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Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631032/occurrence-and-fate-of-organic-and-organometallic-pollutants-in-municipal-wastewater-treatment-plants-and-their-impact-on-receiving-waters-adour-estuary-france
#1
J Cavalheiro, O Zuloaga, A Prieto, H Preudhomme, D Amouroux, M Monperrus
To achieve a "Good Environmental Status by 2015," as demanded by the water framework directive, monitoring programs are needed to furnish data on target compounds. In this study, a first evaluation of influents and main emissions of 3 local wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in the Adour estuary (southwest of France) was performed for 23 pollutants (10 musk fragrances, 5 alkylphenols, and 8 organometallics), as well as receiving estuarine water from the same area. High frequency of occurrence of these compounds was found in influents samples (musks: 22-100%; alkylphenols 11-100%; organometallics 0-100%) and effluents (musks: 0-100%; alkylphenols 0-100%; organometallics 0-100%)...
June 19, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631031/metals-in-blood-and-eggs-of-green-sea-turtles-chelonia-mydas-from-nesting-colonies-of-the-northern-coast-of-the-sea-of-oman
#2
Mahmood Sinaei, Mehdi Bolouki
The green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) has been a species of global concern for decades. In this study, heavy metals (mercury: Hg; Cadmium: Cd; Lead: Pb; Copper: Cu; and Zinc: Zn) were measured in blood and three egg fraction of green sea turtles nesting on the northern coast of Sea of Oman. Heavy metals concentrations in blood, yolk, albumen, and egg shell ranged between 0.16-36.78, 0.006-33.88, 0.003-4.02, and 0.002-6.85 μg/g (ww), respectively. According to the results, all heavy metals found in blood samples (n = 12) also were detected in the various parts of the eggs (n = 48)...
June 19, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631030/the-impact-of-impoundment-on-mercury-bioaccumulation-in-fish-downstream-from-a-newly-constructed-reservoir-wujiang-river-southwest-china
#3
Sixin Li, Lianfeng Zhou, Jianbo Chang, Zhi Yang, Juxiang Hu, Wang Hongjun
Mercury concentrations in fish were investigated downstream from a newly impounded subtropical reservoir in August 2008. After 6-7 months of reservoir impoundment, mean mercury concentration in fish from downstream is significantly increased by 1.9 times. Not only carnivorous fish but also benthic fish had significantly higher total mercury concentrations than others. No significant correlation was found between total mercury concentrations and body length or weight of 13 fish species. Compared with the pre-impoundment, total mercury in fish from downstream is significantly increased by reservoir impoundment, but the increased rate is lower than those in subarctic and temperate areas...
June 19, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601932/the-value-of-using-multiple-metrics-to-evaluate-pcb-exposure
#4
Megan C Archer, Amanda D Harwood, Samuel A Nutile, Kara E Huff Hartz, Marc A Mills, Jim E Garvey, Michael J Lydy
Current methods for evaluating exposure in ecosystems contaminated with hydrophobic organic contaminants typically focus on sediment exposure. However, a comprehensive environmental assessment requires a more holistic approach that not only estimates sediment concentrations, but also accounts for exposure by quantifying other pathways, such as bioavailability, bioaccumulation, trophic transfer potential, and transport of hydrophobic organic contaminants within and outside of the aquatic system. The current study evaluated the ability of multiple metrics to estimate exposure in an aquatic ecosystem...
June 10, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550340/heat-and-bleach-a-cost-efficient-method-for-extracting-microplastics-from-return-activated-sludge
#5
Surya Sujathan, Ann-Kathrin Kniggendorf, Arun Kumar, Bernhard Roth, Karl-Heinz Rosenwinkel, Regina Nogueira
The extraction of plastic microparticles, so-called microplastics, from sludge is a challenging task due to the complex, highly organic material often interspersed with other benign microparticles. The current procedures for microplastic extraction from sludge are time consuming and require expensive reagents for density separation as well as large volumes of oxidizing agents for organic removal, often resulting in tiny sample sizes and thus a disproportional risk of sample bias. In this work, we present an improved extraction method tested on return activated sludge (RAS)...
