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Pediatric Annals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750290/neonatal-intestinal-obstruction-syndrome
#1
Manuel Gil Vargas, Mariana L Miguel-Sardaneta, Michelle Rosas-Téllez, Dayana Pereira-Reyes, Jaime M Justo-Janeiro
Neonatal intestinal obstruction is caused by an anatomical abnormality that produces bowel movement failure. Intestinal obstruction presents with three classic clinical signs: vomiting, abdominal distention, and failure to pass meconium. Intestinal obstruction is one of the most common causes for admitting a pediatric patient to the pediatric surgery unit in his or her first weeks of postnatal life. Congenital obstruction of the digestive tract in neonates is a common problem, with the most frequent cause being anorectal malformations (41%), followed by esophageal obstruction (24%), and duodenal obstruction (20%)...
May 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750289/pharmacogenomic-primer-for-the-pediatrician-what-is-really-important
#2
Shannon Manzi
Safe prescribing of medications has become increasingly challenging with dozens of new drugs and drug classes added each year. Maximizing the ability to find a medication that will work as intended while minimizing side effects can be difficult, particularly when a patient does not respond as expected. Some of the variability in response may be attributed to the patient's genetics. Pharmacogenomics is the science of examining a patient's genotype in the context of medication selection and dosing. Used correctly, the clinical application of pharmacogenomic data can be useful in decreasing the trial and error approach to medication therapy...
May 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750288/recognizing-and-managing-children-with-a-pediatric-cancer-predisposition-syndrome-a-guide-for-the-pediatrician
#3
Stephanie A Coury, Katherine A Schneider, Jaclyn Schienda, Wen-Hann Tan
It is estimated that at least 8% to 10% of children diagnosed with cancer have an inherited cancer predisposition syndrome. Pediatricians may be called upon to (1) identify children with symptoms suggestive of cancer that require further diagnostic testing, (2) identify children who should be referred to cancer genetics based on their personal and family histories, and (3) provide primary care to children who have an inherited cancer syndrome. This review article provides a list of clinical warning signs suggestive of childhood malignancy, discusses the personal and family history "red flags" suggestive of hereditary cancer, offers checklists to help identify patients who are candidates for cancer genetics evaluation, and describes features of the major pediatric cancer syndromes involving solid tumors and surveillance guidelines...
May 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750287/an-update-on-common-chromosome-microdeletion-and-microduplication-syndromes
#4
Paula Goldenberg
This review summarizes common microdeletion and microduplication syndromes and highlights important updates in patient-care needs for people with these conditions (22q11.2, 7q11.23, 17p11.2, and 16p11.2). These conditions are in chromosomal "hotspots" and have an estimated prevalence of 1 in 1,000 to 1 in 25,000. Some conditions have possible increased or decreased genetic risk of schizophrenia (22q11.2 deletion and duplication), or risk of aortic dilation (7q11.23 duplication) versus aortic stenosis (7q11...
May 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750286/enzyme-replacement-therapy-a-review-and-its-role-in-treating-lysosomal-storage-diseases
#5
Mindy Li
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders caused by defects in lysosomal function that lead to multiorgan system damage. Due to wide clinical variability within even a single disorder, making a diagnosis can be difficult and identification may be delayed. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) was first approved as a treatment for the LSD Gaucher disease in 1991. ERT development for other LSDs followed, and ERT is currently approved for eight LSDs in the United States. ERT may help slow progression and improve clinical symptoms, but it cannot affect neurologic features due to its inability to cross the blood-brain barrier...
May 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750285/updates-in-newborn-screening
#6
Farrah Rajabi
Newborn screening in the United States is an important public health measure to provide early detection for specified disorders when early treatment is both possible and beneficial. As technology improves, newborn screening can be offered for many more conditions. In the past 10 years, screening has expanded to include severe combined immunodeficiency, congenital heart disease, lysosomal storage disease, and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. This article reviews the current state of newborn screening with updates on recent developments...
May 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750284/genetics-and-metabolism
#7
EDITORIAL
Joan Stoler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750283/constipation-management-in-pediatric-primary-care
#8
Leah Khan
Constipation is a common and often difficult to manage problem encountered in outpatient primary care. Although we give our patients many different modalities to treat constipation (eg, diet changes, behavior modification, probiotics, medication), there is little evidence to support any of these modalities. We also tend to order unnecessary tests during the diagnostic process. This article tries to clarify the diagnostic process and provide a clear treatment path to be used for functional constipation. [Pediatr Ann...
May 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750282/is-it-okay-to-travel
#9
EDITORIAL
Joseph R Hageman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668027/heart-transplant-in-children-what-a-primary-care-provider-needs-to-know
#10
Swati Sehgal, Emily Shea, Lauren Kelm, Deepak Kamat
Heart transplantation is offered to children with heart failure that is not amenable to medical or surgical therapy. Indications for heart transplant include unrepairable congenital heart disease, failed palliation of congenital heart disease, and cardiomyopathies. There has been tremendous progress in this field since the first heart transplant was performed in 1967. Each year, approximately 500 pediatric heart transplants take place worldwide. Pediatric heart transplant survivors are living longer with their initial transplant...
