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Development, Growth & Differentiation

Makoto Kashima, Kiyokazu Agata, Norito Shibata
Nuclear PIWIs together with their guide RNAs (piRNAs) epigenetically silence various genes including transposons in many organisms. In planarians, the nuclear piwi family gene, DjpiwiB is specifically transcribed in adult pluripotent stem cells (adult PSC, neoblast), but not in differentiated cells. However, the protein accumulates in the nuclei of both neoblasts and their descendant differentiated cells. Interestingly, PIWI(DjPiwiB)-piRNA complexes are indispensable for the repression of transposable genes at the onset of differentiation from neoblasts...
May 23, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Kentaro Ishida, Tetsuichiro Saito, Toshiyuki Mitsui
A Merkel cell-neurite complex is a touch receptor composed of specialized epithelial cells named Merkel cells and peripheral sensory nerves in the skin. Merkel cells are found in touch-sensitive skin components including whisker follicles. The nerve fibers that innervate Merkel cells of a whisker follicle extend from the maxillary branch of the trigeminal ganglion. Whiskers as a sensory organ attribute to the complicated architecture of the Merkel cell-neurite complex, and therefore it is intriguing how the structure is formed...
May 22, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Toshiyasu Goto, Yuzuru Ito, Tatsuo Michiue
Several chemokine molecules control cell movements during early morphogenesis. However, it is unclear whether chemokine molecules affect cell fate. Here, we identified and characterized the CXC-type chemokine ligand in Xenopus laevis, Xenopus CXCLh (XCXCLh), during early embryogenesis. XCXCLh is expressed in the dorsal vegetal region at the gastrula stage. Both overexpression and knockdown of XCXCLh in the dorsal region inhibited gastrulation. XCXCLh contributed to the attraction of mesendodermal cells and accelerated the reassembly of scratched culture cells...
April 26, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Zhiqing Hu, Yong Wu, Miaojin Zhou, Xiaolin Wang, Jialun Pang, Zhuo Li, Mai Feng, Yanchi Wang, Qian Hu, Junya Zhao, Xionghao Liu, Lingqian Wu, Desheng Liang
Reporter embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines with tissue-specific reporter genes may contribute to optimizing the differentiation conditions in vitro as well as trafficking transplanted cells in vivo. To optimize and monitor endothelial cell (EC) differentiation specifically, here we targeted the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene at the junction of 5'UTR and exon2 of the endothelial specific marker gene CD144 using TALENs in human ESCs (H9) to generate a EGFP-CD144-reporter ESC line. The reporter cells expressed EGFP and CD144 increasingly and specifically without unexpected effects during the EC differentiation...
April 25, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Kennedy O Okeyo, Maiko Tanabe, Osamu Kurosawa, Hidehiro Oana, Masao Washizu
Cellular dynamics leading to the formation of the trophectoderm in humans remain poorly understood owing to limited accessibility to human embryos for research into early human embryogenesis. Compared to animal models, organoids formed by self-organization of stem cells in vitro may provide better insights into differentiation and complex morphogenetic processes occurring during early human embryogenesis. Here we demonstrate that modulating the cell culture microenvironment alone can trigger self-organization of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to yield trophectoderm-mimicking cysts without chemical induction...
April 2, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Kimiko Takebayashi-Suzuki, Hidenori Konishi, Tatsuo Miyamoto, Tomoko Nagata, Misa Uchida, Atsushi Suzuki
During early vertebrate embryogenesis, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belonging to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family of growth factors play a central role in dorsal-ventral (DV) patterning of embryos, while other growth factors such as Wnt and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family members regulate formation of the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. Although the establishment of body plan is thought to require coordinated formation of the DV and AP axes, the mechanistic details underlying this coordination are not well understood...
April 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Sonoko Kinjo, Masato Kiyomoto, Takashi Yamamoto, Kazuho Ikeo, Shunsuke Yaguchi
To understand the mystery of life, it is important to accumulate genomic information for various organisms because the whole genome encodes the commands for all the genes. Since the genome of Strongylocentrotus purpratus was sequenced in 2006 as the first sequenced genome in echinoderms, the genomic resources of other North American sea urchins have gradually been accumulated, but no sea urchin genomes are available in other areas, where many scientists have used the local species and reported important results...
April 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Xiaoping Song, Xingxing Gao, Jiali Lu, Hongfang Liang, Peng Su, Qingwei Li, Yue Pang
High mobility group (HMG) box-containing protein 1 (HBP1) is a member of the HMG family of chromosomal proteins. Previous studies have shown that human HBP1 exhibits tumor-suppressor activity. Here, we identified a homologue of HBP1, L-hbp1, in Lampetra japonica. The L-hbp1 gene shared high sequence similarity with its homologues in jawed vertebrates, as shown by bioinformatics analyses. L-hbp1 contains a 1,584-bp open reading frame that encodes 527 amino acids. A pAdenox-L-HBP1 plasmid was constructed and transfected successfully in Raji cells, as revealed by real-time PCR...
April 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Yu Okamoto, Naoko Nishimura, Kazunari Matsuda, Deshani C Ranawakage, Yusuke Kamachi, Hisato Kondoh, Masanori Uchikawa
To elucidate the transcriptional regulation that underlies specification of the otic placode, we investigated the Sox3 downstream enhancer Otic1 of the chicken, the activity of which is restricted to and distributed across the entire otic placode. The 181-bp Otic1 enhancer sequence was dissected into a 68-bp minimal activating sequence, which exhibited dimer enhancer activity in the otic placode and cephalic neural crest, and this was further reduced to a 25-bp Otic1 core sequence, which also showed octamer enhancer activity in the same regions...
