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Development, Growth & Differentiation

Robert Farkaš, Denisa Beňová-Liszeková, Lucia Mentelová, Milan Beňo, Klaudia Babišová, Ludmila Trusinová-Pečeňová, Otakar Raška, Bruce A Chase, Ivan Raška
In the recent past, we demonstrated that a great deal is going on in the salivary glands of Drosophila in the interval after they release their glycoprotein-rich secretory glue during pupariation. The early-to-mid prepupal salivary glands undergo extensive endocytosis with widespread vacuolation of the cytoplasm followed by massive apocrine secretion. Here, we describe additional novel properties of these endosomes. The use of vital pH-sensitive probes provided confirmatory evidence that these endosomes have acidic contents and that there are two types of endocytosis seen in the prepupal glands...
August 19, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Yuu Usui, Shigeru Kondo, Masakatsu Watanabe
In zebrafish, apart from mononuclear melanophores, bi- and trinuclear melanophores are frequently observed; however, the manner in which multinucleation of these cells occurs during fish development remains unknown. Here, we analyzed the processes underlying multinucleation of zebrafish melanophores. Transgenic zebrafish in which melanophore nuclei were labeled with a histone H2B-red fluorescent reporter protein were used to evaluate the distribution of mono-, bi-, and trinuclear melanophores in both the trunk and fin...
August 7, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Ayano Harata, Mika Hirakawa, Tetsushi Sakuma, Takashi Yamamoto, Chikara Hashimoto
Vertebrates have unique head structures that are mainly composed of the central nervous system, the neural crest, and placode cells. These head structures are brought about initially by the neural induction between the organizer and the prospective neuroectoderm at early gastrula stage. Purinergic receptors are activated by nucleotides released from cells and influence intracellular signaling pathways, such as phospholipase C and adenylate cyclase signaling pathways. As P2Y receptor is vertebrate-specific and involved in head formation, we expect that its emergence may be related to the acquisition of vertebrate head during evolution...
August 1, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Takahisa Suzuki, Keita Oochi, Satoko Hakeda-Suzuki, Takashi Suzuki
Blindness caused by the disconnection between photoreceptor cells and the brain can be cured by restoring this connection through the transplantation of retinal precursor neurons. However, even after transplanting these cells, it is still unclear how to guide the axons over the long distance from the retina to the brain. To establish a method of guiding the axons of transplanted neurons, we used the Drosophila visual system. By testing different conditions, including the dissociation and preincubation length, we have successfully established a method to transplant photoreceptor precursor cells isolated from the developing eye discs of third-instar larvae into the adult retina...
September 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Sho Ohta, Gary C Schoenwolf
Dorsoventral (DV) patterning of the otocyst gives rise to formation of the morphologically and functionally complex membranous labyrinth composed of unique dorsal and ventral sensory organs. DV patterning results from extracellular signaling by secreted growth factors, which presumably form reciprocal concentration gradients across the DV axis of the otocyst. Previous work suggested a model in which two important growth factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and SHH, undergo crosstalk through an intersecting pathway to coordinate DV patterning...
September 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Tetsuya Bando, Hitoshi Yokoyama, Harukazu Nakamura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Sho Morioka, Priyambada Mohanty-Hejmadi, Yoshio Yaoita, Ichiro Tazawa
Anuran tadpoles can regenerate their tails after amputation. However, they occasionally form ectopic limbs instead of the lost tail part after vitamin A treatment. This is regarded as an example of a homeotic transformation. In this phenomenon, the developmental fate of the tail blastema is apparently altered from that of a tail to that of limbs, indicating a realignment of positional information in the blastema. Morphological observations and analyses of the development of skeletal elements during the process suggest that positional information in the blastema is rewritten from tail to trunk specification under the influence of vitamin A, resulting in limb formation...
August 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Hiroki Matsuda
Pancreatic β cells produce insulin and play a central role in glucose homeostasis. The regenerative capacity of mammalian β cells is limited, so that loss and dysfunction of β cells causes diabetes. Zebrafish have a pancreas which is functionally and morphologically conserved with human pancreas. Zebrafish have high regenerative capacity of islets. In the present review, development of zebrafish pancreas was described in comparison to that of mammals, and the regenerative process of zebrafish pancreas was also described...
August 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Yoshiyasu Ishimaru, Tetsuya Bando, Hideyo Ohuchi, Sumihare Noji, Taro Mito
The cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, is a classic model of leg regeneration following amputation. We previously demonstrated that Gryllus decapentaplegic (Gb'dpp) is expressed during leg regeneration, although it remains unclear whether it is essential for this process. In this study, double-stranded RNA targeting the Smad mathers-against-dpp homolog, Gb'mad, was used to examine the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in the leg regeneration process of Gryllus bimaculatus. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of Gb'mad led to a loss of tarsus regeneration at the most distal region of regenerating leg segments...
August 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Shizuka Miura, Atsushi Suzuki
The intestine has fundamental functions for the maintenance of homeostasis, including food digestion and nutrient/water absorption. Although the lumen of the intestine is always exposed to pathogens, intestinal epithelial cells form monolayer sheets that act as an epithelial barrier to prevent the invasion of pathogens. Thus, disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier causes inflammatory bowel diseases. To investigate the details of these intractable intestinal diseases, it is necessary to analyze the characteristics of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro...
August 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Asuka Arimoto, Kuni Tagawa
Hemichordates are marine invertebrates that are closely related to chordates, but while their body plans are comparable to those of chordates, they possess a remarkable capacity for regeneration, even as adults. A small fragment is sufficient to form a complete individual. Unlike echinoderms, their larvae transform directly into adults; therefore, hemichordate systems offer clear morphological and molecular parallels between regeneration and development. Morphological events in regeneration are generally similar to organogenesis in juveniles...
