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Pediatric Annals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287686/cyproheptadine-a-potentially-effective-treatment-for-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-children
#1
Amornluck Krasaelap, Shailender Madani
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) negatively affect children's quality of life and health care costs. It has been proposed that alteration of gut serotonin leads to gastrointestinal dysmotility, visceral hypersensitivity, altered gastrointestinal secretions, and brain-gut dysfunction. Cyproheptadine, a serotonin antagonist, has been shown to be a potentially effective and safe treatment option in children who meet the clinical criteria for FGIDs. Well-designed multicenter trials with long-term follow-up are needed to further investigate its efficacy...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287685/care-of-shoulder-pain-in-the-overhead-athlete
#2
Joseph Chorley, Richard E Eccles, Armand Scurfield
Shoulder complaints are common in the overhead athlete. Understanding the biomechanics of throwing and swimming requires understanding the importance of maintaining the glenohumeral relationship of the shoulder. Capsular laxity, humeral retrotorsion, glenoid retroversion, glenohumeral internal rotation deficit, and scapular dyskinesis can all contribute to shoulder dysfunction and pain. Injuries are more likely during peak height velocity, especially when coupled with overuse, previous injuries not adequately treated, or change in the demands on the shoulder such as a new technique, bigger field, or longer race...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287684/the-value-of-sleep-on-athletic-performance-injury-and-recovery-in-the-young-athlete
#3
Elizabeth A Copenhaver, Alex B Diamond
Adequate sleep can easily become compromised as student-athletes try to balance the multiple demands on their time. People with sleep deficiency are at increased risk for acute illnesses, traumatic sports injuries, and development of chronic diseases. Training sessions or competitions during extremely early or late hours can interfere with circadian and homeostatic rhythms. Adjusting the training schedule to improve sleep duration has a significantly positive impact on several aspects of athletic performance...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287683/injury-prevention-in-youth-sports
#4
Andrea Stracciolini, Dai Sugimoto, David R Howell
Children and adolescents are now participating in competitive sports at younger ages and with increasing intensity. As a result, increasing numbers of young athletes are presenting to pediatricians for care of sports-related injuries and advice about prevention. Understanding and identifying modifiable risk factors for injury in the young athletic population is a critical first step in injury prevention. Risk factors vary by sport, age, and sex. This article reviews the most common risk factors for injury and the evidence to support proposed strategies for prevention...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287682/return-to-school-and-learning-after-concussion-tips-for-pediatricians
#5
Matthew F Grady, Christina L Master
Concussion in children and adolescents is a common injury that is usually managed by the primary care provider. Students with a concussion may present with a variety of symptoms, and these symptoms interfere with regular school participation. Optimizing the timing and progression of return to school and learning is often challenging, but with a careful history and concussion-specific examination, the primary care provider can identify potential barriers to school reentry. This review focuses on developing a systematic approach to the initial concussion evaluation and developing customized school accommodations to aid in the school reentry process...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287681/the-preparticipation-physical-evaluation
#6
Patrick J Lehman, Rebecca L Carl
With rising rates of sports participation among children and adolescents, pediatricians are increasingly being called upon to perform preparticipation physical evaluations (PPEs) for young athletes. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the general structure of a comprehensive PPE and how the PPE differs from a typical health maintenance visit. The PPE focuses attention on screening for cardiac conditions that predispose athletes to sudden cardiac death with exercise. This review also addresses the debate over whether electrocardiogram screening should be a routine required part of the PPE...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287680/the-real-mvp-in-youth-sports-the-general-pediatrician
#7
EDITORIAL
Cynthia R LaBella
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287679/long-acting-reversible-contraception-a-primer-for-the-primary-care-pediatrician
#8
Sabrina Fernandez
Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is the most effective method of preventing pregnancy in young women and adolescents. The two types of LARC methods are the intrauterine device and the implantable rod device. The success of these methods is demonstrable due to the "perfect use" and "typical use" failure rates being near identical. Pediatricians must be comfortable counseling patients, including adolescents, about LARC methods and how to access them. This primer provides some background about the types of LARC methods, details about their efficacy and side effects, and the role of the primary pediatrician...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287678/current-education-on-sports-medicine-and-an-ongoing-commitment-to-our-patients
#9
EDITORIAL
Joseph R Hageman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192583/erratum-for-emergency-department-triage-of-the-incessantly-crying-baby
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192582/use-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-among-adolescents-status-of-the-evidence-and-public-health-recommendations
#11
Aarti D Kamat, Alison L Van Dyke
Although the prevalence of tobacco smoking has been declining in recent years, the use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) such as of electronic cigarettes, vaporizers, and hookahs has been steadily rising, especially among adolescents. ENDS are not only advertised to children, but their sale via the Internet has made them easily accessible to youth. In general, children perceive ENDS as safe, or at least safer than smoking traditional combustible tobacco products; however, exposure to nicotine may have deleterious effects on the developing brain...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192581/necrotizing-pneumonia
