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Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424837/arsenic-cadmium-chromium-lead-mercury-and-selenium-concentrations-in-pine-snakes-pituophis-melanoleucus-from-the-new-jersey-pine-barrens
#1
Joanna Burger, Michael Gochfeld, Christian Jeitner, Robert Zappalorti, Taryn Pittfield, Emile DeVito
Top trophic level predators are at risk from bioaccumulation of heavy metals from their prey. Using nondestructively collected tissues as a method of assessing metal concentrations in snakes is useful for populations that are threatened or declining. This paper reports concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in tissues of Northern pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) from the New Jersey Pine Barrens, a relatively pristine, undisturbed habitat. We also determined if skin is an appropriate indicator of internal concentrations and identified the factors (tissue, year of collection, length, sex) that might explain variations in metal concentrations...
April 19, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391487/ecotoxicological-evaluation-of-the-uv-filters-ethylhexyl-dimethyl-p-aminobenzoic-acid-and-octocrylene-using-marine-organisms-isochrysis-galbana-mytilus-galloprovincialis-and-paracentrotus-lividus
#2
A Giraldo, R Montes, R Rodil, J B Quintana, L Vidal-Liñán, R Beiras
The growing concern regarding the negative effects of solar radiation on the skin has led to a drastic increase in the use of sunscreens containing in its composition up to 10% of aromatic chemicals, such as ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoic acid (OD-PABA) and octocrylene (OC). The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity and to assess the environmental risk posed by these two ultraviolet filters, widely used in cosmetics and as plastic additives, in the marine environment. Several ecotoxicological bioassays were performed with three model organisms belonging to different trophic levels: the microalgae Isochrysis galbana, the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, and the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus...
April 8, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365790/methodological-and-environmental-impacts-on-bioaccessibility-estimates-provided-by-single-point-tenax-extractions
#3
Samuel A Nutile, Amanda D Harwood, Federico L Sinche, Kara E Huff Hartz, Peter F Landrum, Michael J Lydy
Single-point Tenax extractions (SPTEs) of hydrophobic organic contaminants provide estimates of bioaccessibility through consistent measures of the chemical concentration initially in the rapidly desorbing fraction in sediment (C rapT0), such that a constant ratio is expected between SPTE and C rapT0 (C T /C rapT0, where T is the duration of the SPTE). As environmental factors (i.e., aging time and organic carbon content) and contaminant hydrophobicity can affect the C rapT0, the utility of the SPTEs as exposure estimates hinges on the consistency of the C T /C rapT0 ratio...
April 1, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361187/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-exposed-lawn-soils-from-28-urban-parks-in-the-megacity-guangzhou-occurrence-sources-and-human-health-implications
#4
Chang-Liang Ke, Yang-Guang Gu, Qi Liu
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban soils may pose a serious threat to human health via oral ingestion, dermal absorption, and particulate inhalation, especially in public parks and playgrounds, with children and senior citizens showing the highest susceptibility. Several studies have been undertaken identifying PAHs in urban soils, but no studies to date have assessed PAHs in urban parks, in particular in exposed-lawn soils. In recent decades, unprecedented rates of urbanization and industrialization in China have resulted in significant levels of urban environmental pollution...
March 30, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357447/organic-and-inorganic-pollutant-concentrations-suggest-anthropogenic-contamination-of-soils-along-the-manali-leh-highway-northwestern-himalaya-india
#5
Rajarshi Dasgupta, Brooke E Crowley, J Barry Maynard
Most studies on roadside soil pollution have been performed in areas where petrol is the main fuel. Very little work has been conducted in regions where diesel predominates. We collected soil samples from four sites that span a precipitation gradient along the Manali-Leh Highway in northwestern Himalaya, India. This road traverses rough terrain and most of the vehicles that travel along it are diesel-driven. At each site, we collected samples at incremental distances from the highway (0, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 150 m), and at each distance we collected samples from three depths (3, 9, and 15 cm)...
March 29, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343339/bound-pahs-in-sediment-and-related-environmental-significance
#6
Jian-Yang Guo, Jing-An Chen, Jing-Fu Wang, Feng-Chang Wu
Extractable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPAHs) and bound PAHs (BPAHs) were measured in a sediment core using conventional Soxhlet extraction and a more astringent extraction method, with the objectives of determining the influence of BPAHs on the historical reconstruction of PAHs and exploring the formation of BPAHs and long-term behaviors of PAHs in sediment. The results indicated that the formation of BPAHs was clearly sediment-depth and molecular-size dependent. BPAHs represents an important portion of PAHs in sediment and cannot be extracted by conventional Soxhlet extraction...
March 25, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315931/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-mussels-from-a-south-american-estuary
#7
Ana L Oliva, Andrés H Arias, Pamela Y Quintas, Natalia S Buzzi, Jorge E Marcovecchio
Bivalves, especially mussels, have been pointed as putative species to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine environment. After several environmental PAHs baseline reports, the present study was conducted to assess for the first time the levels of PAHs in native mussels (Brachidontes rodriguezii) collected from a critical industrialized estuary of Argentina. Under this objective, after an 18-month sampling period, 34 pools of mussels were assessed for 17 PAHs, including the 16 compounds prioritized by United States Environmental Protection Agency...
