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Benjamin Prinz
Up until now time has rarely been considered in the historiography of surgery. However, the emergence of modern operating procedures is based significantly on establishing controlled relations of time by adjusting organic, technological and organizational processes. Early cardiac surgery in particular faced a crucial time problem: excluding the heart from the circulatory system long enough to operate inside its bloodless chambers. This problem can be traced back to the early 20th century, when surgeons such as Ludwig Rehn (1849-1930), Friedrich Trendelenburg (1844-1924), and Alexis Carrel (1873-1944) experimented with occlusions of the great vessels...
July 3, 2018: NTM
Elisabeth Vaupel, Florian Preiß
In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries bones were an essential raw material for the German chemical industry, vital to the production of fertilizer, glue, gelatine, soap and other products. As most of this material was imported, the German school system during the "Third Reich" took the utilisation of bones as an example to illustrate the relevance of the four-year plan of 1936 and its policy of economic self-sufficiency. The school children were encouraged to collect bones from domestic sources and bring them to the collecting points in the schools...
June 5, 2018: NTM
Teresa Hollerbach
In 1614, the physician Sanctorius Sanctorius (1561-1636) published his most famous work entitled Ars […] de statica medicina (On static medicine). This is a work composed of aphorisms that present the practical results of a series of weighing procedures, rather than theoretical observations. De statica medicina is the result of a large number of test series that Sanctorius carried out over many years with the weighing chair he constructed himself in order to quantify the so-called perspiratio insensibilis, an insensible perspiration of the human body...
May 14, 2018: NTM
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: NTM
Claas Kirchhelle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: NTM
Mathias Schütz
This article presents a hitherto unknown memorandum authored by Kurt Gerstein, the Confessing Church's resistance fighter and witness to the Holocaust. In this memorandum, submitted to the Reich Ministry of the Interior in April 1938, Gerstein deals extensively with the contemporary system of anatomical body procurement, its roots and predicaments. Putting the memorandum into the wider context of his discordant life allows a gap to be closed in Gerstein's biography, whereby his relationship with medicine presented a means of moral reorientation between a Christian requirement and the National Socialist reality...
June 2018: NTM
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: NTM
Mathias Grote
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: NTM
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: NTM
Xenia Steinbach, Sabine Maasen
In the mass media, the hormone Oxytocin is currently being debated as the biochemical basis of sociability and a powerful neuropharmacological solution for (re-)establishing societal cohesion. Given its beginning as a 'bodyhormone' early in the 20th century, this article will trace the extraordinary career of Oxytocin from a regulator of birth to a regulator of society. What makes so strong a claim intelligible and acceptable? Our analysis of the scientific discourse on Oxytocin (1906-1990), the mass media discourse since the 1990s, and its repercussions for the scientific discourse during the same period, suggest a series of re-configurations of scientific theories and practices, as well as of the conception of the substance itself...
March 2018: NTM
Iris Borowy
Ever since the early 1960s, the United Nations has acknowledged science and technology as integral components of developmental policies. While this connection was initially perceived as the application of findings from scientific research conducted in the Global North, by the 1970s, in the context of negotiations for a New International Economic Order, attention shifted towards the structures of the global management of science. Accordingly in 1979 the UN Conference on Science and Technology for Development discussed possibilities of strengthening scientific and technological research and teaching, particularly in developing countries...
March 2018: NTM
Alexa Geisthövel
The article focuses on one central element of medical activity in the context of the German social insurance system: providing expert assessments in accident pension cases. Taking an example from interwar coal mining, it aims to reconstruct how social policy makers first conceived of "pneumatic tool damages" as occupational disease and how trauma surgeons had to deal with this new entity of social law once it had been institutionalized in 1929. Drawing on physicians' publications as well as archival sources from the supreme court in social insurance, the Reichsversicherungsamt, the article examines how the controversial generation of new knowledge took place...
March 2018: NTM
Cornelius Borck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: NTM
Anne Dippel
This article looks at how games and play contribute to the big data-driven production of knowledge in High-Energy Physics, with a particular focus on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), where the author has been conducting anthropological fieldwork since 2014. The ludic (playful) aspect of knowledge production is analyzed here in three different dimensions: the Symbolic, the Ontological, and the Epistemic. The first one points towards CERN as place where a cosmological game of probability is played with the help of Monte-Carlo simulations...
December 2017: NTM
Christine von Oertzen
This essay explores the use of the concept of "data" during the nineteenth century. It traces the development of manual data driven research decades before the introduction of Hollerith machines and electronic computers. Census statisticians in late-nineteenth century Prussia employed moveable paper tools to assemble numerical information in novel ways; their actions fundamentally recast processes of compilation. The paper considers the epistemic impact of moving data inscribed on tons of paper, reconstructing the logistics of a circulatory compilation system spread across the Prussian capital...
December 2017: NTM
Gabriele Gramelsberger
Genome data, the core of the 2008 proclaimed big data revolution in biology, are automatically generated and analyzed. The transition from the manual laboratory practice of electrophoresis sequencing to automated DNA-sequencing machines and software-based analysis programs was completed between 1982 and 1992. This transition facilitated the first data deluge, which was considerably increased by the second and third generation of DNA-sequencers during the 2000s. However, the strategies for evaluating sequence data were also transformed along with this transition...
December 2017: NTM
Franziska Hupfer
In the second half of the nineteenth century, most European countries began to finance weather observation networks. As a result, climatological data practices changed fundamentally. Using the example of Switzerland, this paper examines the political, institutional and methodological dimensions of national data archives. The institutionalization of data collection within the national framework meant, on the one hand, that more observations were systematically made and published. On the other hand, it also meant that the monitoring was connected to state boundaries...
December 2017: NTM
Nils C Hanwahr
Although the widespread use of the term "Big Data" is comparatively recent, it invokes a phenomenon in the developments of database technology with distinct historical contexts. The database engineer Jim Gray, known as "Mr. Database" in Silicon Valley before his disappearance at sea in 2007, was involved in many of the crucial developments since the 1970s that constitute the foundation of exceedingly large and distributed databases. Jim Gray was involved in the development of relational database systems based on the concepts of Edgar F...
October 27, 2017: NTM
Benjamin Brendel
This article analyzes the modernization campaigns in Egypt in the 1960s and early 1970s. The regulation of the Nile by the Aswan High Dam and the resulting irrigation projects caused the rate of schistosomiasis infestation in the population to rise. The result was a discourse between experts from the global north and Egyptian elites about modernization, development aid, dam building and health care. The fight against schistosomiasis was like a cipher, which combined different power-laden concepts and arguments...
September 2017: NTM
Monika Dommann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: NTM
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