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Memory & Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905276/causal-explanation-improves-judgment-under-uncertainty-but-rarely-in-a-bayesian-way
#1
Brett K Hayes, Jeremy Ngo, Guy E Hawkins, Ben R Newell
Three studies reexamined the claim that clarifying the causal origin of key statistics can increase normative performance on Bayesian problems involving judgment under uncertainty. Experiments 1 and 2 found that causal explanation did not increase the rate of normative solutions. However, certain types of causal explanation did lead to a reduction in the magnitude of errors in probability estimation. This effect was most pronounced when problem statistics were expressed in percentage formats. Experiment 3 used process-tracing methods to examine the impact of causal explanation of false positives on solution strategies...
September 13, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900903/the-cost-of-switching-between-taxonomic-and-thematic-semantics
#2
Jon-Frederick Landrigan, Daniel Mirman
Current models and theories of semantic knowledge primarily capture taxonomic relationships (DOG and WOLF) and largely do not address the role of thematic relationships in semantic knowledge (DOG and LEASH). Recent evidence suggests that processing or representation of thematic relationships may be distinct from taxonomic relationships. If taxonomic and thematic relations are distinct, then there should be a cost associated with switching between them even when the task remains constant. This hypothesis was tested using two different semantic-relatedness judgment tasks: Experiment 1 used a triads task and Experiment 2 used an oddball task...
September 12, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895111/phonological-recoding-under-articulatory-suppression
#3
Dennis Norris, Sally Butterfield, Jane Hall, Michael P A Page
We report data from an experiment in which participants performed immediate serial recall of visually presented words with or without articulatory suppression, while also performing homophone or rhyme detection. The separation between homophonous or rhyming pairs in the list was varied. According to the working memory model (Baddeley, 1986; Baddeley & Hitch, 1974), suppression should prevent articulatory recoding. Nevertheless, rhyme and homophone detection was well above chance. However, with suppression, participants showed a greater tendency to false-alarm to orthographically related foils (e...
September 11, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875474/no-advantage-for-remembering-horizontal-over-vertical-spatial-locations-learned-from-a-single-viewpoint
#4
Thomas Hinterecker, Caroline Leroy, Mintao Zhao, Martin V Butz, Heinrich H Bülthoff, Tobias Meilinger
Previous behavioral and neurophysiological research has shown better memory for horizontal than for vertical locations. In these studies, participants navigated toward these locations. In the present study we investigated whether the orientation of the spatial plane per se was responsible for this difference. We thus had participants learn locations visually from a single perspective and retrieve them from multiple viewpoints. In three experiments, participants studied colored tags on a horizontally or vertically oriented board within a virtual room and recalled these locations with different layout orientations (Exp...
September 5, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865045/best-not-to-bet-on-the-horserace-a-comment-on-forrin-and-macleod-2017-and-a-relevant-stimulus-response-compatibility-view-of-colour-word-contingency-learning-asymmetries
#5
James R Schmidt
One powerfully robust method for the study of human contingency learning is the colour-word contingency learning paradigm. In this task, participants respond to the print colour of neutral words, each of which is presented most often in one colour. The contingencies between words and colours are learned, as indicated by faster and more accurate responses when words are presented in their expected colour relative to an unexpected colour. In a recent report, Forrin and MacLeod (2017b, Memory & Cognition) asked to what extent this performance (i...
September 1, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856624/the-mere-exposure-effect-for-visual-image
#6
Kazuya Inoue, Yoshihiko Yagi, Nobuya Sato
Mere exposure effect refers to a phenomenon in which repeated stimuli are evaluated more positively than novel stimuli. We investigated whether this effect occurs for internally generated visual representations (i.e., visual images). In an exposure phase, a 5 × 5 dot array was presented, and a pair of dots corresponding to the neighboring vertices of an invisible polygon was sequentially flashed (in red), creating an invisible polygon. In Experiments 1, 2, and 4, participants visualized and memorized the shapes of invisible polygons based on different sequences of flashed dots, whereas in Experiment 3, participants only memorized positions of these dots...
