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Development, Growth & Differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124740/organizing-activity-of-fgf8-on-the-anterior-telencephalon
#1
Tatsuya Sato, Takako Kikkawa, Tetsuichiro Saito, Keiichi Itoi, Noriko Osumi
The anterior part of the embryonic telencephalon gives rise to several brain regions that are important for animal behavior, including the frontal cortex (FC) and the olfactory bulb. The FC plays an important role in decision-making behaviors, such as social and cognitive behavior, and the olfactory bulb is involved in olfaction. Here, we show the organizing activity of fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) in the regionalization of the anterior telencephalon, specifically the FC and the olfactory bulb. Misexpression of Fgf8 in the most anterior part of the mouse telencephalon at embryonic day 11...
November 10, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124738/transcripts-immunoprecipitated-with-sxl-protein-in-primordial-germ-cells-of-drosophila-embryos
#2
Ryoma Ota, Shumpei Morita, Masanao Sato, Shuji Shigenobu, Makoto Hayashi, Satoru Kobayashi
In Drosophila, Sex lethal (Sxl), an RNA binding protein, is required for induction of female sexual identity in both somatic and germline cells. Although the Sxl-dependent feminizing pathway in the soma was previously elucidated, the downstream targets for Sxl in the germline remained elusive. To identify these target genes, we selected transcripts associated with Sxl in primordial germ cells (PGCs) of embryos using RNA immunoprecipitation coupled to sequencing (RIP-seq) analysis. A total of 308 transcripts encoded by 282 genes were obtained...
November 10, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098682/relation-of-nodal-expression-to-the-specification-of-the-dorsal-ventral-axis-and-tissue-patterning-in-the-starfish-patiria-pectinifera
#3
Hiroki Sasaki, Tetsuya Kominami
In this study, we attempted to reveal fundamental aspects of starfish embryogenesis, particularly embryonic axis specification or determination, in Patiria pectinifera. We first cloned PpNodal, which is known to play an important role in the specification of the embryonic axis in a wide range of animals, and studied its expression profile. PpNodal expression was first detected at the mid-blastula stage and showed a single peak around the onset of gastrulation. These features of Nodal expression were shifted to later stages by several hours, compared with those of sea urchin embryos...
November 2, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094344/induced-homeotic-hindlimb-formation-on-dorsal-and-ventral-sides-of-regenerating-tissue-of-amputated-tails-of-japanese-brown-frog-tadpoles
#4
Ichiro Tazawa, Yoshio Yaoita
When anuran tadpoles are treated with vitamin A after tail amputation, hindlimb-like structures can be generated instead of the lost tail part at the amputation site. This homeotic transformation was initially expected to be a key to understanding the body plan of vertebrates. Unfortunately, homeotic limb formation has been reproduced in only some Indian frog species and a European species, but not in experimental anurans such as Xenopus laevis or Rana catesbeiana. Consequently, this fascinating phenomenon has not been well analyzed, especially at the molecular level...
November 1, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067693/newly-raised-anti-vacht-and-anti-chat-antibodies-detect-cholinergic-cells-in-chicken-embryos
#5
Tadayoshi Watanabe, Takahiro Kiyomoto, Ryosuke Tadokoro, Yuta Takase, Yoshiko Takahashi
The autonomic nervous system consists of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, which functionally antagonize each other to control physiology and homeostasis of organs. However, it is largely unexplored how the autonomic nervous system is established during development. In particular, early formation of parasympathetic network remains elusive because of its complex anatomical structure. To distinguish between parasympathetic (cholinergic) and sympathetic (adrenergic) ganglia, vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and choline O-acetyltransferase (ChAT), proteins associated with acetylcholine synthesis, are known to be useful markers...
October 25, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967684/microtubule-array-observed-in-the-posterior-vegetal-cortex-during-cytoplasmic-and-cortical-reorganization-of-the-ascidian-egg
#6
Hirokazu Ishii, Toshiyuki Goto, Takahito Nishikata
Body axis formation during embryogenesis results from asymmetric localization of maternal factors in the egg. Shortly before the first cleavage in ascidian eggs, cell polarity along the anteroposterior (A-P) axis is established and the cytoplasmic domain (myoplasm) relocates from the vegetal to the posterior region in a microtubule-dependent manner. Through immunostaining, tubulin accumulation during this reorganization is observable on the myoplasm cortex. However, more detailed morphological features of microtubules remain relatively unknown...
October 2, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967672/link-between-embryonic-stem-cell-pluripotency-and-homologous-allelic-pairing-of-oct4-loci
#7
Masamitsu N Asaka, Kousuke Uranishi, Ayumu Suzuki, Masataka Hirasaki, Masazumi Nishimoto, Akihiko Okuda
The Oct4 gene is a master regulator of the pluripotent properties of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Recently, Oct4 loci were shown to frequently localize in close proximity to one another during the early stage of cellular differentiation, implicating this event as an important prerequisite step for ESCs to exert their full differentiation potential. Although the differentiation capacity of embryonal carcinoma cells (ECCs), such as F9 and P19 ECC lines, is severely restricted compared with ESCs, ECCs bear a highly similar expression profile to that of ESCs including expression of Oct4 and other pluripotency marker genes...