May 26, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534067/microplastics-in-sediment-cores-from-asia-and-africa-as-indicators-of-temporal-trends-in-plastic-pollution
#6
Yukari Matsuguma, Hideshige Takada, Hidetoshi Kumata, Hirohide Kanke, Shigeaki Sakurai, Tokuma Suzuki, Maki Itoh, Yohei Okazaki, Ruchaya Boonyatumanond, Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria, Steven Weerts, Brent Newman
Microplastics (<5 mm) were extracted from sediment cores collected in Japan, Thailand, Malaysia, and South Africa by density separation after hydrogen peroxide treatment to remove biofilms were and identified using FTIR. Carbonyl and vinyl indices were used to avoid counting biopolymers as plastics. Microplastics composed of variety of polymers, including polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyethyleneterphthalates (PET), polyethylene-polypropylene copolymer (PEP), and polyacrylates (PAK), were identified in the sediment...
May 22, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528420/soil-or-dust-for-health-risk-assessment-studies-in-urban-environment
#7
M Gabarrón, A Faz, J A Acosta
To identify the best material (soil or dust) to be selected for health-risk assessment studies, road dust and urban soil from three cities with different population densities were collected, and size fractions were analysed for metal content (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, and Ni). Results showed similar distribution of the size particles among cities, predominating fractions between 75 and 2000 μm in road dust and particles below 75 μm in soil. Metals were mainly bound to PM10 in both soil and road dust increasing the risk of adverse health effects, overall through inhalation exposure...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528419/a-risk-based-characterization-of-sediment-contamination-by-legacy-and-emergent-contaminants-of-concern-in-coastal-british-columbia-canada
#8
Carmen Morales-Caselles, Jean-Pierre W Desforges, Neil Dangerfield, Peter S Ross
Sediments have long been used to help describe pollution sources, contaminated sites, trends over time, and habitat quality for marine life. We collected surficial sediments from 12 sites at an average seawater depth of 25 m in three near-urban areas of the Salish Sea (British Columbia, Canada) to investigate habitat quality for marine life, including heavily contaminated killer whales. Samples were analyzed using high-resolution instrumentation for a wide variety of congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), polybrominated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs)...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528418/spatial-distribution-and-temporal-trend-of-anthropogenic-organic-compounds-derived-from-the-2011-east-japan-earthquake
#9
Kaoruko Mizukawa, Yasuko Hirai, Hiroyuki Sakakibara, Satoshi Endo, Keiji Okuda, Hideshige Takada, Naoko Murakami-Sugihara, Kotaro Shirai, Hiroshi Ogawa
The tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 disturbed coastal environments in the eastern Tohoku region in Japan. Numerous terrestrial materials, including anthropogenic organic compounds, were deposited in the coastal zone. To evaluate the impacts of the disaster, we analyzed PCBs, LABs, PAHs, and hopanes in mussels collected from 12 locations in the east of Tohoku during 2011-2015 (series A) by GC-ECD or GC-MS and compared them with results from mussels collected from 22 locations around Japan during 2001-2004 (series B)...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528417/sea-urchin-embryogenesis-as-bioindicators-of-marine-pollution-in-impact-areas-of-the-sea-of-japan-east-sea-and-the-sea-of-okhotsk
#10
Olga N Lukyanova, Elena V Zhuravel, Denis N Chulchekov, Andrey A Mazur
The embryogenesis of the sea urchin sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis was used as bioindicators of seawater quality from the impact areas of the Sea of Japan/East Sea (Peter the Great Bay) and the Sea of Okhotsk (northwestern shelf of Sakhalin Island and western shelf of Kamchatka Peninsula). Fertilization membrane formation, first cleavage, blastula formation, gastrulation, and 2-armed and 4-armed pluteus formation have been analyzed and a number of abnormalities were calculated. Number of embryogenesis anomalies in sand dollar larvae exposed to sea water from different stations in Peter the Great Bay corresponds to pollution level at each area...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528416/time-trends-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-benthic-and-pelagic-indicator-fishes-from-puget-sound-washington-usa
