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Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Ahbeauriet Ahmed Ouattara, Koffi Marcellin Yao, Maley Pacome Soro, Thomas Diaco, Albert Trokourey
Despite increasing mining activities, and fertilizer and pesticide use in agriculture, little information is available on the status of metal(loid) contamination in rivers in West Africa. Sixty water samples were collected from three significant rivers (the Bandama, Comoé, and Bia Rivers) in Côte d'Ivoire, the world's top cocoa producer, to examine As, Pb, Cu, Fe, Cd, and Zn concentrations, partitioning, and distribution in suspended particle-size fractions. The results showed higher total metal(loid) concentrations during the dry and flood seasons than during the rainy season...
July 14, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Zeynep Banu Doğanlar, Oğuzhan Doğanlar, Hilmi Tozkir, Fulya Dilek Gökalp, Ayten Doğan, Ferah Yamaç, Orhan Onur Aşkın, Ümmühan Ersin Aktaş
Although many studies related the toxic effects of pesticides on agricultural workers, little research has been done about agricultural area residents. The purpose of this work was to monitor the presence of pesticides, as well as their genotoxic and cytotoxic potential, in humans with blood samples collected from control and intensive agricultural areas in the Thrace region. Pesticide accumulations were determined by LC-MS/MS. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were analyzed by comet assay, and the effect of pesticide accumulation on oxidative stress, DNA repair, and molecular chaperone response were analyzed by qRT-PCR assays in the human blood samples...
July 12, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Nobuyuki Ishii, Hitoshi Mochizuki, Yuka Ebihara, Kazutaka Shiomi, Masamitsu Nakazato
Chronic arsenic intoxication is known to cause multisystem impairment and is still a major threat to public health in many countries. In Toroku, a small village in Japan, arsenic mines operated from 1920 to 1962, and residents suffered serious sequelae of arsenic intoxication. We have performed annual medical examinations of these residents since 1974, allowing us to characterize participants' long-term health following their last exposure to arsenic. The participants could not be described as having "chronic arsenic intoxication," because their blood arsenic levels were not measured...
July 4, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Alexandra N Steele, Rachelle M Belanger, Paul A Moore
Chemical pollutants enter aquatic systems through numerous pathways (e.g., surface runoff and ground water contamination), thus associating these contaminant sources with varying hydrodynamic environments. The hydrodynamic environment shapes the temporal and spatial distribution of chemical contaminants through turbulent mixing. The differential dispersal of contaminants is not commonly addressed in ecotoxicological studies and may have varying implications for organism health. The purpose of this study is to understand how differing routes of exposure to atrazine alter social behaviors and physiological responses of aquatic organisms...
June 19, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Andrzej Kowalski, Janusz Markowski
From the liver tissues of brown hare individuals that lived in two various habitats, i.e., the agricultural region with the predominant farms and the industrial area near a metallurgical plant, histones H1 were analyzed to compare their within and between population variability. Furthermore, because agricultural production emits mainly organic pollutants and metallurgical industry is a primarily source of inorganic contaminations, we wanted to check how the brown hare individuals are sensitive for both agents...
June 5, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Hiroki Teraoka, Hasumi Miyagi, Yuko Haraguchi, Kozo Takase, Takio Kitazawa, Jun Noda
The hooded crane is designated as an endangered species. The cranes breed primarily in wetlands in southeast Russia and China in summer. Most of the hooded crane population winters in the Izumi plain in Japan. It is difficult to know the contamination status of their habitat because of their vast breeding area. We determined the levels of Cd, Pb, As, (total) Hg, Se, Zn, and Cu in the liver, kidney, and muscle of hooded cranes that were found dead in Izumi in the periods 2003-2006 and 2014-2015 compared with the levels in red-crowned cranes in Hokkaido, Japan, as the only cranes in which these elements had been studied extensively...
May 31, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Sarva Mangala Praveena
This study was designed to determine the particle size distribution and develop road dust index combining source and transport factors involving road dust for dust pollution quantification in Rawang. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify possible sources of potentially toxic elements and spot major pollution areas in Rawang. The health risks (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) to adults and children were assessed using the hazard index and total lifetime cancer Risk, respectively. A total of 75 road dust samples were collected and particle sizes (1000, 500, 250, 160, 125 and 63 µm) were determined...