October 2, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945921/dab1-contributes-differently-to-the-morphogenesis-of-the-hippocampal-subdivisions
#8
Marissa Blume, Fuduki Inoguchi, Taku Sugiyama, Yuji Owada, Noriko Osumi, Yoshinari Aimi, Kosuke Taki, Yu Katsuyama
The hippocampal formation (HF) is morphologically and functionally distinguishable into the subdivisions, such as the dentate gyrus (DG), subiculum, and Ammon's horn. The Ammon's horn is further divided into the CA (Cornu Ammonis)1, CA2, and CA3. The Reelin-Dab1 signal is essential for the morphogenesis of the mammalian brain. In the neocortex of Reelin-Dab1 signal mutants the laminar pattern of the neurons is disrupted along the radial axis. Morphological abnormalities in the HF of the Reelin-Dab1 mutants were known, but how these abnormalities appear during development had not been extensively studied...
September 25, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898414/bmp-signaling-regulates-the-skeletal-and-connective-tissue-differentiation-during-caudal-fin-regeneration-in-sailfin-molly-poecilia-latipinna
#9
Shailja Rajaram, Sonam Patel, Gowri Kumari Uggini, Isha Desai, Suresh Balakrishnan
Caudal fin regeneration in sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur 1821) involves an initial wound healing stage, followed by blastema that is formed of fast proliferating cells. In order to replicate the lost fin, correct differentiation of the blastemal cells into various tissues is the prime essence. Among the molecular signals governing proper differentiation of blastemal cells, members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family are crucial. Herein, we investigated the specific effects of inhibition of BMP signaling using LDN193189 on skeletal and connective tissue formation in the regenerating tail fin of P...
September 12, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898413/corrigendum
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836261/reduction-of-nitric-oxide-level-results-in-maturation-promoting-factor-destabilization-during-spontaneous-meiotic-exit-from-diplotene-arrest-in-rat-cumulus-oocytes-complexes-cultured-in%C3%A2-vitro
#11
Meenakshi Tiwari, Shail K Chaube
Nitric oxides (NO) act as one of the major signal molecules and modulate various cell functions including oocyte meiosis in mammals. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanism of NO action during spontaneous meiotic exit from diplotene arrest (EDA) in rat cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) cultured in vitro. Diplotene-arrested COCs collected from ovary of immature female rats after 20 IU pregnant mare's serum gonadotropins (PMSG) for 48 h were exposed to various concentrations of NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG) for 3 h in vitro and downstream factors were analyzed...
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833071/emerging-mechanisms-regulating-mitotic-synchrony-during-animal-embryogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Yosuke Ogura, Yasunori Sasakura
The basic mechanisms controlling mitosis are highly conserved in animals regardless of cell types and developmental stages. However, an exceptional aspect of mitosis is seen during early animal embryogenesis in which a large fertilized egg is quickly divided into smaller blastomeres according to the reproducible spatiotemporal pattern that does not rely on the cell-cycle arrest or growth. This mitosis, referred to as cleavage, overlaps in the timeframe with the specification of cell fate. The precise spatiotemporal regulation of cleavages is therefore essential to the creation of the appropriate cell number and to the morphology of an embryo...
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815566/maturation-promoting-factor-destabilization-mediates-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-induced-meiotic-resumption-in-rat-oocytes
#13
Meenakshi Tiwari, Shail K Chaube
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) mimics the action of luteinizing hormone (LH) and triggers meiotic maturation and ovulation in mammals. The mechanism by which hCG triggers meiotic resumption in mammalian oocytes remains poorly understood. We aimed to find out the impact of hCG surge on morphological changes, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), cell division cycle 25B (Cdc25B), Wee1, early mitotic inhibitor 2 (Emi2), anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), meiotic arrest deficient protein 2 (MAD2), phosphorylation status of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), its activity and cyclin B1 expression levels during meiotic resumption from diplotene as well as metaphase-II (M-II) arrest in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs)...
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815565/generation-of-animal-form-by-the-chordin-tolloid-bmp-gradient-100%C3%A2-years-after-d-arcy-thompson
#14
Edward M De Robertis, Yuki Moriyama, Gabriele Colozza
The classic book "On Growth and Form" by naturalist D'Arcy Thompson was published 100 years ago. To celebrate this landmark, we present experiments in the Xenopus embryo that provide a framework for understanding how simple, quantitative transformations of a morphogen gradient might have affected evolution and morphological diversity of organisms. D'Arcy Thompson proposed that different morphologies might be generated by modifying physical parameters in an underlying system of Cartesian coordinates that pre-existed in Nature and arose during evolutionary history...
