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Development, Growth & Differentiation

Asuka Arimoto, Kuni Tagawa
Hemichordates are marine invertebrates that are closely related to chordates, but while their body plans are comparable to those of chordates, they possess a remarkable capacity for regeneration, even as adults. A small fragment is sufficient to form a complete individual. Unlike echinoderms, their larvae transform directly into adults; therefore, hemichordate systems offer clear morphological and molecular parallels between regeneration and development. Morphological events in regeneration are generally similar to organogenesis in juveniles...
July 15, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Eri Shibata, Zhengcheng Liu, Toshihiro Kawasaki, Noriyuki Sakai, Atsushi Kawakami
It has been proposed that cells are regulated to form specific morphologies and sizes according to positional information. However, the entity and nature of positional information have not been fully understood yet. The zebrafish caudal fin has a characteristic V-shape; dorsal and ventral fin rays are longer than the central ones. This fin shape regenerates irrespective of the sites or shape of fin amputation. It is thought that reformation of tissue occurs according to positional information. In this study, we developed a novel transplantation procedure for grafting a whole fin ray to an ectopic position and examined whether the information that specifies fin length exists within each fin ray...
July 10, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Takahisa Suzuki, Keita Oochi, Satoko Hakeda-Suzuki, Takashi Suzuki
Blindness caused by the disconnection between photoreceptor cells and the brain can be cured by restoring this connection through the transplantation of retinal precursor neurons. However, even after transplanting these cells, it is still unclear how to guide the axons over the long distance from the retina to the brain. To establish a method of guiding the axons of transplanted neurons, we used the Drosophila visual system. By testing different conditions, including the dissociation and preincubation length, we have successfully established a method to transplant photoreceptor precursor cells isolated from the developing eye discs of third-instar larvae into the adult retina...
July 10, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Masaaki Kitada, Shohei Wakao, Mari Dezawa
Proliferation of ependymal cells of the adult spinal cord (SCEp cells) in the intact condition has been considered as a quite rare event. To visualize proliferating/proliferated SCEp cells, we used the intensive 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) administration method to find that about two cells in the ependymal layer incorporated BrdU in a 10-μm-thick section. Because these two cells were not considered to undergo further proliferation, we analyzed the positioning and motility of two neighboring BrdU-incorporated proliferated cells and elucidated the tendency of the movement of SCEp cells to the outer side inside the ependymal layer...
July 9, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Hitoshi Yokoyama, Nanako Kudo, Momoko Todate, Yuri Shimada, Makoto Suzuki, Koji Tamura
Adult mammals do not regenerate the dermis of the skin but form a scar after a deep skin injury. Since a scar causes serious medical problems, skin regeneration, instead of formation of a scar, has been strongly desired from a clinical point of view. Recent studies have suggested multiple origins of myofibroblasts, which are scar-forming cells in skin wound healing of mammals. While amphibians have skin structures that are basically common to mammals as tetrapods, both urodele and anuran amphibians regenerate almost complete skin structures including the dermis and secretion glands without forming a remarkable scar after a deep skin injury...
June 26, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Sho Ohta, Gary C Schoenwolf
Dorsoventral (DV) patterning of the otocyst gives rise to formation of the morphologically and functionally complex membranous labyrinth composed of unique dorsal and ventral sensory organs. DV patterning results from extracellular signaling by secreted growth factors, which presumably form reciprocal concentration gradients across the DV axis of the otocyst. Previous work suggested a model in which two important growth factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and SHH, undergo crosstalk through an intersecting pathway to coordinate DV patterning...
June 19, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Kazutaka Hosoda, Minako Motoishi, Takuya Kunimoto, Osamu Nishimura, Byulnim Hwang, Sumire Kobayashi, Shigenobu Yazawa, Makoto Mochii, Kiyokazu Agata, Yoshihiko Umesono
Planarians have established a unique body pattern along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis, which consists of at least four distinct body regions arranged in an anterior to posterior sequence: head, prepharyngeal, pharyngeal (containing a pharynx), and tail regions, and possess high regenerative ability. How they reconstruct the regional continuity in a head-to-tail sequence after amputation still remains unknown. We use as a model planarian Dugesia japonica head regeneration from tail fragments, which involves dynamic rearrangement of the body regionality of preexisting tail tissues along the AP axis, and show here that RNA interference of the gene D...
