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Development, Growth & Differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921294/temporal-dissociation-of-developmental-events-in-the-chick-eye-under-low-temperature-conditions
#1
Hideaki Iida, Tiantian Yang, Sadao Yasugi, Yasuo Ishii
The chick embryonic eye is an excellent model for the study of vertebrate organogenesis. Key events in eye development involve thickening, invagination and cytodifferentiation of the lens primordium. While these events occur successively at different developmental stages, the extent to which these events are temporally related is largely unknown. Here we show that the lens invagination is highly sensitive to temperature. Lowering of incubation temperature to 29°C at embryonic day 2 delayed the onset of invagination of the lens, but not thickening and cytodifferentiation, leading to abnormal protrusion of the eye...
December 6, 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896813/transcriptional-and-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-histone-variant-h2a-z-during-sea-urchin-development
#2
Mihai Hajdu, Jasmine Calle, Andrea Puno, Aminat Haruna, César Arenas-Mena
Histone variant H2A.Z promotes chromatin accessibility at transcriptional regulatory elements and is developmentally regulated in metazoans. We characterize the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of H2A.Z in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. H2A.Z depletion by antisense translation-blocking morpholino oligonucleotides during early development causes developmental collapse, in agreement with its previously demonstrated general role in transcriptional multipotency. During H2A...
November 29, 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896806/nitric-oxide-synthase-during-early-embryonic-development-in-silkworm-bombyx-mori-gene-expression-enzyme-activity-and-tissue-distribution
#3
Ryo Kitta, Marina Kuwamoto, Yumi Yamahama, Keisuke Mase, Hiroshi Sawada
To elucidate the mechanism for embryonic diapause or the breakdown of diapause in Bombyx mori, we biochemically analyzed nitric oxide synthase (NOS) during the embryogenesis of B. mori. The gene expression and enzyme activity of B. mori NOS (BmNOS) were examined in diapause, non-diapause, and HCl-treated diapause eggs. In the case of HCl-treated diapause eggs, the gene expression and enzyme activity of BmNOS were induced by HCl treatment. However, in the case of diapause and non-diapause eggs during embryogenesis, changes in the BmNOS activity and gene expressions did not coincide except 48-60 h after oviposition in diapause eggs...
November 29, 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885657/cdc25b-is-involved-in-the-centrosomal-microtubule-nucleation-in-two-cell-stage-mouse-embryos
#4
Cheng Cui, Tianxia Zang, Yu Cao, Xin Qin, Xuewei Zhang
CDC25B has been demonstrated to activate the complex of CDK1/Cyclin B and trigger mitosis. We have recently demonstrated that p-CDC25B-Ser351 is located at the centrosomes of mouse oocytes and contributes to the release of mouse oocytes from prophase I arrest. But much less is known about CDC25B function at the centrosome in two-cell stage mouse embryos. Here we investigate the effect of CDC25B regulating the microtubules nucleation. Microinjection of anti-CDC25B antibody caused aberrant microtubule nucleation...
November 25, 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882546/human-gingival-fibroblasts-induced-and-differentiated-into-vascular-endothelial-like-cells
#5
Xuqian Liu, Jie Wang, Fusheng Dong, Hexiang Li, Yali Hou
A novel method for repair of vascular disease, mechanical damage, and tissue rebuilding is urgently required. Vascular endothelial cells (VECs) play an essential role in vascular rebuilding and vasotransplantation. In the present study, human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were cultured and induced into endothelial-like cells in vitro in order to confirm that HGFs with stem cell properties possessed the potential for differentiation into endothelial-like cells. The epithelium was extracted from normal human gingiva consisting of epithelium and connective tissue, which was isolated from patients...
