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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527033/rezensionen-reviews
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500361/-live-animals-and-staged-nature-drawing-and-photography-in-german-popular-zoology-between-1860-and-1910
#2
Alexander Gall
It is the central thesis of this paper that the "biological perspective" (Lynn Nyhart) typical for Germany, with its interest in living animals, not only influenced natural history practices in many ways during the second half of the 19th century, rather also shaped the illustrations of popular zoology publications, as for example those in Brehms Thierleben. The illustrators of this period preferred to use live animals as models, which they studied in zoos. These animals were often depicted in their "natural" habitats...
May 12, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493034/-a%C3%A2-japanese-in-marburg-excerpts-from-the-memories-jiden-of-the-japanese-bacteriologist-taichi-kitashima-1870-1956
#3
Ulrike Enke, Aeka Ishihara
The heart of this article is the transmission of selected chapters from the Japanese bacteriologist Taichi Kitashima's (1870-1956) autobiographical memoirs (in Japanese, Jiden) published in 1955, in which Kitashima reports on his stay in Marburg in a very personal and subjective way. Like other Japanese physicians of his generation, Kitashima spent several years in Germany in order to work with the serum researcher Emil von Behring and continued his education there. The contact came through Kitashima's teacher Shibasaburô Kitasato, who had worked with Behring in Berlin on questions of immunology...
May 10, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389682/-the-triumph-of-stupidity-deep-blue-s-victory-over-garri-kasparov-the-controversy-about-its-impact-on-artficial-intelligence-research
#4
Martina Heßler
The competition between the chess computer Deep Blue and the former chess world champion Garri Kasparov in 1997 was a spectacle staged for the media. However, the chess game, like other games, was also a test field for artificial intelligence research. On the one hand Deep Blue's victory was called a "milestone" for AI research, on the other hand, a dead end, since the superiority of the chess computer was based on pure computing power and had nothing to do with "real" AI.The article questions the premises of these different interpretations and maps Deep Blue and its way of playing chess into the history of AI...
April 7, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389681/-adna-research-from-a%C3%A2-historical-perspective
#5
Elsbeth Bösl
aDNA studies are a cooperative field of research with a broad range of applications including evolutionary biology, genetics, anthropology and archaeology. Scientists are using ancient molecules as source material for historical questions. Colleagues from the humanities are observing this with both interest and concern because aDNA research is affecting academic identities and both concepts of history and historiography. aDNA research developed in a way that can be described as a Hype Cycle (Chackie Fenn)...
April 7, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389680/-attempting-a-great-integration-paul-martini-and-the-first-post-war-conference-of-the-german-society-for-internal-medicine
#6
Ralf Forsbach, Hans-Georg Hofer
The long established German Society for Internal Medicine (DGIM) profoundly incriminated itself through its actions and positions during the National Socialist era. The German clinical physician Paul Martini assumed the part of reorganizing the DGIM prior to its first post-war convention in 1948 in Karlsruhe. Martini, who himself had opposed the Nazi regime, adopted a course of comprehensive integration. He strived to incorporate both physicians who had been persecuted by the Nazi Regime as well as former moderate National Socialists into the DGIM...
April 7, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378045/-existence-absence-and-power-of-madness-a%C3%A2-critical-review-of-michel-foucault-s-writings-on-the-history-and-philosophy-of-madness
#7
Burkhart Brückner, Lukas Iwer, Samuel Thoma
This article discusses Michel Foucault's main writings on "madness and psychiatry" from his early works up to the 1970s. On the one hand, we reconstruct the overall theoretical and methodological development of his positions over the course of the different periods in his oeuvre. On the other hand, we also take a closer look at Foucault's philosophical considerations regarding the subjects of his investigations. After an initial introduction of our conceptual approach, we draw on the most recent research on Foucault to show to what extent the phenomenological description of the topic at hand and the historical-critical perspective that are reflected in his early writings of 1954 (the Introduction to Binswanger's Dream and Existence and Mental Illness and Personality) laid the ground for his later work...
April 4, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353011/on-power-neue-literatur-zur-energiegeschichte
#8
Patrick Kupper, Odinn Melsted, Irene Pallua
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331939/rezensionen-reviews
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271150/german-water-infrastructure-in-china-colonial-qingdao-1898-1914
#10
Agnes Kneitz
Within the colorful tapestry of colonial possessions the German empire acquired over the short period of its existence, Qingdao stands out because it fulfilled a different role from settlements in Africa-especially because of its exemplary planned water infrastructure: its technological model, the resulting (public) hygiene, and the adjunct brewery. The National Naval Office (Reichsmarineamt), which oversaw the administration of the future "harbour colony"-at first little more than a little fishing village-enjoyed a remarkable degree of freedom in implementing this project...
