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Memory & Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224452/younger-and-older-adults-collaborative-recall-of-shared-and-unshared-emotional-pictures
#1
Sarah J Barber, Jaime J Castrellon, Philipp Opitz, Mara Mather
Although a group of people working together recalls more items than any one individual, they recall fewer unique items than the same number of people working apart whose responses are combined. This is known as collaborative inhibition, and it is a robust effect that occurs for both younger and older adults. However, almost all previous studies documenting collaborative inhibition have used stimuli that were neutral in emotional valence, low in arousal, and studied by all group members. In the current experiments, we tested the impact of picture-stimuli valence, picture-stimuli arousal, and information distribution in modulating the magnitude of collaborative inhibition...
February 21, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213830/recognition-memory-for-low-and-high-frequency-filtered-emotional-faces-low-spatial-frequencies-drive-emotional-memory-enhancement-whereas-high-spatial-frequencies-drive-the-emotion-induced-recognition-bias
#2
Michaela Rohr, Johannes Tröger, Nils Michely, Alarith Uhde, Dirk Wentura
This article deals with two well-documented phenomena regarding emotional stimuli: emotional memory enhancement-that is, better long-term memory for emotional than for neutral stimuli-and the emotion-induced recognition bias-that is, a more liberal response criterion for emotional than for neutral stimuli. Studies on visual emotion perception and attention suggest that emotion-related processes can be modulated by means of spatial-frequency filtering of the presented emotional stimuli. Specifically, low spatial frequencies are assumed to play a primary role for the influence of emotion on attention and judgment...
February 17, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211025/participants-shift-response-deadlines-based-on-list-difficulty-during-reading-aloud-megastudies
#3
Michael J Cortese, Maya M Khanna, Robert Kopp, Jonathan B Santo, Kailey S Preston, Tyler Van Zuiden
We tested the list homogeneity effect in reading aloud (e.g., Lupker, Brown, & Colombo, 1997) using a megastudy paradigm. In each of two conditions, we used 25 blocks of 100 trials. In the random condition, words were selected randomly for each block, whereas in the experimental condition, words were blocked by difficulty (e.g., easy words together, etc.), but the order of the blocks was randomized. We predicted that standard factors (e.g., frequency) would be more predictive of reaction times (RTs) in the blocked than in the random condition, because the range of RTs across the experiment would increase in the blocked condition...
February 16, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194703/the-role-of-overt-language-production-in-the-hebb-repetition-effect
#4
Marie-Claude Guerrette, Katherine Guérard, Jean Saint-Aubin
The Hebb repetition effect (Hebb, 1961) occurs when recall performance improves for a list that is repeated during a serial-recall task. This effect is considered a good experimental analogue to language learning. Our objective was to evaluate the role of overt language production in language learning by manipulating recall direction during a Hebb repetition paradigm. In each trial, seven nonsense syllables were presented auditorily. Participants had to orally recall the items either in the presentation order or in reverse order...
February 13, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188581/use-of-the-recognition-heuristic-depends-on-the-domain-s-recognition-validity-not-on-the-recognition-validity-of-selected-sets-of-objects
#5
Rüdiger F Pohl, Martha Michalkiewicz, Edgar Erdfelder, Benjamin E Hilbig
According to the recognition-heuristic theory, decision makers solve paired comparisons in which one object is recognized and the other not by recognition alone, inferring that recognized objects have higher criterion values than unrecognized ones. However, success-and thus usefulness-of this heuristic depends on the validity of recognition as a cue, and adaptive decision making, in turn, requires that decision makers are sensitive to it. To this end, decision makers could base their evaluation of the recognition validity either on the selected set of objects (the set's recognition validity), or on the underlying domain from which the objects were drawn (the domain's recognition validity)...
February 10, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168651/the-effects-of-context-in-item-based-directed-forgetting-evidence-for-one-shot-context-storage
#6
Nicole Burgess, William E Hockley, Kathleen L Hourihan
The effects of context on item-based directed forgetting were assessed. Study words were presented against different background pictures and were followed by a cue to remember (R) or forget (F) the target item. The effects of incidental and intentional encoding of context on recognition of the study words were examined in Experiments 1 and 2. Recognition memory for the picture contexts was assessed in Experiments 3a and 3b. Recognition was greater for R-cued compared to F-cued targets, demonstrating an effect of directed forgetting...