November 24, 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804121/acute-phase-response-in-amputated-tail-stumps-and-neural-tissue-preferential-expression-in-tail-bud-embryos-of-the-xenopus-neuronal-pentraxin-i-gene
#6
Yuko Hatta-Kobayashi, Mie Toyama-Shirai, Takehiro Yamanaka, Mayuko Takamori, Yoko Wakabayashi, Yuko Naora, Takekazu Kunieda, Taro Fukazawa, Takeo Kubo
Regeneration of lost organs involves complex processes, including host defense from infection and rebuilding of lost tissues. We previously reported that Xenopus neuronal pentraxin I (xNP1) is expressed preferentially in regenerating Xenopus laevis tadpole tails. To evaluate xNP1 function in tail regeneration, and also in tail development, we analyzed xNP1 expression in tailbud embryos and regenerating/healing tails following tail amputation in the 'regeneration' period, as well as in the 'refractory' period, when tadpoles lose their tail regenerative ability...
November 2, 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759163/generation-of-a-transgenic-medaka-oryzias-latipes-strain-for-visualization-of-nuclear-dynamics-in-early-developmental-stages
#7
Takanobu Inoue, Atsuo Iida, Shingo Maegawa, Atsuko Sehara-Fujisawa, Masato Kinoshita
In this study, we verified nuclear transport activity of an artificial nuclear localization signal (aNLS) in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). We generated a transgenic medaka strain expresses the aNLS tagged enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) driven by a medaka beta-actin promoter. The aNLS-EGFP was accumulated in the nuclei of somatic tissues and yolk nuclei of oocytes, but undetectable in the spermatozoa. The fluorescent signal was observed from immediately after fertilization by a maternal contribution...
October 19, 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684714/paraptosis-like-cell-death-in-wistar-rat-granulosa-cells
#8
Nayeli Torres-Ramírez, María L Escobar, Gerardo H Vázquez-Nin, Rosario Ortiz, Olga M Echeverría
Follicular atresia, a common process present in all mammals, involves apoptotic and autophagic cell death. However, the participation of paraptosis, a type of caspase-independent cell death, during follicular atresia is unknown. This study found swollen endoplasmic reticulum in the granulosa cells of adult Wistar rats. Calnexin was used as a marker of the endoplasmic reticulum at the ultrastructural and optical levels. The cells with swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum were negative to the TUNEL assay and active caspase-3 immunodetection, indicating that this swelling is not part of any apoptotic or autophagic process...
October 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671506/optimizing-neuronal-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-nt2-stem-cells-in-monolayer-cultures
#9
Sepideh Abolpour Mofrad, Katharina Kuenzel, Oliver Friedrich, Daniel F Gilbert
Human pluripotent embryonal carcinoma (NT2) cells are increasingly considered as a suitable model for in vitro developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity (DT/DNT) studies as they undergo neuronal differentiation upon stimulation with retinoic acid (RA) and allow toxicity testing at different stages of maturation. However, differentiation of NT2 cells is not straightforward. There are different protocols available in the literature reporting varying results with regard to differentiation efficiency, expression of neuronal markers and morphological characteristics of differentiated cells...
October 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585825/mitochondrial-trafficking-through-rhot1-is-involved-in-the-aggregation-of-germinal-granule-components-during-primordial-germ-cell-formation-in-xenopus-embryos
#10
Haru Tada, Yuya Taira, Keisuke Morichika, Tsutomu Kinoshita
In many animals, the germ plasm is sufficient and necessary for primordial germ cell (PGC) formation. It contains germinal granules and abundant mitochondria (germline-Mt). However, the role of germline-Mt in germ cell formation remains poorly understood. In Xenopus, the germ plasm is distributed as many small islands at the vegetal pole, which gradually aggregates to form a single large mass in each of the four vegetal pole cells at the early blastula stage. Polymerized microtubules and the adapter protein kinesin are required for the aggregation of germ plasm...
