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Development, Growth & Differentiation

Sonoko Kinjo, Masato Kiyomoto, Takashi Yamamoto, Kazuho Ikeo, Shunsuke Yaguchi
To understand the mystery of life, it is important to accumulate genomic information for various organisms because the whole genome encodes the commands for all the genes. Since the genome of Strongylocentrotus purpratus was sequenced in 2006 as the first sequenced genome in echinoderms, the genomic resources of other North American sea urchins have gradually been accumulated, but no sea urchin genomes are available in other areas, where many scientists have used the local species and reported important results...
March 13, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Xiaoping Song, Xingxing Gao, Jiali Lu, Hongfang Liang, Peng Su, Qingwei Li, Yue Pang
High mobility group (HMG) box-containing protein 1 (HBP1) is a member of the HMG family of chromosomal proteins. Previous studies have shown that human HBP1 exhibits tumor-suppressor activity. Here, we identified a homologue of HBP1, L-hbp1, in Lampetra japonica. The L-hbp1 gene shared high sequence similarity with its homologues in jawed vertebrates, as shown by bioinformatics analyses. L-hbp1 contains a 1,584-bp open reading frame that encodes 527 amino acids. A pAdenox-L-HBP1 plasmid was constructed and transfected successfully in Raji cells, as revealed by real-time PCR...
March 8, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Yu Okamoto, Naoko Nishimura, Kazunari Matsuda, Deshani C Ranawakage, Yusuke Kamachi, Hisato Kondoh, Masanori Uchikawa
To elucidate the transcriptional regulation that underlies specification of the otic placode, we investigated the Sox3 downstream enhancer Otic1 of the chicken, the activity of which is restricted to and distributed across the entire otic placode. The 181-bp Otic1 enhancer sequence was dissected into a 68-bp minimal activating sequence, which exhibited dimer enhancer activity in the otic placode and cephalic neural crest, and this was further reduced to a 25-bp Otic1 core sequence, which also showed octamer enhancer activity in the same regions...
March 8, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Yoshihiro Tsuchiya, Yusuke Mii, Kazunori Okada, Mikio Furuse, Tadashi Okubo, Shinji Takada
During tissue development, the morphogenesis of epithelial sheets is regulated by many factors, including mechanical force, although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the pharyngeal region of the vertebrate embryo, endodermal epithelium is reiteratively folded outward to form pharyngeal pouches, making partitions between the pharyngeal arches. Ripply3, encoding a member of the Ripply family of adaptor proteins, is required for the pouch formation posterior to the 2nd pharyngeal pouch. In this study, we found that the expression of mouse Ripply3 was specifically activated in accordance with the bending of the endodermal epithelium during the pouch formation...
February 22, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Juan A Arias Del Angel, Ana E Escalante, León Patricio Martínez-Castilla, Mariana Benítez
Myxococcus xanthus is a myxobacterium that exhibits aggregation and cellular differentiation during the formation of fruiting bodies. Therefore, it has become a valuable model system to study the transition to multicellularity via cell aggregation. Although there is a vast set of experimental information for the development on M. xanthus, the dynamics behind cell-fate determination in this organism's development remain unclear. We integrate the currently available evidence in a mathematical network model that allows to test the set of molecular elements and regulatory interactions that are sufficient to account for the specification of the cell types that are observed in fruiting body formation...
February 13, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Maho Kodama, Madoka Yoshida, Masami Endo, Tohru Kobayashi, Akira Oike, Shigeki Yasumasu, Masahisa Nakamura
Nanos is expressed in the primordial germ cells (PGCs) and also the germ cells of a variety of organisms as diverse as Drosophila, medaka fish, Xenopus and mouse. In Nanos3-deficient mice, PGCs fail to incorporate into the gonad and the size of the testis and ovary is thereby dramatically reduced. To elucidate the role of Nanos in an amphibian species, we cloned Nanos3 cDNA from the testis of the R. rugosa frog. RT-PCR analysis showed strong expression of Nanos3 mRNA in the testis of adult R. rugosa frogs, but expression was not sexually dimorphic during gonadal differentiation...
February 5, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Tatsuya Kamimura, Toshiyuki Yamagishi, Yuji Nakajima
The origin of coronary endothelial cells (ECs) has been investigated in avian species, and the results showed that the coronary ECs originate from the proepicardial organ (PEO) and developing epicardium. Genetic approaches in mouse models showed that the major source of coronary ECs is the sinus venosus endothelium or ventricular endocardium. To clarify and reconcile the differences between avian and mouse species, we examined the source of coronary ECs in avian embryonic hearts. Using an enhanced green fluorescent protein-Tol2 system and fluorescent dye labeling, four types of quail-chick chimeras were made and quail-specific endothelial marker (QH1) immunohistochemistry was performed...
February 2, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
David Venuto, Guillaume Bourque
The human genome gives rise to different epigenomic landscapes that define each cell type and can be deregulated in disease. Recent efforts by ENCODE, the NIH Roadmap and the International Human Epigenome Consortium (IHEC) have made significant advances towards assembling reference epigenomic maps of various tissues. Notably, these projects have found that approximately 80% of human DNA was biochemically active in at least one epigenomic assay while only approximately 10% of the sequence displayed signs of purifying selection...
January 24, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Masaki Kinoshita, Austin Smith
Pluripotency denotes the flexible capacity of single cells to give rise to all somatic lineages and typically also the germline. Mouse ES cells and post-implantation epiblast-derived stem cells (EpiSC) are widely used pluripotent cell culture systems. These two in vitro stem cell types have divergent characteristics. They are considered as representative of distinct developmental stages, distinguished by using the terms "naïve" and "primed". A binary description is an over-simplification, however. Here, we discuss an intermediate stage of pluripotency that we term "formative"...
