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Development, Growth & Differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898414/bmp-signaling-regulates-the-skeletal-and-connective-tissue-differentiation-during-caudal-fin-regeneration-in-sailfin-molly-poecilia-latipinna
#1
Shailja Rajaram, Sonam Patel, Gowri Kumari Uggini, Isha Desai, Suresh Balakrishnan
Caudal fin regeneration in sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur 1821) involves an initial wound healing stage, followed by blastema that is formed of fast proliferating cells. In order to replicate the lost fin, correct differentiation of the blastemal cells into various tissues is the prime essence. Among the molecular signals governing proper differentiation of blastemal cells, members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family are crucial. Herein, we investigated the specific effects of inhibition of BMP signaling using LDN193189 on skeletal and connective tissue formation in the regenerating tail fin of P...
September 12, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791673/comprehensive-analyses-of-hox-gene-expression-in-xenopus-laevis-embryos-and-adult-tissues
#2
Mariko Kondo, Takayoshi Yamamoto, Shuji Takahashi, Masanori Taira
From whole genome sequencing of an allotetraploid frog, Xenopus laevis, two homeologous sets (L and S) of four Hox clusters A through D (HoxA.L/S, HoxB.L/S, HoxC.L/S, and HoxD.L/S) and 13 paralogous groups (PGs) with 76 genes were identified, allowing us to carry out the first comprehensive analyses of hox gene expression in vertebrates. Expression of all hox genes during development and in adult tissues was analyzed by RNA-sequencing. The expression levels of most hox genes were similar between homeologs, but in some pairs, large differences were observed and several of these were confirmed by RT-PCR and whole mount in situ hybridization experiments...
August 9, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782810/establishment-of-estrogen-receptor-1-esr1-knockout-medaka-esr1-is-dispensable-for-sexual-development-and-reproduction-in-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#3
Saki Tohyama, Yukiko Ogino, Anke Lange, Taijun Myosho, Tohru Kobayashi, Yu Hirano, Gen Yamada, Tomomi Sato, Norihisa Tatarazako, Charles R Tyler, Taisen Iguchi, Shinichi Miyagawa
Estrogens play fundamental roles in regulating reproductive activities and they act through estrogen receptor (ESR) in all vertebrates. Most vertebrates have two ESR subtypes (ESR1 and ESR2), whereas teleost fish have at least three (Esr1, Esr2a and Esr2b). Intricate functionalization has been suggested among the Esr subtypes, but to date, distinct roles of Esr have been characterized in only a limited number of species. Study of loss-of-function in animal models is a powerful tool for application to understanding vertebrate reproductive biology...
August 7, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714588/cellular-force-assay-detects-altered-contractility-caused-by-a-nephritis-associated-mutation-in-nonmuscle-myosin-iia
#4
Shota P Fukuda, Tsubasa S Matsui, Takafumi Ichikawa, Taichi Furukawa, Noriyuki Kioka, Shuichiro Fukushima, Shinji Deguchi
Recent progress in understanding the essential roles of mechanical forces in regulating various cellular processes expands the field of biology to one where interdisciplinary approaches with engineering techniques become indispensable. Contractile forces or contractility-inherently present in proliferative cells due to the activity of ubiquitous nonmuscle myosin II (NMII)-are one of such mechano-regulators, but because NMII works downstream of diverse signaling pathways, it is often difficult to predict how the inherent cellular forces change upon perturbations to particular molecules...
July 17, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714585/mathematical-model-of-collective-cell-migrations-based-on-cell-polarity
#5
Masakazu Akiyama, Takamichi Sushida, Sumire Ishida, Hisashi Haga
Individual cells migrate toward the direction of the cell polarity generated by interior or exterior factors. Under situations without guides such as chemoattractants, they migrate randomly. On the other hand, it has been observed that cell groups lead to systematic collective cell migrations. For example, Dictyostelium discoideum and Madin-Darby canine kidney (epithelial) cells exhibit typical collective cell migration patterns such as uniformly directional migration and rotational migration. In particular, it has been suggested from experimental investigations that rotational migrations are intimately related to morphogenesis of organs and tissues in several species...
July 17, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707738/prenatal-exposure-to-dexamethasone-in-the-mouse-induces-sex-specific-differences-in-placental-gene-expression
#6
Ji-Yeon Lee, Hyo Jung Yun, Clara Yuri Kim, Yong Woo Cho, Yongmin Lee, Myoung Hee Kim
Prenatal stress during pregnancy leads to sex-specific effects on fetal development and disease susceptibility over the life span; however, the origin of sex differences has not been identified. The placenta not only plays a key role in fetal growth and development throughout pregnancy, but also affects the fetal programming underlying subsequent adult health and accounts. Therefore, sex-specific adaptation of the placenta may be central to the sex differences in fetal growth and survival. Here, we analyzed the effects of prenatal dexamethasone (Dex) on sex-specific changes in placental gene expression using RNA-Seq...
