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Development, Growth & Differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548230/molecular-basis-of-social-competence-in-medaka-fish
#1
REVIEW
Teruhiro Okuyama, Saori Yokoi, Hideaki Takeuchi
Oryzias latipes (Medaka) is an established vertebrate model for studying developmental genetics, genomics, and evolutionary biology. The physiology, embryology, and genetics of this species have been extensively investigated for centuries. Medaka fish recently attracted attention in the field of social neuroscience. This review introduces recent advances in medaka behavioral studies, focusing on female mating preferences and male mate-guarding behaviors. The medaka female has the ability to discriminate male individuals and prefers to mate with socially familiar males (female mating preference)...
May 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547768/avian-brains-insights-from-development-behaviors-and-evolution
#2
REVIEW
Tadashi Nomura, Ei-Ichi Izawa
Birds are an extensively specialized animal group with unique anatomical, physiological and ecological characteristics. Sophisticated social behaviors and remarkable cognitive abilities are present in several avian lineages, driven by their enlarged brains and intricate neural networks. These unique traits could be a result of adaptive evolution under the wide range of environmental constraints; however, the intrinsic mechanisms of avian brain development and evolution remain unclear. Here, we introduce recent findings regarding developmental aspects of avian brain organization and neuronal networks for specific avian behaviors, which provide an insight into the link between the evolution of brain development and complex cognitive functions...
May 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547762/dopamine-system-cerebellum-and-nucleus-ruber-in-fish-and-mammals
#3
REVIEW
Hideaki Matsui
Small teleost fish including zebrafish and medaka have been used as animal models for research because of their small body size, vast amounts of eggs produced, their rapid development, low husbandry costs, and transparency during embryogenesis. Although the body size and appearance seem different, fish and mammals including human still possess anatomical and functional similarities in their brains. This review summarizes the similarities of brain structures and functions between teleost fish and mammalian brains, focusing on the dopamine system, functional regionalization of the cerebellum, and presence of the nucleus ruber...
May 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516445/role-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-vertebrates-emphasis-on-the-zebrafish-model
#4
REVIEW
Francesca Oltrabella, Adam Melgoza, Brian Nguyen, Su Guo
The endocannabinoid system (eCBs), named after the plant Cannabis sativa, comprises cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands known as "endocannabinoids", and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of these ligands, as well as putative transporters for these ligands. ECBs proteins and small molecules have been detected in early embryonic stages of many vertebrate models. As a result, cannabinoid receptors and endogenous as well as exogenous cannabinoids influence development and behavior in many vertebrate species...
May 17, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509386/descending-pathways-to-the-spinal-cord-in-teleosts-in-comparison-with-mammals-with-special-attention-to-rubrospinal-pathways
#5
REVIEW
Naoyuki Yamamoto, Tomoya Nakayama, Hanako Hagio
In this article we review descending neural pathways to the spinal cord in teleosts, compared with mammals. Descending pathways to the spinal cord are crucial in controlling various behaviors in vertebrates. The major difference between teleosts and mammals is the lack of corticospinal (or palliospinal) tracts. Other descending pathways, which originate from the brain stem, are basically identical in teleosts and mammals. This suggests the presence of common systems in the spinal motor control by higher order centers...
May 16, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503767/the-world-of-epithelial-sheets
#6
REVIEW
Hisao Honda
An epithelium is a layer of closely connected cells covering the body or lining a body cavity. In this review, several fundamental questions are addressed regarding the epithelium. (i) While an epithelium functions as barrier against the external environment, how is barrier function maintained during its construction? (ii) What determines the apical and basal sides of epithelial layer? (iii) Is there any relationship between the apical side of the epithelium and the apical membrane of an epithelial cell? (iv) Why are hepatocytes (liver cells) called epithelial, even though they differ completely from column-like shape of typical epithelial cells? Keeping these questions in mind, multiple shapes of epithelia were considered, extracting a few of their elemental processes, and constructing a virtual world of epithelia by combining them...