February 6, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138942/misremembering-emotion-inductive-category-effects-for-complex-emotional-stimuli
#7
Jonathan C Corbin, L Elizabeth Crawford, Dylan T Vavra
Memories of objects are biased toward what is typical of the category to which they belong. Prior research on memory for emotional facial expressions has demonstrated a bias towards an emotional expression prototype (e.g., slightly happy faces are remembered as happier). We investigate an alternate source of bias in memory for emotional expressions - the central tendency bias. The central tendency bias skews reconstruction of a memory trace towards the center of the distribution for a particular attribute. This bias has been attributed to a Bayesian combination of an imprecise memory for a particular object with prior information about its category...
January 30, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039662/individual-differences-in-spontaneous-analogical-transfer
#8
James R Kubricht, Hongjing Lu, Keith J Holyoak
Research on analogical problem solving has shown that people often fail to spontaneously notice the relevance of a semantically remote source analog when solving a target problem, although they are able to form mappings and derive inferences when given a hint to recall the source. Relatively little work has investigated possible individual differences that predict spontaneous transfer, or how such differences may interact with interventions that facilitate transfer. In this study, fluid intelligence was measured for participants in an analogical problem-solving task, using an abridged version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test...
December 30, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028782/interrupted-the-roles-of-distributed-effort-and-incubation-in-preventing-fixation-and-generating-problem-solutions
#9
Ut Na Sio, Kenneth Kotovsky, Jonathan Cagan
Fixation on inappropriate concepts is a key barrier to problem solving. Previous research has shown that continuous work is likely to cause repeated retrieval of those concepts, resulting in increased fixation. Accordingly, distributing effort across problems through multiple, brief, and interlaced sessions (distributed effort) should prevent such fixation and in turn enhance problem solving. This study examined whether distributed effort can provide an advantage for problem solving, particularly for problems that can induce fixation (Experiment 1), and whether and how incubation can be combined with distributed effort to further enhance performance (Experiment 2)...
December 27, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028781/a-meta-analysis-of-response-time-tests-of-the-sequential-two-systems-model-of-moral-judgment
#10
Jonathan Baron, Burcu Gürçay
The (generalized) sequential two-system ("default interventionist") model of utilitarian moral judgment predicts that utilitarian responses often arise from a system-two correction of system-one deontological intuitions. Response-time (RT) results that seem to support this model are usually explained by the fact that low-probability responses have longer RTs. Following earlier results, we predicted response probability from each subject's tendency to make utilitarian responses (A, "Ability") and each dilemma's tendency to elicit deontological responses (D, "Difficulty"), estimated from a Rasch model...
December 27, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028780/task-difficulty-moderates-the-revelation-effect
#11
André Aßfalg, Devon Currie, Daniel M Bernstein
Tasks that precede a recognition probe induce a more liberal response criterion than do probes without tasks-the "revelation effect." For example, participants are more likely to claim that a stimulus is familiar directly after solving an anagram, relative to a condition without an anagram. Revelation effect hypotheses disagree whether hard preceding tasks should produce a larger revelation effect than easy preceding tasks. Although some studies have shown that hard tasks increase the revelation effect as compared to easy tasks, these studies suffered from a confound of task difficulty and task presence...
December 27, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028779/when-fast-logic-meets-slow-belief-evidence-for-a-parallel-processing-model-of-belief-bias
#12
Dries Trippas, Valerie A Thompson, Simon J Handley
Two experiments pitted the default-interventionist account of belief bias against a parallel-processing model. According to the former, belief bias occurs because a fast, belief-based evaluation of the conclusion pre-empts a working-memory demanding logical analysis. In contrast, according to the latter both belief-based and logic-based responding occur in parallel. Participants were given deductive reasoning problems of variable complexity and instructed to decide whether the conclusion was valid on half the trials or to decide whether the conclusion was believable on the other half...
December 27, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000115/tied-to-expectations-predicting-features-speeds-processing-even-under-adverse-circumstances
#13
Sabine Schwager, Robert Gaschler, Dennis Rünger, Peter A Frensch
When participants predict the upcoming stimulus in a randomized choice reaction task, a match between prediction and stimulus increases processing speed at a level similar to that observed in cueing studies with highly valid cues. This might be taken to suggest that people cannot help but fully use their self-generated, verbalized predictions for preparing task processing. Thus, we tested how flexibly participants can control formation and implementation of predictions. In Experiment 1, we varied validity and response-relevance of predictions...
