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Memory & Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608194/interactions-between-inferential-strategies-and-belief-bias
#1
Henry Markovits, Janie Brisson, Pier-Luc de Chantal, Valerie A Thompson
The dual strategy model of reasoning proposed by Verschueren, Schaeken, and d'Ydewalle (Thinking & Reasoning, 11(3), 239-278, 2005a; Memory & Cognition, 33(1), 107-119, 2005b) suggests that people can use either a statistical or a counterexample-based strategy to make deductive inferences. Subsequent studies have supported this distinction and investigated some properties of the two strategies. In the following, we examine the further hypothesis that reasoners using statistical strategies should be more vulnerable to the effects of conclusion belief...
June 12, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608193/do-alternating-color-words-facilitate-reading-aloud-text-in-chinese-evidence-with-developing-and-adult-readers
#2
Manuel Perea, Xiaoyun Wang
Prior research has shown that colors induce perceptual grouping and, hence, colors can be used as word dividers during reading (Pinna & Deiana, 2014). This issue is particularly important for those writing systems that do not employ interword spaces (e.g., Chinese). The rationale is that alternating colors across words in these scripts may facilitate the process of word identification without altering the spatial distribution of text. Here, we tested whether color alternation across words produces a benefit in a reading-aloud task in native speakers of Chinese...
June 12, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600628/the-interplay-of-intention-maintenance-and-cue-monitoring-in-younger-and-older-adults-prospective-memory
#3
Nicola Ballhausen, Katharina M Schnitzspahn, Sebastian S Horn, Matthias Kliegel
The retention phase of a prospective memory (PM) task poses different challenges, including demands to store or maintain an intended action and to realize the right moment for action execution. The interplay of these processes in younger and older adults has not been explored so far. In this study, the authors examined the impact of maintenance load and task focality on PM in 84 younger and in 83 older adults. Results indicated that PM performance and ongoing task response times were strongly affected by maintenance load and age...
June 9, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593461/self-prioritization-and-perceptual-matching-the-effects-of-temporal-construal
#4
Marius Golubickis, Johanna K Falben, Arash Sahraie, Aleksandar Visokomogilski, William A Cunningham, Jie Sui, C Neil Macrae
Recent research has revealed that self-referential processing enhances perceptual judgments - the so-called self-prioritization effect. The extent and origin of this effect remains unknown, however. Noting the multifaceted nature of the self, here we hypothesized that temporal influences on self-construal (i.e., past/future-self continuity) may serve as an important determinant of stimulus prioritization. Specifically, as representations of the self increase in abstraction as a function of temporal distance (i...
June 7, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585160/relative-speed-of-processing-determines-color-word-contingency-learning
#5
Noah D Forrin, Colin M MacLeod
In three experiments, we tested a relative-speed-of-processing account of color-word contingency learning, a phenomenon in which color identification responses to high-contingency stimuli (words that appear most often in particular colors) are faster than those to low-contingency stimuli. Experiment 1 showed equally large contingency-learning effects whether responding was to the colors or to the words, likely due to slow responding to both dimensions because of the unfamiliar mapping required by the key press responses...
June 5, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585159/need-for-closure-is-associated-with-urgency-in-perceptual-decision-making
#6
Nathan J Evans, Babette Rae, Maxim Bushmakin, Mark Rubin, Scott D Brown
Constant decision-making underpins much of daily life, from simple perceptual decisions about navigation through to more complex decisions about important life events. At many scales, a fundamental task of the decision-maker is to balance competing needs for caution and urgency: fast decisions can be more efficient, but also more often wrong. We show how a single mathematical framework for decision-making explains the urgency/caution balance across decision-making at two very different scales. This explanation has been applied at the level of neuronal circuits (on a time scale of hundreds of milliseconds) through to the level of stable personality traits (time scale of years)...
June 5, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567713/serial-reconstruction-of-order-and-serial-recall-in-verbal-short-term-memory
#7
Philip T Quinlan, Steven Roodenrys, Leonie M Miller
We carried out a series of experiments on verbal short-term memory for lists of words. In the first experiment, participants were tested via immediate serial recall, and word frequency and list set size were manipulated. With closed lists, the same set of items was repeatedly sampled, and with open lists, no item was presented more than once. In serial recall, effects of word frequency and set size were found. When a serial reconstruction-of-order task was used, in a second experiment, robust effects of word frequency emerged, but set size failed to show an effect...
