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Development, Growth & Differentiation

Hironobu Fujiwara, Ko Tsutsui, Ritsuko Morita
Over the past decade, multiple stem cell compartments have been identified within the epidermis. These stem cell pools have different transcriptional properties, proliferative modes and anatomical locations, and they maintain distinct epidermal compartments. The importance of this stem cell heterogeneity and compartmentalization has been understood as a key feature in epidermal homeostasis. However, recent studies have revealed that these heterogeneous stem cells themselves act as a niche for neighboring cells, thereby establishing spatially and temporally patterned epidermal-dermal functional units...
November 18, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Rina Nagata, Tatsushi Igaki
Cell competition is a context-dependent cell elimination through short-range cell-cell interaction, in which cells with higher fitness eliminate neighboring less-fit or oncogenic cells within the growing tissue. Cell competition can be triggered by many different factors such as heterozygous mutations in the ribosomal protein genes (which are called "Minute" mutations), elevated Myc, Yorkie/YAP, Wg/Wnt, JAK-STAT, Ras, or Src activity, and loss of Mahjong/VprBP, endocytic pathway components, or apicobasal cell polarity...
November 15, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Shosei Yoshida
In mammalian testes, robust stem cell functions ensure the continual production of sperm. In testicular seminiferous tubules, spermatogenic stem cells (SSCs) are highly motile and are interspersed between their differentiating progeny, while undergoing self-renewal and differentiation. In such an "open niche" microenvironment, some SSCs proliferate, while others exit the stem cell compartment through differentiation; therefore, self-renewal and differentiation are perfectly balanced at the population (or tissue) level, a dynamics termed "population asymmetry...
November 15, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Jun Kitano, Asano Ishikawa, Makoto Kusakabe
Natural selection can cause similar phenotypic evolution in phylogenetically independent lineages inhabiting similar environments. Compared to morphological, behavioral, and physiological traits, little is known about the parallel evolution of transcriptome. Furthermore, the relative contribution of cis- and trans-regulatory changes to parallel transcriptome evolution largely remains unclear. The threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is a great model for studying parallel evolution because its ancestral marine populations independently colonized freshwater habitats in multiple geographical regions, resulting in independent pairs of marine and freshwater ecotypes in each region...
November 4, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Dian-Han Kuo, Yi-Te Lai
Leeches are a unique group of annelids arising from an ancestor that would be characterized as a freshwater oligochaete worm. Comparative biology of the oligochaetes and the leeches reveals that body plan changes in the oligochaete-to-leech transition probably occurred by addition or modification of the terminal steps in embryonic development and that they were likely driven by a change in the feeding behavior in the ancestor of leeches. In this review article, developmental changes that are associated with the evolution of several leech-specific traits are discussed...
November 4, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Edouard Hannezo, Benjamin D Simons
Branching morphogenesis remains a subject of abiding interest. Although much is known about the gene regulatory programs and signaling pathways that operate at the cellular scale, it has remained unclear how the macroscopic features of branched organs, including their size, network topology and spatial patterning, are encoded. Lately, it has been proposed that, these features can be explained quantitatively in several organs within a single unifying framework. Based on large-scale organ reconstructions and cell lineage tracing, it has been argued that morphogenesis follows from the collective dynamics of sublineage-restricted self-renewing progenitor cells, localized at ductal tips, that act cooperatively to drive a serial process of ductal elongation and stochastic tip bifurcation...
October 24, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Guizhong Cui, Shengbao Suo, Ran Wang, Yun Qian, Jing-Dong J Han, Guangdun Peng, Patrick P L Tam, Naihe Jing
Gastrulation is a key milestone in early mouse development when multipotent epiblast cells are allocated to progenitors of diverse tissue lineages that constitute the ensemble of building blocks of the body plan. The analysis of gene function revealed that the activity of transcription factors is likely to be the fundamental driving force underpinning the lineage specification and tissue patterning in the primary germ layers. The developmental-spatial transcriptome of the gastrulating embryo revealed the concerted and interactive activity of the gene regulatory network anchored by development-related transcription factors...
October 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Akiko Sakai, Sayaka Sugiyama
During brain development, once primary neural networks are formed, they are largely sculpted by environmental stimuli. The juvenile brain has a unique time window termed the critical period, in which neuronal circuits are remodeled by experience. Accumulating evidence indicates that abnormal rewiring of circuits in early life contributes to various neurodevelopmental disorders at later stages of life. Recent studies implicate two important aspects for activation of the critical period, both of which are experience-dependent: (a) proper excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance of neural circuit achieved during developmental trajectory of inhibitory interneurons, and (b) epigenetic regulation allowing flexible gene expression for neuronal plasticity...
October 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Hamdy Aly, Kazutaka Akagi, Hitoshi Ueda
The transcriptional repressor Blimp-1 is a labile protein. This characteristic is key for determining pupation timing because the timing of the disappearance of Blimp-1 affects pupation timing by regulating the expression of its target βftz-f1. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the protein turnover of Blimp-1 are still unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Blimp-1 is regulated by the ubiquitin proteasome system. We show that Blimp-1 degradation is inhibited by proteasome inhibitor MG132. Pupation timing was delayed in mutants of 26S proteasome subunits as well as FBXO11, which recruits target proteins to the 26S proteasome as a component of the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex by slowing down the degradation speed of Blimp-1...