#11
James E West, Sandra M O'Neill, Gina M Ylitalo
We modeled temporal trends in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) in two indicator fish species representing benthic and pelagic habitats in Puget Sound, Washington, USA. English sole (Parophrys vetulus, benthic) index sites and larger-scale Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii, pelagic) foraging areas represented a wide range of possible contamination conditions, with sampling locations situated adjacent to watersheds exhibiting high, medium and low development...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528415/oxidative-stress-in-shellfish-sinonovacula-constricta-exposed-to-the-water-accommodated-fraction-of-zero-sulfur-diesel-oil-and-pinghu-crude-oil
#12
Mei Jiang, Lei Li, Yingren Li, Gongming Shen, Xinqiang Shen
This study investigated the oxidative stress of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of zero sulfur diesel oil and Pinghu crude oil on Sinonovacula constricta, respectively. The oxidative stress of oil pollutants on organisms was measured by typical antioxidases, such as SOD, CAT, GST, and POD. Toxicity was quantitatively evaluated by combining IBR (integrated biomarker responses). Results demonstrated that different concentrations of oil caused different degrees of induction to the four antioxidases. Compared with the control group, all test groups presented enzyme induction or inhibition during exposure period...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528414/tissue-contaminant-burdens-in-san-francisco-estuary-white-sturgeon-acipenser-transmontanus-implications-for-population-recovery
#13
Deke T Gundersen, Steven C Zeug, Robert B Bringolf, Joseph Merz, Zachary Jackson, Molly A H Webb
The San Francisco Estuary (SFE) is heavily influenced by anthropogenic activities, including historic and chronic contaminant inputs. These contaminants can adversely affect SFE fish populations, particularly white sturgeon, because they are a benthic dwelling, long-lived species. We measured a suite of metals and organic contaminants in liver and gonad tissues of 25 male and 32 female white sturgeon as well as several physiological indicators of sturgeon health. Most sturgeon (68% of males and 83% of females) were estimated to be between 13 and 17 years of age...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528413/dissolved-platinum-concentrations-in-coastal-seawater-boso-to-sanriku-areas-japan
#14
Asami Suzuki Mashio, Hajime Obata, Toshitaka Gamo
Platinum, one of the rarest elements in the earth's crust, is now widely used in a range of products, such as catalytic converters in automobiles and anticancer drugs. Increasing use and dispersal of platinum has the potential to affect aquatic environments. Platinum concentrations in open ocean seawater have been found to be very low (approximately 0.2 pmol/L); however, Pt distributions and biogeochemical cycles in coastal areas are unknown. In this study, we investigated Pt concentrations in coastal waters between the Boso and Sanriku areas, Japan, after the 2011 tsunami...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528412/bioindicators-of-organochlorine-pesticides-in-the-sea-of-okhotsk-and-the-western-bering-sea
#15
Vasiliy Yu Tsygankov, Margarita D Boyarova, Olga N Lukyanova, Nadezhda K Khristoforova
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as HCHs and DDTs, are still used as pesticides in the Southern Hemisphere and can reach the North Pacific due to long range atmospheric transfer. Marine mammals (Pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens, gray whale Eschrichtius robustus), the seabirds (Pacific gull Larus schistisagus, crested auklet Aethia cristatella, auklet crumb Aethia pusilla, northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, and grey petrel Oceanodroma furcata) and Pacific salmon (pink Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, chum O...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528411/imposex-in-reishia-clavigera-as-an-indicator-to-assess-recovery-of-tbt-pollution-after-a-total-ban-in-south-korea
#16
Nam Sook Kim, Sang Hee Hong, Kyung-Hoon Shin, Won Joon Shim