August 30, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849576/collaborative-testing-for-key-term-definitions-under-representative-conditions-efficiency-costs-and-no-learning-benefits
#7
Kathryn T Wissman, Katherine A Rawson
Students are expected to learn key-term definitions across many different grade levels and academic disciplines. Thus, investigating ways to promote understanding of key-term definitions is of critical importance for applied purposes. A recent survey showed that learners report engaging in collaborative practice testing when learning key-term definitions, with outcomes also shedding light on the way in which learners report engaging in collaborative testing in real-world contexts (Wissman & Rawson, 2016, Memory, 24, 223-239)...
August 28, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849375/increasing-relational-memory-in-childhood-with-unitization-strategies
#8
Alison Robey, Tracy Riggins
Young children often experience relational memory failures, which are thought to result from immaturity of the recollection processes presumed to be required for these tasks. However, research in adults has suggested that relational memory tasks can be accomplished using familiarity, a process thought to be mature by the end of early childhood. The goal of the present study was to determine whether relational memory performance could be improved in childhood by teaching young children memory strategies that have been shown to increase the contribution of familiarity in adults (i...
August 28, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842852/erratum-to-cross-modal-working-memory-binding-and-l1-l2-word-learning
#9
Shinmin Wang, Richard J Allen, Shin-Yi Fang, Ping Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 25, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840543/memory-accessibility-shapes-explanation-testing-key-claims-of-the-inherence-heuristic-account
#10
Larisa J Hussak, Andrei Cimpian
People understand the world by constructing explanations for what they observe. It is thus important to identify the cognitive processes underlying these judgments. According to a recent proposal, everyday explanations are often constructed heuristically: Because people need to generate explanations on a moment-by-moment basis, they cannot perform an exhaustive search through the space of possible reasons, but may instead use the information that is most easily accessible in memory (Cimpian & Salomon 2014a, b)...
August 23, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828745/optimal-combination-of-environmental-cues-and-path-integration-during-navigation
#11
Lori A Sjolund, Jonathan W Kelly, Timothy P McNamara
Navigation is influenced by body-based self-motion cues that are integrated over time, in a process known as path integration, as well as by environmental cues such as landmarks and room shape. In two experiments we explored whether humans combine path integration and environmental cues (Exp. 1: room shape; Exp. 2: room shape, single landmark, and multiple landmarks) to reduce response variability when returning to a previously visited location. Participants walked an outbound path in an immersive virtual environment before attempting to return to the path origin...
August 21, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786022/lost-in-the-supermarket-quantifying-the-cost-of-partitioning-memory-sets-in-hybrid-search
#12
Sage E P Boettcher, Trafton Drew, Jeremy M Wolfe
The items on a memorized grocery list are not relevant in every aisle; for example, it is useless to search for the cabbage in the cereal aisle. It might be beneficial if one could mentally partition the list so only the relevant subset was active, so that vegetables would be activated in the produce section. In four experiments, we explored observers' abilities to partition memory searches. For example, if observers held 16 items in memory, but only eight of the items were relevant, would response times resemble a search through eight or 16 items? In Experiments 1a and 1b, observers were not faster for the partition set; however, they suffered relatively small deficits when "lures" (items from the irrelevant subset) were presented, indicating that they were aware of the partition...
August 7, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770540/collaborative-remembering-revisited-study-context-access-modulates-collaborative-inhibition-and-later-benefits-for-individual-memory
#13
Magdalena Abel, Karl-Heinz T Bäuml
Collaborating groups typically show reduced recall relative to nominal groups, i.e., to the cumulated non-redundant recall of the same number of people remembering in isolation-a finding termed collaborative inhibition. Motivated by the results of several previous studies, this study examined in two experiments whether access to study context at test influences the effects of collaboration. In both experiments, subjects collaborated in triads or recalled previously studied material in isolation. Experiment 1 applied short versus prolonged retention intervals to vary access to study context at test, whereas Experiment 2 used the list-method directed forgetting task and applied remember versus forget instructions to modulate context access...
