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Pediatric Annals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323695/lead-toxicity-in-the-pediatric-patient-with-sickle-cell-disease-unique-risks-and-management
#1
Josephine Misun Jung, Radhika Peddinti
Lead toxicity is the result of lead ingestion, one of the most common ingestions in the pediatric population. Nationwide and statewide efforts to recognize and curtail this epidemic have led to declining rates of toxicity. In patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), lead toxicity can be an elusive diagnosis due to overlapping symptom profiles, and inconsistent follow-up with a primary care physician can make the diagnosis even more difficult. In this article, two illustrative cases of lead toxicity in patients with SCD are described...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323694/the-short-child
#2
Armin Valdes, Jorge Cervantes, Yezika Delgado, Marisol Valdes, Hector Granados
Growth is one of the most important characteristics of human development. This process occurs from the moment of conception through the final stages of puberty. There are multiple factors that contribute to growth in humans. Although it may seem complex, a pediatrician should note that growth can be fairly predictable. The advantage to predictable changes in growth is that clinicians should be able to promptly detect any deviation and evaluate it in a timely manner. One of the most helpful tools to assess changes in growth is the use of a growth chart...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323693/menstrual-irregularities
#3
Christy Foster, Hiba Al-Zubeidi
Irregular menstrual cycles are a common complaint among adolescents. There are multiple etiologies for menstrual irregularities. It is important to have a stepwise approach, including obtaining a thorough medical history and performing a physical examination, when patients present. Understanding the characteristics of the menstrual cycle helps determine the etiology. This article discusses the differential diagnosis of irregular menstrual cycles, as well as the approach to evaluation and management. The common conditions and defining characteristics are also discussed...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323692/delayed-puberty
#4
Alyssa M Dye, Grace B Nelson, Alicia Diaz-Thomas
Delayed puberty is defined as the absence of physical signs of puberty 2 to 2.5 standard deviations above the mean age and affects approximately 2% of adolescents. Causes of delayed puberty are broadly divided into two categories: hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. One exception to this classification system is constitutional delay of growth and puberty, the most common cause of delayed puberty. For the general pediatrician, knowledge of the different causes and initial steps to evaluation is crucial when a patient with delayed puberty presents...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323691/premature-thelarche
#5
Aditi Khokhar, Angela Mojica
Premature thelarche is a benign condition that affects young girls and may be interpreted as a sign of central precocious puberty (CPP). Parental concern is common when breast development is noted in a young girl. It is important to differentiate premature thelarche from CPP, as the latter is a more serious disorder that may affect final adult height and menarcheal age, and may have psychological implications as well. Distinguishing between the two conditions clinically may help the patients avoid unnecessary testing...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323690/premature-adrenarche
#6
Laura Novello, Phyllis W Speiser
Adrenarche is when a child's adrenal cortex starts to secrete adrenal androgen precursors. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the most abundant product of the adrenal cortex, and is a weak androgen agonist thought to be responsible for the clinical signs of pubarche by conversion to more potent androgens, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone. DHEA's extra-adrenal sulfation product, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, is a stable marker for adrenal androgenic activity. Pubarche is the physical manifestation of androgenic hormone production, and includes the development of pubic and axillary hair, adult body odor, and acne...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323689/pediatric-endocrinology
#7
EDITORIAL
Amit Lahoti, Deepak Kamat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323688/preventing-hiv-infection-what-pediatricians-should-know-about-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#8
Sabrina Fernandez
I recently diagnosed my first adolescent patient with new-onset HIV. As a primary care pediatrician, these cases are rare. I cried with the shock of the initial diagnosis, just as the patient did when I told him. One of my first thoughts was how could I have served him better. He had been inconsistent with condom use, and had several partners. I had encouraged safe sex practices, told him to talk to his partners about pregnancy prevention, and screened for sexually transmitted disease nearly every time he came into my office...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323687/pediatric-endocrinology-lead-toxicity-in-sickle-cell-disease-and-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#9
EDITORIAL
Joseph R Hageman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227524/pediatric-scoliosis-and-kyphosis-an-overview-of-diagnosis-management-and-surgical-treatment
