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Pediatric Annals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892551/transforming-the-pediatric-experience-the-story-of-child-life
#1
Kia Beickert, Kelsey Mora
During the past century, child life programming has evolved into a standard of care for children experiencing life's most challenging events. From pediatric outpatient clinics and dentists' offices to funeral homes and courtrooms, children are now being provided access to professionals that relieve the anxiety and fear associated with emotional and physical pain. Recognized by the American Academy of Pediatrics, child life specialists focus on the "strengths and sense of well-being of children while promoting their optimal development and minimizing the adverse effects of children's experiences in health care or other potentially stressful settings...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892550/adolescent-sleepiness-causes-and-consequences
#2
Shana L Hansen, Dale Capener, Christopher Daly
Insufficient sleep duration and poor sleep quality are common among adolescents. The multidimensional causes of insufficient sleep duration and poor sleep quality include biological, health-related, environmental, and lifestyle factors. The most common direct consequence of insufficient and/or poor sleep quality is excessive daytime sleepiness, which may contribute to poor academic performance, behavioral health problems, substance use, and drowsy driving. Evaluation of sleepiness includes a detailed sleep history and sleep diary, with polysomnography only required for the assessment of specific sleep disorders...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892549/pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-high-risk-populations-clinical-implications
#3
Mai El Mallah, Evan Bailey, Michelle Trivedi, Ted Kremer, Lawrence M Rhein
Certain common medical conditions are associated with a higher risk of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A lower threshold for screening is therefore indicated for such patient cohorts. In this article, we briefly discuss the high prevalence of OSA in children born prematurely, and in those with Down syndrome, craniofacial disorders, and neuromuscular disorders. Primary care providers should have an increased index of suspicion for OSA in these children, considering the neurocognitive disability that occurs in these high-risk groups when OSA is left untreated...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892548/pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-asthma-clinical-implications
#4
Michelle Trivedi, Mai El Mallah, Evan Bailey, Ted Kremer, Lawrence M Rhein
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and asthma are common conditions in children with preventable long-term consequences. There is significant overlap in symptomatology and pathophysiology for pediatric OSA and asthma. Recent evidence supports clear associations between the two diseases; however, causality has not been demonstrated. Regardless, it is important to recognize the overlap and evaluate for the other condition when one is present. For example, in patients with severe OSA, clinical evaluation for asthma should be considered, including history for typical asthma symptoms and spirometry...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892547/non-rapid-eye-movement-arousal-parasomnias-in-children
#5
Vijayabharathi Ekambaram, Kiran Maski
Parasomnia is a common pediatric sleep disorder that can cause parents or caregivers distress when experienced by their children. Based on the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, parasomnias can be divided into two subgroups: non-rapid eye movement (NREM) parasomnias and rapid eye movement (REM) parasomnias. REM sleep parasomnias include nightmares, REM behavior disorder, and sleep paralysis, whereas NREM sleep parasomnias include disorders of arousal such as confusional arousals, sleepwalking, sleep talking, night terrors, and sleep-related eating disorder...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892546/insomnia-in-infants-and-young-children
#6
Judith A Owens, Maile Moore
Sleep problems in infants and young children are common and often underdiagnosed. The potential negative outcomes that chronic disrupted sleep can have on a child's daytime functioning, as well as the adverse impact it can have on the family, are well known. There is considerable evidence to support the use of behavioral interventions to treat childhood insomnia. These strategies not only produce reliable and durable positive changes in sleep in most young children, but may also improve child and family well-being without negative effects on a child's social-emotional development...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892545/pediatric-sleep-medicine
#7
EDITORIAL
Tracy Carbone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892544/you-can-reduce-secondhand-smoke-exposure-prescribing-nicotine-replacement-in-the-pediatrician-s-office
#8
Sabrina Fernandez
It is universally known that secondhand smoke is detrimental to children's health. There is emerging research about the negative effects of thirdhand smoke as well. Most pediatricians focus on the child's medical evaluation and treatment, without considering other family members as it impacts the child's health. Screening rates for secondhand smoke exposure are low to begin with, and when we find a family member who is smoking, most pediatricians feel comfortable counseling and referring, but many do not know how to prescribe nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892543/the-importance-of-an-optimal-night-s-sleep-for-children-and-secondhand-and-thirdhand-smoke-exposure
#9
EDITORIAL
Joseph R Hageman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806468/an-overview-of-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#10
Ysabella M Esteban, Jill L O de Jong, Melissa S Tesher
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening syndrome characterized by a dysregulated hyperinflammatory response associated with aberrant activation of lymphocytes and macrophages that results in hypercytokinemia. It is classically divided into two types: (1) primary or familial HLH and (2) secondary HLH. Familial HLH is generally an autosomal recessive condition, whereas secondary HLH is usually associated with infectious diseases, autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases (where it is more commonly known as macrophage activation syndrome), malignancy, immunosuppression, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, organ transplantation, HIV infection, and metabolic diseases...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806467/the-history-of-home-cardiorespiratory-monitoring