June 13, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Ryoichi Mori, Katsuya Tanaka, Isao Shimokawa
Inflammation at a wound site is essential for preventing infection. However, misregulated inflammation leads to pathologies of the healing process, including chronic non-healing wounds and scarring. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of the inflammatory response and tissue repair, acting by translational processing of target mRNAs. In the final step of miRNA processing, Argonaute 2 (Ago2)-bound mature miRNA complexes bind to target mRNAs and inhibit their translation. A variety of wound healing-related miRNAs have been identified and their misregulation likely contributes to wound pathologies, including scarring and chronic healing...
June 5, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Tatsuya Katahira, Naoko Miyazaki, Jun Motoyama
Aversive experiences, including maternal separation (MS), have been known as a risk for abnormal hippocampus development. Given that impairment of GABA inhibitory system is known as one of the common features of the abnormal hippocampal development induced by MS, we examined whether the MS on 4-day-old (P4) mice for 24 hr abolishes the interneuron development. We observed that the MS reduced the volume of dorsal hippocampus on P14 as long-term effects. In addition, the MS decreased the number of parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneuron on P14 and P28 in the dorsal hippocampus...
June 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Shumpei Morita, Ryoma Ota, Satoru Kobayashi
In Drosophila ovary, germline stem cells (GSCs) divide to produce two daughter cells. One daughter is maintained as a GSC, whereas the other initiates cyst formation, a process involving four synchronous mitotic divisions that form 2-, 4-, 8-, and 16-cell cysts. In this study, we found that reduction in the level of NHP2, a component of the H/ACA small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein complex that catalyzes rRNA pseudouridylation, promotes progression to 8-cell cysts. NHP2 protein was concentrated in the nucleoli of germline cells during cyst formation...
June 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Naofumi Ito, Mohammad Badrul Anam, Shah Adil Ishtiyaq Ahmad, Kunimasa Ohta
Ribosomes are intracellular organelles ubiquitous in all organisms, which translate information from mRNAs to synthesize proteins. They are complex macromolecules composed of dozens of proteins and ribosomal RNAs. Other than translation, some ribosomal proteins also have side-jobs called "Moonlighting" function. The majority of these moonlighting functions influence cancer progression, early development and differentiation. Recently, we discovered that ribosome is involved in the regulation of cellular transdifferentiation of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs)...
June 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Makoto Kashima, Kiyokazu Agata, Norito Shibata
Nuclear PIWIs together with their guide RNAs (piRNAs) epigenetically silence various genes including transposons in many organisms. In planarians, the nuclear piwi family gene, DjpiwiB is specifically transcribed in adult pluripotent stem cells (adult PSC, neoblast), but not in differentiated cells. However, the protein accumulates in the nuclei of both neoblasts and their descendant differentiated cells. Interestingly, PIWI(DjPiwiB)-piRNA complexes are indispensable for the repression of transposable genes at the onset of differentiation from neoblasts...
June 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Kentaro Ishida, Tetsuichiro Saito, Toshiyuki Mitsui
A Merkel cell-neurite complex is a touch receptor composed of specialized epithelial cells named Merkel cells and peripheral sensory nerves in the skin. Merkel cells are found in touch-sensitive skin components including whisker follicles. The nerve fibers that innervate Merkel cells of a whisker follicle extend from the maxillary branch of the trigeminal ganglion. Whiskers as a sensory organ attribute to the complicated architecture of the Merkel cell-neurite complex, and therefore it is intriguing how the structure is formed...
June 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Haruka Suzuki, Shunsuke Yaguchi
During gastrulation, one of the most important morphogenetic events in sea urchin embryogenesis, the gut bends toward the ventral side to form an open mouth. Although the involvement of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signals in the cell-fate specification of the ectoderm and endoderm along the dorsal-ventral axis has been well reported, it remains unclear what controls the morphogenetic behavior of gut bending. Here, using two sea urchin species, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and Temnopleurus reevesii, we show that TGF-β signals are required for gut bending toward the ventral side...
