Read by QxMD icon Read

Development, Growth & Differentiation

Takanobu Inoue, Atsuo Iida, Shingo Maegawa, Atsuko Sehara-Fujisawa, Masato Kinoshita
In this study, we verified nuclear transport activity of an artificial nuclear localization signal (aNLS) in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). We generated a transgenic medaka strain expresses the aNLS tagged enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) driven by a medaka beta-actin promoter. The aNLS-EGFP was accumulated in the nuclei of somatic tissues and yolk nuclei of oocytes, but undetectable in the spermatozoa. The fluorescent signal was observed from immediately after fertilization by a maternal contribution...
October 19, 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Nayeli Torres-Ramírez, María L Escobar, Gerardo H Vázquez-Nin, Rosario Ortiz, Olga M Echeverría
Follicular atresia, a common process present in all mammals, involves apoptotic and autophagic cell death. However, the participation of paraptosis, a type of caspase-independent cell death, during follicular atresia is unknown. This study found swollen endoplasmic reticulum in the granulosa cells of adult Wistar rats. Calnexin was used as a marker of the endoplasmic reticulum at the ultrastructural and optical levels. The cells with swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum were negative to the TUNEL assay and active caspase-3 immunodetection, indicating that this swelling is not part of any apoptotic or autophagic process...
October 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Sepideh Abolpour Mofrad, Katharina Kuenzel, Oliver Friedrich, Daniel F Gilbert
Human pluripotent embryonal carcinoma (NT2) cells are increasingly considered as a suitable model for in vitro developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity (DT/DNT) studies as they undergo neuronal differentiation upon stimulation with retinoic acid (RA) and allow toxicity testing at different stages of maturation. However, differentiation of NT2 cells is not straightforward. There are different protocols available in the literature reporting varying results with regard to differentiation efficiency, expression of neuronal markers and morphological characteristics of differentiated cells...
October 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Haru Tada, Yuya Taira, Keisuke Morichika, Tsutomu Kinoshita
In many animals, the germ plasm is sufficient and necessary for primordial germ cell (PGC) formation. It contains germinal granules and abundant mitochondria (germline-Mt). However, the role of germline-Mt in germ cell formation remains poorly understood. In Xenopus, the germ plasm is distributed as many small islands at the vegetal pole, which gradually aggregates to form a single large mass in each of the four vegetal pole cells at the early blastula stage. Polymerized microtubules and the adapter protein kinesin are required for the aggregation of germ plasm...
October 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Inchul Lee
Human pancreatic islets show unique architecture in which α and δ cells are mostly at the peripheral and perivascular areas. It has remained unknown how such prototype is realized in every islet. Here, I report that fetal islets develop first in two distinct types consisting of β or α/δ cells, respectively. The α/δ islets are variable in shape, composed of α and δ cells evenly intermixed. They are vascularized better but encapsulated poorer than β islets in general. During the development, the β and α/δ islets adjoin and fuse with each other in such a way that α and δ cells form a crescent on β cells and, then, progress to encompass and encroach into β cells...
October 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Sayaka Higuchi, Sawako Yoshina, Shohei Mitani
Stem cells are regulated by their surrounding microenvironments, called niche, such as cell-cell interaction and extracellular matrix. Classically, feeder cells as a niche have been used in the culture of iPS cells from both the mouse and the human. However, the regulation mechanism of stem cells by feeder cells as a niche still have been partially unclear. In this study, we used three murine iPS cell lines, iPS-MEF-Ng-20D-17, iPS-MEF-Ng-178B-5 and iPS-MEF-Fb/Ng-440A-3, which were generated by different reprogramming methods...
September 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Machiko Teramoto, Tomomi Kudome-Takamatsu, Osamu Nishimura, Yang An, Makoto Kashima, Norito Shibata, Kiyokazu Agata
Planarian's strong regenerative ability is dependent on stem cells (called neoblasts) that are X-ray-sensitive and proliferative stem cells. In addition to neoblasts, another type of X-ray-sensitive cells was newly identified by recent research. Thus, planarian's X-ray-sensitive cells can be divided into at least two populations, Type 1 and Type 2, the latter corresponding to planarian's classically defined "neoblasts". Here, we show that Type 1 cells were distributed in the outer region (OR) immediately underneath the muscle layer at all axial levels from head to tail, while the Type 2 cells were distributed in a more internal region (IR) of the mesenchymal space at the axial levels from neck to tail...
