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Memory & Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039662/individual-differences-in-spontaneous-analogical-transfer
#1
James R Kubricht, Hongjing Lu, Keith J Holyoak
Research on analogical problem solving has shown that people often fail to spontaneously notice the relevance of a semantically remote source analog when solving a target problem, although they are able to form mappings and derive inferences when given a hint to recall the source. Relatively little work has investigated possible individual differences that predict spontaneous transfer, or how such differences may interact with interventions that facilitate transfer. In this study, fluid intelligence was measured for participants in an analogical problem-solving task, using an abridged version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test...
December 30, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028782/interrupted-the-roles-of-distributed-effort-and-incubation-in-preventing-fixation-and-generating-problem-solutions
#2
Ut Na Sio, Kenneth Kotovsky, Jonathan Cagan
Fixation on inappropriate concepts is a key barrier to problem solving. Previous research has shown that continuous work is likely to cause repeated retrieval of those concepts, resulting in increased fixation. Accordingly, distributing effort across problems through multiple, brief, and interlaced sessions (distributed effort) should prevent such fixation and in turn enhance problem solving. This study examined whether distributed effort can provide an advantage for problem solving, particularly for problems that can induce fixation (Experiment 1), and whether and how incubation can be combined with distributed effort to further enhance performance (Experiment 2)...
December 27, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028781/a-meta-analysis-of-response-time-tests-of-the-sequential-two-systems-model-of-moral-judgment
#3
Jonathan Baron, Burcu Gürçay
The (generalized) sequential two-system ("default interventionist") model of utilitarian moral judgment predicts that utilitarian responses often arise from a system-two correction of system-one deontological intuitions. Response-time (RT) results that seem to support this model are usually explained by the fact that low-probability responses have longer RTs. Following earlier results, we predicted response probability from each subject's tendency to make utilitarian responses (A, "Ability") and each dilemma's tendency to elicit deontological responses (D, "Difficulty"), estimated from a Rasch model...
December 27, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028780/task-difficulty-moderates-the-revelation-effect
#4
André Aßfalg, Devon Currie, Daniel M Bernstein
Tasks that precede a recognition probe induce a more liberal response criterion than do probes without tasks-the "revelation effect." For example, participants are more likely to claim that a stimulus is familiar directly after solving an anagram, relative to a condition without an anagram. Revelation effect hypotheses disagree whether hard preceding tasks should produce a larger revelation effect than easy preceding tasks. Although some studies have shown that hard tasks increase the revelation effect as compared to easy tasks, these studies suffered from a confound of task difficulty and task presence...
December 27, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028779/when-fast-logic-meets-slow-belief-evidence-for-a-parallel-processing-model-of-belief-bias
#5
Dries Trippas, Valerie A Thompson, Simon J Handley
Two experiments pitted the default-interventionist account of belief bias against a parallel-processing model. According to the former, belief bias occurs because a fast, belief-based evaluation of the conclusion pre-empts a working-memory demanding logical analysis. In contrast, according to the latter both belief-based and logic-based responding occur in parallel. Participants were given deductive reasoning problems of variable complexity and instructed to decide whether the conclusion was valid on half the trials or to decide whether the conclusion was believable on the other half...
December 27, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000115/tied-to-expectations-predicting-features-speeds-processing-even-under-adverse-circumstances
#6
Sabine Schwager, Robert Gaschler, Dennis Rünger, Peter A Frensch
When participants predict the upcoming stimulus in a randomized choice reaction task, a match between prediction and stimulus increases processing speed at a level similar to that observed in cueing studies with highly valid cues. This might be taken to suggest that people cannot help but fully use their self-generated, verbalized predictions for preparing task processing. Thus, we tested how flexibly participants can control formation and implementation of predictions. In Experiment 1, we varied validity and response-relevance of predictions...
December 20, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987115/the-concreteness-effect-on-judgments-of-learning-evaluating-the-contributions-of-fluency-and-beliefs
#7
Amber E Witherby, Sarah K Tauber
Researchers have often determined how cues influence judgments of learning (JOLs; e.g., concrete words are assigned higher JOLs than are abstract words), and recently there has been an emphasis in understanding why cues influence JOLs (i.e., the mechanisms that underlie cue effects on JOLs). The analytic-processing (AP) theory posits that JOLs are constructed in accordance with participants' beliefs of how a cue will influence memory. Even so, some evidence suggests that fluency is also important to cue effects on JOLs...