May 14, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470724/evolutionary-mechanisms-that-generate-morphology-and-neural-circuit-diversity-of-the-cerebellum
#7
REVIEW
Masahiko Hibi, Koji Matsuda, Miki Takeuchi, Takashi Shimizu, Yasunori Murakami
The cerebellum is derived from the dorsal part of the anterior-most hindbrain. The vertebrate cerebellum contains glutamatergic granule cells (GCs) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic Purkinje cells (PCs). These cerebellar neurons are generated from neuronal progenitors or neural stem cells by mechanisms that are conserved among vertebrates. However, vertebrate cerebella are widely diverse with respect to their gross morphology and neural circuits. The cerebellum of cyclostomes, the basal vertebrates, has a negligible structure...
May 4, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470718/new-perspective-on-the-regionalization-of-the-anterior-forebrain-in-osteichthyes
#8
REVIEW
Kei Yamamoto, Solal Bloch, Philippe Vernier
In the current model, the most anterior part of the forebrain (secondary prosencephalon) is subdivided into the telencephalon dorsally and the hypothalamus ventrally. Our recent study identified a new morphogenetic unit named the optic recess region (ORR) between the telencephalon and the hypothalamus. This modification of the forebrain regionalization based on the ventricular organization resolved some previously unexplained inconsistency about regional identification in different vertebrate groups. The ventricular-based comparison also revealed a large diversity within the subregions (notably in the hypothalamus and telencephalon) among different vertebrate groups...
May 4, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447337/reconstructing-the-ancestral-vertebrate-brain
#9
REVIEW
Fumiaki Sugahara, Yasunori Murakami, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Shigeru Kuratani
Highly complicated morphologies and sophisticated functions of vertebrate brains have been established through evolution. However, the origin and early evolutionary history of the brain remain elusive, owing to lack of information regarding the brain architecture of extant and fossil species of jawless vertebrates (agnathans). Comparative analyses of the brain of less studied cyclostomes (only extant agnathan group, consisting of lampreys and hagfish) with the well-known sister group of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) are the only tools we have available to illustrate the ancestral architecture of the vertebrate brain...
April 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430358/regulation-of-axon-arborization-pattern-in-the-developing-chick-ciliary-ganglion-possible-involvement-of-caspase-3
#10
Hidetaka Katow, Teppei Kanaya, Tomohisa Ogawa, Ryo Egawa, Hiromu Yawo
During a certain critical period in the development of the central and peripheral nervous systems, axonal branches and synapses are massively reorganized to form mature connections. In this process, neurons search their appropriate targets, expanding and/or retracting their axons. Recent work suggested that the caspase superfamily regulates the axon morphology. Here, we tested the hypothesis that caspase 3, which is one of the major executioners in apoptotic cell death, is involved in regulating the axon arborization...
April 21, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430354/identification-of-morphogenetic-capability-limitations-via-a-single-starfish-embryo-larva-reconstruction-method
#11
Narudo Kawai, Ikuko Omori, Ritsu Kuraishi, Hiroyuki Kaneko
Reconstruction of a starfish embryo provides unique morphogenesis during the developmental process that is not observed in normal development. Here, we established a novel method for reconstruction from single embryos/larvae. By using this method, we investigated the morphogenetic capabilities in critical steps during the reconstruction process as showed by the reconstructed embryos generated from embryos/larvae at the six developmental stages, or from segregated ectodermal and/or endomesodermal cells. Additionally, the novel method addressed several problems found in prior methods related to reproducibly generating reconstructed embryos...
April 21, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326550/from-neuron-to-behavior-sensory-motor-coordination-of-zebrafish-turning-behavior
#12
REVIEW
Keiko Umeda, Wataru Shoji
Recent development of optogenetics brought non-invasive neural activation in living organisms. Transparent zebrafish larva is one of the suitable animal models for this technique, which enables us to investigate neural circuits for behaviors based on a whole individual nervous system. In this article we review our recent finding that suggests sensory-motor coordination in larval zebrafish escape behavior. When water vibration stimulates mechanosensory Rohon-Beard (RB) neurons, intra-spinal reflex circuit launches contralateral trunk muscle contraction that makes rapid body curvature for turning...
