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Pediatric Annals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208198/slipped-capital-femoral-epiphysis-a-review-for-pediatricians
#1
REVIEW
Carlos Castillo, Magda Mendez
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is one of the most common hip pathologies that occurs during adolescence, and its incidence has been increasing over the past decades. For this reason, pediatricians should be aware of this entity to ensure an early diagnosis and intervene in a timely manner. The typical patient with SCFE is an adolescent who is obese presenting with hip pain, but it can also occur in children who are not obese; therefore, SCFE should be part of the differential diagnosis in any skeletally immature patient presenting with hip or knee pain...
September 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208197/preventing-pediatric-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#2
REVIEW
Joseph Domachowske, Jodi Halczyn, Cynthia A Bonville
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in infants is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite intense research efforts, safe and effective vaccines have remained elusive. Risk factors for the development of severe disease are well known, and those infants at highest risk are identified to receive RSV prophylaxis in the form of anti-RSV monoclonal antibody. Still, many other infant groups remain at risk and could benefit from an effective RSV prevention program. An explosion of clinic research activity is bringing unprecedented progress...
September 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208196/addressing-vaccine-hesitancy-in-clinical-practice
#3
REVIEW
Annabelle de St Maurice, Kathryn M Edwards, Jesse Hackell
Vaccines have had a profound impact on public health; however, parents are increasingly refusing or delaying vaccines for their children. Population-based studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of vaccines. Pediatricians should be well informed about vaccine development, safety, and efficacy to inspire parental confidence in vaccines. Systemic challenges in discussing and providing immunizations exist. Discussions about immunizations may be lengthy and time spent discussing immunizations is not routinely reimbursed...
September 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208195/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-children
#4
REVIEW
Asif Noor, Leonard R Krilov
Clostridium difficile is an important cause of health care associated infections. The epidemiology of C. difficile infection (CDI) in children has changed over the past few decades. There is now a higher incidence in hospitalized children, and there has been an emergence of community-onset infection. A hypervirulent strain, North American pulse type 1, has also developed. Neonates and young infants have high rates of colonization but rarely have symptoms. The well-known risk factor for CDI in children age 2 years or older is antibiotic use...
September 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208194/antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-and-the-use-of-novel-antibiotics-in-children
#5
REVIEW
Evelyn Lai, Jeffrey M Bender
Infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria in children are on the rise worldwide. Treating these infections is a challenge for pediatric caregivers. In this arms race, the armamentarium of antibiotics is quickly being depleted. This article reviews the problems facing clinicians caring for children with resistant bacterial infections, examines some of the newer antibiotics, and discusses other methods for pediatric caregivers to combat these infections. Only through an informed and concerted effort will we be able to address this growing problem in children...
September 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208193/evaluation-of-prolonged-and-recurrent-unexplained-fevers
#6
REVIEW
Victoria A Statler, Gary S Marshall
Fever is a common symptom in children. Some children may present to their primary care physician with undifferentiated fever; that is, fever for which there is no obvious source from the history or physical examination. Undifferentiated fevers may be prolonged or recurrent. Distinguishing between the two is helpful for narrowing the differential diagnosis, which can be broad and include infections and inflammatory diseases and, rarely, malignancies and autoinflammatory disorders. The evaluation of such children requires a step-wise approach...
September 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208192/infectious-disease-update
#7
EDITORIAL
Leonard R Krilov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208191/measles-in-children
#8
REVIEW
Leah Khan
Measles, which until recently had been a rare disease in the United States, is re-emerging in our communities due to a combination of increased global mobility and decreased vaccinations across the country. As providers, we need to reacquaint ourselves with this disease so that we may diagnose it as well as educate our patients on how to prevent it. With public resistance to vaccinations on the rise, it is also important to be prepared to answer questions about the measles vaccine, its efficacy, and its side effects...