September 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Zhaoli Tan, Keyan Chen, Yong Shao, Lihua Gao, Yan Wang, Jianming Xu, Yang Jin, Xianwen Hu, Youliang Wang
Although liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) have long been known to contribute to liver regeneration following injury, the exact role of these cells in liver regeneration remains poorly understood. In this work, we performed lineage tracing of LSECs in mice carrying Tie2-Cre or VE-cadherin-Cre constructs to facilitate fate-mapping of LSECs in liver regeneration. Some YFP-positive LSECs were observed to convert into hepatocytes following a two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PH). Furthermore, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) could be triggered to convert into cells that closely resembled hepatocytes when cultured with serum from mice that underwent an extended PH...
September 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Daisuke Sakai, Paul A Trainor
One-third of all congenital birth defects affect the head and face, and most craniofacial anomalies are considered to arise through defects in the development of cranial neural crest cells. Cranial neural crest cells give rise to the majority of craniofacial bones, cartilages and connective tissues. Therefore, understanding the events that control normal cranial neural crest and subsequent craniofacial development is important for elucidating the pathogenetic mechanisms of craniofacial anomalies and for the exploring potential therapeutic avenues for their prevention...
September 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Masamichi Ishizuka, Eri Ohtsuka, Atsuto Inoue, Mirei Odaka, Hirotaka Ohshima, Norihisa Tamura, Kaoru Yoshida, Norihisa Sako, Tadashi Baba, Shin-Ichi Kashiwabara, Masaru Okabe, Junko Noguchi, Hiromi Hagiwara
Zfp318, a mouse gene with a Cys2/His2 zinc finger motif, is mainly expressed in germ cells in the testis. It encodes two alternative transcripts, which regulate androgen receptor-mediated transcriptional activation or repression by overexpression of them. However, the role of Zfp318 is still obscure in vivo, especially in spermatogenesis. To elucidate the role of Zfp318 during gamete production, we established a knockout mouse line. Zfp318-null male mice exhibited infertility, whereas Zfp318-null female mice displayed normal fertility...
September 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Robert Farkaš, Ludmila Pečeňová, Lucia Mentelová, Milan Beňo, Denisa Beňová-Liszeková, Silvia Mahmoodová, Václav Tejnecký, Otakar Raška, Pavel Juda, Silvie Svidenská, Matúš Hornáček, Bruce A Chase, Ivan Raška
The Drosophila salivary glands (SGs) were well known for the puffing patterns of their polytene chromosomes and so became a tissue of choice to study sequential gene activation by the steroid hormone ecdysone. One well-documented function of these glands is to produce a secretory glue, which is released during pupariation to fix the freshly formed puparia to the substrate. Over the past two decades SGs have been used to address specific aspects of developmentally-regulated programmed cell death (PCD) as it was thought that they are doomed for histolysis and after pupariation are just awaiting their fate...
August 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Jiu-Zhen Jin, Yuanqi Zhu, Dennis Warner, Jixiang Ding
During mouse gastrulation, the primitive streak is formed on the posterior side of the embryo. Cells migrate out of the primitive streak to form the future mesoderm and endoderm. Fate mapping studies revealed a group of cell migrate through the proximal end of the primitive streak and give rise to the extraembryonic mesoderm tissues such as the yolk sac blood islands and allantois. However, it is not clear whether the formation of a morphological primitive streak is required for the development of these extraembryonic mesodermal tissues...
August 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Takashi Miura, Ryuji Yokokawa
Organ culture systems are used to elucidate the mechanisms of pattern formation in developmental biology. Various organ culture techniques have been used, but the lack of microcirculation in such cultures impedes the long-term maintenance of larger tissues. Recent advances in microfluidic devices now enable us to utilize self-organized perfusable capillary networks in organ cultures. In this review, we will overview past approaches to organ culture and current technical advances in microfluidic devices, and discuss possible applications of microfluidics towards the study of developmental biology...