October 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530443/human-pancreatic-islets-develop-through-fusion-of-distinct-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-islets
#11
Inchul Lee
Human pancreatic islets show unique architecture in which α and δ cells are mostly at the peripheral and perivascular areas. It has remained unknown how such prototype is realized in every islet. Here, I report that fetal islets develop first in two distinct types consisting of β or α/δ cells, respectively. The α/δ islets are variable in shape, composed of α and δ cells evenly intermixed. They are vascularized better but encapsulated poorer than β islets in general. During the development, the β and α/δ islets adjoin and fuse with each other in such a way that α and δ cells form a crescent on β cells and, then, progress to encompass and encroach into β cells...
October 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633818/inhibition-of-the-integrin-signal-constitutes-a-mouse-ips-cell-niche
#12
Sayaka Higuchi, Sawako Yoshina, Shohei Mitani
Stem cells are regulated by their surrounding microenvironments, called niche, such as cell-cell interaction and extracellular matrix. Classically, feeder cells as a niche have been used in the culture of iPS cells from both the mouse and the human. However, the regulation mechanism of stem cells by feeder cells as a niche still have been partially unclear. In this study, we used three murine iPS cell lines, iPS-MEF-Ng-20D-17, iPS-MEF-Ng-178B-5 and iPS-MEF-Fb/Ng-440A-3, which were generated by different reprogramming methods...
September 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530596/molecular-markers-for-x-ray-insensitive-differentiated-cells-in-the-inner-and-outer-regions-of-the-mesenchymal-space-in-planarian-dugesia-japonica
#13
Machiko Teramoto, Tomomi Kudome-Takamatsu, Osamu Nishimura, Yang An, Makoto Kashima, Norito Shibata, Kiyokazu Agata
Planarian's strong regenerative ability is dependent on stem cells (called neoblasts) that are X-ray-sensitive and proliferative stem cells. In addition to neoblasts, another type of X-ray-sensitive cells was newly identified by recent research. Thus, planarian's X-ray-sensitive cells can be divided into at least two populations, Type 1 and Type 2, the latter corresponding to planarian's classically defined "neoblasts". Here, we show that Type 1 cells were distributed in the outer region (OR) immediately underneath the muscle layer at all axial levels from head to tail, while the Type 2 cells were distributed in a more internal region (IR) of the mesenchymal space at the axial levels from neck to tail...
September 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506985/lineage-tracing-reveals-conversion-of-liver-sinusoidal-endothelial-cells-into-hepatocytes
#14
Zhaoli Tan, Keyan Chen, Yong Shao, Lihua Gao, Yan Wang, Jianming Xu, Yang Jin, Xianwen Hu, Youliang Wang
Although liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) have long been known to contribute to liver regeneration following injury, the exact role of these cells in liver regeneration remains poorly understood. In this work, we performed lineage tracing of LSECs in mice carrying Tie2-Cre or VE-cadherin-Cre constructs to facilitate fate-mapping of LSECs in liver regeneration. Some YFP-positive LSECs were observed to convert into hepatocytes following a two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PH). Furthermore, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) could be triggered to convert into cells that closely resembled hepatocytes when cultured with serum from mice that underwent an extended PH...
September 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27481486/face-off-against-ros-tcof1-treacle-safeguards-neuroepithelial-cells-and-progenitor-neural-crest-cells-from-oxidative-stress-during-craniofacial-development
#15
REVIEW
Daisuke Sakai, Paul A Trainor
One-third of all congenital birth defects affect the head and face, and most craniofacial anomalies are considered to arise through defects in the development of cranial neural crest cells. Cranial neural crest cells give rise to the majority of craniofacial bones, cartilages and connective tissues. Therefore, understanding the events that control normal cranial neural crest and subsequent craniofacial development is important for elucidating the pathogenetic mechanisms of craniofacial anomalies and for the exploring potential therapeutic avenues for their prevention...