July 14, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707721/contractile-actin-belt-and-mesh-structures-provide-the-opposite-dependence-of-epithelial-stiffness-on-the-spontaneous-curvature-of-constituent-cells
#7
Satoru Okuda, Katsuyuki Unoki, Mototsugu Eiraku, Ken-Ichi Tsubota
Actomyosin generates contractile forces within cells, which have a crucial role in determining the macroscopic mechanical properties of epithelial tissues. Importantly, actin cytoskeleton, which propagates actomyosin contractile forces, forms several characteristic structures in a 3D intracellular space, such as a circumferential actin belt lining adherence junctions and an actin mesh beneath the apical membrane. However, little is known about how epithelial mechanical property depends on the intracellular contractile structures...
July 14, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707336/mechanical-role-of-the-spatial-patterns-of-contractile-cells-in-invagination-of-growing-epithelial-tissue
#8
Yasuhiro Inoue, Tadashi Watanabe, Satoru Okuda, Taiji Adachi
Epithelial invagination is one of the fundamental deformation modes during morphogenesis, and is essential for deriving the three-dimensional shapes of organs from a flat epithelial sheet. Invagination occurs in an orderly manner according to the spatial pattern of the contractile cells; however, it remains elusive how tissue deformation can be caused by cellular activity in the patterned region. In this study, we investigated the mechanical role of the spatial patterns of the contractile cells in invagination of growing tissue using multicellular dynamics simulations...
July 13, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707306/current-reinforcement-model-reproduces-center-in-center-vein-trajectory-of-physarum-polycephalum
#9
Dai Akita, Daniel Schenz, Shigeru Kuroda, Katsuhiko Sato, Kei-Ichi Ueda, Toshiyuki Nakagaki
Vein networks span the whole body of the amoeboid organism in the plasmodial slime mould Physarum polycephalum, and the network topology is rearranged within an hour in response to spatio-temporal variations of the environment. It has been reported that this tube morphogenesis is capable of solving mazes, and a mathematical model, named the 'current reinforcement rule', was proposed based on the adaptability of the veins. Although it is known that this model works well for reproducing some key characters of the organism's maze-solving behaviour, one important issue is still open: In the real organism, the thick veins tend to trace the shortest possible route by cutting the corners at the turn of corridors, following a center-in-center trajectory, but it has not yet been examined whether this feature also appears in the mathematical model, using corridors of finite width...
July 13, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707296/ebp1-regulates-myogenic-differentiation-of-myoblast-cells-via-smad2-3-signaling-pathway
#10
Minli Yu, Huan Wang, Zhen Liu, Yinglin Lu, Debing Yu, Dongfeng Li, Wenxing Du
Regulation of skeletal muscle development requires many of the regulatory networks that are fundamental to developmental myogenesis. ErbB3 binding protein-1 (Ebp1) is involved in the control of myoblasts development in chicken. However, the expression and biological functions of Ebp1 in the progress of myogenesis are unclear. This study focused on determining the effect of Ebp1 on myogenic proliferation and differentiation using a primary myoblasts culture model. Ebp1 was found to upregulate in proliferating myoblasts and decrease at the early stage of myogenic differentiation...
July 13, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702954/geometrical-study-of-phyllotactic-patterns-by-bernoulli-spiral-lattices
#11
REVIEW
Takamichi Sushida, Yoshikazu Yamagishi
Geometrical studies of phyllotactic patterns deal with the centric or cylindrical models produced by ideal lattices. van Iterson (Mathematische und mikroskopisch - anatomische Studien über Blattstellungen nebst Betrachtungen über den Schalenbau der Miliolinen, Verlag von Gustav Fischer, Jena, 1907) suggested a centric model representing ideal phyllotactic patterns as disk packings of Bernoulli spiral lattices and presented a phase diagram now called Van Iterson's diagram explaining the bifurcation processes of their combinatorial structures...
July 12, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681374/role-of-domain-in-pattern-formation
#12
REVIEW
Sungrim Seirin-Lee
Pattern formation during development is one of the elegant self-organized phenomena that allow cells to regulate their functions. At all levels, from DNA to a tissue or organ, many developmental processes include the determination of cellular functions through pattern formation. To elucidate the mechanism underlying pattern formation, numerous mathematical models have been developed and applied. However, model simplification has resulted in the role of domains not being seriously considered in pattern formation...
