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Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Kelly M Correia, Delbert L Smee
Insecticide effects on nontarget organisms most commonly involve measuring mortality after single exposures. We examined sublethal effects of consecutive exposures of malathion, an organophosphate insecticide used for mosquito abatement, on the behavior of blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus). We measured righting time (i.e., time to return upright when placed upside down), eyestalk reflexes, foraging ability, and response to predation risk in three malathion treatments of 50 µg/L that varied in duration: (1) static exposure for 96 h followed by a second exposure for 96 h, (2) static exposure for 96 h followed by transfer to pesticide-free water for 96 h, (3) control without malathion for 192 h...
May 19, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Edgar Hiller, Lenka Filová, Ľubomír Jurkovič, Lucia Lachká, Tatsiana Kulikova, Mária Šimurková
In this study, playground soils of kindergartens and green recreational zones in Bratislava were investigated for the occurrence and gastric bioaccessibility of arsenic (As) in the < 150 μm soil size fraction. Eighty topsoil (0-10 cm) samples were collected from playgrounds in kindergartens and green recreational zones throughout the urban area. Bioaccessibility measurements of As were performed using the Simple Bioaccessibility Extraction Test that mimics the human gastric environment, and resulting extracts were analyzed by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry to assess bioaccessible As concentrations in the collected playground soils...
May 16, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Raphael A Lavoie, Linda M Campbell
Mercury (Hg) biomagnifies in aquatic food chains and can reach high concentrations in fish-eating birds. Spatial patterns of Hg have been found in freshwater ecosystems across Canada for many taxa, including fish and birds. However, it often is challenging to sample a representative population size of adult birds to monitor concentrations of contaminants over a large spatial scale. Moreover, adult birds can migrate and can show a contaminant profile that may not be representative of local resources. The goals of this study were (1) to determine if there was a spatial pattern of Hg concentrations in piscivorous birds, (2) to develop a model to estimate Hg concentrations in breeding adults using chicks as proxy, and (3) to develop predictive equations among non-lethal tissues that are representative of local resources in adults (blood and growing feathers)...
May 10, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
John W Finger, Matthew T Hamilton, Meghan D Kelley, Yufeng Zhang, Andreas N Kavazis, Travis C Glenn, Tracey D Tuberville
Selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient which in excess causes toxicity. The disposal of incompletely combusted coal, which often is rich in Se, into aquatic settling basins is increasing the risk of Se exposure worldwide. However, very few studies have looked at the physiological effects of Se exposure on long-lived, top trophic vertebrates, such as the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). During a 7-week period, alligators were fed one of three dietary treatments: mice injected with deionized water or mice injected with water containing 1000 or 2000 ppm selenomethionine (SeMet)...
May 8, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
L D Einoder, C K MacLeod, C Coughanowr
The Derwent estuary, in south east Tasmania, is highly contaminated with heavy metals, mainly due to past industrial pollution. This study sought to determine the extent of contamination, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification in the resident bird community and therefore to infer the potential for adverse effects in birds. Thirteen metals were measured from breast feathers (n = 51 individuals) of eight sympatric species of aquatic bird. Stable carbon (δ13 C) and nitrogen (δ15 N) isotopes were used to identify dietary sources of contaminants, trophic level, and potential biomagnification through food chains...
May 5, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Cong Huang, Liu-Hong Wu, Guo-Qiang Liu, Lei Shi, Ying Guo
Chemicals in the water of urban areas are representative of the occurrence of these chemicals in the city surrounding water systems and reflect recent human or industrial usage of those chemicals in the sampling areas. In this study, the levels of eight endocrine-disrupting chemicals [including bisphenol analogues, parabens, and triclosan (TCS)] were determined in urban river water and sediments in Guangzhou, South China, and their related ecological risks were evaluated. The eight target chemicals were frequently detected in our samples, with concentrations ranging from not detected (ND) to 65,600 ng/L and from ND to 492 ng/g dw in river water and sediments, respectively...