#11
Gary E Freed, Francis Martinez
Home cardiorespiratory monitoring has changed significantly since it was first introduced in the 1970s. It has improved from a simple alarm system to a sophisticated piece of equipment capable of monitoring the patient's electrocardiogram, respiratory effort, and oxygen saturations. In addition, the indications for using a monitor have also changed. The home monitor was initially used to reduce the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Although there were several studies demonstrating the reduction of SIDS rates in communities where apnea programs existed, none was a prospective, double-blinded study or had adequate numbers to be clinically significant...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806466/medicolegal-death-investigation-of-sudden-unexpected-infant-deaths
#12
Roger A Mitchell, Constance DiAngelo, Daniel Morgan
This review article describes the role of the medicolegal death investigator and medical examiner or coroner (MEC) in the investigations of a sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) beginning with an introduction into the case types that should be investigated and how infant deaths fit into that legal framework. The article also provides an overview of the history of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention SUID investigation guidelines and process. The article concludes with a description of how the MEC correlates the scene investigation with autopsy findings, as well as the role of the MEC in cause of death determinations...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806465/safe-infant-sleep-practices-parental-engagement-education-and-behavior-change
#13
Sunah S Hwang, Michael J Corwin
Although the incidence of sudden unexpected infant death declined by nearly 50% in the 1990s, there has been little improvement in the past 15 years. Significant disparities in infant sleep practices and sleep-associated death exist, particularly by maternal race/ethnicity. This article provides a brief overview of recent observational and intervention studies related to infant sleep practices to describe the context and motivation for the population-based Study of Attitudes and Factors Effecting Infant Care (SAFE)...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806464/beyond-back-to-sleep-ways-to-further-reduce-the-risk-of-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#14
Fern R Hauck, Kawai O Tanabe
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains the leading cause of postneonatal mortality in the United States, despite reduction in rates of more than 50% since the initiation of the "Back to Sleep" (now called "Safe to Sleep") campaign in 1994. In recent years, the rate of decline in SIDS deaths has plateaued, even with the ongoing educational efforts that promote safe sleep and other risk reduction measures. The 2016 American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for reducing the risk of SIDS focus heavily on sleep practices, bedding, and location, but also include factors that often receive less attention (ie, prenatal care, maternal smoking, alcohol and drug use, and childhood vaccinations)...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806463/the-evolving-understanding-of-sudden-unexpected-infant-death
#15
Christine G McIntosh, Edwin A Mitchell
Sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) is the leading cause for post-neonatal mortality in industrialized nations. Case-control studies have identified risk factors for SUID that have shaped research into studies of causation. Most current hypotheses for the mechanisms for SUID contribute to the "SUID sequence"-hypoxia and/or hypercarbia in sleep to which a vulnerable infant fails to respond adequately and that results in death. Reducing vulnerability in infants and promoting safe sleep for infants is important for prevention and requires knowledge of the prevalence of risk factors within the target population and a culturally sensitive approach...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806462/sudden-unexpected-infant-deaths-what-are-we-learning-and-how-can-we-reduce-the-risks
#16
EDITORIAL
Larry Consenstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806461/talking-to-adolescents-about-social-media
#17
Rachel S Dawson
I see a large number of adolescents in my clinic with issues related to their social media use. These issues range from lack of sleep, to depression, to cyberbullying, and even sex trafficking, all secondary to constant social media exposure. Pediatricians should ask about social media use when they see children and adolescents who already have access to electronic devices. They should also ask parents about controls that are set in place to monitor social media use, content, and friend connections on those sites...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806460/sids-or-suid-the-emphasis-on-risk-reduction
#18
EDITORIAL
Joseph R Hageman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697270/lucy-maude-montgomery-and-anne-of-green-gables-an-early-description-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
Jessica Katz Edison, Christopher Clardy
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was added to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition, revised in 1987. Similar disorders had appeared earlier, and many consider the first description of ADHD to be a lecture in 1902 about children with an "abnormal defect in moral control" but normal intelligence. This definition of ADHD is more alarming than the current one. Anne Shirley, the protagonist of the novel Anne of Green Gables (written by Lucy Maude Montgomery and published in 1908), shares the hyperactive and inattentive qualities that fit the current definition of ADHD...
July 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697269/pediatric-cellulitis-a-red-hot-concern
#20
Andrew Shriner, Laurie Wilkie
Cellulitis and other skin and soft tissue infections are a common reason for children to seek care, both in the primary care setting and the emergency department. Cellulitis is a common skin and soft-tissue infection that is usually caused by streptococci bacteria or, less commonly, Staphylococcus aureus. Most children recover quickly from cellulitis, but a small subset will require hospitalization. Practitioners need to be skilled in the diagnosis and treatment of cellulitis, including recognition of the need for inpatient treatment...
July 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
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