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Pediatric Annals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001445/peanut-allergy-changes-in-dogma-and-past-present-and-future-directions
#1
Sarah Boudreau-Romano, Nashmia Qamar
The prevalence of food allergy in the pediatric population, specifically to peanuts, has been rising. Accidental exposure to peanuts in a person who is allergic may have life-threatening consequences. Previous recommendations regarding peanut allergy included a delay in introduction of peanut to infants. However, more recent studies have provided sufficient contrary evidence supporting early introduction of peanuts for prevention of peanut allergy. Therefore, prompt evaluation by a specialist should be considered in infants at high risk of developing peanut allergy...
July 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001444/pediatric-sepsis-a-primer-for-the-pediatrician
#2
Edward E Conway
Sepsis is the body's systemic response to infection and is a serious health care concern that affects neonatal, pediatric, and adult populations worldwide. Severe sepsis (sepsis that has progressed to cellular dysfunction and organ damage or evidence of hypoperfusion) and septic shock (sepsis with persistent hypotension despite adequate fluid resuscitation) are still associated with high mortality rates despite improvements in the management of infectious processes. The cellular processes that occur as a result of the inflammatory response in sepsis, including impaired perfusion and microcirculatory coagulation, can lead to organ system dysfunction...
July 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001443/acute-kidney-injury-in-hospitalized-pediatric-patients
#3
Rajit K Basu
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is pervasive, affecting a significant proportion of critically ill and noncritically ill children. Recent data demonstrate a clear independent association of escalating AKI severity with not only mortality, but also with longer-term disability and chronic kidney disease in children. The paradigm has shifted-patients are no longer dying with AKI, but rather from AKI. In this review, AKI is described in the paradigms of "past," "present," and "future" to stimulate a reassessment of our understanding of this organ dysfunction syndrome...
July 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001442/acquired-cardiac-disease-in-the-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#4
Kieran Leong, Jason M Kane, Brian F Joy
This review focuses on the identification, evaluation, management, and stabilization of a variety of acquired cardiac conditions, such as cardiomyopathies, inflammatory cardiac disease, and Kawasaki disease, which commonly require care in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Pediatric cardiomyopathies comprise a spectrum of acquired or congenital myocardial diseases in which there are abnormalities of cardiac size and ventricular wall thickness, along with ventricular performance. The inflammatory diseases of the heart include acute myocarditis and pericarditis...
July 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001441/traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#5
Elora Hussain
Head trauma is a leading cause of brain injury in children, and it can have profound lifelong physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences. Optimal acute care of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) requires rapid stabilization and early neurosurgical evaluation by a multidisciplinary team. Meticulous attention is required to limit secondary brain injury after the initial trauma. This review discusses pathophysiology, acute stabilization, and monitoring, as well as supportive and therapeutic measures to help minimize ongoing brain injury and optimize recovery in children with TBI...
July 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001440/acute-respiratory-failure-in-children
#6
Matthew L Friedman, Mara E Nitu
This article reviews the definition, pathophysiology, etiology, assessment, and management of acute respiratory failure in children. Acute respiratory failure is the inability of the respiratory system to maintain oxygenation or eliminate carbon dioxide. Acute respiratory failure is a common cause for admission to a pediatric intensive care unit. Most causes of acute respiratory failure can be grouped into one of three categories: lung parenchymal disease, airway obstruction, or neuromuscular dysfunction. Many patients with acute respiratory failure are managed successfully with noninvasive respiratory support; however, in severe cases, patients may require intubation and mechanical ventilation...
July 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001439/the-modern-day-critical-care-team-and-their-charge
#7
EDITORIAL
Jason M Kane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001438/depression-in-children-and-adolescents-the-pediatrician-at-the-front-lines
#8
Rachel S Dawson
Pediatricians are the primary care providers for most children and adolescents in the United States, so they need to feel comfortable caring for children and teens with depression. This topic is an extremely important one because the top three reasons teens die or get injured are related to accidents (3.7 per 100,000 for those ages 5-14 years and 28.5 per 100,000 for those ages 15-24 years), suicide (1 per 100,000 in the younger age group, and 12.5 deaths per 100,000 in those ages 5-14 years), and homicide (0...
July 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001437/a-chronologic-perspective-on-sickle-cell-disease
#9
EDITORIAL
Joseph R Hageman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898238/sedation-a-primer-for-pediatricians
#10
Shobhit Jain
There has been an increasing use of pediatric procedural sedation and analgesia over the past 20 years, along with numerous medical and technological developments. Sedation can facilitate the smooth completion of otherwise stressful procedures, but it also can be associated with life-threatening complications. Pediatric practitioners need to be familiar with the basic tenets of providing safe and optimal sedation outside the operating room. This review focuses on the current understanding of sedation-related classification, guidelines, and medications, and discusses some special considerations for procedural sedation in common clinical settings...