January 23, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Tomoya S Kitajima
Proper kinetochore-microtubule attachment is essential for correct chromosome segregation. Therefore, cells normally possess multiple mechanisms for the prevention of errors in kinetochore-microtubule attachments and for selective stabilization of correct attachments. However, the oocyte, a cell that produces an egg through meiosis, exhibits a high frequency of errors in kinetochore-microtubule attachments. These attachment errors predispose oocytes to chromosome segregation errors, resulting in aneuploidy in eggs...
January 10, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Seiko Sugimori, Yuji Kumata, Satoru Kobayashi
Nanos (Nos) is an evolutionary conserved protein expressed in the germline of various animal species. In Drosophila, maternal Nos protein is essential for germline development. In the germline progenitors, or the primordial germ cells (PGCs), Nos binds to the 3' UTR of target mRNAs to repress their translation. In contrast to this prevailing role of Nos, here we report that the 3' UTR of CG32425 mRNA mediates Nos-dependent RNA stabilization in PGCs. We found that the level of mRNA expressed from a reporter gene fused to the CG32425 3' UTR was significantly reduced in PGCs lacking maternal Nos (nos PGCs) as compared with normal PGCs...
December 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Masatoshi Takeichi
The cadherin family of cell-cell adhesion molecules plays a pivotal role in animal tissue formation. Discovery of this molecular family can be traced back to some unexpected observations of strange cell behavior that were made around 1970 in the Kyoto University laboratory of Tokindo Okada, and then in the Department of Embryology at the Carnegie Institution of Washington (currently the Carnegie Institution for Science). This article looks back on these discoveries, and recalls how these observations led to the identification of important cell-cell adhesion molecules known as cadherins...
December 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Miki Hattori, Mai Miyamoto, Kazutaka Hosoda, Yoshihiko Umesono
Planarians have become widely recognized as one of the major animal models for regeneration studies in invertebrates. To induce RNA interference (RNAi) by feeding in planarians, the widely accepted protocol is one in which animals undergo two or three feedings of food containing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) plus visible food coloring (e.g., blood) for confirmation of feeding by individual animals. However, one possible problem is that incorporated food coloring is often retained within the gut for several days, which makes it difficult to confirm the success of each round of dsRNA feeding based on the difference of the color density within the gut before and after feeding...
December 21, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Yoshiko Takahashi, Hiroyuki Takeda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Stephen P Burr, Mikael Pezet, Patrick F Chinnery
Inherited mutations in the mitochondrial (mt)DNA are a major cause of human disease, with approximately 1 in 5000 people affected by one of the hundreds of identified pathogenic mtDNA point mutations or deletions. Due to the severe, and often untreatable, symptoms of many mitochondrial diseases, identifying how these mutations are inherited from one generation to the next has been an area of intense research in recent years. Despite large advances in our understanding of this complex process, many questions remain unanswered, with one of the most hotly debated being whether or not purifying selection acts against pathogenic mutations during germline development...
January 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Shunsuke Kon
In multicellular organisms, incidentally emerging suboptimal cells are removed to maintain homeostasis of tissues. The unfavorable cells are excluded by a process termed cell competition whereby the resident normal cells actively eliminate the unfit cells of the identical lineage. Although the phenomenon of cell competition was originally discovered in Drosophila, a number of recent studies have provided implications of cell competition in tissue regeneration, development and oncogenesis in mammals. Here the roles of cell competition in fly to mammals are discussed...
December 18, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Atsushi Taniguchi, Yukiko Kimura, Ikue Mori, Shigenori Nonaka, Shin-Ichi Higashijima
Green-to-red photoconvertible fluorescent proteins have been found to undergo efficient photoconversion by a new method termed primed conversion that uses dual wave-length illumination with blue and red/near-infrared light. By modifying a confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM) such that two laser beams only meet at the focal plane, confined photoconversion at the axial dimension has been achieved. The necessity of this custom modification to the CLSM, however, has precluded the wide-spread use of this method...
December 13, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Tatsuya Sato, Takako Kikkawa, Tetsuichiro Saito, Keiichi Itoi, Noriko Osumi
The anterior part of the embryonic telencephalon gives rise to several brain regions that are important for animal behavior, including the frontal cortex (FC) and the olfactory bulb. The FC plays an important role in decision-making behaviors, such as social and cognitive behavior, and the olfactory bulb is involved in olfaction. Here, we show the organizing activity of fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) in the regionalization of the anterior telencephalon, specifically the FC and the olfactory bulb. Misexpression of Fgf8 in the most anterior part of the mouse telencephalon at embryonic day 11...
November 10, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Ryoma Ota, Shumpei Morita, Masanao Sato, Shuji Shigenobu, Makoto Hayashi, Satoru Kobayashi
In Drosophila, Sex lethal (Sxl), an RNA binding protein, is required for induction of female sexual identity in both somatic and germline cells. Although the Sxl-dependent feminizing pathway in the soma was previously elucidated, the downstream targets for Sxl in the germline remained elusive. To identify these target genes, we selected transcripts associated with Sxl in primordial germ cells (PGCs) of embryos using RNA immunoprecipitation coupled to sequencing (RIP-seq) analysis. A total of 308 transcripts encoded by 282 genes were obtained...
November 10, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
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