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Development, Growth & Differentiation

Fumiaki Murakami, Yoriko Ando, Asuka Miyagi, Shukei Sugita, Naoto Ueno, Takeo Matsumoto
The stress distribution inside a Xenopus laevis tailbud embryo was estimated to examine the cause of the straightening and elongation. The embryos were cut in the middle, yielding a cross-section perpendicular to the body axis. The section was not flat, owing to the residual stress relief. The stress needed to restore the flatness corresponded to the stress inside the embryo and was calculated using the surface topography and Young's-moduli in the section. We found the areas of the notochord (Nc), neural tube (NT), and abdominal tissue (AT) bulged in the cross-section, which revealed that compressive forces acted in these tissues...
June 19, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Koichiro Uriu, Luis G Morelli
Cell movement and intercellular signaling occur simultaneously to organize morphogenesis during embryonic development. Cell movement can cause relative positional changes between neighboring cells. When intercellular signals are local such cell mixing may affect signaling, changing the flow of information in developing tissues. Little is known about the effect of cell mixing on intercellular signaling in collective cellular behaviors and methods to quantify its impact are lacking. Here we discuss how to determine the impact of cell mixing on cell signaling drawing an example from vertebrate embryogenesis: the segmentation clock, a collective rhythm of interacting genetic oscillators...
June 19, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Katsuhiko Sato
During early embryonic development, epithelial cells form a monolayer sheet and migrate in a definite direction. This phenomenon, called epithelial cell migration, is an important topic in developmental biology. A characteristic feature of this process is attachment to adjacent cells during migration, which is necessary for maintaining the integrity of the sheet. However, it is unclear how these cohesive cells migrate without breaking their attachments. A mechanism for this phenomenon was recently proposed, in which direction-dependent contraction forces acting on cell boundaries induce unidirectional epithelial migration...
June 19, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Tsuyoshi Hirashima, Elisabeth G Rens, Roeland M H Merks
Mathematical modeling is an essential approach for the understanding of complex multicellular behaviors in tissue morphogenesis. Here, we review the cellular Potts model (CPM; also known as the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model), an effective computational modeling framework. We discuss its usability for modeling complex developmental phenomena by examining four fundamental examples of tissue morphogenesis: (i) cell sorting, (ii) cyst formation, (iii) tube morphogenesis in kidney development, and (iv) blood vessel formation...
June 8, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Jun Hatakeyama, Haruka Sato, Kenji Shimamura
The cerebral cortex in mammals, the neocortex specifically, is highly diverse among species with respect to its size and morphology, likely reflecting the immense adaptiveness of this lineage. In particular, the pattern and number of convoluted ridges and fissures, called gyri and sulci, respectively, on the surface of the cortex are variable among species and even individuals. However, little is known about the mechanism of cortical folding, although there have been several hypotheses proposed. Recent studies on embryonic neurogenesis revealed the differences in cortical progenitors as a critical factor of the process of gyrification...
June 5, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Takuma Kumamoto, Carina Hanashima
Among the forkhead box protein family, Foxg1 is a unique transcription factor that plays pleiotropic and non-redundant roles in vertebrate brain development. The emergence of the telencephalon at the rostral end of the neural tube and its subsequent expansion that is mediated by Foxg1 was a key reason for the vertebrate brain to acquire higher order information processing, where Foxg1 is repetitively used in the sequential events of telencephalic development to control multi-steps of brain circuit formation ranging from cell cycle control to neuronal differentiation in a clade- and species-specific manner...
June 5, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Yoshitaro Tanaka, Hiroko Yamamoto, Hirokazu Ninomiya
In recent years, spatial long range interactions during developmental processes have been introduced as a result of the integration of microscopic information, such as molecular events and signaling networks. They are often called nonlocal interactions. If the profile of a nonlocal interaction is determined by experiments, we can easily investigate how patterns generate by numerical simulations without detailed microscopic events. Thus, nonlocal interactions are useful tools to understand complex biosystems...
June 2, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Daisuke Takao, Shinji Kamimura
Besides the role to generate a fluid flow in the surrounding medium, eukaryotic cilia have a crucial function in sensing external signals such as chemical or mechanical stimuli. A large body of work has shown that cilia are frequently found in various types of sensory cells and are closely related to many regulatory mechanisms in differentiation and development. However, we do not yet have a definitive answer to the fundamental question, "why cilia?" It has been a long-standing mystery why cells use cilia for sensing external signals...
June 2, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Yusuke Hara
The cell-cell boundaries of epithelial cells form cellular frameworks at the apical side of tissues. Deformations in these boundaries, for example, boundary contraction and elongation, and the associated forces form the mechanical basis of epithelial tissue morphogenesis. In this review, using data from recent Drosophila studies on cell boundary contraction and elongation, I provide an overview of the mechanism underlying the bi-directional deformations in the epithelial cell boundary, that are sustained by biased accumulations of junctional and apico-medial non-muscle myosin II...
June 2, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Takeshi Sugawara, Akatsuki Kimura
Remarkable progress has been made in understanding chromosome structures inside the cell nucleus. Recent advances in Hi-C technologies enable the detection of genome-wide chromatin interactions, providing insight into three-dimensional (3D) genome organization. Advancements in the spatial and temporal resolutions of imaging as well as in molecular biological techniques allow the tracking of specific chromosomal loci, improving our understanding of chromosome movements. From these data, we are beginning to understand how the intra-nuclear locations of chromatin loci and the 3D genome structure change during development and differentiation...