March 18, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275840/evaluating-the-effects-of-metals-on-microorganisms-in-flooded-paddy-soils-using-the-sem-avs-based-approach-and-measurements-of-exchangeable-metal-concentrations
#8
Takashi Kunito, Hitomi Toya, Hirotaka Sumi, Yuichi Ishikawa, Hideshige Toda, Kazunari Nagaoka, Kazutoshi Saeki, Yoshio Aikawa, Satoshi Matsumoto
We examined possible adverse effects of heavy metals on microbial activity, biomass, and community composition using the simultaneously extracted metals (SEM)/acid-volatile sulfide (AVS)-based approach and measurements of exchangeable metal concentrations in three paddy soils (wastewater-contaminated soil, mine-contaminated soil, and noncontaminated soil) incubated for 60 days under flooded conditions. Incubation under flooding increased pH and decreased Eh in all samples. AVS increased when Eh decreased to approximately -200 mV for the mine-contaminated and noncontaminated soils, while the wastewater-contaminated soil originally had a high concentration of AVS despite its air-dried condition...
April 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271210/feeding-preference-and-sub-chronic-effects-of-zno-nanomaterials-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-carnica
#9
Gordana Glavan, Tamara Milivojević, Janko Božič, Kristina Sepčić, Damjana Drobne
The extensive production of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials (NMs) may result in high environmental zinc burdens. Honeybees need to have special concern due to their crucial role in pollination. Our previous study indicated that low concentrations of ZnO NMs, corresponding to 0.8 mg Zn/mL, have a neurotoxic potential for honeybees after a 10-day oral exposure. Present study was designed to investigate the effect of a short, dietary exposure of honeybees to ZnO NMs at concentrations 0.8-8 mg Zn/mL on consumption rate, food preference, and two enzymatic biomarkers-a stress-related glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the neurotoxicity biomarker acetylcholinesterase (AChE)...
April 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265713/fate-of-metals-in-relation-to-water-and-sediment-properties-in-a-subtropical-lake-in-central-himalaya-india
#10
Shaikhom Inaotombi, Prem Kumar Gupta
Lakes of Himalaya are one of the most fragile ecosystems on earth. Tourism and urban development in the upland region strongly affect its water resources. The high rate of sedimentation and organic matter deposition alters the ecological state of sediment bed, which indirectly influences on dynamics of metallic elements. We investigated spatial and temporal variations of water and sediment characteristic in Lake Sattal of Central Himalaya, India. Samples were collected seasonally from four sampling locations from January 2011 to December 2012...
April 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260151/the-effects-of-acute-copper-and-ammonia-challenges-on-ammonia-and-urea-excretion-by-the-blue-crab-callinectes-sapidus
#11
Alex M Zimmer, Marianna Basso Jorge, Chris M Wood, Camila M G Martins, Adalto Bianchini
Copper (Cu) is a persistent environmental contaminant that elicits several physiological disturbances in aquatic organisms, including a disruption in ammonia regulation. We hypothesized that exposure to Cu in a model crustacean (blue crab, Callinectes sapidus) acclimated to brackish water (2 ppt) would lead to hyperammonemia by stimulating an increase in ammonia production and/or by inhibiting ammonia excretion. We further hypothesized that urea production would represent an ammonia detoxification strategy in response to Cu...
April 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258485/source-apportionment-of-pm10-bound-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-by-positive-matrix-factorization-in-c%C3%A3-rdoba-city-argentina
#12
Ana C Amarillo, Ana C Mateos, Hebe Carreras
The composition and concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed on particles smaller than 10 microns (PM10) were analyzed in an urban area during a 2-year period from August 2011 to August 2013. Diagnostic ratios (DR) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) were employed to assess emission sources. To discount weather influence, a multiple linear regression model was generated and also a photodecomposition index was calculated for each sample. Despite the fact that mean PM10 levels showed a similar pattern all around the year, majority of PAHs showed higher concentrations during the cold than the warm period, indicating a strong seasonal variation...
April 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255683/modulation-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-nmdar-bcl-2-and-c-fos-gene-expressions-on-exposure-to-individual-and-mixtures-of-low-concentration-metals-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#13
Samuel Jerry Cobbina, Guanghua Mao, Ting Zhao, Hai Xu, Zhen Zhang, Hongyang Liu, Yanmin Zou, Xiangyang Wu, Liuqing Yang
Currently, there is limited information on the toxicity of low concentration of metal mixtures in the environment. Of particular interest is the effect of low levels of metal mixtures on neurodevelopment of aquatic organisms. This study reports the neurological gene expressions after exposing zebrafish embryos to low concentration toxic heavy metals, 120 h post fertilization (hpf). Embryos were exposed to low concentration individual and mixtures of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and cadmium (Cd). Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess gene expressions...