March 21, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436008/a-sea-urchin-in%C3%A2-vivo-model-to-evaluate-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#13
Daniele P Romancino, Letizia Anello, Antonella Lavanco, Valentina Buffa, Maria Di Bernardo, Antonella Bongiovanni
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an evolutionarily conserved cellular program, which is a prerequisite for the metastatic cascade in carcinoma progression. Here, we evaluate the EMT process using the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus embryo. In sea urchin embryos, the earliest EMT event is related to the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype by the spiculogenetic primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) and their migration into the blastocoel. We investigated the effect of inhibiting the epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling pathway on this process, and we observed that mesenchyme cell differentiation was blocked...
April 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230233/establishment-and-growth-responses-of-nile-tilapia-embryonic-stem-like-cell-lines-under-feeder-free-condition
#14
Zhenhua Fan, Linyan Liu, Xiaohuan Huang, Yang Zhao, Linyan Zhou, Deshou Wang, Jing Wei
Embryonic stem (ES) cells provide an invaluable tool for molecular analysis of vertebrate development and a bridge linking genomic manipulations in vitro and functional analysis of target genes in vivo. Work towards fish ES cells so far has focused on zebrafish (Danio renio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes). Here we describe the derivation, pluripotency, differentiation and growth responses of ES cell lines from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a world-wide commercial farmed fish. These cell lines, designated as TES1-3, were initiated from blastomeres of Nile tilapia middle blastula embryos (MBE)...
February 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220481/does-max-open-up-a-new-avenue-for-meiotic-research
#15
REVIEW
Ayumu Suzuki, Masataka Hirasaki, Akihiko Okuda
Meiosis is a central event of sexual reproduction. Like somatic cells, germ cells conduct mitosis to increase their cell number, but unlike somatic cells, germ cells switch their cell division mode from mitosis to meiosis at a certain point in gametogenesis. However, the molecular basis of this switch remains elusive. In this review article, we give an overview of the onset of mammalian meiosis, including our recent finding that MYC Associated Factor X (MAX) prevents ectopic and precocious meiosis in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and germ cells, respectively...
February 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211947/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-promotes-osteogenic-differentiation-and-collagen-i-alpha-2-synthesis-via-induction-of-mrna-binding-protein-larp6-expression
#16
Yue Guo, Chen-Yi Tang, Xiao-Fei Man, Hao-Neng Tang, Jun Tang, Ci-La Zhou, Shu-Wen Tan, Min Wang, Yun-Zhi Feng, Hou-De Zhou
This study explored the mechanism underlying the stimulation of collagen synthesis and osteoblastic differentiation by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) in primary mouse osteoblasts. Primary mouse calvarial osteoblasts were cultured and treated with various doses of IGF1 before transfection with siRNA targeting the collagen type I alpha 2 (Col1a2) or La ribonucleoprotein domain family member 6 (Larp6) genes. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin staining, alizarin red quantification and the expression level of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) were performed to assess the differentiation of pre-osteoblasts...
February 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185267/regulation-of-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cell-orientation-and-motility-in-2d-and-3d-cultures-by-direct-current-electrical-field
#17
Gang Yang, Haiyan Long, Xiaomei Ren, Kunlong Ma, Zhenghua Xiao, Ying Wang, Yingqiang Guo
Cell alignment and motility play a critical role in a variety of cell behaviors, including cytoskeleton reorganization, membrane-protein relocation, nuclear gene expression, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Direct current electric field (EF) in vitro can direct many types of cells to align vertically to EF vector. In this work, we investigated the effects of EF stimulation on rat adipose-tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) in 2D-culture on plastic culture dishes and in 3D-culture on various scaffold materials, including collagen hydrogels, chitosan hydrogels and poly(L-lactic acid)/gelatin electrospinning fibers...
February 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255986/retraction
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122132/size-in-development
#19
Shigeo Hayashi, Mitsuru Morimoto, Hidehiko Inomata, Stefano Piccolo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097650/scaling-of-pattern-formations-and-morphogen-gradients
#20
REVIEW
Hidehiko Inomata
The concentration gradient of morphogens provides positional information for an embryo and plays a pivotal role in pattern formation of tissues during the developmental processes. Morphogen-dependent pattern formations show robustness despite various perturbations. Although tissues usually grow and dynamically change their size during histogenesis, proper patterns are formed without the influence of size variations. Furthermore, even when the blastula embryo of Xenopus laevis is bisected into dorsal and ventral halves, the dorsal half of the embryo leads to proportionally patterned half-sized embryos...
January 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
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