May 25, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Edgar Hiller, Lenka Filová, Ľubomír Jurkovič, Lucia Lachká, Tatsiana Kulikova, Mária Šimurková
In this study, playground soils of kindergartens and green recreational zones in Bratislava were investigated for the occurrence and gastric bioaccessibility of arsenic (As) in the < 150 μm soil size fraction. Eighty topsoil (0-10 cm) samples were collected from playgrounds in kindergartens and green recreational zones throughout the urban area. Bioaccessibility measurements of As were performed using the Simple Bioaccessibility Extraction Test that mimics the human gastric environment, and resulting extracts were analyzed by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry to assess bioaccessible As concentrations in the collected playground soils...
May 16, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Cong Huang, Liu-Hong Wu, Guo-Qiang Liu, Lei Shi, Ying Guo
Chemicals in the water of urban areas are representative of the occurrence of these chemicals in the city surrounding water systems and reflect recent human or industrial usage of those chemicals in the sampling areas. In this study, the levels of eight endocrine-disrupting chemicals [including bisphenol analogues, parabens, and triclosan (TCS)] were determined in urban river water and sediments in Guangzhou, South China, and their related ecological risks were evaluated. The eight target chemicals were frequently detected in our samples, with concentrations ranging from not detected (ND) to 65,600 ng/L and from ND to 492 ng/g dw in river water and sediments, respectively...
May 3, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Ningombam Linthoingambi Devi, Ishwar Chandra Yadav, Paromita Chakraborty, Qi Shihua
Although India never manufactured polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), evidence suggests the prevalence of PCBs in multi-environmental matrices. Despite the high level of PCBs that has been detailed in the major urban areas of India, little is known about the fate and sources of PCBs in Northeast India (NEI). This motivated us to investigate the contamination level and sources of PCBs in the surface soil. In this study, the environmental concentration and sources of 25 PCBs were investigated in surface soil (n = 60) from three states of NEI (lower Assam, Manipur, and Tripura)...
April 30, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Fatimh Alshahri, A El-Taher
The present study deals with the measurement of heavy and trace metals in the soils of Ras Tanura city nearby one of the oldest and largest oil refineries located on Arabian Gulf, eastern Saudi Arabia. Metals were analyzed in 34 surface soil samples using plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICPE-9820). The result showed that the mean values of the metals concentrations were in the order: Cd > Mo > Tb > Ce > Hf > Eu > Yb > U > Sm > Rb > Cr > Ni > Pb > Sc > Cs > Zn > Lu > Co...
April 30, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Yiwen Li, Ruoying Liao, Zhiwei Gan, Bing Qu, Rong Wang, Mengqin Chen, Sanglan Ding, Shijun Su
A total of 97 paired soil, outdoor dust, and indoor dust samples were collected in the national scale of China in summer, and the perchlorate levels were compared with those in soil and outdoor dust samples collected in winter in our previous study. The median perchlorate concentrations in the outdoor dust, indoor dust, and soil samples were 8.10, 11.4, and 0.05 mg/kg, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in the winter samples due to the natural factors and human activities. No significant differences in perchlorate concentrations were found between Northern and Southern China in the dust samples, whereas the difference was obtained in the soil samples...
April 25, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Sandro Froehner, Juliane Rizzi, Luciane Maria Vieira, Juan Sanez
The study reports concentration of 16 PAHs in sediment, water, plankton and in muscle and liver of sampled fishes from Paranagua Bay in Southern Brazil. According to the range of PAHs concentration found in sediments (ΣPAHs 15.33-133.61 µg g-1 ) and water (ΣPAHs 51.20-162.37 µg L-1 ), the area was characterized as slightly polluted. In contrast, significant concentration of PAHs was found in fish and plankton, ranging from 26.52 to 2055.00 µg g-1 and 175.41 to 2096.10 µg g-1 , respectively. The concentrations were 15 times more than in sediments...
