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Pediatric Annals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423190/assessing-nutritional-risk-among-infants-and-toddlers-in-primary-care-practice
#1
Robert D Murray
Traditionally, nutritional risk has been defined by growth failure, with clinical intervention indicated when a child falls below the third to fifth percentile on growth charts. Although the velocity of linear growth and weight gain during the first years are unparalleled at any other time of life, this period is also unique for other reasons. Nutrition not only supports increased bone length, muscle mass, and tissue growth, but also continued development of several highly metabolic organs such as the gastrointestinal tract, the immune system, the cardiorespiratory system, the kidneys, and the central nervous system...
November 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423189/hepatobiliary-manifestations-in-systemic-disease
#2
Joseph Runde, Ruba K Azzam
Liver disease in children occurs via a multitude of primary illnesses such as autoimmune hepatopathy, biliary atresia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, jaundice, hepatitis, and alterations in liver tests can often be a manifestation of systemic diseases. The liver is involved in many critical functions such as circulation, immunity, toxin clearance, and metabolism; when the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, immune system, or endocrine systems are compromised, the liver will be affected. This article reviews common causes of liver injury as well as highlights key associations that should not be missed when diagnosing and managing children with liver disease...
November 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423188/autoimmune-liver-diseases-in-children
#3
Leslie Mataya, Namrata Patel, Ruba K Azzam
Autoimmune liver disease remains difficult to diagnose, and distinguishing the various causes is difficult as well. In children, it can present with wide variation, including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), and the "overlap syndrome" of AIH/PSC, also known as autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis. These liver disorders are thought to be immune-mediated, but their etiology remains unclear. They are not secondary to inherited or acquired diseases and they are not associated with any drugs, so they can only be diagnosed if these other diseases or conditions are excluded...
November 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423187/nutrition-in-pediatric-chronic-liver-disease
#4
Inessa Normatov, Shiran Kaplan, Ruba K Azzam
More than one-half of children with chronic liver disease suffer from malnutrition, which leads not only to a poor quality of life and even possibly catastrophic complications, but also to poor outcomes after a liver transplantation. These children have increased metabolic demands but often decreased intake with malabsorption and altered nutrient utilization, all of which make it difficult to keep up with nutritional demands. Assessment of a patient's nutritional status should be timely, and it should be performed routinely and proactively...
November 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423186/wilson-s-disease-a-review-for-the-general-pediatrician
#5
Kristin Capone, Ruba K Azzam
Wilson's disease, also known as hepatolenticular degeneration, is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder due to a mutation of the ATP7B gene resulting in impaired hepatic copper excretion and copper accumulation in various tissues. It is associated with the classic triad of cirrhosis, neurological manifestations, and the ocular finding of Kayser-Fleischer rings; however, the clinical presentation can vary greatly from incidental findings of abnormal liver enzymes to acute liver failure necessitating liver transplant...
November 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423185/neonatal-cholestasis-a-primer-of-selected-etiologies
#6
Ranjani Ananth
Cholestasis refers to impairment in formation or excretion of bile. This can be due to defects in intrahepatic production of bile, defects in the transmembrane transport of bile, or mechanical obstruction to bile flow. Clinical features of cholestasis reflect the retention of components of bile (bilirubin, bile acids, cholesterol) in the body. In the neonatal period, hyperbilirubinemia can be categorized as either unconjugated (and often benign) hyperbilirubinemia, or conjugated hyperbilirubinemia due to cholestasis...
November 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423184/pediatric-hepatology-an-update
#7
EDITORIAL
Ruba K Azzam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423183/the-truth-about-obesity-exercise-and-nutrition
#8
Rachel S Dawson
There is a plethora of misinformation regarding obesity, diet, and exercise due to lack of supporting evidence on these topics. There are myths and facts about what exactly encompasses a healthy lifestyle that interfere with the ability to lose weight and stay healthy. These include topics such as the effects of small sustained increases in energy intake or expenditure, establishment of realistic goals, rapid weight loss, readiness for weight loss, physical activity, breast-feeding as well as the effects of eating breakfast daily, early childhood experiences, eating fruits and vegetables, weight that cycles up and down, snacking, and the environment...
November 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423182/thinking-fast-is-clinically-important-but-thinking-slow-is-just-as-important
#9
EDITORIAL
Joseph R Hageman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308679/drug-allergy
#10
Divya Seth, Deepak Kamat
Drug allergy is commonly encountered in clinical practice. It is an immunological response to a pharmaceutical agent. The clinical presentation can vary from mild cutaneous reactions to life-threatening conditions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Diagnosis is most often clinical, but investigations such as measurement of immunoglobulin E, patch testing, and skin biopsy may be required. In patients with a known drug allergy, the offending drug should be avoided. [Pediatr Ann. 2018;47(10):e419-e425...
