaldo Vigo
Learning difficulty orderings for categorical stimuli have long provided an empirical foundation for concept learning and categorization research. The conventional approach seeks to determine learning difficulty orderings in terms of mean classification accuracy. However, it is relatively rare that the stability of such orderings is tested over a period of extended learning. Further, research rarely explores dependent variables beyond classification accuracy that may also indicate relative learning difficulty, such as classification response times (RTs)...
May 11, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752659/individual-differences-in-musical-training-and-executive-functions-a-latent-variable-approach
#2
Brooke M Okada, L Robert Slevc
Learning and performing music draw on a host of cognitive abilities, and previous research has postulated that musicians might have advantages in related cognitive processes. One such aspect of cognition that may be related to musical training is executive functions (EFs), a set of top-down processes that regulate behavior and cognition according to task demands. Previous studies investigating the link between musical training and EFs have yielded mixed results and are difficult to compare. In part, this is because most studies have looked at only one specific cognitive process, and even studies looking at the same process have used different experimental tasks...
May 11, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744769/the-missing-link-testing-a-schema-account-of-unitization
#3
Roni Tibon, Andrea Greve, Richard Henson
Unitization refers to the creation of a new unit from previously distinct items. The concept of unitization has been used to explain how novel pairings between items can be remembered without requiring recollection, by virtue of new, item-like representations that enable familiarity-based retrieval. We tested an alternative account of unitization - a schema account - which suggests that associations between items can be rapidly assimilated into a schema. We used a common operationalization of "unitization" as the difference between two unrelated words being linked by a definition, relative to two words being linked by a sentence, during an initial study phase...
May 9, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736757/evidence-for-cross-script-abstract-identities-in-learners-of-japanese-kana
#4
Teresa Schubert, Roderick Gawthrop, Sachiko Kinoshita
The presence of abstract letter identity representations in the Roman alphabet has been well documented. These representations are invariant to letter case (upper vs. lower) and visual appearance. For example, "a" and "A" are represented by the same abstract identity. Recent research has begun to consider whether the processing of non-Roman orthographies also involves abstract orthographic representations. In the present study, we sought evidence for abstract identities in Japanese kana, which consist of two scripts, hiragana and katakana...
May 7, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728945/level-of-initial-training-moderates-the-effects-of-distributing-practice-over-multiple-days-with-expanding-contracting-and-uniform-schedules-evidence-for-study-phase-retrieval
#5
Thomas C Toppino, Heather-Anne Phelan, Emilie Gerbier
Inconsistent results have been obtained in experiments comparing the effects on retention of expanding, contracting, and uniform practice schedules, in which the spacing between successive practice sessions progressively increases, progressively decreases, or remains constant, respectively. In the present study, we experimentally assessed an apparent trend in the literature for expanding schedules to be more advantageous than other schedules following a low level of training during the initial learning session, but not following a high level of initial training...
May 4, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725876/can-very-small-font-size-enhance-memory
#6
Vered Halamish
Presenting information in a perceptually degraded format sometimes enhances learning outcomes. However, earlier studies in which words were presented in large or small fonts in a paradigm that also involved item-by-item judgments of learning (JOLs) consistently yielded no mnemonic benefit of small fonts. Can small font size enhance memory under hitherto unexamined conditions? A series of 11 experiments was conducted to examine systematically the effect of font size on memory for words and whether it depends on the strength of the font size manipulation, whether JOLs are solicited, the format of the test, and study time...
May 3, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713960/examining-the-role-of-context-variability-in-memory-for-items-and-associations
#7
William R Aue, Jessica M Fontaine, Amy H Criss
What properties of a word make it easy or difficult to remember? Word frequency and context variability are separate, closely related word properties that have disparate influences on memorability. The influence of word frequency changes depending on the memory task, with high-frequency words tending to be recalled better and low-frequency words to be recognized better. Conversely, low-context-variability words tend to be remembered better across tasks. One proposed explanation for the low-variability advantage is that low-variability words are easier to associate with the experimental context, given that they are associated with fewer extra-experimental contexts...
