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Memory & Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119542/how-do-we-get-there-effects-of-cognitive-aging-on-route-memory
#1
Mary O'Malley, Anthea Innes, Jan M Wiener
Research into the effects of cognitive aging on route navigation usually focuses on differences in learning performance. In contrast, we investigated age-related differences in route knowledge after successful route learning. One young and two groups of older adults categorized using different cut-off scores on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), were trained until they could correctly recall short routes. During the test phase, they were asked to recall the sequence in which landmarks were encountered (Landmark Sequence Task), the sequence of turns (Direction Sequence Task), the direction of turn at each landmark (Landmark Direction Task), and to identify the learned routes from a map perspective (Perspective Taking Task)...
November 8, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110211/is-the-superior-verbal-memory-span-of-mandarin-speakers-due-to-faster-rehearsal
#2
Sven L Mattys, Alan Baddeley, Danijela Trenkic
It is well established that digit span in native Chinese speakers is atypically high. This is commonly attributed to a capacity for more rapid subvocal rehearsal for that group. We explored this hypothesis by testing a group of English-speaking native Mandarin speakers on digit span and word span in both Mandarin and English, together with a measure of speed of articulation for each. When compared to the performance of native English speakers, the Mandarin group proved to be superior on both digit and word spans while predictably having lower spans in English...
November 6, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110210/unmasking-the-component-general-and-component-specific-aspects-of-primary-and-secondary-memory-in-the-immediate-free-recall-task
#3
Bradley S Gibson, Dawn M Gondoli
The immediate free recall (IFR) task has been commonly used to estimate the capacities of the primary memory (PM) and secondary memory (SM) components of working memory (WM). Using this method, the correlation between estimates of the PM and SM components has hovered around zero, suggesting that PM and SM represent fully distinct and dissociable components of WM. However, this conclusion has conflicted with more recent studies that have observed moderately strong, positive correlations between PM and SM when separate attention and retrieval tasks are used to estimate these capacities, suggesting that PM and SM represent at least some related capacities...
November 6, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110209/agency-attributions-of-mental-effort-during-self-regulated-learning
#4
Asher Koriat
Previous results suggest that the monitoring of one's own performance during self-regulated learning is mediated by self-agency attributions and that these attributions can be influenced by poststudy effort-framing instructions. These results pose a challenge to the study of issues of self-agency in metacognition when the objects of self-regulation are mental operations rather than motor actions that have observable outcomes. When participants studied items in Experiment 1 under time pressure, they invested greater study effort in the easier items in the list...
November 6, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101550/chess-knowledge-predicts-chess-memory-even-after-controlling-for-chess-experience-evidence-for-the-role-of-high-level-processes
#5
David M Lane, Yu-Hsuan A Chang
The expertise effect in memory for chess positions is one of the most robust effects in cognitive psychology. One explanation of this effect is that chess recall is based on the recognition of familiar patterns and that experts have learned more and larger patterns. Template theory and its instantiation as a computational model are based on this explanation. An alternative explanation is that the expertise effect is due, in part, to stronger players having better and more conceptual knowledge, with this knowledge facilitating memory performance...
November 3, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067637/use-of-the-familiarity-difference-cue-in-inferential-judgments
#6
Ping Xu, Claudia González-Vallejo, Justin Weinhardt, Janna Chimeli, Figen Karadogan
The familiarity difference cue has been regarded as a general cue for making inferential judgments (Honda, Abe, Matsuks, & Yamagishi in Memory and Cognition, 39(5), 851-863, 2011; Schwikert & Curran in Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143(6), 2341-2365, 2014). The current study tests a model of inference based on familiarity differences that encompasses the recognition heuristic (Goldstein & Gigerenzer, 1999, Goldstein & Gigerenzer in Psychological Review, 109(1), 75-90, 2002). In two studies, using a large pool of stimuli, participants rated their familiarity of cities and made choices on a typical city-size task...
October 24, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047045/how-sublexical-association-strength-modulates-updating-cognitive-and-strategic-effects
#7
Caterina Artuso, Paola Palladino
In the current study, we investigated updating of long-term memory (LTM) associations. Specifically, we examined sublexical associations by manipulating preexisting LTM relations between consonant couplets (in encoding and updating phases), and explicitly instructed participants to engage with a specific strategy for approaching the task (item disjunction, grouping, or none). In two experiments, we used a multistep subject-based memory updating task in which we measured processing response times (RTs; Exp. 1, Exp...