April 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255682/variation-in-day-of-week-and-seasonal-concentrations-of-atmospheric-pm2-5-bound-metals-and-associated-health-risks-in-bangkok-thailand
#14
Siwatt Pongpiachan, Suixin Liu, Rujin Huang, Zhuzi Zhao, Jittree Palakun, Charnwit Kositanont, Junji Cao
While effective analytical techniques to promote the long-term intensive monitoring campaign of particulate heavy metals have been well established, efforts to interpret these toxic chemical contents into policy are lagging behind. In order to ameliorate the interpretation of evidence into policies, environmental scientists and public health practitioners need innovative methods to emphasize messages concerning adverse health effects to state and local policymakers. In this study, three different types of health risk assessment models categorized by exposure pathways...
April 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238046/toxicity-of-chromium-vi-to-two-mussels-and-an-amphipod-in-water-only-exposures-with-or-without-a-co-stressor-of-elevated-temperature-zinc-or-nitrate
#15
Ning Wang, James L Kunz, Christopher D Ivey, Christopher G Ingersoll, M Christopher Barnhart, Elizabeth A Glidewell
The objectives of the present study were to develop methods for propagating western pearlshell (Margaritifera falcata) for laboratory toxicity testing and evaluate acute and chronic toxicity of chromium VI [Cr(VI)] to the pearlshell and a commonly tested mussel (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea at 20 °C or in association with a co-stressor of elevated temperature (27 °C), zinc (50 µg Zn/L), or nitrate (35 mg NO3/L). A commonly tested invertebrate (amphipod, Hyalella azteca) also was tested in chronic exposures...
April 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229194/screening-level-assessment-of-metal-concentrations-in-streambed-sediments-and-floodplain-soils-within-the-grand-lake-watershed-in-northeastern-oklahoma-usa
#16
Ean M Garvin, Cas F Bridge, Meredith S Garvin
Metal releases have been received by the Grand Lake watershed from the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD) since the mid 1800s. To address data gaps in metal distributions in the Oklahoma portion of the watershed, streambed sediment and floodplain soil was sampled on various streams. The <63-µm fraction was analyzed for Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations by portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Mean metal concentration results at reference transects indicated that background sediment/soil concentrations for Cd, Pb, and Zn within the watershed were 0...
April 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190079/source-apportionment-of-volatile-organic-compounds-in-an-urban-environment-at-the-yangtze-river-delta-china
#17
Junlin An, Junxiu Wang, Yuxin Zhang, Bin Zhu
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected continuously during June-August 2013 and December 2013-February 2014 at an urban site in Nanjing in the Yangtze River Delta. The positive matrix factorization receptor model was used to analyse the sources of VOCs in different seasons. Eight and seven sources were identified in summer and winter, respectively. In summer and winter, the dominant sources of VOCs were vehicular emissions, liquefied petroleum gas/natural gas (LPG/NG) usage, solvent usage, biomass/biofuel burning, and industrial production...
April 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150020/dietary-selenomethionine-administration-in-the-american-alligator-alligator-mississippiensis-hepatic-and-renal-se-accumulation-and-its-effects-on-growth-and-body-condition
#18
John W Finger, Matthew T Hamilton, Travis C Glenn, Tracey D Tuberville
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient, but in excess, it can induce toxicity. Incomplete combustion of coal produces coal combustion wastes, which are enriched in Se and often disposed of in aquatic basins. While a multitude of studies have investigated Se accumulation in vertebrates, few studies have examined its effects on longer-lived top trophic carnivores, such as the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). In this study, alligators were fed one of three Dietary Treatments: mice injected with water (controls) or water supplemented with 1000 or 2000 ppm selenomethionine (SeMet)...
April 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144697/molecular-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-p38-mapk-gene-and-protein-in-aquatic-midge-chironomus-riparius-diptera-chironomidae-exposed-to-environmental-contaminants
#19
Sun-Young Park, Jinhee Choi
P38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), an important signaling protein involved in various cellular processes, including stress responses, has been well characterized in model organisms. P38 has been identified in a number of insects, including the genus Drosophila; however, its homologue in Chironomus riparius has not yet been identified. In this study, we identified and characterized p38 MAPK (Crp38) gene in C. riparius using a transcriptome database that was previously generated 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing...
April 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132076/monitoring-the-genotoxic-and-cytotoxic-potential-and-the-presence-of-pesticides-and-hydrocarbons-in-water-of-the-sinos-river-basin-southern-brazil
#20
Eloisa Bianchi, Gustavo Lessing, Karisa Roxo Brina, Larissa Angeli, Natália Bordin Andriguetti, Jaqueline Regina Soares Peruzzo, Carlos Augusto do Nascimento, Fernando Rosado Spilki, Ana Luiza Ziulkoski, Luciano Basso da Silva
The Sinos River is one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. The purpose of this work was to monitor the presence of some pesticides and hydrocarbons as well as the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential on HEp-2 cells from water samples collected at seven sites in the Sinos River Basin (SRB), southern Brazil. Nine samples were taken from the three main rivers in the SRB and used as a solution to dilute the HEp-2 cell culture medium after microfiltration. Twenty-four pesticides and 19 hydrocarbons were measured...
April 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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