December 16, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987114/when-children-forget-to-remember-effects-of-reduced-working-memory-availability-on-prospective-memory-performance
#8
Lavinia Cheie, Colin MacLeod, Mircea Miclea, Laura Visu-Petra
The preparatory attentional and memory processes theory (PAM) of prospective memory (PM) proposes that prospective remembering is influenced by the variation in the availability of WM resources. Consequently, PM should be impaired when WM resources are reduced either by direct WM manipulation or by individual differences associated with restricted WM performance. Our study tested this prediction in school-age children by examining the independent and interactive effects of three factors known to deplete availability of WM resources: increased processing demands of a concurrent arithmetic task, additional WM span requirements, and high trait anxiety...
December 16, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981506/the-effects-of-enactment-and-intention-accessibility-on-prospective-memory-performance
#9
Janette C Schult, Melanie C Steffens
The intention-superiority effect denotes faster response latencies to stimuli linked with a prospective memory task compared to stimuli linked with no prospective task or with a cancelled task. It is generally assumed that the increased accessibility of intention-related materials contributes to successful execution of prospective memory tasks at an appropriate opportunity. In two experiments we investigated the relationship between the intention-superiority effect and actual prospective memory performance under relatively realistic conditions...
December 15, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933560/familiarity-increases-the-number-of-remembered-pok%C3%A3-mon-in-visual-short-term-memory
#10
Weizhen Xie, Weiwei Zhang
Long-term memory (LTM) can influence many aspects of short-term memory (STM), including increased STM span. However, it is unclear whether LTM enhances the quantitative or qualitative aspect of STM. That is, do we retain a larger number of representations or more precise representations in STM for familiar stimuli than unfamiliar stimuli? This study took advantage of participants' prior rich multimedia experience with Pokémon, without investing on laboratory training to examine how prior LTM influenced visual STM...
December 8, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913967/the-texture-of-causal-construals-domain-specific-biases-shape-causal-inferences-from-discourse
#11
Brent Strickland, Ike Silver, Frank C Keil
We conducted five sets of experiments asking whether psychological and physical events are construed in broadly different manners concerning the underlying textures of their causes. In Experiments 1a-1d, we found a robust tendency to estimate fewer causes (but not effects) for psychological than for physical events; Experiment 2 showed a similar pattern of results when participants were asked to generate hypothetical causes and effects; Experiment 3 revealed a greater tendency to ascribe linear chains of causes (but not effects) to physical events; Experiment 4 showed that the expectation of linear chains was related to intuitions about deterministic processes; and Experiment 5 showed that simply framing a given ambiguous event in psychological versus physical terms is sufficient to induce changes in the patterns of causal inferences...
December 2, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913966/validating-presupposed-versus-focused-text-information
#12
Murray Singer, Kevin G Solar, Jackie Spear
There is extensive evidence that readers continually validate discourse accuracy and congruence, but that they may also overlook conspicuous text contradictions. Validation may be thwarted when the inaccurate ideas are embedded sentence presuppositions. In four experiments, we examined readers' validation of presupposed ("given") versus new text information. Throughout, a critical concept, such as a truck versus a bus, was introduced early in a narrative. Later, a character stated or thought something about the truck, which therefore matched or mismatched its antecedent...
December 2, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909981/the-effect-of-working-memory-load-on-the-snarc-effect-maybe-tasks-have-a-word-to-say
#13
Zhijun Deng, Yinghe Chen, Xiaoshuang Zhu, Yanjun Li
We investigated the effect of working memory load on the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect under different number judgment tasks (parity judgment and magnitude comparison), using a novel dual task. Instead of exerting load over the whole block of number judgment trials, in this dual task, number judgment trials were inserted into each interstimulus interval of an n-back task, which served as the working memory load. We varied both load type (verbal and spatial) and amount (1-load, 2-load, and 3-load)...