October 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308678/advocating-for-automatic-eligibility-for-early-intervention-services-for-children-exposed-to-lead
#11
Nicole Hamp, Amy Zimmerman, Jessica Hoffen
Lead poisoning remains one of the most prevalent and preventable environmental health hazards affecting children. Low-level lead exposure has been shown to significantly increase the risk of learning disabilities, behavioral problems, and developmental delay. It also has substantial social implications as lead toxicity disproportionately affects children from low-income, ethnic minority households. Early Intervention (EI) is a state-based federal program (Part C of the Federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) created to support the development of children from birth to age 3 years who are experiencing or who are at risk for developmental delay...
October 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308677/approach-to-children-with-aggressive-behavior-for-general-pediatricians-and-hospitalists-part-2-evaluation-tests-and-treatment
#12
Sara Haidar-Elatrache, Marlisa Wolf, Noelle Andrea V Fabie, Shashi Sahai
After reviewing the various etiologies that can contribute to a presentation of aggressive behavior in a child (see part 1), a physician should conduct a thorough history and physical examination. The history should be obtained from the patient and caregivers, both together and separately in adolescents. A good physical examination starts with assessment and interpretation of vital signs, followed by a head-to-toe examination focusing on the skin, eyes, and thyroid, and then a neurologic examination. The testing and observation should be tailored to the individual patient, including laboratory results, imaging, and specialist consultation...
October 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308676/approach-to-children-with-aggressive-behavior-for-general-pediatricians-and-hospitalists-part-1-epidemiology-and-etiology
#13
Sara Haidar-Elatrache, Marlisa Wolf, Noelle Andrea V Fabie, Shashi Sahai
Children and adolescents are increasingly presenting to the hospital and emergency department with aggressive behavior and psychiatric emergencies. The rise in pediatric mental health problems, coupled with a lack of much needed resources, necessitates that pediatricians safely diagnose and treat patients presenting with aggressive behavior. In this article, we discuss the broad differential diagnosis that should be considered when initially evaluating a patient presenting with aggression or altered mental status; underlying causes include predisposing factors, comorbid conditions, and acute organic causes involving almost every organ system...
October 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308675/sinusitis-in-children
#14
REVIEW
Harbir Singh Arora
Acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) mostly occurs as a complication of acute viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI), which is a common condition encountered in an outpatient setting. ABS manifests with three different presentations, most commonly as persistent symptoms of viral URI (nasal drainage and or cough) for more than 10 days. ABS is also diagnosed when the patient presents with severe symptoms of a URI accompanied by fever >102.2°F and purulent nasal drainage for at least 3 days. Lastly, ABS can complicate viral URI around day 6 or 7 of illness after initial improvement in the symptoms of URI...
October 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308674/enuresis-management-in-the-primary-care-pediatrics-clinic
#15
REVIEW
Linda S Nield, Emily K Nease, Oulimata K Grossman
Enuresis is a frequent complaint not always volunteered by parents or patients. The pediatric clinician has to inquire about enuresis to break the secrecy surrounding this symptom that could be related to a more serious underlying renal, endocrine, or psychosocial disease. Determining the type of enuresis is crucial to offer optimal treatment. We present a review for the pediatric clinician to optimize their care of the child with monosymptomatic enuresis. [Pediatr Ann. 2018;47(10):e390-e395.].
October 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308673/common-problems-in-general-pediatrics
#16
EDITORIAL
Shashi Sahai, Deepak Kamat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308672/trampolines-what-s-the-harm
#17
M Denise Dowd
Trampolines hold the promise of fun and enjoyment for many children, but they are associated with a significant number of orthopedic and other injuries. Injuries vary from minor to severe, and the most common are extremity injuries. Although most injuries are associated with residential (ie, backyard) trampolines, a growing number of injuries now occur in trampoline parks. Adult supervision has not been effective for prevention. Emerging data on trampoline park-related injuries indicate that caution should be exercised in these settings as well...
October 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308671/vitamin-k-administration
#18
LETTER
Poj Lysouvakon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308670/the-magnitude-of-the-opioid-epidemic-and-what-we-can-doto-help
#19
EDITORIAL
Joseph R Hageman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208198/slipped-capital-femoral-epiphysis-a-review-for-pediatricians
#20
REVIEW
Carlos Castillo, Magda Mendez
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is one of the most common hip pathologies that occurs during adolescence, and its incidence has been increasing over the past decades. For this reason, pediatricians should be aware of this entity to ensure an early diagnosis and intervene in a timely manner. The typical patient with SCFE is an adolescent who is obese presenting with hip pain, but it can also occur in children who are not obese; therefore, SCFE should be part of the differential diagnosis in any skeletally immature patient presenting with hip or knee pain...
September 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
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