August 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Tatsuki Kawasaki, Masanori Takahashi, Hiroshi Yajima, Yoshiyuki Mori, Kiyoshi Kawakami
The periodontal ligament (PDL) is a connective tissue that attaches the tooth cementum to the alveolar bone and is derived from dental follicle cells (DFCs). The DFCs form fibroblasts, osteoblasts, cementoblasts, and PDL stem cells (PDLSCs). We previously reported homeobox transcription factor Six1 expression in mouse DFCs. However, the role of Six1 in periodontal tissue development is largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed SIX1 expression in mouse periodontal tissue cells during postnatal development and adulthood...
August 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Hiroshi Yajima, Kiyoshi Kawakami
Muscle regeneration is an important process for skeletal muscle growth and recovery. Repair of muscle damage is exquisitely programmed by cellular mechanisms inherent in myogenic stem cells, also known as muscle satellite cells. We demonstrated previously the involvement of homeobox transcription factors, SIX1, SIX4 and SIX5, in the coordinated proliferation and differentiation of isolated satellite cells in vitro. However, their roles in adult muscle regeneration in vivo remain elusive. To investigate SIX4 and SIX5 functions during muscle regeneration, we introduced knockout alleles of Six4 and Six5 into an animal model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), mdx (Dmd(mdx) /Y) mice, characterized by frequent degeneration-regeneration cycles in muscles...
August 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Kenta Kishimoto, Manabu Nakayama, Masato Kinoshita
The present study delineates the in vivo efficiency of two site-specific recombination systems, VCre/VloxP and SCre/SloxP, in medaka (Oryzias latipes). VCre, SCre, and Cre RNA was microinjected into fertilized medaka eggs belonging to three transgenic lines harboring VloxP, SloxP, and loxP cassette. VCre induced site-specific recombination specifically at VloxP sequence and SCre at SloxP sequence without any cross-reactivity. These findings provide two novel alternative recombination systems in vivo in addition to the existing Cre/loxP and Flp/FRT systems, thus enabling sophisticated gene expression in model organisms...
August 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Harukazu Nakamura, Salvador Martinez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Morgane Belle, Aijaz Parray, Martin Belle, Alain Chédotal, Kim Tuyen Nguyen-Ba-Charvet
In the vertebrate retina six types of neurons and one glial cell type are generated from multipotent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) whose proliferation and differentiation are regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. RPCs proliferate undergoing interkinetic nuclear migration within the neuroblastic layer, with their nuclei moving up and down along the apico-basal axis. Moreover, they only differentiate and therefore exit the cell cycle at the apical side of the neuroblastic layer. Sema6A and its receptors PlexinA4 and PlexinA2 control lamina stratification of the inner plexiform layer in the mouse retina...
June 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Hisato Kondoh, Shinji Takada, Tatsuya Takemoto
The transcription factor gene Sox2, centrally involved in neural primordial regulation, is activated by many enhancers. During the early stages of embryonic development, Sox2 is regulated by the enhancers N2 and N1 in the anterior neural plate (ANP) and posterior neural plate (PNP), respectively. This differential use of the enhancers reflects distinct regulatory mechanisms underlying the genesis of ANP and PNP. The ANP develops directly from the epiblast, triggered by nodal signal inhibition, and via the combined action of TFs SOX2, OTX2, POU3F1, and ZIC2, which promotes the the ANP development and inhibits other cell lineages...
June 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Camilla Bosone, Abraham Andreu, Diego Echevarria
Gap junctions (GJs) are integral membrane proteins that enable the direct cytoplasmic exchange of ions and low molecular weight metabolites between adjacent cells. They are formed by the apposition of two connexons belonging to adjacent cells. Each connexon is formed by six proteins, named connexins (Cxs). Current evidence suggests that gap junctions play an important part in ensuring normal embryo development. Mutations in connexin genes have been linked to a variety of human diseases, although the precise role and the cell biological mechanisms of their action remain almost unknown...
June 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"