July 6, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675458/morphologies-of-bacillus-subtilis-communities-responding-to-environmental-variation
#13
REVIEW
Sohei Tasaki, Madoka Nakayama, Wataru Shoji
Bacterial communities exhibit a variety of growth morphologies in constructing robust systems under different environmental conditions. We review the diverse morphologies of Bacillus subtilis communities and their mechanisms of self-organization. B. subtilis uses different cell types to suit environmental conditions and cell density. The subpopulation of each cell type exhibits various environment-sensitive properties. Furthermore, division of labor among the subpopulations results in flexible development for the community as a whole...
July 4, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675425/foxc2-influences-alveolar-epithelial-cell-differentiation-during-lung-development
#14
Mayoko Tsuji, Masae Morishima, Kazuhiko Shimizu, Shunichi Morikawa, Mikael Heglind, Sven Enerbäck, Taichi Ezaki, Jun Tamaoki
FOXC2, a forkhead transcriptional factor, is a candidate gene for congenital heart diseases and lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome and yellow nail syndrome; however, there are no reports on Foxc2 and the development of the lung. We have identified lung abnormalities in Foxc2-knockout embryos during investigation of cardiac development. The aim of this study was to clarify the morphological characteristics during lung development using ICR-Foxc2 knockout lungs. Mutant fetuses at embryonic days 10.5-18.5 were obtained from mating of Foxc2(+/-) mice and then analyzed...
July 4, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898413/corrigendum
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836261/reduction-of-nitric-oxide-level-results-in-maturation-promoting-factor-destabilization-during-spontaneous-meiotic-exit-from-diplotene-arrest-in-rat-cumulus-oocytes-complexes-cultured-in%C3%A2-vitro
#16
Meenakshi Tiwari, Shail K Chaube
Nitric oxides (NO) act as one of the major signal molecules and modulate various cell functions including oocyte meiosis in mammals. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanism of NO action during spontaneous meiotic exit from diplotene arrest (EDA) in rat cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) cultured in vitro. Diplotene-arrested COCs collected from ovary of immature female rats after 20 IU pregnant mare's serum gonadotropins (PMSG) for 48 h were exposed to various concentrations of NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG) for 3 h in vitro and downstream factors were analyzed...
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833071/emerging-mechanisms-regulating-mitotic-synchrony-during-animal-embryogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Yosuke Ogura, Yasunori Sasakura
The basic mechanisms controlling mitosis are highly conserved in animals regardless of cell types and developmental stages. However, an exceptional aspect of mitosis is seen during early animal embryogenesis in which a large fertilized egg is quickly divided into smaller blastomeres according to the reproducible spatiotemporal pattern that does not rely on the cell-cycle arrest or growth. This mitosis, referred to as cleavage, overlaps in the timeframe with the specification of cell fate. The precise spatiotemporal regulation of cleavages is therefore essential to the creation of the appropriate cell number and to the morphology of an embryo...
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815566/maturation-promoting-factor-destabilization-mediates-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-induced-meiotic-resumption-in-rat-oocytes
#18
Meenakshi Tiwari, Shail K Chaube
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) mimics the action of luteinizing hormone (LH) and triggers meiotic maturation and ovulation in mammals. The mechanism by which hCG triggers meiotic resumption in mammalian oocytes remains poorly understood. We aimed to find out the impact of hCG surge on morphological changes, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), cell division cycle 25B (Cdc25B), Wee1, early mitotic inhibitor 2 (Emi2), anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), meiotic arrest deficient protein 2 (MAD2), phosphorylation status of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), its activity and cyclin B1 expression levels during meiotic resumption from diplotene as well as metaphase-II (M-II) arrest in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs)...
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815565/generation-of-animal-form-by-the-chordin-tolloid-bmp-gradient-100%C3%A2-years-after-d-arcy-thompson
#19
Edward M De Robertis, Yuki Moriyama, Gabriele Colozza
The classic book "On Growth and Form" by naturalist D'Arcy Thompson was published 100 years ago. To celebrate this landmark, we present experiments in the Xenopus embryo that provide a framework for understanding how simple, quantitative transformations of a morphogen gradient might have affected evolution and morphological diversity of organisms. D'Arcy Thompson proposed that different morphologies might be generated by modifying physical parameters in an underlying system of Cartesian coordinates that pre-existed in Nature and arose during evolutionary history...
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815561/early-segregation-of-the-adrenal-cortex-and-gonad-in-chicken-embryos
#20
Daisuke Saito, Koji Tamura, Yoshiko Takahashi
The adrenal gland is an endocrine organ that plays essential roles in stress responses. This organ consists of two types of tissues, adrenomedulla and adrenocortex, deriving from different embryonic origins. Whereas it is well accepted that the adrenomedulla derives from neural crest cells, the origin of the adrenocortex remains elusive. In addition, the adrenocortex and gonads, two major steroid hormone-producing tissues, have been thought to share the same origin, although the experimental evidence is lacking...
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
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