May 3, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Rocío Álvarez-Varas, David Morales-Moraga, Daniel González-Acuña, Sebastián A Klarian, Juliana A Vianna
Penguins are reliable sentinels for environmental assessments of mercury (Hg) due to their longevity, abundance, high trophic level, and relatively small foraging areas. We analyzed Hg concentrations from blood and feathers of adult Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) and feathers of chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarcticus) from different reproductive colonies with variable degrees of urbanization and industrialization along the Chilean and Antarctic coasts. We evaluated Hg concentration differences between species, sexes (Humboldt penguins), and localities...
May 3, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Ningombam Linthoingambi Devi, Ishwar Chandra Yadav, Paromita Chakraborty, Qi Shihua
Although India never manufactured polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), evidence suggests the prevalence of PCBs in multi-environmental matrices. Despite the high level of PCBs that has been detailed in the major urban areas of India, little is known about the fate and sources of PCBs in Northeast India (NEI). This motivated us to investigate the contamination level and sources of PCBs in the surface soil. In this study, the environmental concentration and sources of 25 PCBs were investigated in surface soil (n = 60) from three states of NEI (lower Assam, Manipur, and Tripura)...
April 30, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Fatimh Alshahri, A El-Taher
The present study deals with the measurement of heavy and trace metals in the soils of Ras Tanura city nearby one of the oldest and largest oil refineries located on Arabian Gulf, eastern Saudi Arabia. Metals were analyzed in 34 surface soil samples using plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICPE-9820). The result showed that the mean values of the metals concentrations were in the order: Cd > Mo > Tb > Ce > Hf > Eu > Yb > U > Sm > Rb > Cr > Ni > Pb > Sc > Cs > Zn > Lu > Co...
April 30, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Yiwen Li, Ruoying Liao, Zhiwei Gan, Bing Qu, Rong Wang, Mengqin Chen, Sanglan Ding, Shijun Su
A total of 97 paired soil, outdoor dust, and indoor dust samples were collected in the national scale of China in summer, and the perchlorate levels were compared with those in soil and outdoor dust samples collected in winter in our previous study. The median perchlorate concentrations in the outdoor dust, indoor dust, and soil samples were 8.10, 11.4, and 0.05 mg/kg, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in the winter samples due to the natural factors and human activities. No significant differences in perchlorate concentrations were found between Northern and Southern China in the dust samples, whereas the difference was obtained in the soil samples...
April 25, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Darren G Rumbold, Christopher T Lienhardt, Michael L Parsons
Total mercury (Hg) and stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon were determined in the muscle tissue of 50 species of fishes and invertebrates collected at two sites along the Florida reef tract from April 2012 to December 2013. The objective was to test the hypothesis that high biodiversity in coral reefs leading to complex food webs with increased lateral links reduces biomagnification. However, Hg levels ranged as high 6.84 mg/kg. Interestingly, it was not highest in great barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda), considered the top predatory fish, but instead in small porkfish (Anisotremus virginicus), possibly due to their role as a cleaner fish...
April 19, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Xiaohua Ma, Xiuxiu Han, Quanliang Jiang, Changchun Huang, Tao Huang, Hao Yang, Ling Yao
Two sediment cores were collected from Dianchi Lake, a plateau lake in Southwest China, to study the temporal trends and to investigate the sources of sedimentary deposited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. The ΣPAH16 concentration in the two sediment cores ranged from 172.5 to 2244.8 ng/g and from 211.4 to 1777.8 ng/g, with mean values of 1106.2 and 865.1 ng/g, respectively. Three temporal trends for the ΣPAH16 concentration and the composition of PAHs in Dianchi Lake all showed three typical changing stages: (1) slight changes in deeper segments before the 1950s; (2) a rapid increase in PAH concentrations between the 1960s and 1990s; and (3) a slight reduction from the 1990s onward...
April 12, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Dolores Encinas, Zuriñe Gómez-de-Balugera
Fullerenes are emerging pollutants, and it is essential to determine and quantify these compounds to assess environmental risk and environmental flows. The goal of this work was to determine the fullerene C60 emission levels in the atmospheric aerosol and their relationship with combustion processes. To measure the concentration, a fullerene C60 extraction method with toluene was optimized in air samples using ultrasound, followed by analysis using high-pressure, liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry...