August 2, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770539/meaning-in-learning-contextual-cueing-relies-on-objects-visual-features-and-not-on-objects-meaning
#14
Tal Makovski
People easily learn regularities embedded in the environment and utilize them to facilitate visual search. Using images of real-world objects, it has been recently shown that this learning, termed contextual cueing (CC), occurs even in complex, heterogeneous environments, but only when the same distractors are repeated at the same locations. Yet it is not clear what exactly is being learned under these conditions: the visual features of the objects or their meaning. In this study, Experiment 1 demonstrated that meaning is not necessary for this type of learning, as a similar pattern of results was found even when the objects' meaning was largely removed...
August 2, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755051/reference-frames-in-spatial-updating-when-body-based-cues-are-absent
#15
Qiliang He, Timothy P McNamara, Jonathan W Kelly
The current study investigated the reference frame used in spatial updating when idiothetic cues to self-motion were minimized (desktop virtual reality). In Experiment 1, participants learned a layout of eight objects from a single perspective (learning heading) in a virtual environment. After learning, they were placed in the same virtual environment and used a keyboard to navigate to two of the learned objects (visible) before pointing to a third object (invisible). We manipulated participants' starting orientation (initial heading) and final orientation (final heading) before pointing, to examine the reference frame used in this task...
July 28, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748447/cross-modal-working-memory-binding-and-l1-l2-word-learning
#16
Shinmin Wang, Richard J Allen, Shin-Yi Fang, Ping Li
The ability to create temporary binding representations of information from different sources in working memory has recently been found to relate to the development of monolingual word recognition in children. The current study explored this possible relationship in an adult word-learning context. We assessed whether the relationship between cross-modal working memory binding and lexical development would be observed in the learning of associations between unfamiliar spoken words and their semantic referents, and whether it would vary across experimental conditions in first- and second-language word learning...
July 26, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744722/temporal-encoding-strategies-result-in-boosts-to-final-free-recall-performance-comparable-to-spatial-ones
#17
Nichole Bouffard, Jared Stokes, Hannah J Kramer, Arne D Ekstrom
The method of loci is a highly effective mnemonic that recruits existing salient memory for spatial locations and uses the information as a scaffold for remembering a list of items (Yates, 1966). One possible account for the effectiveness of the spatial method of loci comes from the perspective that it utilizes evolutionarily preserved mechanisms for spatial navigation within the hippocampus (Maguire et al. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(8), 4398-4403, 2000; O'Keefe & Nadel, 1978; Rodriguez et al...
July 25, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741254/performance-bias-why-judgments-of-learning-are-not-affected-by-learning
#18
Nate Kornell, Hannah Hausman
Past research has shown a performance bias: People expect their future performance level on a task to match their current performance level, even when there are good reasons to expect future performance to differ from current performance. One explanation of this bias is that judgments are controlled by what learners can observe, and while current performance is usually observable, changes in performance (i.e., learning or forgetting) are not. This explanation makes a prediction that we tested here: If learning becomes observable, it should begin to affect judgments...
July 24, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741253/dissociations-of-the-number-and-precision-of-visual-short-term-memory-representations-in-change-detection
#19
Weizhen Xie, Weiwei Zhang
The present study dissociated the number (i.e., quantity) and precision (i.e., quality) of visual short-term memory (STM) representations in change detection using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and experimental manipulations. Across three experiments, participants performed both recognition and recall tests of visual STM using the change-detection task and the continuous color-wheel recall task, respectively. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the estimates of the number and precision of visual STM representations based on the ROC model of change-detection performance were robustly correlated with the corresponding estimates based on the mixture model of continuous-recall performance...
July 24, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741252/serial-recall-of-colors-two-models-of-memory-for-serial-order-applied-to-continuous-visual-stimuli
#20
Sonja Peteranderl, Klaus Oberauer
This study investigated the effects of serial position and temporal distinctiveness on serial recall of simple visual stimuli. Participants observed lists of five colors presented at varying, unpredictably ordered interitem intervals, and their task was to reproduce the colors in their order of presentation by selecting colors on a continuous-response scale. To control for the possibility of verbal labeling, articulatory suppression was required in one of two experimental sessions. The predictions were derived through simulation from two computational models of serial recall: SIMPLE represents the class of temporal-distinctiveness models, whereas SOB-CS represents event-based models...
July 24, 2017: Memory & Cognition
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