May 31, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550625/make-it-real-belief-in-occurrence-within-episodic-future-thought
#8
Alexandra Ernst, Arnaud D'Argembeau
While the cognitive and neural bases of episodic future thinking are well documented, questions remain as to what gives the sense that an imagined event belongs to one's personal future. Capitalizing on previous research on metacognitive appraisals in autobiographical remembering, we propose that episodic future thinking involves, in varying degrees, a subjective belief in the potential occurrence of imagined future events and we explore the nature and determinants of such belief. To this aim, participants provided justifications for belief in occurrence for a series of past and future events...
May 26, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547677/episodic-and-semantic-content-of-memory-and-imagination-a-multilevel-analysis
#9
Aleea L Devitt, Donna Rose Addis, Daniel L Schacter
Autobiographical memories of past events and imaginations of future scenarios comprise both episodic and semantic content. Correlating the amount of "internal" (episodic) and "external" (semantic) details generated when describing autobiographical events can illuminate the relationship between the processes supporting these constructs. Yet previous studies performing such correlations were limited by aggregating data across all events generated by an individual, potentially obscuring the underlying relationship within the events themselves...
May 25, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534303/revising-recognition-judgments-during-noisy-recognition-evidence-accumulation-the-dynamics-of-losses-versus-gains
#10
Antonio Jaeger, Ian G Dobbins
Outside the laboratory, we sometimes revise our recognition judgments of others-realizing, for example, that we have accidentally failed to greet an acquaintance we just passed in the hallway. These recognition reversals have rarely been studied. Here, using a basic noisy-accumulation framework, we simulated recognition response reversals in which initial speeded recognition judgments were followed by an opportunity to revise the initial judgment. The simulation predictions were compared to empirical data from two experiments in which we gave participants the opportunity to revise each of their initial speeded recognition judgments...
May 22, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516420/event-models-and-the-fan-effect
#11
G A Radvansky, Andrea E O'Rear, Jerry S Fisher
The current study explored the persistence of event model organizations and how this influences the experience of interference during retrieval. People in this study memorized lists of sentences about objects in locations, such as "The potted palm is in the hotel." Previous work has shown that such information can either be stored in separate event models, thereby producing retrieval interference, or integrated into common event models, thereby eliminating retrieval interference. Unlike prior studies, the current work explored the impact of forgetting up to 2 weeks later on this pattern of performance...
May 17, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508283/young-adults-self-derive-and-retain-new-factual-knowledge-through-memory-integration
#12
Nicole L Varga, Patricia J Bauer
The present research investigated the retention of new factual knowledge derived through integration of information acquired across temporally distributed learning episodes. Young adults were exposed to novel facts as they read long lists of seemingly unrelated information, one sentence at a time. They then were presented open-ended questions, the answers to which could be self-derived through integration of pairs of facts from the list. Experiment 1 was the first test of self-derivation of new factual knowledge through integration in adults using open-ended testing (as opposed to forced-choice testing)...
May 15, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474279/revelation-effects-in-remembering-forecasting-and-perspective-taking
#13
Deanne L Westerman, Jeremy K Miller, Marianne E Lloyd
The revelation effect is a robust phenomenon in episodic memory whereby stimuli that immediately follow a simple cognitive task are more likely to garner positive responses on a variety of memory tests, including autobiographical memory judgments. Six experiments investigated the revelation effect for judgments of past and future events as well as judgments made from others' perspectives. The purpose of this work was to determine whether these subjectively distinct judgments are subject to the same decision-making biases, as might be expected if they are governed by similar processes (e...
May 4, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462485/investigations-of-a-reproductive-processing-advantage-in-memory
#14
Cory J Derringer, John E Scofield, Bogdan Kostic
Previous work has shown that processing words for their survival value improves memory. If this survival processing effect reflects an evolutionary adaptation in memory, processing words for their reproductive value should also improve memory. Across three experiments, participants rated words for their relevance in reproductive scenarios. In Experiment 1, participants rated adjectives (traits) for their relevance in finding a mate, evaluating a coworker, or in terms of their pleasantness. Mate processing produced better memory than pleasantness ratings, but not coworker processing...