April 12, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Christopher D Kassotis, Danh C Vu, Phuc H Vo, Chung-Ho Lin, Jennifer N Cornelius-Green, Sharyle Patton, Susan C Nagel
Unconventional oil and natural gas (UOG) operations couple horizontal drilling with hydraulic fracturing to access previously inaccessible fossil fuel deposits. Hydraulic fracturing, a common form of stimulation, involves the high-pressure injection of water, chemicals, and sand to fracture the target layer and release trapped natural gas and/or oil. Spills and/or discharges of wastewater have been shown to impact surface, ground, and drinking water. The goals of this study were to characterize the endocrine activities and measure select organic contaminants in groundwater from conventional oil and gas (COG) and UOG production regions of Wyoming...
April 5, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Lijun Wang, Panqing Zhang, Li Wang, Wenjuan Zhang, Xingmin Shi, Xinwei Lu, Xiaoping Li, Xiaoyun Li
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment. This study collected a total of 62 urban soil samples from the typical semi-arid city of Xi'an in Northwest. They were analyzed for the composition, distribution, and sources of PAHs as well as the relationships with soil properties. The sum of 16 individual PAHs (∑16PAHs) ranged from 390.6 to 10,652.8 μg/kg with a mean of 2052.6 μg/kg. The average ∑16PAHs decreased in the order of the third ring road (2321.1 μg/kg) > the first ring road (1893...
March 27, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Erik Schmude, Hannah M H Ertl, Robert J Taylor, Miguel A Mora
Northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) have been declining across the range of the species primarily due to habitat loss and habitat fragmentation. There is increasing concern regarding effects related to elevated environmental contaminants, including pesticides and metals. Elevated concentrations of some metals are known to have adverse effects on reproduction, development, and survival in birds; however, little research has been conducted on metal exposure in wild bobwhites. We analyzed metal concentrations in the feathers of 60 bobwhites from 3 ecoregions in Texas and evaluated differences between age-class, gender, and location with the objective of determining if bobwhites in Texas are at increased risk of exposure to elevated metal concentrations...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Jennifer J Trowell, Frank A P C Gobas, Margo M Moore, Christopher J Kennedy
Determining the biotransformation potential of commercial chemicals is critical for estimating their persistence in the aquatic environment. In vitro systems are becoming increasingly important as screening methods for assessing the potential for chemical metabolism. Depletion rate constants (kd ) for several organic chemicals with high octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow ) values (9-methylanthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, and PCB-153) in rainbow trout hepatocytes were determined to estimate biotransformation rate constants (kMET ) that were used in fish bioconcentration factor (BCF) models...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Khushi Mukherjee, Krishnendu Acharya
Metal oxide nanoparticles (MO-NPs) with multifunctional properties are used extensively in various industries and released into the environment as industrial effluents and waste nano-products. These non-degradable, toxic MO-NPs are accumulating in the environment, debilitating the ecosystem and their biological communities. In this review article, a real-time scenario of MO-NP toxicity towards the soil and aquatic ecosystem and their mode of toxicity have been addressed in detail. The up-to-date information presented here suggests serious consideration of the consequences before random utilization of MO-NPs...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Gregory Douglas, Jeffery Hardenstine, Shahrokh Rouhani, Deyuan Kong, Ray Arnold, Will Gala
Site investigations require the collection and analysis of representative environmental samples to delineate impacts, risks, and remediation options. When environmental samples are collected, concentrations of semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) begin to change due to several processes, such as evaporation, adsorption, precipitation, photo, and microbial degradation. Preservation techniques are used to minimize these changes between collection and analysis. The most common techniques are refrigeration, freezing, and acidification...
March 13, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Michael Raessler
Arsenic is a widespread contaminant of drinking and groundwaters in the world. Even if these contaminations have a geogenic origin, they often are exacerbated by anthropogenic activities. This is particularly true for the Bengal delta. Millions of people in Bangladesh are consuming drinking water with arsenic concentrations ≥ 50 µg/L. Their drinking water supply is based on groundwaters extracted by pumping wells, which were part of a well-drilling program by the United Nations. The intention was to provide the people with groundwater instead of surface water due to its critical hygienic conditions...
March 8, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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