June 2, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Kanami Noguchi, Ryota Ishikawa, Masahumi Kawaguchi, Kanako Miyoshi, Takahiko Kawasaki, Tatsumi Hirata, Makiko Fukui, Shigeru Kuratani, Mikiko Tanaka, Yasunori Murakami
Paired limbs were acquired in the ancestor of tetrapods and their morphology has been highly diversified in amniotes in relation to the adaptive radiation to the terrestrial environment. These morphological changes may have been induced by modification of the developmental program of the skeletal or muscular system. To complete limb modification, it is also important to change the neuronal framework, because the functions of the limbs rely on neural circuits that involve coordinated movement. Previous studies have shown that class 3 semaphorins (Sema3 semaphorins), which act as repulsive axonal guidance cues, play a crucial role in the formation of the peripheral nerves in mice...
May 29, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Teruhiro Okuyama, Saori Yokoi, Hideaki Takeuchi
Oryzias latipes (Medaka) is an established vertebrate model for studying developmental genetics, genomics, and evolutionary biology. The physiology, embryology, and genetics of this species have been extensively investigated for centuries. Medaka fish recently attracted attention in the field of social neuroscience. This review introduces recent advances in medaka behavioral studies, focusing on female mating preferences and male mate-guarding behaviors. The medaka female has the ability to discriminate male individuals and prefers to mate with socially familiar males (female mating preference)...
May 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Tadashi Nomura, Ei-Ichi Izawa
Birds are an extensively specialized animal group with unique anatomical, physiological and ecological characteristics. Sophisticated social behaviors and remarkable cognitive abilities are present in several avian lineages, driven by their enlarged brains and intricate neural networks. These unique traits could be a result of adaptive evolution under the wide range of environmental constraints; however, the intrinsic mechanisms of avian brain development and evolution remain unclear. Here, we introduce recent findings regarding developmental aspects of avian brain organization and neuronal networks for specific avian behaviors, which provide an insight into the link between the evolution of brain development and complex cognitive functions...
May 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Hideaki Matsui
Small teleost fish including zebrafish and medaka have been used as animal models for research because of their small body size, vast amounts of eggs produced, their rapid development, low husbandry costs, and transparency during embryogenesis. Although the body size and appearance seem different, fish and mammals including human still possess anatomical and functional similarities in their brains. This review summarizes the similarities of brain structures and functions between teleost fish and mammalian brains, focusing on the dopamine system, functional regionalization of the cerebellum, and presence of the nucleus ruber...
May 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Francesca Oltrabella, Adam Melgoza, Brian Nguyen, Su Guo
The endocannabinoid system (eCBs), named after the plant Cannabis sativa, comprises cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands known as "endocannabinoids", and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of these ligands, as well as putative transporters for these ligands. ECBs proteins and small molecules have been detected in early embryonic stages of many vertebrate models. As a result, cannabinoid receptors and endogenous as well as exogenous cannabinoids influence development and behavior in many vertebrate species...
May 17, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Naoyuki Yamamoto, Tomoya Nakayama, Hanako Hagio
In this article we review descending neural pathways to the spinal cord in teleosts, compared with mammals. Descending pathways to the spinal cord are crucial in controlling various behaviors in vertebrates. The major difference between teleosts and mammals is the lack of corticospinal (or palliospinal) tracts. Other descending pathways, which originate from the brain stem, are basically identical in teleosts and mammals. This suggests the presence of common systems in the spinal motor control by higher order centers...
May 16, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Hisao Honda
An epithelium is a layer of closely connected cells covering the body or lining a body cavity. In this review, several fundamental questions are addressed regarding the epithelium. (i) While an epithelium functions as barrier against the external environment, how is barrier function maintained during its construction? (ii) What determines the apical and basal sides of epithelial layer? (iii) Is there any relationship between the apical side of the epithelium and the apical membrane of an epithelial cell? (iv) Why are hepatocytes (liver cells) called epithelial, even though they differ completely from column-like shape of typical epithelial cells? Keeping these questions in mind, multiple shapes of epithelia were considered, extracting a few of their elemental processes, and constructing a virtual world of epithelia by combining them...
May 14, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Masahiko Hibi, Koji Matsuda, Miki Takeuchi, Takashi Shimizu, Yasunori Murakami
The cerebellum is derived from the dorsal part of the anterior-most hindbrain. The vertebrate cerebellum contains glutamatergic granule cells (GCs) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic Purkinje cells (PCs). These cerebellar neurons are generated from neuronal progenitors or neural stem cells by mechanisms that are conserved among vertebrates. However, vertebrate cerebella are widely diverse with respect to their gross morphology and neural circuits. The cerebellum of cyclostomes, the basal vertebrates, has a negligible structure...
May 4, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Kei Yamamoto, Solal Bloch, Philippe Vernier
In the current model, the most anterior part of the forebrain (secondary prosencephalon) is subdivided into the telencephalon dorsally and the hypothalamus ventrally. Our recent study identified a new morphogenetic unit named the optic recess region (ORR) between the telencephalon and the hypothalamus. This modification of the forebrain regionalization based on the ventricular organization resolved some previously unexplained inconsistency about regional identification in different vertebrate groups. The ventricular-based comparison also revealed a large diversity within the subregions (notably in the hypothalamus and telencephalon) among different vertebrate groups...
May 4, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Fumiaki Sugahara, Yasunori Murakami, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Shigeru Kuratani
Highly complicated morphologies and sophisticated functions of vertebrate brains have been established through evolution. However, the origin and early evolutionary history of the brain remain elusive, owing to lack of information regarding the brain architecture of extant and fossil species of jawless vertebrates (agnathans). Comparative analyses of the brain of less studied cyclostomes (only extant agnathan group, consisting of lampreys and hagfish) with the well-known sister group of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) are the only tools we have available to illustrate the ancestral architecture of the vertebrate brain...
April 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
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