October 18, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019169/one-back-reinforcement-dissociates-implicit-procedural-and-explicit-declarative-category-learning
#8
J David Smith, Sonia Jamani, Joseph Boomer, Barbara A Church
The debate over unitary/multiple category-learning utilities is reminiscent of debates about multiple memory systems and unitary/dual codes in knowledge representation. In categorization, researchers continue to seek paradigms to dissociate explicit learning processes (yielding verbalizable rules) from implicit learning processes (yielding stimulus-response associations that remain outside awareness). We introduce a new dissociation here. Participants learned matched category tasks with a multidimensional, information-integration solution or a one-dimensional, rule-based solution...
October 10, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019157/does-neighborhood-size-really-cause-the-word-length-effect
#9
Dominic Guitard, Jean Saint-Aubin, Gerald Tehan, Anne Tolan
In short-term serial recall, it is well-known that short words are remembered better than long words. This word length effect has been the cornerstone of the working memory model and a benchmark effect that all models of immediate memory should account for. Currently, there is no consensus as to what determines the word length effect. Jalbert and colleagues (Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, & Surprenant, 2011a; Jalbert, Neath, & Surprenant, 2011b) suggested that neighborhood size is one causal factor. In six experiments we systematically examined their suggestion...
October 10, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975576/covert-shifts-of-attention-can-account-for-the-functional-role-of-eye-movements-to-nothing
#10
Agnes Scholz, Anja Klichowicz, Josef F Krems
When trying to remember verbal information from memory, people look at spatial locations that have been associated with visual stimuli during encoding, even when the visual stimuli are no longer present. It has been shown that such "eye movements to nothing" can influence retrieval performance for verbal information, but the mechanism underlying this functional relationship is unclear. More precisely, covert in comparison to overt shifts of attention could be sufficient to elicit the observed differences in retrieval performance...
October 3, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971367/long-term-associative-learning-predicts-verbal-short-term-memory-performance
#11
Gary Jones, Bill Macken
Studies using tests such as digit span and nonword repetition have implicated short-term memory across a range of developmental domains. Such tests ostensibly assess specialized processes for the short-term manipulation and maintenance of information that are often argued to enable long-term learning. However, there is considerable evidence for an influence of long-term linguistic learning on performance in short-term memory tasks that brings into question the role of a specialized short-term memory system separate from long-term knowledge...
October 2, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971366/item-strength-affects-working-memory-capacity
#12
Zhangfan Shen, Vencislav Popov, Anita B Delahay, Lynne M Reder
Do the processing and online manipulation of stimuli that are less familiar require more working memory (WM) resources? Is it more difficult to solve demanding problems when the symbols involved are less rather than more familiar? We explored these questions with a dual-task paradigm in which subjects had to solve algebra problems of different complexities while simultaneously holding novel symbol-digit associations in WM. The symbols were previously unknown Chinese characters, whose familiarity was manipulated by differential training frequency with a visual search task for nine hour-long sessions over 3 weeks...
October 2, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905276/causal-explanation-improves-judgment-under-uncertainty-but-rarely-in-a-bayesian-way
#13
Brett K Hayes, Jeremy Ngo, Guy E Hawkins, Ben R Newell
Three studies reexamined the claim that clarifying the causal origin of key statistics can increase normative performance on Bayesian problems involving judgment under uncertainty. Experiments 1 and 2 found that causal explanation did not increase the rate of normative solutions. However, certain types of causal explanation did lead to a reduction in the magnitude of errors in probability estimation. This effect was most pronounced when problem statistics were expressed in percentage formats. Experiment 3 used process-tracing methods to examine the impact of causal explanation of false positives on solution strategies...