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668026/nicu-graduates-the-role-of-the-allied-health-team-in-follow-up
#11
Jane L Orton, Joy E Olsen, Katherine Ong, Rochelle Lester, Alicia J Spittle
Infants who graduate from the neonatal intensive care unit, including those infants born preterm and/or with brain injury, are at increased risk of long-term neurodevelopmental impairments. The developmental allied health team, consisting of physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech pathology, is crucial in early evaluation of gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and language development. Surveillance of neurodevelopment in the first year of life is essential to ensure early detection of specific developmental delays and impairments, and to ensure timely referral for early intervention...
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668025/general-movements-a-behavioral-biomarker-of-later-motor-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-nicu-graduates
#12
Colleen Peyton, Christa Einspieler
Infants who have graduated from a neonatal intensive care unit require close follow-up because they have a greater chance of experiencing later motor and cognitive difficulties; however, these difficulties are often challenging to identify at an early age. The General Movement Assessment is a low-cost and highly reliable tool that can indicate abnormal neurological development in young high-risk infants, but it has not yet been widely implemented in the United States. In this review, we discuss the literature about the use of the General Movement Assessment in high-risk infants and how to implement the tool in a clinical setting...
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668024/nutrition-considerations-after-nicu-discharge
#13
Taylor Peters, Cecelia Pompeii-Wolfe
Preterm infants are at high nutrition risk during neonatal intensive care and well after discharge. Nutrition care should be individualized and provided by a multidisciplinary team including a dietitian. Breast milk, the gold standard for feeding, may not meet the increased needs of preterm infants and may require fortification or supplementation. Decisions regarding formula choice and calorie concentration can also be challenging and require individualization based on growth, intake, and individual need. Developmental milestones should be considered during the initation of complementary food...
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668023/common-queries-about-immunizations-in-preterm-infants
#14
Ansul Asad
Preterm infants are at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases. Despite this, delays in routine immunization of preterm infants are common. Available guidelines clearly state that they should be immunized according to chronological age, irrespective of gestational age and birth weight or current weight. In this article, we try to assuage parental and provider doubts by reviewing data about immunogenicity, safety, and responses to routine immunizations in preterm infants with and without comorbidities...
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668022/follow-up-care-for-high-risk-preterm-infants
#15
Stephannie M B Voller
Preterm infants continue to have complex medical and developmental issues after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. Over the past few decades there has been an increase in preterm births and a decrease in preterm mortality. Many infants are referred to follow-up clinics that specialize in neurodevelopmental assessment. Often, a community pediatrician or family practitioner provides both the medical management and observes developmental milestones of the high-risk neonate. Intense medical management, early identification of delay, and referral for developmental services may improve preterm infant outcomes...
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668021/taking-care-of-the-nicu-graduate-a-team-approach
#16
EDITORIAL
Bree Andrews, Colleen Peyton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668020/adolescent-sexual-health-and-education-where-does-the-pediatrician-s-responsibility-fall
#17
Rachel S Dawson
Adolescence is a stressful time with a considerable amount of change, not only physically, with all the changes expected throughout puberty, but also emotionally, spiritually, and psychosocially. Teens are learning how to build and sustain relationships, learning boundaries in all areas of their lives, experimenting, as well as setting values that will sustain them throughout their lives. Home, school, various social settings, and places of worship all contribute to where adolescents learn what their values are, what they want their values to be, and how they start to make choices about their personal beliefs, which may not always align with their family values...
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668019/the-nicu-graduate-heart-transplantation-and-sexuality-education-for-adolescents
#18
EDITORIAL
Joseph R Hageman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538787/behavioral-outbursts-in-a-child-with-a-deletion-syndrome-generalized-epilepsy-global-developmental-delay-and-failure-to-thrive
#19
Adam H Lewis, Ankur Chugh, Sarah A Sobotka
A 7-year-old girl with 20q13.33 deletion and a history of generalized convulsive epilepsy presented to the Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics Clinic due to concerns about her behavioral outbursts in the context of overall delayed development. Evaluation by the Developmental and Behavioral and Gastroenterology teams revealed failure to thrive (FTT) as the primary cause of the behavioral outbursts and developed a high-calorie, high-fat, high-protein nutritional counseling plan. Children who have FTT and a genetic disorder are often thought to not thrive because of their underlying genetic disorder; however, feeding skills and nutritional intake need to be thoroughly investigated before determining an etiology for FTT...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538786/acute-pediatric-pain-management-in-the-primary-care-office
#20
Sindy Villacres, Corrie E Chumpitazi
Pain is a chief complaint in children seeking medical care, yet it may also be experienced in evaluation and treatment during office visits. Inadequate relief of children's procedural pain and distress not only affects the experience of the children and their parents, but also adversely affects procedural outcomes. Despite increasing awareness and research, management of procedural pain and anxiety in children is often inadequate. In addition, parent and patient satisfaction is often tied to pain management...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
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