October 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Yulia A Burmistrova, Boris V Osadchenko, Fedor V Bolshakov, Yulia A Kraus, Igor A Kosevich
Progress of Evo-Devo requires broad phylogenetic sampling providing the data for comparative analysis as well as new objects suitable for experimental investigation. Representatives of the early-branching animal phylum Cnidaria and particularly hydrozoans draw great attention due to the high diversity of embryonic and post-embryonic development and life-cycles in general. Most detailed studies on embryonic development in hydrozoans were performed on the species shedding their gametes with subsequent embryo development in the water column...
October 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Takahisa Suzuki, Keita Oochi, Satoko Hakeda-Suzuki, Takashi Suzuki
Blindness caused by the disconnection between photoreceptor cells and the brain can be cured by restoring this connection through the transplantation of retinal precursor neurons. However, even after transplanting these cells, it is still unclear how to guide the axons over the long distance from the retina to the brain. To establish a method of guiding the axons of transplanted neurons, we used the Drosophila visual system. By testing different conditions, including the dissociation and preincubation length, we have successfully established a method to transplant photoreceptor precursor cells isolated from the developing eye discs of third-instar larvae into the adult retina...
September 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Sho Ohta, Gary C Schoenwolf
Dorsoventral (DV) patterning of the otocyst gives rise to formation of the morphologically and functionally complex membranous labyrinth composed of unique dorsal and ventral sensory organs. DV patterning results from extracellular signaling by secreted growth factors, which presumably form reciprocal concentration gradients across the DV axis of the otocyst. Previous work suggested a model in which two important growth factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and SHH, undergo crosstalk through an intersecting pathway to coordinate DV patterning...
September 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Robert Farkaš, Denisa Beňová-Liszeková, Lucia Mentelová, Milan Beňo, Klaudia Babišová, Ludmila Trusinová-Pečeňová, Otakar Raška, Bruce A Chase, Ivan Raška
In the recent past, we demonstrated that a great deal is going on in the salivary glands of Drosophila in the interval after they release their glycoprotein-rich secretory glue during pupariation. The early-to-mid prepupal salivary glands undergo extensive endocytosis with widespread vacuolation of the cytoplasm followed by massive apocrine secretion. Here, we describe additional novel properties of these endosomes. The use of vital pH-sensitive probes provided confirmatory evidence that these endosomes have acidic contents and that there are two types of endocytosis seen in the prepupal glands...
August 19, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Yuu Usui, Shigeru Kondo, Masakatsu Watanabe
In zebrafish, apart from mononuclear melanophores, bi- and trinuclear melanophores are frequently observed; however, the manner in which multinucleation of these cells occurs during fish development remains unknown. Here, we analyzed the processes underlying multinucleation of zebrafish melanophores. Transgenic zebrafish in which melanophore nuclei were labeled with a histone H2B-red fluorescent reporter protein were used to evaluate the distribution of mono-, bi-, and trinuclear melanophores in both the trunk and fin...
August 7, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Tetsuya Bando, Hitoshi Yokoyama, Harukazu Nakamura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Sho Morioka, Priyambada Mohanty-Hejmadi, Yoshio Yaoita, Ichiro Tazawa
Anuran tadpoles can regenerate their tails after amputation. However, they occasionally form ectopic limbs instead of the lost tail part after vitamin A treatment. This is regarded as an example of a homeotic transformation. In this phenomenon, the developmental fate of the tail blastema is apparently altered from that of a tail to that of limbs, indicating a realignment of positional information in the blastema. Morphological observations and analyses of the development of skeletal elements during the process suggest that positional information in the blastema is rewritten from tail to trunk specification under the influence of vitamin A, resulting in limb formation...
August 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Hiroki Matsuda
Pancreatic β cells produce insulin and play a central role in glucose homeostasis. The regenerative capacity of mammalian β cells is limited, so that loss and dysfunction of β cells causes diabetes. Zebrafish have a pancreas which is functionally and morphologically conserved with human pancreas. Zebrafish have high regenerative capacity of islets. In the present review, development of zebrafish pancreas was described in comparison to that of mammals, and the regenerative process of zebrafish pancreas was also described...
August 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Ayano Harata, Mika Hirakawa, Tetsushi Sakuma, Takashi Yamamoto, Chikara Hashimoto
Vertebrates have unique head structures that are mainly composed of the central nervous system, the neural crest, and placode cells. These head structures are brought about initially by the neural induction between the organizer and the prospective neuroectoderm at early gastrula stage. Purinergic receptors are activated by nucleotides released from cells and influence intracellular signaling pathways, such as phospholipase C and adenylate cyclase signaling pathways. As P2Y receptor is vertebrate-specific and involved in head formation, we expect that its emergence may be related to the acquisition of vertebrate head during evolution...
August 1, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Yoshiyasu Ishimaru, Tetsuya Bando, Hideyo Ohuchi, Sumihare Noji, Taro Mito
The cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, is a classic model of leg regeneration following amputation. We previously demonstrated that Gryllus decapentaplegic (Gb'dpp) is expressed during leg regeneration, although it remains unclear whether it is essential for this process. In this study, double-stranded RNA targeting the Smad mathers-against-dpp homolog, Gb'mad, was used to examine the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in the leg regeneration process of Gryllus bimaculatus. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of Gb'mad led to a loss of tarsus regeneration at the most distal region of regenerating leg segments...
August 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Shizuka Miura, Atsushi Suzuki
The intestine has fundamental functions for the maintenance of homeostasis, including food digestion and nutrient/water absorption. Although the lumen of the intestine is always exposed to pathogens, intestinal epithelial cells form monolayer sheets that act as an epithelial barrier to prevent the invasion of pathogens. Thus, disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier causes inflammatory bowel diseases. To investigate the details of these intractable intestinal diseases, it is necessary to analyze the characteristics of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro...
August 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
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