March 7, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251245/connecting-the-empire-new-research-perspectives-on-infrastructures-and-the-environment-in-the-post-colonial-world
#11
Jonas van der Straeten, Ute Hasenöhrl
In the academic debate on infrastructures in the Global South, there is a broad consensus that (post)colonial legacies present a major challenge for a transition towards more inclusive, sustainable and adapted modes of providing services. Yet, relatively little is known about the emergence and evolution of infrastructures in former colonies. Until a decade ago, most historical studies followed Daniel Headrick's (1981) "tools of empire" thesis, painting-with broad brush strokes-a picture of infrastructures as instruments for advancing the colonial project of exploitation and subordination of non-European peoples and environments...
March 1, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224180/electricity-and-empire-in-1920s-palestine-under-british-rule
#12
Ronen Shamir
This article examines some techno-political aspects of the early years of electrification in British-ruled 1920s Palestine. It emphasizes the importance of local technical, topographical and hydrological forms of knowledge for understanding the dynamics of electrification. Situating the analysis in a general colonial context of electrification, the study shows that British colonial rulers lagged behind both German firms and local entrepreneurs in understanding the specific conditions pertaining to electrification in Palestine...
February 21, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251246/the-unseeing-state-how-ideals-of-modernity-have-undermined-innovation-in-africa-s-urban-water-systems
#13
David Nilsson
In contrast to the European historical experience, Africa's urban infrastructural systems are characterised by stagnation long before demand has been saturated. Water infrastructures have been stabilised as systems predominantly providing services for elites, with millions of poor people lacking basic services in the cities. What is puzzling is that so little emphasis has been placed on innovation and the adaptation of the colonial technological paradigm to better suit the local and current socio-economic contexts...
December 2016: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236044/burning-issues-cremation-and-incineration-in-modern-india
#14
David Arnold
The cremation of human bodies and the incineration of urban waste provide two interrelated examples of technologies using the destructive power of fire that "travelled" in both directions between India and the West in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Rather than granting an automatic ascendency to western ways of burning the dead or disposing of urban rubbish, these case studies indicate the manner in which culture and environment inhibited or prevented their advance and favoured the survival or re-articulation of pre-existing technological practices and the socio-political infrastructure in which they were embedded...
December 2016: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613376/a-material-history-of-electroshock-therapy-electroshock-technology-in-europe-until-1945
#15
Lara Rzesnitzek, Sascha Lang
The article considers the history of electroshock therapy as a history of medical technology, professional cooperation and business competition. A variation of a history from below is intended; though not from the patients' perspective (Porter, Theory Soc 14:175-198, 1985), but with a focus on electrodes, circuitry and patents. Such a 'material history' of electroshock therapy reveals that the technical make-up of electroshock devices and what they were used for was relative to the changing interests of physicians, industrial companies and mental health politics; it makes an intriguing case for the Social Construction of Technology theory (Bijker et al...
September 9, 2016: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604994/-knowledge-on-loose-sheets-in-the-context-of-fixed-theories-theodor-leber-s-research-of-inflammation
#16
Dorina Stahl
At the end of the nineteenth century, after twelve years of intensive research, the ophthalmologist Theodor Leber (1840-1917) established the chemotaxis of leukocytes as part of inflammation research. Although at the time his theory was smoothly enlisted into immunological research, up until now his name has been connected to chemotaxis only in the English-language literature. Leber was able to use his experimental system to develop a theory of the chemical attraction of the leukocytes during inflammation processes by the beginning of the 1880s, but his unconventional methodology-introducing chemically neutral contaminants in order to trigger inflammation in the eyes of rabbits-contradicted the basic bacteriological Denkstil (style of thought) of inflammation research at the time...
September 7, 2016: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567637/the-anthropocene-a-challenge-for-the-history-of-science-technology-and-the-environment
#17
Helmuth Trischler
In 2000, when atmospheric chemist Paul J. Crutzen and limnologist Eugene F. Stoermer proposed to introduce a new geological era, the Anthropocene, they could not have foreseen the remarkable career of the new term. Within a few years, the geological community began to investigate the scientific evidence for the concept and established the Anthropocene Working Group. While the Working Group has started to examine possible markers and periodizations of the new epoch, scholars from numerous other disciplines have taken up the Anthropocene as a cultural concept...
August 27, 2016: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522642/what-are-words-worth-translating-transforming-and-trading-natural-history-and-scientific-commodities
#18
Alette Fleischer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 13, 2016: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519635/rezensionen
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 12, 2016: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215209/-big-biology-supersizing-wissenschaft-zu-beginn-des-21-jahrhunderts
#20
Niki Vermeulen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: NTM
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