May 1, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439728/is-color-an-integral-part-of-a-rich-mental-simulation
#15
Lara N Hoeben Mannaert, Katinka Dijkstra, Rolf A Zwaan
Research suggests that language comprehenders simulate visual features such as shape during language comprehension. In sentence-picture verification tasks, whenever pictures match the shape or orientation implied by the previous sentence, responses are faster than when the pictures mismatch implied visual aspects. However, mixed results have been demonstrated when the sentence-picture paradigm was applied to color (Connell, Cognition, 102(3), 476-485, 2007; Zwaan & Pecher, PLOS ONE, 7(12), e51382, 2012). One of the aims of the current investigation was to resolve this issue...
April 24, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405958/previously-acquired-cue-outcome-structural-knowledge-guides-new-learning-evidence-from-the-retroactive-interference-between-cues-effect
#16
David Luque, Joaquín Morís, Francisco J López, Pedro L Cobos
The effect of retroactive interference between cues predicting the same outcome (RIBC) occurs when the behavioral expression of a cue-outcome association (e.g., A→O1) is reduced due to the later acquisition of an association between a different cue and the same outcome (e.g., B→O1). In the present experimental series, we show that this effect can be modulated by knowledge concerning the structure of these cue-outcome relationships. In Experiments 1A and 1B, a pretraining phase was included to promote the expectation of either a one-to-one (OtO) or a many-to-one (MtO) cue-outcome structure during the subsequent RIBC training phases...
April 12, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405957/enhancing-memory-and-imagination-improves-problem-solving-among-individuals-with-depression
#17
Craig P McFarland, Mark Primosch, Chelsey M Maxson, Brandon T Stewart
Recent work has revealed links between memory, imagination, and problem solving, and suggests that increasing access to detailed memories can lead to improved imagination and problem-solving performance. Depression is often associated with overgeneral memory and imagination, along with problem-solving deficits. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that an interview designed to elicit detailed recollections would enhance imagination and problem solving among both depressed and nondepressed participants. In a within-subjects design, participants completed a control interview or an episodic specificity induction prior to completing memory, imagination, and problem-solving tasks...
April 12, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378297/working-memory-components-that-predict-word-problem-solving-is-it-merely-a-function-of-reading-calculation-and-fluid-intelligence
#18
Wenson Fung, H Lee Swanson
The purpose of this study was to assess whether the differential effects of working memory (WM) components (the central executive, phonological loop, and visual-spatial sketchpad) on math word problem-solving accuracy in children (N = 413, ages 6-10) are completely mediated by reading, calculation, and fluid intelligence. The results indicated that all three WM components predicted word problem solving in the nonmediated model, but only the storage component of WM yielded a significant direct path to word problem-solving accuracy in the fully mediated model...
April 4, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364405/evidence-accumulation-in-the-integrated-and-primed-stroop-tasks
#19
Sachiko Kinoshita, Bianca de Wit, Melissa Aji, Dennis Norris
We report distributional analyses of response times (RT) in two variants of the color-word Stroop task using manual keypress responses. In the classic Stroop task, in which the color and word dimensions are integrated into a single stimulus, the Stroop congruence effect increased across the quantiles. In contrast, in the primed Stroop task, in which the distractor word is presented ahead of colored symbols, the Stroop congruence effect was manifested solely as a distributional shift, remaining constant across the quantiles...
March 31, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361382/pointing-movements-both-impair-and-improve-visuospatial-working-memory-depending-on-serial-position
#20
Clelia Rossi-Arnaud, Emiddia Longobardi, Pietro Spataro
Two experiments investigated the effects of pointing movements on the item and order recall of random, horizontal, and vertical arrays consisting of 6 and 7 squares (Experiment 1) or 8 and 9 squares (Experiment 2). In the encoding phase, participants either viewed the items passively (passive-view condition) or pointed towards them (pointing condition). Then, after a brief interval, they were requested to recall the locations of the studied squares in the correct order of presentation. The critical result was that, for all types of arrays, the effects of the encoding condition varied as a function of serial position: for the initial and central positions accuracy was higher in the passive-view than in the pointing condition (confirming the standard inhibitory effect of pointing movements on visuospatial working memory), whereas the reverse pattern occurred in the final positions-showing a significant advantage of the pointing condition over the passive-view condition...
March 30, 2017: Memory & Cognition
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