September 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208190/the-separation-of-children-from-their-parents-and-toxic-stress
#9
EDITORIAL
Joseph R Hageman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102758/refusal-of-vitamin-k-injection-survey-of-the-current-literature-and-practical-tips-for-pediatricians
#10
Rebecca Levin, Josephine Misun Jung, Lindsay Forrey, Jill Glick
Vitamin K refusal and associated sequelae of vitamin K deficiency bleed (VKDB) in the newborn period is becoming a more common occurrence. We present six recent cases from a 4-month period in 2017 of parent refusal of vitamin K and describe the reasons for refusal and the clinical outcomes of these infants. There have been a number of case reports citing the rising incidence of VKDB and the reasons why parents refuse. However, there is a gap in the literature and clinical practice guidelines describing how a physician should approach a refusal in the hospital and in the office, and the need to report a refusal to child welfare...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102757/evaluation-and-management-of-psychiatric-emergencies-in-children
#11
REVIEW
Cecilia P Margret, Robert Hilt
Mental illness among children and adolescents is an increasing burden, projected to become one of the world's leading disabilities in near future. A dearth of specialized services and personnel to provide optimal care affects the disease burden, prevalence, health care services, and health care costs. The increasing demand weighs down on generalized systems of care such as emergency department (ED) services, in which the lack of specific training, personnel, and specialized protocols tends to prolong length of stay, recidivism, and suboptimal care...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102756/behavioral-health-care-for-children-who-are-medically-hospitalized
#12
Ian Kodish
Youth admitted to pediatric hospitals face a variety of emotional challenges throughout their stay. In addition to feeling compromised by their acute medical condition, managing the requirements imposed by hospital care can intensify the potential for behavioral dysregulation. Even meeting basic behavioral expectations often requires children to be highly vulnerable, uncomfortable, and in pain, having to trust a parade of people routinely delivering aversive interventions, all in the context of overwhelmed caregivers...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102755/starting-early-promoting-emotional-and-behavioral-well-being-in-infant-and-toddler-well-child-care
#13
Douglas Russell, Mary Margaret Gleason
A child's experiences during the first 3 years of life can have a profound impact on mental health outcomes later in childhood and across the lifespan. Safe and effective therapies for mental health concerns in early childhood exist, but access to them is limited. Pediatricians have a unique opportunity to identify risk and resilience factors and support healthy emotional, behavioral, and social development during infancy and toddlerhood. This article presents a developmentally focused approach to integrating the growing science of early childhood social-emotional development into primary care practice, providing both empiric and practical rationales...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102754/update-on-common-psychiatric-medications-for-children
#14
REVIEW
Aditi Sharma
For children and adolescents with uncomplicated psychiatric disorders, pediatricians are often the first prescriber of psychiatric medications. Mental health disorders commonly treated by pediatricians include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and anxiety. There are several safe and effective first-line medications for these disorders. For ADHD, stimulants and nonstimulants can be used as first-line interventions. For anxiety and depression, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are well-established treatments and often well-tolerated...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102753/pediatric-mental-health-disorders
#15
EDITORIAL
Robert Hilt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102752/music-and-brain-development
#16
REVIEW
Sabrina Fernandez
When I was young, I remember my parents used to play the Beatles song "Here Comes the Sun" in the morning on the old record player. My mother helped hire the first band director at my middle school, and my father played opera in the car on my way to elementary school. I dabbled with different instruments, and played trumpet (cornet actually), flute, piccolo, oboe, English horn, and Ukulele. I also sang in several choirs and still sing today. What did all this musical influence do to my developing brain? This article reviews some of the existing evidence about music and brain development, to make a case for exposing children to music at an early age and supporting school music programs...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102751/the-influence-of-music-on-all-of-us
#17
EDITORIAL
Joseph R Hageman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001445/peanut-allergy-changes-in-dogma-and-past-present-and-future-directions
#18
REVIEW
Sarah Boudreau-Romano, Nashmia Qamar
The prevalence of food allergy in the pediatric population, specifically to peanuts, has been rising. Accidental exposure to peanuts in a person who is allergic may have life-threatening consequences. Previous recommendations regarding peanut allergy included a delay in introduction of peanut to infants. However, more recent studies have provided sufficient contrary evidence supporting early introduction of peanuts for prevention of peanut allergy. Therefore, prompt evaluation by a specialist should be considered in infants at high risk of developing peanut allergy...
July 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001444/pediatric-sepsis-a-primer-for-the-pediatrician
#19
Edward E Conway
Sepsis is the body's systemic response to infection and is a serious health care concern that affects neonatal, pediatric, and adult populations worldwide. Severe sepsis (sepsis that has progressed to cellular dysfunction and organ damage or evidence of hypoperfusion) and septic shock (sepsis with persistent hypotension despite adequate fluid resuscitation) are still associated with high mortality rates despite improvements in the management of infectious processes. The cellular processes that occur as a result of the inflammatory response in sepsis, including impaired perfusion and microcirculatory coagulation, can lead to organ system dysfunction...
July 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001443/acute-kidney-injury-in-hospitalized-pediatric-patients
#20
REVIEW
Rajit K Basu
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is pervasive, affecting a significant proportion of critically ill and noncritically ill children. Recent data demonstrate a clear independent association of escalating AKI severity with not only mortality, but also with longer-term disability and chronic kidney disease in children. The paradigm has shifted-patients are no longer dying with AKI, but rather from AKI. In this review, AKI is described in the paradigms of "past," "present," and "future" to stimulate a reassessment of our understanding of this organ dysfunction syndrome...
July 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
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