September 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385512/abnormal-spermatogenesis-and-male-infertility-in-testicular-zinc-finger-protein-zfp318-knockout-mice
#16
Masamichi Ishizuka, Eri Ohtsuka, Atsuto Inoue, Mirei Odaka, Hirotaka Ohshima, Norihisa Tamura, Kaoru Yoshida, Norihisa Sako, Tadashi Baba, Shin-Ichi Kashiwabara, Masaru Okabe, Junko Noguchi, Hiromi Hagiwara
Zfp318, a mouse gene with a Cys2/His2 zinc finger motif, is mainly expressed in germ cells in the testis. It encodes two alternative transcripts, which regulate androgen receptor-mediated transcriptional activation or repression by overexpression of them. However, the role of Zfp318 is still obscure in vivo, especially in spermatogenesis. To elucidate the role of Zfp318 during gamete production, we established a knockout mouse line. Zfp318-null male mice exhibited infertility, whereas Zfp318-null female mice displayed normal fertility...
September 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397870/massive-excretion-of-calcium-oxalate-from-late-prepupal-salivary-glands-of-drosophila-melanogaster-demonstrates-active-nephridial-like-anion-transport
#17
Robert Farkaš, Ludmila Pečeňová, Lucia Mentelová, Milan Beňo, Denisa Beňová-Liszeková, Silvia Mahmoodová, Václav Tejnecký, Otakar Raška, Pavel Juda, Silvie Svidenská, Matúš Hornáček, Bruce A Chase, Ivan Raška
The Drosophila salivary glands (SGs) were well known for the puffing patterns of their polytene chromosomes and so became a tissue of choice to study sequential gene activation by the steroid hormone ecdysone. One well-documented function of these glands is to produce a secretory glue, which is released during pupariation to fix the freshly formed puparia to the substrate. Over the past two decades SGs have been used to address specific aspects of developmentally-regulated programmed cell death (PCD) as it was thought that they are doomed for histolysis and after pupariation are just awaiting their fate...
August 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273137/analysis-of-extraembryonic-mesodermal-structure-formation-in-the-absence-of-morphological-primitive-streak
#18
Jiu-Zhen Jin, Yuanqi Zhu, Dennis Warner, Jixiang Ding
During mouse gastrulation, the primitive streak is formed on the posterior side of the embryo. Cells migrate out of the primitive streak to form the future mesoderm and endoderm. Fate mapping studies revealed a group of cell migrate through the proximal end of the primitive streak and give rise to the extraembryonic mesoderm tissues such as the yolk sac blood islands and allantois. However, it is not clear whether the formation of a morphological primitive streak is required for the development of these extraembryonic mesodermal tissues...
August 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27272910/tissue-culture-on-a-chip-developmental-biology-applications-of-self-organized-capillary-networks-in-microfluidic-devices
#19
REVIEW
Takashi Miura, Ryuji Yokokawa
Organ culture systems are used to elucidate the mechanisms of pattern formation in developmental biology. Various organ culture techniques have been used, but the lack of microcirculation in such cultures impedes the long-term maintenance of larger tissues. Recent advances in microfluidic devices now enable us to utilize self-organized perfusable capillary networks in organ cultures. In this review, we will overview past approaches to organ culture and current technical advances in microfluidic devices, and discuss possible applications of microfluidics towards the study of developmental biology...
August 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27241908/six1-is-required-for-mouse-dental-follicle-cell-and-human-periodontal-ligament-derived-cell-proliferation
#20
Tatsuki Kawasaki, Masanori Takahashi, Hiroshi Yajima, Yoshiyuki Mori, Kiyoshi Kawakami
The periodontal ligament (PDL) is a connective tissue that attaches the tooth cementum to the alveolar bone and is derived from dental follicle cells (DFCs). The DFCs form fibroblasts, osteoblasts, cementoblasts, and PDL stem cells (PDLSCs). We previously reported homeobox transcription factor Six1 expression in mouse DFCs. However, the role of Six1 in periodontal tissue development is largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed SIX1 expression in mouse periodontal tissue cells during postnatal development and adulthood...
August 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
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