April 30, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696580/hypermnesia-and-the-role-of-delay-between-study-and-test
#8
Lisa A Wallner, Karl-Heinz T Bäuml
Hypermnesia is increased recall across repeated tests in the absence of any further study opportunities. Although over the years many factors have been identified that influence hypermnesia, to date not much is known about the role of delay between study and test for the effect. This study addressed the issue in four experiments. Employing both words and pictures as study material, we compared hypermnesia after shorter delay (3 min or 11.5 min) and longer delay (24 h or 1 week) between study and test. Recall occurred over three successive tests, using both free recall (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) and forced recall testing (Experiment 3)...
April 25, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679293/cognates-interfere-with-language-selection-but-enhance-monitoring-in-connected-speech
#9
Chuchu Li, Tamar H Gollan
The current study investigated the contribution of phonology to bilingual language control in connected speech. Speech production was elicited by asking Mandarin-English bilinguals to read aloud paragraphs either in Chinese or English, while six words were switched to the other language in each paragraph. The switch words were either cognates or noncognates, and switching difficulty was measured by production of cross-language intrusion errors on the switch words (e.g., mistakenly saying (qiao3-ke4-li4) instead of chocolate)...
April 20, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671133/a-test-of-the-functional-avoidance-hypothesis-in-the-development-of-overgeneral-autobiographical-memory
#10
D J Hallford, D W Austin, F Raes, K Takano
Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to the failure to recall memories of specific personally experienced events, which occurs in various psychiatric disorders. One pathway through which OGM is theorized to develop is the avoidance of thinking of negative experiences, whereby cumulative avoidance may maladaptively generalize to autobiographical memory (AM) more broadly. We tested this, predicting that negative experiences would interact with avoidance to predict AM specificity. In Study 1 (N = 281), negative life events (over six months) and daily hassles (over one month) were not related to AM specificity, nor was avoidance, and no interaction was found...
April 18, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651687/a-failure-to-replicate-rapid-syntactic-adaptation-in-comprehension
#11
Caoimhe M Harrington Stack, Ariel N James, Duane G Watson
Language comprehension requires successfully navigating linguistic variability. One hypothesis for how listeners manage variability is that they rapidly update their expectations of likely linguistic events in new contexts. This process, called adaptation, allows listeners to better predict the upcoming linguistic input. In previous work, Fine, Jaeger, Farmer, and Qian (PLoS ONE, 8, e77661, 2013) found evidence for syntactic adaptation. Subjects repeatedly encountered sentences in which a verb was temporarily ambiguous between main verb (MV) and reduced relative clause (RC) interpretations...
April 12, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623534/don-t-believe-everything-you-hear-routine-validation-of-audiovisual-information-in-children-and-adults
#12
Benjamin A Piest, Maj-Britt Isberner, Tobias Richter
Previous research has shown that the validation of incoming information during language comprehension is a fast, efficient, and routine process (epistemic monitoring). Previous research on this topic has focused on epistemic monitoring during reading. The present study extended this research by investigating epistemic monitoring of audiovisual information. In a Stroop-like paradigm, participants (Experiment 1: adults; Experiment 2: 10-year-old children) responded to the probe words correct and false by keypress after the presentation of auditory assertions that could be either true or false with respect to concurrently presented pictures...
April 5, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600481/similarities-between-the-irrelevant-sound-effect-and-the-suffix-effect
#13
J Richard Hanley, Jake Bourgaize
Although articulatory suppression abolishes the effect of irrelevant sound (ISE) on serial recall when sequences are presented visually, the effect persists with auditory presentation of list items. Two experiments were designed to test the claim that, when articulation is suppressed, the effect of irrelevant sound on the retention of auditory lists resembles a suffix effect. A suffix is a spoken word that immediately follows the final item in a list. Even though participants are told to ignore it, the suffix impairs serial recall of auditory lists...
March 29, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572787/reasoning-from-an-incompatibility-false-dilemma-fallacies-and-content-effects
#14
Janie Brisson, Henry Markovits, Serge Robert, Walter Schaeken
In the present studies, we investigated inferences from an incompatibility statement. Starting with two propositions that cannot be true at the same time, these inferences consist of deducing the falsity of one from the truth of the other or deducing the truth of one from the falsity of the other. Inferences of this latter form are relevant to human reasoning since they are the formal equivalent of a discourse manipulation called the false dilemma fallacy, often used in politics and advertising in order to force a choice between two selected options...