September 13, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900903/the-cost-of-switching-between-taxonomic-and-thematic-semantics
#14
Jon-Frederick Landrigan, Daniel Mirman
Current models and theories of semantic knowledge primarily capture taxonomic relationships (DOG and WOLF) and largely do not address the role of thematic relationships in semantic knowledge (DOG and LEASH). Recent evidence suggests that processing or representation of thematic relationships may be distinct from taxonomic relationships. If taxonomic and thematic relations are distinct, then there should be a cost associated with switching between them even when the task remains constant. This hypothesis was tested using two different semantic-relatedness judgment tasks: Experiment 1 used a triads task and Experiment 2 used an oddball task...
September 12, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895111/phonological-recoding-under-articulatory-suppression
#15
Dennis Norris, Sally Butterfield, Jane Hall, Michael P A Page
We report data from an experiment in which participants performed immediate serial recall of visually presented words with or without articulatory suppression, while also performing homophone or rhyme detection. The separation between homophonous or rhyming pairs in the list was varied. According to the working memory model (Baddeley, 1986; Baddeley & Hitch, 1974), suppression should prevent articulatory recoding. Nevertheless, rhyme and homophone detection was well above chance. However, with suppression, participants showed a greater tendency to false-alarm to orthographically related foils (e...
September 11, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875474/no-advantage-for-remembering-horizontal-over-vertical-spatial-locations-learned-from-a-single-viewpoint
#16
Thomas Hinterecker, Caroline Leroy, Mintao Zhao, Martin V Butz, Heinrich H Bülthoff, Tobias Meilinger
Previous behavioral and neurophysiological research has shown better memory for horizontal than for vertical locations. In these studies, participants navigated toward these locations. In the present study we investigated whether the orientation of the spatial plane per se was responsible for this difference. We thus had participants learn locations visually from a single perspective and retrieve them from multiple viewpoints. In three experiments, participants studied colored tags on a horizontally or vertically oriented board within a virtual room and recalled these locations with different layout orientations (Exp...
September 5, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865045/best-not-to-bet-on-the-horserace-a-comment-on-forrin-and-macleod-2017-and-a-relevant-stimulus-response-compatibility-view-of-colour-word-contingency-learning-asymmetries
#17
James R Schmidt
One powerfully robust method for the study of human contingency learning is the colour-word contingency learning paradigm. In this task, participants respond to the print colour of neutral words, each of which is presented most often in one colour. The contingencies between words and colours are learned, as indicated by faster and more accurate responses when words are presented in their expected colour relative to an unexpected colour. In a recent report, Forrin and MacLeod (2017b, Memory & Cognition) asked to what extent this performance (i...
September 1, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856624/the-mere-exposure-effect-for-visual-image
#18
Kazuya Inoue, Yoshihiko Yagi, Nobuya Sato
Mere exposure effect refers to a phenomenon in which repeated stimuli are evaluated more positively than novel stimuli. We investigated whether this effect occurs for internally generated visual representations (i.e., visual images). In an exposure phase, a 5 × 5 dot array was presented, and a pair of dots corresponding to the neighboring vertices of an invisible polygon was sequentially flashed (in red), creating an invisible polygon. In Experiments 1, 2, and 4, participants visualized and memorized the shapes of invisible polygons based on different sequences of flashed dots, whereas in Experiment 3, participants only memorized positions of these dots...
August 30, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849576/collaborative-testing-for-key-term-definitions-under-representative-conditions-efficiency-costs-and-no-learning-benefits
#19
Kathryn T Wissman, Katherine A Rawson
Students are expected to learn key-term definitions across many different grade levels and academic disciplines. Thus, investigating ways to promote understanding of key-term definitions is of critical importance for applied purposes. A recent survey showed that learners report engaging in collaborative practice testing when learning key-term definitions, with outcomes also shedding light on the way in which learners report engaging in collaborative testing in real-world contexts (Wissman & Rawson, 2016, Memory, 24, 223-239)...
August 28, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849375/increasing-relational-memory-in-childhood-with-unitization-strategies
#20
Alison Robey, Tracy Riggins
Young children often experience relational memory failures, which are thought to result from immaturity of the recollection processes presumed to be required for these tasks. However, research in adults has suggested that relational memory tasks can be accomplished using familiarity, a process thought to be mature by the end of early childhood. The goal of the present study was to determine whether relational memory performance could be improved in childhood by teaching young children memory strategies that have been shown to increase the contribution of familiarity in adults (i...
August 28, 2017: Memory & Cognition
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