The temporal changes in the frequency and degree of imposex and tributyltin (TBT) levels in gastropod (Reishia clavigera) were evaluated in Jinhae Bay, 5 and 10 years after the total ban on TBT usage in South Korea. The frequency and degree of imposex decreased significantly after the ban, accompanied by an increase in the female-to-male ratio. The TBT concentrations in R. clavigera also decreased significantly after the ban. There were good correlations between the TBT concentration in rock shell and both the degree of imposex and the female-to-male ratio...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528410/comparison-of-toxicities-of-metal-pyrithiones-including-their-degradation-compounds-and-organotin-antifouling-biocides-to-the-japanese-killifish-oryzias-latipes
#17
Madoka Ohji, Hiroya Harino
Japanese killifish Oryzias latipes were exposed to three levels (0, 1, and 10 µg l(-1)) of copper pyrithione (CuPT2), zinc pyrithione (ZnPT2), six of their degradation products, and the organotin compounds tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) for 48 h at 20 °C. All individual fish exposed to 1 and 10 µg l(-1) of CuPT2 or 10 µg l(-1) of ZnPT2 were dead within 12 h, respectively, and at 24 h the survival rate of the fish exposed to 1 µg l(-1) of ZnPT2 was 50%. All fish exposed to 10 µg l(-1) of ZnPT2 showed morphological abnormalities in the form of vertebral deformity...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528409/polychlorinated-biphenyl-related-alterations-of-the-expression-of-essential-genes-in-harbour-seals-phoca-vitulina-from-coastal-sites-in-canada-and-the-united-states
#18
Marie Noël, Neil Dangerfield, Steve Jeffries, Dyanna Lambourn, Monique Lance, Caren Helbing, Michel Lebeuf, Peter S Ross
As long-lived marine mammals found throughout the temperate coastal waters of the North Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) have become an invaluable sentinel of food-web contamination. Their relatively high trophic position predisposes harbour seals to the accumulation of harmful levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). We obtained skin/blubber biopsy samples from live-captured young harbour seals from various sites in the northeastern Pacific (British Columbia, Canada, and Washington State, USA) as well as the northwestern Atlantic (Newfoundland and Quebec, Canada)...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528408/the-glaucous-winged-gull-larus-glaucescens-as-an-indicator-of-chemical-contaminants-in-the-canadian-pacific-marine-environment-evidence-from-stable-isotopes
#19
M L Davis, J E Elliott, T D Williams
The Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) has been selected by Environment Canada as a marine indicator species for long-term monitoring of persistent contaminants in the Canadian Pacific. However, the indicator value of this species depends on its trophic level and proportion of marine prey in its diet. Eggs, used as the monitoring medium, are produced entirely from maternal resources and knowledge of adult diet before and during egg production is critical to interpreting contaminant levels. Due to a lack of recent and reliable dietary ecology work, we examined the diet of breeding Glaucous-winged gulls through carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) stable isotope analysis at three colonies on the Pacific coast...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528407/effects-of-feeding-strategy-sediment-characteristics-and-chemical-properties-on-polychlorinated-biphenyl-and-polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-bioaccumulation-from-marine-sediments-in-two-invertebrates
#20
H Frouin, P Jackman, N D Dangerfield, P S Ross
Shellfish and sediment invertebrates have been widely used to assess pollution trends over space and time in coastal environments around the world. However, few studies have compared the bioaccumulation potential of different test species over a range of sediment-contaminant concentrations and profiles. The bioavailability of sediment-related contaminants was evaluated using sediments collected from sites (n = 12) throughout the Salish Sea, British Columbia, Canada. Two benthic marine invertebrates-the Baltic clam Macoma balthica and the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata-were exposed for 28 days in a controlled environment to these field-collected coastal sediments...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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