June 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898237/effective-treatment-of-pediatric-eating-disorders
#11
Ashley Ariail, Elizabeth Carpenter, Twyala Smith, Briana Sacco
Eating disorders are prevalent in the pediatric population yet underdiagnosed by pediatric health care professionals. The gold standard of care consists of a multidisciplinary team approach including a therapist, registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN), and psychiatrist, combined with family-centered treatment. Although families do not cause eating disorders, they are essential to a child's recovery from an eating disorder. Psychoeducation, supportive limit setting, processing relational dynamics, and externalizing the eating disorder are therapeutic interventions used in the treatment of an eating disorder...
June 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898236/diagnosis-and-evaluation-of-eating-disorders-in-the-pediatric-patient
#12
Briana Sacco, Urszula Kelley
Recognizing eating disorders in the pediatric population can be challenging for outpatient providers. With the high prevalence of these disorders in children and adolescents, it is critical that pediatricians recognize these disorders and connect these children and families with available treatments. This article provides a review of the current diagnostic criteria for pica, rumination disorder, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, avoidant restrictive food intake disorder, binge-eating disorder, other specified feeding or eating disorder, and unspecified feeding or eating disorder as described in The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition...
June 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898235/medical-complications-of-eating-disorders-in-pediatric-patients
#13
Maria C Monge, Miranda Loh
Eating disorders affect millions of children, adolescents, and their families worldwide, and the pediatric primary care provider is often the first line of evaluation for these patients. Eating disorders affect nearly every system in the body, and signs and symptoms vary depending on patient behaviors (restrictive eating, binge eating, purging). Because the diagnosis is not always straightforward, a clinician's ability to recognize the potential medical complications of eating disorders early in their course can help facilitate timely treatment and an appropriate level of support...
June 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898234/identifying-and-preventing-eating-disorders-in-adolescent-patients-with-obesity
#14
Sharonda Alston Taylor, Sarah Ditch, Shana Hansen
Adolescents with obesity are not immune to developing disordered eating and eating disorders. They most commonly present with atypical or subthreshold criterion due to excess body weight or questions regarding the presence of a distorted body image. Patients with premorbid overweight/obesity and subsequent achievement of weight loss may lead to delays in the recognition and treatment of disordered eating and eating disorders. In fact, disordered eating and eating disorders tend to be higher in those undergoing weight management...
June 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898233/eating-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents
#15
EDITORIAL
Rachel Dawson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898232/fireworks-related-injury-in-children
#16
M Denise Dowd
Many children are attracted to the color, noise, light, and excitement generated by fireworks. Both home and public displays of fireworks are a festive part of American culture, enjoyed on holidays, during sporting events, and on a variety of other occasions. However, fireworks pose a risk of serious injury to children and youth. Each year, thousands of children sustain major and minor injuries due to fireworks, with many resulting in permanent disability. Regulations concerning private sales and use of fireworks vary greatly from state to state, so children's exposure varies geographically...
June 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898231/a-historical-perspective-of-hiv-infection
#17
EDITORIAL
Joseph R Hageman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750290/neonatal-intestinal-obstruction-syndrome
#18
Manuel Gil Vargas, Mariana L Miguel-Sardaneta, Michelle Rosas-Téllez, Dayana Pereira-Reyes, Jaime M Justo-Janeiro
Neonatal intestinal obstruction is caused by an anatomical abnormality that produces bowel movement failure. Intestinal obstruction presents with three classic clinical signs: vomiting, abdominal distention, and failure to pass meconium. Intestinal obstruction is one of the most common causes for admitting a pediatric patient to the pediatric surgery unit in his or her first weeks of postnatal life. Congenital obstruction of the digestive tract in neonates is a common problem, with the most frequent cause being anorectal malformations (41%), followed by esophageal obstruction (24%), and duodenal obstruction (20%)...
May 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750289/pharmacogenomic-primer-for-the-pediatrician-what-is-really-important
#19
Shannon Manzi
Safe prescribing of medications has become increasingly challenging with dozens of new drugs and drug classes added each year. Maximizing the ability to find a medication that will work as intended while minimizing side effects can be difficult, particularly when a patient does not respond as expected. Some of the variability in response may be attributed to the patient's genetics. Pharmacogenomics is the science of examining a patient's genotype in the context of medication selection and dosing. Used correctly, the clinical application of pharmacogenomic data can be useful in decreasing the trial and error approach to medication therapy...
May 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750288/recognizing-and-managing-children-with-a-pediatric-cancer-predisposition-syndrome-a-guide-for-the-pediatrician
#20
Stephanie A Coury, Katherine A Schneider, Jaclyn Schienda, Wen-Hann Tan
It is estimated that at least 8% to 10% of children diagnosed with cancer have an inherited cancer predisposition syndrome. Pediatricians may be called upon to (1) identify children with symptoms suggestive of cancer that require further diagnostic testing, (2) identify children who should be referred to cancer genetics based on their personal and family histories, and (3) provide primary care to children who have an inherited cancer syndrome. This review article provides a list of clinical warning signs suggestive of childhood malignancy, discusses the personal and family history "red flags" suggestive of hereditary cancer, offers checklists to help identify patients who are candidates for cancer genetics evaluation, and describes features of the major pediatric cancer syndromes involving solid tumors and surveillance guidelines...
May 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
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