December 1, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896710/how-social-network-heterogeneity-facilitates-lexical-access-and-lexical-prediction
#14
Shiri Lev-Ari, Zeshu Shao
People learn language from their social environment. As individuals differ in their social networks, they might be exposed to input with different lexical distributions, and these might influence their linguistic representations and lexical choices. In this article we test the relation between linguistic performance and 3 social network properties that should influence input variability, namely, network size, network heterogeneity, and network density. In particular, we examine how these social network properties influence lexical prediction, lexical access, and lexical use...
November 28, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873189/learning-multiple-rules-simultaneously-affixes-are-more-salient-than-reduplications
#15
Judit Gervain, Ansgar D Endress
Language learners encounter numerous opportunities to learn regularities, but need to decide which of these regularities to learn, because some are not productive in their native language. Here, we present an account of rule learning based on perceptual and memory primitives (Endress, Dehaene-Lambertz, & Mehler, Cognition, 105(3), 577-614, 2007; Endress, Nespor, & Mehler, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(8), 348-353, 2009), suggesting that learners preferentially learn regularities that are more salient to them, and that the pattern of salience reflects the frequency of language features across languages...
November 21, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873188/imagining-the-personal-past-episodic-counterfactuals-compared-to-episodic-memories-and-episodic-future-projections
#16
Müge Özbek, Annette Bohn, Dorthe Berntsen
Episodic counterfactuals are imagined events that could have happened, but did not happen, in a person's past. Such imagined past events are important aspects of mental life, affecting emotions, decisions, and behaviors. However, studies examining their phenomenological characteristics and content have been few. Here we introduced a new method to systematically compare self-generated episodic counterfactuals to self-generated episodic memories and future projections with regard to their phenomenological characteristics (e...
November 21, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873187/explaining-the-forgetting-bias-effect-on-value-judgments-the-influence-of-memory-for-a-past-test
#17
Matthew G Rhodes, Amber E Witherby, Alan D Castel, Kou Murayama
People often feel that information that was forgotten is less important than remembered information. Prior work has shown that participants assign higher importance to remembered information while undervaluing forgotten information. The current study examined two possible accounts of this finding. In three experiments, participants studied lists of words in which each word was randomly assigned a point value denoting the value of remembering the word. Following the presentation of each list participants engaged in a free recall test...
November 21, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858379/effects-of-varying-presentation-time-on-long-term-recognition-memory-for-scenes-verbatim-and-gist-representations
#18
Fahad N Ahmad, Morris Moscovitch, William E Hockley
Konkle, Brady, Alvarez and Oliva (Psychological Science, 21, 1551-1556, 2010) showed that participants have an exceptional long-term memory (LTM) for photographs of scenes. We examined to what extent participants' exceptional LTM for scenes is determined by presentation time during encoding. In addition, at retrieval, we varied the nature of the lures in a forced-choice recognition task so that they resembled the target in gist (i.e., global or categorical) information, but were distinct in verbatim information (e...
November 17, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826953/failures-of-explaining-away-and-screening-off-in-described-versus-experienced-causal-learning-scenarios
#19
Bob Rehder, Michael R Waldmann
Causal Bayes nets capture many aspects of causal thinking that set them apart from purely associative reasoning. However, some central properties of this normative theory routinely violated. In tasks requiring an understanding of explaining away and screening off, subjects often deviate from these principles and manifest the operation of an associative bias that we refer to as the rich-get-richer principle. This research focuses on these two failures comparing tasks in which causal scenarios are merely described (via verbal statements of the causal relations) versus experienced (via samples of data that manifest the intervariable correlations implied by the causal relations)...
November 8, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822732/action-relevance-induces-an-attentional-weighting-of-representations-in-visual-working-memory
#20
Anna Heuer, J Douglas Crawford, Anna Schubö
Information maintained in visual working memory (VWM) can be strategically weighted according to its task-relevance. This is typically studied by presenting cues during the maintenance interval, but under natural conditions, the importance of certain aspects of our visual environment is mostly determined by intended actions. We investigated whether representations in VWM are also weighted with respect to their potential action relevance. In a combined memory and movement task, participants memorized a number of items and performed a pointing movement during the maintenance interval...
November 7, 2016: Memory & Cognition
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