March 23, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557069/the-effects-of-refreshing-and-elaboration-on-working-memory-performance-and-their-contributions-to-long-term-memory-formation
#15
Lea M Bartsch, Henrik Singmann, Klaus Oberauer
Refreshing and elaboration are cognitive processes assumed to underlie verbal working-memory maintenance and assumed to support long-term memory formation. Whereas refreshing refers to the attentional focussing on representations, elaboration refers to linking representations in working memory into existing semantic networks. We measured the impact of instructed refreshing and elaboration on working and long-term memory separately, and investigated to what extent both processes are distinct in their contributions to working as well as long-term memory...
March 19, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532400/no-evidence-for-unethical-amnesia-for-imagined-actions-a-failed-replication-and-extension
#16
Matthew L Stanley, Brenda W Yang, Felipe De Brigard
In a recent study, Kouchaki and Gino (2016) suggest that memory for unethical actions is impaired, regardless of whether such actions are real or imagined. However, as we argue in the current study, their claim that people develop "unethical amnesia" confuses two distinct and dissociable memory deficits: one affecting the phenomenology of remembering and another affecting memory accuracy. To further investigate whether unethical amnesia affects memory accuracy, we conducted three studies exploring unethical amnesia for imagined ethical violations...
March 12, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524178/trading-off-switch-costs-and-stimulus-availability-benefits-an-investigation-of-voluntary-task-switching-behavior-in-a-predictable-dynamic-multitasking-environment
#17
Victor Mittelstädt, Jeff Miller, Andrea Kiesel
In the present study, we introduce a novel, self-organized task-switching paradigm that can be used to study more directly the determinants of switching. Instead of instructing participants to randomly switch between tasks, as in the classic voluntary task-switching paradigm (Arrington & Logan, 2004), we instructed participants to optimize their task performance in a voluntary task-switching environment in which the stimulus associated with the previously selected task appeared in each trial after a delay...
March 9, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516401/when-a-face-type-is-perceived-as-threatening-using-general-recognition-theory-to-understand-biased-categorization-of-afrocentric-faces
#18
Heather M Kleider-Offutt, Alesha D Bond, Sarah E Williams, Corey J Bohil
Prior research indicates that stereotypical Black faces (e.g., wide nose, full lips: Afrocentric) are often associated with crime and violence. The current study investigated whether stereotypical faces may bias the interpretation of facial expression to seem threatening. Stimuli were prerated by face type (stereotypical, nonstereotypical) and expression (neutral, threatening). Later in a forced-choice task, different participants categorized face stimuli as stereotypical or not and threatening or not. Regardless of prerated expression, stereotypical faces were judged as more threatening than were nonstereotypical faces...
March 7, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516400/chasing-red-herrings-memory-of-distractors-causes-fixation-in-creative-problem-solving
#19
Zsolt Beda, Steven M Smith
Two experiments tested the red herring retrieval hypothesis, which states that fixation in creative problem solving is worse when memory for red herrings (i.e., inappropriate or incorrect solutions) is strengthened. In Experiment 1, when associations between Remote Associates Test (RAT) problem words (e.g., COTTAGE, SWISS, CAKE) and related red herring words (e.g., hut, chocolate, icing) were strengthened via repetition, an encoding variable, fixation was found to increase. In Experiment 2, when associations were formed between RAT problem contexts and red herrings, then subsequent reinstatement of problem contexts during RAT problem solving trials (as compared with showing new contexts) also worsened fixation effects...
March 7, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484579/predicting-eye-movement-characteristics-across-multiple-tasks-from-working-memory-and-executive-control
#20
Steven G Luke, Emily S Darowski, Shawn D Gale
Individual differences in working memory (WM) and executive control are stable, related to cognitive task performance, and clinically predictive. Between-participant differences in eye movements are also highly reliable (Carter & Luke, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2018; Henderson & Luke, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40(4), 1390-1400, 2014). However, little is known about how higher order individual differences in cognition are related to these eye-movement characteristics...
February 26, 2018: Memory & Cognition
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