#12
Elitsa V Nicolaou, Allison H Bartlett
Necrotizing pneumonia refers to the development of necrosis, liquefication, and cavitation of the lung parenchyma from an infectious pathogen. Nearly 4% of all community-acquired pneumonias are necrotizing, although studies retrospectively evaluating the incidence have found it to be increasing during the past 20 years. Common presenting symptoms include fever, tachypnea, and cough, and most of those afflicted also develop complications such as parapneumonic effusions, empyemas, or bronchopleural fistulae. When compared to age-matched controls with parapneumonic effusions or severe pneumonias without a necrotizing component, those with necrotizing pneumonia have been shown to have more elevated white blood cell counts and inflammatory markers that take longer to normalize, a longer duration of symptoms despite initiation of therapy, and a longer hospital stay...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192580/a-brief-resolved-unexplained-event-and-congenital-neurosyphilis
#13
Justin Triemstra, Kelsey Reno, Rebecca Chohlas-Wood, Colleen Nash
Brief resolved unexplained event (BRUE) is a common pediatric problem that presents to ambulatory and emergency settings. Infants presenting with a BRUE can be separated into low- and high-risk groups per recent guidelines. Most low-risk infants who present with a BRUE can be discharged home with anticipatory guidance and education provided to the caregivers; however, high-risk infants should undergo further testing and observation to determine the cause of their event. Congenital neurosyphilis can be a rare cause of a BRUE...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192579/infectious-diseases-and-immunizations-in-international-adoption
#14
Emily Obringer, Linda Walsh
Children who are adopted internationally have an increased risk of infectious diseases due to endemic conditions and variable access to preventive health care, such as vaccines, in their country of origin. Pediatricians and other providers who care for children should be familiar with the recommended screening for newly arrived international adoptees. Testing for gastrointestinal pathogens, tuberculosis, hepatitis, syphilis, and HIV should be routinely performed. Other endemic diseases and common skin infections may need to be assessed...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192578/when-the-great-masquerader-reveals-itself-tuberculosis
#15
Brittany Hodgson, Benjamin D Kornfeld, Bridget M Wild
Pneumonia is a clinical diagnosis often treated empirically and successfully on an outpatient basis. When a patient fails to improve, the clinician is left to revisit the differential of pathogens and reconsider the host. Admission, imaging, and invasive and noninvasive testing are part of the toolkit for the severe or atypical case of pneumonia. For fastidious organisms, achieving a culture-proven diagnosis can be quite difficult. This article discusses the screening and testing for tuberculosis, reviews the utility of computed tomography imaging and bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage in severe or atypical pneumonia, and highlights the barriers to definitive diagnosis even when the causative microbe is on the differential diagnosis when a patient is admitted...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192577/diagnosing-acute-hiv-infection
#16
Paul Devine Bottone, Allison H Bartlett
Acute HIV infection (AHI) represents the first 6 to 12 weeks of the disease process, when the virus is aggressively replicating in the lymphoid tissues. Accordingly, high viral loads are often present during this phase, with declining lymphocyte levels, as the CD4+ T-cell subset is preferentially commandeered to facilitate viral reproduction. Detection at this stage is imperative-the affected are often unaware, but highly infectious. Unfortunately, correct diagnosis of AHI can be challenging because the more traditional, frequently used tests, which rely on antibody detection, will often produce false-negative results during the "window period" (usually 3 to 4 weeks from infection) due to slow production of HIV antibodies...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192576/herpes-simplex-virus-in-the-neonate
#17
Amy Wang, Julie Wohrley, Julia Rosebush
Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) disease is a serious, life-threatening condition that should be considered in neonates with fever, vesicular rash, culture negative sepsis, and/or seizure activity. Because signs and symptoms of neonatal HSV may closely resemble those of bacterial sepsis, a thorough history and appropriate testing are imperative to accurately confirm the diagnosis. Failure to treat vesicular lesions from HSV in the neonate leads to an approximate 75% chance of progression to disseminated disease and/or meningoencephalitis...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192575/less-common-pediatric-infectious-diseases-revisited
#18
EDITORIAL
Julia Rosebush, Ram Yogev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192574/primary-care-asthma-management-inhaled-corticosteroids-and-other-clinical-pearls
#19
Zachary Marcus, Nanah Suk Park
Most children in the United States with intermittent, mild, and moderate persistent asthma are cared for by primary care practitioners (PCPs). Despite inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) being highly effective at controlling asthma symptoms, many PCPs are uncomfortable prescribing these medications. Cumbersome guidelines, increasing numbers of medication choices, and concerns regarding side effects are some of the barriers to prescribing ICS for children with asthma. This article serves as a quick-start guide for PCPs that (1) condenses the routine diagnosis and management of asthma into concise clinical tools for children who would benefit from ICS therapy and (2) provides clinical pearls to aid in the treatment of mild- to moderate-persistent asthma...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192573/uncommon-infectious-disease-presentations-and-a-reminder-that-quality-improvement-is-meant-to-improve-care
#20
EDITORIAL
Joseph R Hageman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
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