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815561/early-segregation-of-the-adrenal-cortex-and-gonad-in-chicken-embryos
#15
Daisuke Saito, Koji Tamura, Yoshiko Takahashi
The adrenal gland is an endocrine organ that plays essential roles in stress responses. This organ consists of two types of tissues, adrenomedulla and adrenocortex, deriving from different embryonic origins. Whereas it is well accepted that the adrenomedulla derives from neural crest cells, the origin of the adrenocortex remains elusive. In addition, the adrenocortex and gonads, two major steroid hormone-producing tissues, have been thought to share the same origin, although the experimental evidence is lacking...
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791673/comprehensive-analyses-of-hox-gene-expression-in-xenopus-laevis-embryos-and-adult-tissues
#16
Mariko Kondo, Takayoshi Yamamoto, Shuji Takahashi, Masanori Taira
From whole genome sequencing of an allotetraploid frog, Xenopus laevis, two homeologous sets (L and S) of four Hox clusters A through D (HoxA.L/S, HoxB.L/S, HoxC.L/S, and HoxD.L/S) and 13 paralogous groups (PGs) with 76 genes were identified, allowing us to carry out the first comprehensive analyses of hox gene expression in vertebrates. Expression of all hox genes during development and in adult tissues was analyzed by RNA-sequencing. The expression levels of most hox genes were similar between homeologs, but in some pairs, large differences were observed and several of these were confirmed by RT-PCR and whole mount in situ hybridization experiments...
August 9, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782810/establishment-of-estrogen-receptor-1-esr1-knockout-medaka-esr1-is-dispensable-for-sexual-development-and-reproduction-in-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#17
Saki Tohyama, Yukiko Ogino, Anke Lange, Taijun Myosho, Tohru Kobayashi, Yu Hirano, Gen Yamada, Tomomi Sato, Norihisa Tatarazako, Charles R Tyler, Taisen Iguchi, Shinichi Miyagawa
Estrogens play fundamental roles in regulating reproductive activities and they act through estrogen receptor (ESR) in all vertebrates. Most vertebrates have two ESR subtypes (ESR1 and ESR2), whereas teleost fish have at least three (Esr1, Esr2a and Esr2b). Intricate functionalization has been suggested among the Esr subtypes, but to date, distinct roles of Esr have been characterized in only a limited number of species. Study of loss-of-function in animal models is a powerful tool for application to understanding vertebrate reproductive biology...
August 7, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714588/cellular-force-assay-detects-altered-contractility-caused-by-a-nephritis-associated-mutation-in-nonmuscle-myosin-iia
#18
Shota P Fukuda, Tsubasa S Matsui, Takafumi Ichikawa, Taichi Furukawa, Noriyuki Kioka, Shuichiro Fukushima, Shinji Deguchi
Recent progress in understanding the essential roles of mechanical forces in regulating various cellular processes expands the field of biology to one where interdisciplinary approaches with engineering techniques become indispensable. Contractile forces or contractility-inherently present in proliferative cells due to the activity of ubiquitous nonmuscle myosin II (NMII)-are one of such mechano-regulators, but because NMII works downstream of diverse signaling pathways, it is often difficult to predict how the inherent cellular forces change upon perturbations to particular molecules...
July 17, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714585/mathematical-model-of-collective-cell-migrations-based-on-cell-polarity
#19
Masakazu Akiyama, Takamichi Sushida, Sumire Ishida, Hisashi Haga
Individual cells migrate toward the direction of the cell polarity generated by interior or exterior factors. Under situations without guides such as chemoattractants, they migrate randomly. On the other hand, it has been observed that cell groups lead to systematic collective cell migrations. For example, Dictyostelium discoideum and Madin-Darby canine kidney (epithelial) cells exhibit typical collective cell migration patterns such as uniformly directional migration and rotational migration. In particular, it has been suggested from experimental investigations that rotational migrations are intimately related to morphogenesis of organs and tissues in several species...
July 17, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707738/prenatal-exposure-to-dexamethasone-in-the-mouse-induces-sex-specific-differences-in-placental-gene-expression
#20
Ji-Yeon Lee, Hyo Jung Yun, Clara Yuri Kim, Yong Woo Cho, Yongmin Lee, Myoung Hee Kim
Prenatal stress during pregnancy leads to sex-specific effects on fetal development and disease susceptibility over the life span; however, the origin of sex differences has not been identified. The placenta not only plays a key role in fetal growth and development throughout pregnancy, but also affects the fetal programming underlying subsequent adult health and accounts. Therefore, sex-specific adaptation of the placenta may be central to the sex differences in fetal growth and survival. Here, we analyzed the effects of prenatal dexamethasone (Dex) on sex-specific changes in placental gene expression using RNA-Seq...
July 14, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
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