August 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Leticia M Mesa, J Hörler, I Lindt, M F Gutiérrez, L Negro, G Mayora, L Montalto, M Ballent, A Lifschitz
Two anthelmintic macrocyclic lactones-ivermectin and moxidectin-have revolutionized parasite control in cattle. These drugs are only partly metabolized by livestock, and the main route of excretion is via feces. In seasonally inundated floodplains, cattle feces come into direct contact with surface water. Important differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics between these drugs may bear on their ecotoxicology in aquatic ecosystems. Moxidectin strongly binds to organic matter and thereby may be consumed in aquatic food webs, but there is a scarcity of data on toxicity to freshwater invertebrates...
August 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Yuan Wang, Tianyi Wang, Yanli Ban, Chenchen Shen, Qi Shen, Xiaojie Chai, Wen Zhao, Jie Wei
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer used in the polyvinyl chloride industry worldwide. DEHP exists in the aquatic environments for decades. However, the toxicological effects of DEHP to aquatic organisms have not been adequately researched. We investigated acute toxicity, oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme activities, and gene expression patterns of antioxidant enzymes in juvenile and adult Daphnia magna exposed to DEHP. We found that the median lethal concentrations (LC50 ) of DEHP for juveniles exposed for 24 and 48 h were 0...
July 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Kelly M Correia, Delbert L Smee
Insecticide effects on nontarget organisms most commonly involve measuring mortality after single exposures. We examined sublethal effects of consecutive exposures of malathion, an organophosphate insecticide used for mosquito abatement, on the behavior of blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus). We measured righting time (i.e., time to return upright when placed upside down), eyestalk reflexes, foraging ability, and response to predation risk in three malathion treatments of 50 µg/L that varied in duration: (1) static exposure for 96 h followed by a second exposure for 96 h, (2) static exposure for 96 h followed by transfer to pesticide-free water for 96 h, (3) control without malathion for 192 h...
July 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Raphael A Lavoie, Linda M Campbell
Mercury (Hg) biomagnifies in aquatic food chains and can reach high concentrations in fish-eating birds. Spatial patterns of Hg have been found in freshwater ecosystems across Canada for many taxa, including fish and birds. However, it often is challenging to sample a representative population size of adult birds to monitor concentrations of contaminants over a large spatial scale. Moreover, adult birds can migrate and can show a contaminant profile that may not be representative of local resources. The goals of this study were (1) to determine if there was a spatial pattern of Hg concentrations in piscivorous birds, (2) to develop a model to estimate Hg concentrations in breeding adults using chicks as proxy, and (3) to develop predictive equations among non-lethal tissues that are representative of local resources in adults (blood and growing feathers)...
July 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
John W Finger, Matthew T Hamilton, Meghan D Kelley, Yufeng Zhang, Andreas N Kavazis, Travis C Glenn, Tracey D Tuberville
Selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient which in excess causes toxicity. The disposal of incompletely combusted coal, which often is rich in Se, into aquatic settling basins is increasing the risk of Se exposure worldwide. However, very few studies have looked at the physiological effects of Se exposure on long-lived, top trophic vertebrates, such as the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). During a 7-week period, alligators were fed one of three dietary treatments: mice injected with deionized water or mice injected with water containing 1000 or 2000 ppm selenomethionine (SeMet)...
July 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
L D Einoder, C K MacLeod, C Coughanowr
The Derwent estuary, in south east Tasmania, is highly contaminated with heavy metals, mainly due to past industrial pollution. This study sought to determine the extent of contamination, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification in the resident bird community and therefore to infer the potential for adverse effects in birds. Thirteen metals were measured from breast feathers (n = 51 individuals) of eight sympatric species of aquatic bird. Stable carbon (δ13 C) and nitrogen (δ15 N) isotopes were used to identify dietary sources of contaminants, trophic level, and potential biomagnification through food chains...
July 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Rocío Álvarez-Varas, David Morales-Moraga, Daniel González-Acuña, Sebastián A Klarian, Juliana A Vianna
Penguins are reliable sentinels for environmental assessments of mercury (Hg) due to their longevity, abundance, high trophic level, and relatively small foraging areas. We analyzed Hg concentrations from blood and feathers of adult Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) and feathers of chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarcticus) from different reproductive colonies with variable degrees of urbanization and industrialization along the Chilean and Antarctic coasts. We evaluated Hg concentration differences between species, sexes (Humboldt penguins), and localities...
July 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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