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Development, Growth & Differentiation

Tomoya S Kitajima
Proper kinetochore-microtubule attachment is essential for correct chromosome segregation. Therefore, cells normally possess multiple mechanisms for the prevention of errors in kinetochore-microtubule attachments and for selective stabilization of correct attachments. However, the oocyte, a cell that produces an egg through meiosis, exhibits a high frequency of errors in kinetochore-microtubule attachments. These attachment errors predispose oocytes to chromosome segregation errors, resulting in aneuploidy in eggs...
January 10, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Seiko Sugimori, Yuji Kumata, Satoru Kobayashi
Nanos (Nos) is an evolutionary conserved protein expressed in the germline of various animal species. In Drosophila, maternal Nos protein is essential for germline development. In the germline progenitors, or the primordial germ cells (PGCs), Nos binds to the 3' UTR of target mRNAs to repress their translation. In contrast to this prevailing role of Nos, here we report that the 3' UTR of CG32425 mRNA mediates Nos-dependent RNA stabilization in PGCs. We found that the level of mRNA expressed from a reporter gene fused to the CG32425 3' UTR was significantly reduced in PGCs lacking maternal Nos (nos PGCs) as compared with normal PGCs...
December 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Masatoshi Takeichi
The cadherin family of cell-cell adhesion molecules plays a pivotal role in animal tissue formation. Discovery of this molecular family can be traced back to some unexpected observations of strange cell behavior that were made around 1970 in the Kyoto University laboratory of Tokindo Okada, and then in the Department of Embryology at the Carnegie Institution of Washington (currently the Carnegie Institution for Science). This article looks back on these discoveries, and recalls how these observations led to the identification of important cell-cell adhesion molecules known as cadherins...
December 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Miki Hattori, Mai Miyamoto, Kazutaka Hosoda, Yoshihiko Umesono
Planarians have become widely recognized as one of the major animal models for regeneration studies in invertebrates. To induce RNA interference (RNAi) by feeding in planarians, the widely accepted protocol is one in which animals undergo two or three feedings of food containing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) plus visible food coloring (e.g., blood) for confirmation of feeding by individual animals. However, one possible problem is that incorporated food coloring is often retained within the gut for several days, which makes it difficult to confirm the success of each round of dsRNA feeding based on the difference of the color density within the gut before and after feeding...
December 21, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Shunsuke Kon
In multicellular organisms, incidentally emerging suboptimal cells are removed to maintain homeostasis of tissues. The unfavorable cells are excluded by a process termed cell competition whereby the resident normal cells actively eliminate the unfit cells of the identical lineage. Although the phenomenon of cell competition was originally discovered in Drosophila, a number of recent studies have provided implications of cell competition in tissue regeneration, development and oncogenesis in mammals. Here the roles of cell competition in fly to mammals are discussed...
December 18, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Atsushi Taniguchi, Yukiko Kimura, Ikue Mori, Shigenori Nonaka, Shin-Ichi Higashijima
Green-to-red photoconvertible fluorescent proteins have been found to undergo efficient photoconversion by a new method termed primed conversion that uses dual wave-length illumination with blue and red/near-infrared light. By modifying a confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM) such that two laser beams only meet at the focal plane, confined photoconversion at the axial dimension has been achieved. The necessity of this custom modification to the CLSM, however, has precluded the wide-spread use of this method...
December 13, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Tatsuya Sato, Takako Kikkawa, Tetsuichiro Saito, Keiichi Itoi, Noriko Osumi
The anterior part of the embryonic telencephalon gives rise to several brain regions that are important for animal behavior, including the frontal cortex (FC) and the olfactory bulb. The FC plays an important role in decision-making behaviors, such as social and cognitive behavior, and the olfactory bulb is involved in olfaction. Here, we show the organizing activity of fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) in the regionalization of the anterior telencephalon, specifically the FC and the olfactory bulb. Misexpression of Fgf8 in the most anterior part of the mouse telencephalon at embryonic day 11...
November 10, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Ryoma Ota, Shumpei Morita, Masanao Sato, Shuji Shigenobu, Makoto Hayashi, Satoru Kobayashi
In Drosophila, Sex lethal (Sxl), an RNA binding protein, is required for induction of female sexual identity in both somatic and germline cells. Although the Sxl-dependent feminizing pathway in the soma was previously elucidated, the downstream targets for Sxl in the germline remained elusive. To identify these target genes, we selected transcripts associated with Sxl in primordial germ cells (PGCs) of embryos using RNA immunoprecipitation coupled to sequencing (RIP-seq) analysis. A total of 308 transcripts encoded by 282 genes were obtained...
November 10, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Hiroki Sasaki, Tetsuya Kominami
In this study, we attempted to reveal fundamental aspects of starfish embryogenesis, particularly embryonic axis specification or determination, in Patiria pectinifera. We first cloned PpNodal, which is known to play an important role in the specification of the embryonic axis in a wide range of animals, and studied its expression profile. PpNodal expression was first detected at the mid-blastula stage and showed a single peak around the onset of gastrulation. These features of Nodal expression were shifted to later stages by several hours, compared with those of sea urchin embryos...
November 2, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Ichiro Tazawa, Yoshio Yaoita
When anuran tadpoles are treated with vitamin A after tail amputation, hindlimb-like structures can be generated instead of the lost tail part at the amputation site. This homeotic transformation was initially expected to be a key to understanding the body plan of vertebrates. Unfortunately, homeotic limb formation has been reproduced in only some Indian frog species and a European species, but not in experimental anurans such as Xenopus laevis or Rana catesbeiana. Consequently, this fascinating phenomenon has not been well analyzed, especially at the molecular level...