August 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Eri Shibata, Zhengcheng Liu, Toshihiro Kawasaki, Noriyuki Sakai, Atsushi Kawakami
It has been proposed that cells are regulated to form specific morphologies and sizes according to positional information. However, the entity and nature of positional information have not been fully understood yet. The zebrafish caudal fin has a characteristic V-shape; dorsal and ventral fin rays are longer than the central ones. This fin shape regenerates irrespective of the sites or shape of fin amputation. It is thought that reformation of tissue occurs according to positional information. In this study, we developed a novel transplantation procedure for grafting a whole fin ray to an ectopic position and examined whether the information that specifies fin length exists within each fin ray...
August 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Masaaki Kitada, Shohei Wakao, Mari Dezawa
Proliferation of ependymal cells of the adult spinal cord (SCEp cells) in the intact condition has been considered as a quite rare event. To visualize proliferating/proliferated SCEp cells, we used the intensive 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) administration method to find that about two cells in the ependymal layer incorporated BrdU in a 10-μm-thick section. Because these two cells were not considered to undergo further proliferation, we analyzed the positioning and motility of two neighboring BrdU-incorporated proliferated cells and elucidated the tendency of the movement of SCEp cells to the outer side inside the ependymal layer...
August 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Hitoshi Yokoyama, Nanako Kudo, Momoko Todate, Yuri Shimada, Makoto Suzuki, Koji Tamura
Adult mammals do not regenerate the dermis of the skin but form a scar after a deep skin injury. Since a scar causes serious medical problems, skin regeneration, instead of formation of a scar, has been strongly desired from a clinical point of view. Recent studies have suggested multiple origins of myofibroblasts, which are scar-forming cells in skin wound healing of mammals. While amphibians have skin structures that are basically common to mammals as tetrapods, both urodele and anuran amphibians regenerate almost complete skin structures including the dermis and secretion glands without forming a remarkable scar after a deep skin injury...
August 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Kazutaka Hosoda, Minako Motoishi, Takuya Kunimoto, Osamu Nishimura, Byulnim Hwang, Sumire Kobayashi, Shigenobu Yazawa, Makoto Mochii, Kiyokazu Agata, Yoshihiko Umesono
Planarians have established a unique body pattern along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis, which consists of at least four distinct body regions arranged in an anterior to posterior sequence: head, prepharyngeal, pharyngeal (containing a pharynx), and tail regions, and possess high regenerative ability. How they reconstruct the regional continuity in a head-to-tail sequence after amputation still remains unknown. We use as a model planarian Dugesia japonica head regeneration from tail fragments, which involves dynamic rearrangement of the body regionality of preexisting tail tissues along the AP axis, and show here that RNA interference of the gene D...
August 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Ryoichi Mori, Katsuya Tanaka, Isao Shimokawa
Inflammation at a wound site is essential for preventing infection. However, misregulated inflammation leads to pathologies of the healing process, including chronic non-healing wounds and scarring. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of the inflammatory response and tissue repair, acting by translational processing of target mRNAs. In the final step of miRNA processing, Argonaute 2 (Ago2)-bound mature miRNA complexes bind to target mRNAs and inhibit their translation. A variety of wound healing-related miRNAs have been identified and their misregulation likely contributes to wound pathologies, including scarring and chronic healing...
August 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Tatsuya Katahira, Naoko Miyazaki, Jun Motoyama
Aversive experiences, including maternal separation (MS), have been known as a risk for abnormal hippocampus development. Given that impairment of GABA inhibitory system is known as one of the common features of the abnormal hippocampal development induced by MS, we examined whether the MS on 4-day-old (P4) mice for 24 hr abolishes the interneuron development. We observed that the MS reduced the volume of dorsal hippocampus on P14 as long-term effects. In addition, the MS decreased the number of parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneuron on P14 and P28 in the dorsal hippocampus...
June 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Shumpei Morita, Ryoma Ota, Satoru Kobayashi
In Drosophila ovary, germline stem cells (GSCs) divide to produce two daughter cells. One daughter is maintained as a GSC, whereas the other initiates cyst formation, a process involving four synchronous mitotic divisions that form 2-, 4-, 8-, and 16-cell cysts. In this study, we found that reduction in the level of NHP2, a component of the H/ACA small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein complex that catalyzes rRNA pseudouridylation, promotes progression to 8-cell cysts. NHP2 protein was concentrated in the nucleoli of germline cells during cyst formation...
June 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Naofumi Ito, Mohammad Badrul Anam, Shah Adil Ishtiyaq Ahmad, Kunimasa Ohta
Ribosomes are intracellular organelles ubiquitous in all organisms, which translate information from mRNAs to synthesize proteins. They are complex macromolecules composed of dozens of proteins and ribosomal RNAs. Other than translation, some ribosomal proteins also have side-jobs called "Moonlighting" function. The majority of these moonlighting functions influence cancer progression, early development and differentiation. Recently, we discovered that ribosome is involved in the regulation of cellular transdifferentiation of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs)...
June 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Makoto Kashima, Kiyokazu Agata, Norito Shibata
Nuclear PIWIs together with their guide RNAs (piRNAs) epigenetically silence various genes including transposons in many organisms. In planarians, the nuclear piwi family gene, DjpiwiB is specifically transcribed in adult pluripotent stem cells (adult PSC, neoblast), but not in differentiated cells. However, the protein accumulates in the nuclei of both neoblasts and their descendant differentiated cells. Interestingly, PIWI(DjPiwiB)-piRNA complexes are indispensable for the repression of transposable genes at the onset of differentiation from neoblasts...
June 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
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