May 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Zhiren Zhang, Yunqing Cao, Yanhui Zhai, Xiaoling Ma, Xinglan An, Sheng Zhang, Ziyi Li
MicroRNA-29b (miR-29b) is a member of the miR-29 family, which targets DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and ten eleven translocation enzymes (TETs), thereby regulating DNA methylation. However, the role of miR-29b in porcine early embryo development has not been reported. In this study, we examined the effects of miR-29b in porcine in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos to investigate the mechanism by which miR-29b regulated DNA methylation. The interference of miR-29b by its special miRNA inhibitor significantly up-regulated Dnmt3a/b and Tet1 but downregulated Tet2/3; meanwhile it increased DNA methylation levels of the global genome and Nanog promoter region but decreased global DNA demethylation levels...
May 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Toshiyasu Goto, Yuzuru Ito, Tatsuo Michiue
Several chemokine molecules control cell movements during early morphogenesis. However, it is unclear whether chemokine molecules affect cell fate. Here, we identified and characterized the CXC-type chemokine ligand in Xenopus laevis, Xenopus CXCLh (XCXCLh), during early embryogenesis. XCXCLh is expressed in the dorsal vegetal region at the gastrula stage. Both overexpression and knockdown of XCXCLh in the dorsal region inhibited gastrulation. XCXCLh contributed to the attraction of mesendodermal cells and accelerated the reassembly of scratched culture cells...
May 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Zhiqing Hu, Yong Wu, Miaojin Zhou, Xiaolin Wang, Jialun Pang, Zhuo Li, Mai Feng, Yanchi Wang, Qian Hu, Junya Zhao, Xionghao Liu, Lingqian Wu, Desheng Liang
Reporter embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines with tissue-specific reporter genes may contribute to optimizing the differentiation conditions in vitro as well as trafficking transplanted cells in vivo. To optimize and monitor endothelial cell (EC) differentiation specifically, here we targeted the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene at the junction of 5'UTR and exon2 of the endothelial specific marker gene CD144 using TALENs in human ESCs (H9) to generate a EGFP-CD144-reporter ESC line. The reporter cells expressed EGFP and CD144 increasingly and specifically without unexpected effects during the EC differentiation...
May 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Kimiko Takebayashi-Suzuki, Hidenori Konishi, Tatsuo Miyamoto, Tomoko Nagata, Misa Uchida, Atsushi Suzuki
During early vertebrate embryogenesis, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belonging to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family of growth factors play a central role in dorsal-ventral (DV) patterning of embryos, while other growth factors such as Wnt and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family members regulate formation of the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. Although the establishment of body plan is thought to require coordinated formation of the DV and AP axes, the mechanistic details underlying this coordination are not well understood...
April 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Kennedy O Okeyo, Maiko Tanabe, Osamu Kurosawa, Hidehiro Oana, Masao Washizu
Cellular dynamics leading to the formation of the trophectoderm in humans remain poorly understood owing to limited accessibility to human embryos for research into early human embryogenesis. Compared to animal models, organoids formed by self-organization of stem cells in vitro may provide better insights into differentiation and complex morphogenetic processes occurring during early human embryogenesis. Here we demonstrate that modulating the cell culture microenvironment alone can trigger self-organization of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to yield trophectoderm-mimicking cysts without chemical induction...
April 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Sonoko Kinjo, Masato Kiyomoto, Takashi Yamamoto, Kazuho Ikeo, Shunsuke Yaguchi
To understand the mystery of life, it is important to accumulate genomic information for various organisms because the whole genome encodes the commands for all the genes. Since the genome of Strongylocentrotus purpratus was sequenced in 2006 as the first sequenced genome in echinoderms, the genomic resources of other North American sea urchins have gradually been accumulated, but no sea urchin genomes are available in other areas, where many scientists have used the local species and reported important results...
April 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
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