April 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Yoshiko Takahashi, Hiroyuki Takeda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Yoshihiro Tsuchiya, Yusuke Mii, Kazunori Okada, Mikio Furuse, Tadashi Okubo, Shinji Takada
During tissue development, the morphogenesis of epithelial sheets is regulated by many factors, including mechanical force, although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the pharyngeal region of the vertebrate embryo, endodermal epithelium is reiteratively folded outward to form pharyngeal pouches, making partitions between the pharyngeal arches. Ripply3, encoding a member of the Ripply family of adaptor proteins, is required for the pouch formation posterior to the 2nd pharyngeal pouch. In this study, we found that the expression of mouse Ripply3 was specifically activated in accordance with the bending of the endodermal epithelium during the pouch formation...
February 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Juan A Arias Del Angel, Ana E Escalante, León Patricio Martínez-Castilla, Mariana Benítez
Myxococcus xanthus is a myxobacterium that exhibits aggregation and cellular differentiation during the formation of fruiting bodies. Therefore, it has become a valuable model system to study the transition to multicellularity via cell aggregation. Although there is a vast set of experimental information for the development on M. xanthus, the dynamics behind cell-fate determination in this organism's development remain unclear. We integrate the currently available evidence in a mathematical network model that allows to test the set of molecular elements and regulatory interactions that are sufficient to account for the specification of the cell types that are observed in fruiting body formation...
February 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Maho Kodama, Madoka Yoshida, Masami Endo, Tohru Kobayashi, Akira Oike, Shigeki Yasumasu, Masahisa Nakamura
Nanos is expressed in the primordial germ cells (PGCs) and also the germ cells of a variety of organisms as diverse as Drosophila, medaka fish, Xenopus and mouse. In Nanos3-deficient mice, PGCs fail to incorporate into the gonad and the size of the testis and ovary is thereby dramatically reduced. To elucidate the role of Nanos in an amphibian species, we cloned Nanos3 cDNA from the testis of the R. rugosa frog. RT-PCR analysis showed strong expression of Nanos3 mRNA in the testis of adult R. rugosa frogs, but expression was not sexually dimorphic during gonadal differentiation...
February 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Tatsuya Kamimura, Toshiyuki Yamagishi, Yuji Nakajima
The origin of coronary endothelial cells (ECs) has been investigated in avian species, and the results showed that the coronary ECs originate from the proepicardial organ (PEO) and developing epicardium. Genetic approaches in mouse models showed that the major source of coronary ECs is the sinus venosus endothelium or ventricular endocardium. To clarify and reconcile the differences between avian and mouse species, we examined the source of coronary ECs in avian embryonic hearts. Using an enhanced green fluorescent protein-Tol2 system and fluorescent dye labeling, four types of quail-chick chimeras were made and quail-specific endothelial marker (QH1) immunohistochemistry was performed...
February 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
David Venuto, Guillaume Bourque
The human genome gives rise to different epigenomic landscapes that define each cell type and can be deregulated in disease. Recent efforts by ENCODE, the NIH Roadmap and the International Human Epigenome Consortium (IHEC) have made significant advances towards assembling reference epigenomic maps of various tissues. Notably, these projects have found that approximately 80% of human DNA was biochemically active in at least one epigenomic assay while only approximately 10% of the sequence displayed signs of purifying selection...
January 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Stephen P Burr, Mikael Pezet, Patrick F Chinnery
Inherited mutations in the mitochondrial (mt)DNA are a major cause of human disease, with approximately 1 in 5000 people affected by one of the hundreds of identified pathogenic mtDNA point mutations or deletions. Due to the severe, and often untreatable, symptoms of many mitochondrial diseases, identifying how these mutations are inherited from one generation to the next has been an area of intense research in recent years. Despite large advances in our understanding of this complex process, many questions remain unanswered, with one of the most hotly debated being whether or not purifying selection acts against pathogenic mutations during germline development...
January 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Masaki Kinoshita, Austin Smith
Pluripotency denotes the flexible capacity of single cells to give rise to all somatic lineages and typically also the germline. Mouse ES cells and post-implantation epiblast-derived stem cells (EpiSC) are widely used pluripotent cell culture systems. These two in vitro stem cell types have divergent characteristics. They are considered as representative of distinct developmental stages, distinguished by using the terms "naïve" and "primed". A binary description is an over-simplification, however...
January 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Tomoya S Kitajima
Proper kinetochore-microtubule attachment is essential for correct chromosome segregation. Therefore, cells normally possess multiple mechanisms for the prevention of errors in kinetochore-microtubule attachments and for selective stabilization of correct attachments. However, the oocyte, a cell that produces an egg through meiosis, exhibits a high frequency of errors in kinetochore-microtubule attachments. These attachment errors predispose oocytes to chromosome segregation errors, resulting in aneuploidy in eggs...
January 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Seiko Sugimori, Yuji Kumata, Satoru Kobayashi
Nanos (Nos) is an evolutionary conserved protein expressed in the germline of various animal species. In Drosophila, maternal Nos protein is essential for germline development. In the germline progenitors, or the primordial germ cells (PGCs), Nos binds to the 3' UTR of target mRNAs to repress their translation. In contrast to this prevailing role of Nos, here we report that the 3' UTR of CG32425 mRNA mediates Nos-dependent RNA stabilization in PGCs. We found that the level of mRNA expressed from a reporter gene fused to the CG32425 3' UTR was significantly reduced in PGCs lacking maternal Nos (nos PGCs) as compared with normal PGCs...
January 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
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