November 1, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Tadayoshi Watanabe, Takahiro Kiyomoto, Ryosuke Tadokoro, Yuta Takase, Yoshiko Takahashi
The autonomic nervous system consists of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, which functionally antagonize each other to control physiology and homeostasis of organs. However, it is largely unexplored how the autonomic nervous system is established during development. In particular, early formation of parasympathetic network remains elusive because of its complex anatomical structure. To distinguish between parasympathetic (cholinergic) and sympathetic (adrenergic) ganglia, vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and choline O-acetyltransferase (ChAT), proteins associated with acetylcholine synthesis, are known to be useful markers...
October 25, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Hirokazu Ishii, Toshiyuki Goto, Takahito Nishikata
Body axis formation during embryogenesis results from asymmetric localization of maternal factors in the egg. Shortly before the first cleavage in ascidian eggs, cell polarity along the anteroposterior (A-P) axis is established and the cytoplasmic domain (myoplasm) relocates from the vegetal to the posterior region in a microtubule-dependent manner. Through immunostaining, tubulin accumulation during this reorganization is observable on the myoplasm cortex. However, more detailed morphological features of microtubules remain relatively unknown...
October 2, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Masamitsu N Asaka, Kousuke Uranishi, Ayumu Suzuki, Masataka Hirasaki, Masazumi Nishimoto, Akihiko Okuda
The Oct4 gene is a master regulator of the pluripotent properties of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Recently, Oct4 loci were shown to frequently localize in close proximity to one another during the early stage of cellular differentiation, implicating this event as an important prerequisite step for ESCs to exert their full differentiation potential. Although the differentiation capacity of embryonal carcinoma cells (ECCs), such as F9 and P19 ECC lines, is severely restricted compared with ESCs, ECCs bear a highly similar expression profile to that of ESCs including expression of Oct4 and other pluripotency marker genes...
October 2, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Marissa Blume, Fuduki Inoguchi, Taku Sugiyama, Yuji Owada, Noriko Osumi, Yoshinari Aimi, Kosuke Taki, Yu Katsuyama
The hippocampal formation (HF) is morphologically and functionally distinguishable into the subdivisions, such as the dentate gyrus (DG), subiculum, and Ammon's horn. The Ammon's horn is further divided into the CA (Cornu Ammonis)1, CA2, and CA3. The Reelin-Dab1 signal is essential for the morphogenesis of the mammalian brain. In the neocortex of Reelin-Dab1 signal mutants the laminar pattern of the neurons is disrupted along the radial axis. Morphological abnormalities in the HF of the Reelin-Dab1 mutants were known, but how these abnormalities appear during development had not been extensively studied...
September 25, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Shailja Rajaram, Sonam Patel, Gowri Kumari Uggini, Isha Desai, Suresh Balakrishnan
Caudal fin regeneration in sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur 1821) involves an initial wound healing stage, followed by blastema that is formed of fast proliferating cells. In order to replicate the lost fin, correct differentiation of the blastemal cells into various tissues is the prime essence. Among the molecular signals governing proper differentiation of blastemal cells, members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family are crucial. Herein, we investigated the specific effects of inhibition of BMP signaling using LDN193189 on skeletal and connective tissue formation in the regenerating tail fin of P...
September 12, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Meenakshi Tiwari, Shail K Chaube
Nitric oxides (NO) act as one of the major signal molecules and modulate various cell functions including oocyte meiosis in mammals. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanism of NO action during spontaneous meiotic exit from diplotene arrest (EDA) in rat cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) cultured in vitro. Diplotene-arrested COCs collected from ovary of immature female rats after 20 IU pregnant mare's serum gonadotropins (PMSG) for 48 h were exposed to various concentrations of NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG) for 3 h in vitro and downstream factors were analyzed...
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Yosuke Ogura, Yasunori Sasakura
The basic mechanisms controlling mitosis are highly conserved in animals regardless of cell types and developmental stages. However, an exceptional aspect of mitosis is seen during early animal embryogenesis in which a large fertilized egg is quickly divided into smaller blastomeres according to the reproducible spatiotemporal pattern that does not rely on the cell-cycle arrest or growth. This mitosis, referred to as cleavage, overlaps in the timeframe with the specification of cell fate. The precise spatiotemporal regulation of cleavages is therefore essential to the creation of the appropriate cell number and to the morphology of an embryo...
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Meenakshi Tiwari, Shail K Chaube
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) mimics the action of luteinizing hormone (LH) and triggers meiotic maturation and ovulation in mammals. The mechanism by which hCG triggers meiotic resumption in mammalian oocytes remains poorly understood. We aimed to find out the impact of hCG surge on morphological changes, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), cell division cycle 25B (Cdc25B), Wee1, early mitotic inhibitor 2 (Emi2), anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), meiotic arrest deficient protein 2 (MAD2), phosphorylation status of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), its activity and cyclin B1 expression levels during meiotic resumption from diplotene as well as metaphase-II (M-II) arrest in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs)...
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Edward M De Robertis, Yuki Moriyama, Gabriele Colozza
The classic book "On Growth and Form" by naturalist D'Arcy Thompson was published 100 years ago. To celebrate this landmark, we present experiments in the Xenopus embryo that provide a framework for understanding how simple, quantitative transformations of a morphogen gradient might have affected evolution and morphological diversity of organisms. D'Arcy Thompson proposed that different morphologies might be generated by modifying physical parameters in an underlying system of Cartesian coordinates that pre-existed in Nature and arose during evolutionary history...
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
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