December 20, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987115/the-concreteness-effect-on-judgments-of-learning-evaluating-the-contributions-of-fluency-and-beliefs
#14
Amber E Witherby, Sarah K Tauber
Researchers have often determined how cues influence judgments of learning (JOLs; e.g., concrete words are assigned higher JOLs than are abstract words), and recently there has been an emphasis in understanding why cues influence JOLs (i.e., the mechanisms that underlie cue effects on JOLs). The analytic-processing (AP) theory posits that JOLs are constructed in accordance with participants' beliefs of how a cue will influence memory. Even so, some evidence suggests that fluency is also important to cue effects on JOLs...
December 16, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987114/when-children-forget-to-remember-effects-of-reduced-working-memory-availability-on-prospective-memory-performance
#15
Lavinia Cheie, Colin MacLeod, Mircea Miclea, Laura Visu-Petra
The preparatory attentional and memory processes theory (PAM) of prospective memory (PM) proposes that prospective remembering is influenced by the variation in the availability of WM resources. Consequently, PM should be impaired when WM resources are reduced either by direct WM manipulation or by individual differences associated with restricted WM performance. Our study tested this prediction in school-age children by examining the independent and interactive effects of three factors known to deplete availability of WM resources: increased processing demands of a concurrent arithmetic task, additional WM span requirements, and high trait anxiety...
December 16, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981506/the-effects-of-enactment-and-intention-accessibility-on-prospective-memory-performance
#16
Janette C Schult, Melanie C Steffens
The intention-superiority effect denotes faster response latencies to stimuli linked with a prospective memory task compared to stimuli linked with no prospective task or with a cancelled task. It is generally assumed that the increased accessibility of intention-related materials contributes to successful execution of prospective memory tasks at an appropriate opportunity. In two experiments we investigated the relationship between the intention-superiority effect and actual prospective memory performance under relatively realistic conditions...
December 15, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933560/familiarity-increases-the-number-of-remembered-pok%C3%A3-mon-in-visual-short-term-memory
#17
Weizhen Xie, Weiwei Zhang
Long-term memory (LTM) can influence many aspects of short-term memory (STM), including increased STM span. However, it is unclear whether LTM enhances the quantitative or qualitative aspect of STM. That is, do we retain a larger number of representations or more precise representations in STM for familiar stimuli than unfamiliar stimuli? This study took advantage of participants' prior rich multimedia experience with Pokémon, without investing on laboratory training to examine how prior LTM influenced visual STM...
December 8, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913967/the-texture-of-causal-construals-domain-specific-biases-shape-causal-inferences-from-discourse
#18
Brent Strickland, Ike Silver, Frank C Keil
We conducted five sets of experiments asking whether psychological and physical events are construed in broadly different manners concerning the underlying textures of their causes. In Experiments 1a-1d, we found a robust tendency to estimate fewer causes (but not effects) for psychological than for physical events; Experiment 2 showed a similar pattern of results when participants were asked to generate hypothetical causes and effects; Experiment 3 revealed a greater tendency to ascribe linear chains of causes (but not effects) to physical events; Experiment 4 showed that the expectation of linear chains was related to intuitions about deterministic processes; and Experiment 5 showed that simply framing a given ambiguous event in psychological versus physical terms is sufficient to induce changes in the patterns of causal inferences...
December 2, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913966/validating-presupposed-versus-focused-text-information
#19
Murray Singer, Kevin G Solar, Jackie Spear
There is extensive evidence that readers continually validate discourse accuracy and congruence, but that they may also overlook conspicuous text contradictions. Validation may be thwarted when the inaccurate ideas are embedded sentence presuppositions. In four experiments, we examined readers' validation of presupposed ("given") versus new text information. Throughout, a critical concept, such as a truck versus a bus, was introduced early in a narrative. Later, a character stated or thought something about the truck, which therefore matched or mismatched its antecedent...
December 2, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909981/the-effect-of-working-memory-load-on-the-snarc-effect-maybe-tasks-have-a-word-to-say
#20
Zhijun Deng, Yinghe Chen, Xiaoshuang Zhu, Yanjun Li
We investigated the effect of working memory load on the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect under different number judgment tasks (parity judgment and magnitude comparison), using a novel dual task. Instead of exerting load over the whole block of number judgment trials, in this dual task, number judgment trials were inserted into each interstimulus interval of an n-back task, which served as the working memory load. We varied both load type (verbal and spatial) and amount (1-load, 2-load, and 3-load)...
December 1, 2016: Memory & Cognition
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