#10
Diane Dudas Sheehan, John Grayhack
Evaluation of pediatric spinal deformity requires knowledge of special orthopaedic testing and radiographic interpretation. The determination of recommendations for treatment of spinal abnormalities in children can be challenging and at times complex, as treatment options are dependent upon a variety of factors. The etiology of scoliosis or kyphosis, presence or absence of vertebral anomalies, symptoms, magnitude of the curve, physiologic/skeletal age, and evidence of and risk of progression all require consideration and play a role in the shared decision-making process...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227523/childhood-ingestions-of-environmental-toxins-what-are-the-risks
#11
Marissa Hauptman, Alan D Woolf
Infants and children are at higher risk than adolescents and adults for exposure to environmental toxins via ingestion for a number of reasons: their smaller size (and proportionately larger dose of ingested toxins), their closer proximity to the ground, dirt, and indoor dust, their boundless curiosity and oral exploratory behaviors, pica habits that may persist into school-age for children with autism or other developmental delays, their proportionately larger daily water and milk intake, and food preferences that differ markedly from adolescents and adults...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227522/pediatric-pharmaceutical-ingestions
#12
Jennifer A Lowry, Michele Burns, Diane P Calello
Pharmaceutical ingestions comprise an important part of pediatric toxicology. Based on the 2015 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System, coupled with recent epidemiology articles on the topic of pediatric toxicology, it is apparent that poison prevention education has not been completely successful in decreasing exposures to toxic drugs. From the unintentional ingestion in a toddler due to unsafe storage to the intentional adolescent ingestion for misuse and abuse, pharmaceutical medications continue to cause harm...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227521/pediatric-poisonings-the-risk-of-over-the-counter-pharmaceuticals
#13
Elizabeth Quaal Hines
Every week in the United States, 56% of children younger than age 18 years and 82% of adults take at least one medication. Nonprescription medications, including acetaminophen and ibuprofen, are among the most commonly used pharmaceuticals across all age groups. Use of nonprescription medications, traditionally available over-the-counter, has become ubiquitous. Unfortunately, with such abundant use there is an associated risk for therapeutic misuse, intentional misuse, and even abuse. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(12):e454-e458...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227520/pediatric-toxicology-household-product-ingestions
#14
Katherine A O'Donnell
Nonpharmaceutical household products are the most common substances involved in exploratory ingestions in young children. Fortunately, most of these products are not toxic if ingested in small volumes. However, there are several household products that have the potential to cause significant toxicity and, rarely, fatalities in young children. Key products reviewed in this article include alcohols, button batteries, corrosive cleaning products, laundry detergent pods, hydrocarbons, and magnets. [Pediatr Ann...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227519/pediatric-poisoning-by-ingestion-developmental-overview-and-synopsis-of-national-trends
#15
Vincent R Lee, Michael Connolly, Diane P Calello
The American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data Surveillance System provides real-time toxico-surveillance and epidemiologic trends, and pediatric ingestions comprise most of those reports. The sequences in social and physical developmental milestones from young childhood to adolescence reveal the vulnerability of these age groups to a wide variety of potential poisonous ingestions. Most pediatric ingestions are exploratory. Some common agents associated with pediatric fatalities include disc batteries, laundry detergent "pods," opioid analgesics, acetaminophen, benzodiazepines, and amphetamines...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227518/pediatric-ingestions
#16
EDITORIAL
Jennifer A Lowry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227517/intimate-partner-violence-and-pediatric-practice
#17
M Denise Dowd
Millions of parents, most of them mothers, are abused by an intimate partner each year in the United States. Intimate partner violence is all too common in homes with children; it's estimated that 15 million children are exposed each year. The short- and long-term impacts to child health and well-being are profound. Pediatric clinical practice represents an underutilized venue for assessment and intervention in the abuse of parents. This article summarizes the basic elements of an approach in practice. [Pediatr Ann...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227516/pediatric-ingestions-and-choosing-wisely
#18
EDITORIAL
Joseph R Hageman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131926/erratum-for-pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-asthma-clinical-implications
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131925/erratum-for-pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-high-risk-populations-clinical-implications
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
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