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Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155255/the-role-of-epigenetics-in-cardiovascular-health-and-aging-a-focus-on-physical-activity-and-nutrition
#1
REVIEW
Robert G Wallace, Laura C Twomey, Marc-Antoine Custaud, Jonathan Turner, Niall Moyna, Philip M Cummins, Ronan P Murphy
The cardiovascular system is responsible for transport of blood and nutrients to tissues, and is pivotal to the physiological health and longevity. Epigenetic modification is a natural, age-associated process resulting in highly contextualised gene expression with clear implications for cell differentiation and disease onset. Biological/epigenetic age is independent of chronological age, constituting a highly reflective snapshot of an individual's overall health. Accelerated vascular aging is of major concern, effectively lowering disease threshold...
November 16, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155057/effects-of-different-hypoxia-degrees-on-endothelial-cell-cultures-time-course-study
#2
Ioana Baldea, Ioana Teacoe, Diana Elena Olteanu, Cristina Vaida-Voievod, Andra Clichici, Alexandru Sirbu, Gabriela Adriana Filip, Simona Clichici
INTRODUCTION: Exposure of the endothelial cells to hypoxia, the decrease in oxygen supply can trigger an endothelial response. This response is involved in inflammatory diseases, tumorigenesis, and also with the micro vascular damage associated with aging. The aim of our study was to determine the hypoxia/re-oxygenation induced response in vitro, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cultures, at different time points with focus on cell viability, apoptosis oxidative stress and angiogenesis stimulation...
November 15, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155056/age-influences-the-skin-reaction-pattern-to-mechanical-stress-and-its-repair-level-through-skin-care-products
#3
Christos C Zouboulis, Rana Elewa, Monika Ottaviani, Joachim Fluhr, Mauro Picardo, Armand Bernois, Catherine Heusèler, Emanuela Camera
Skin aging is associated with alterations of surface texture, sebum composition and immune response. Mechanical stress induces repair mechanisms, which may be dependent on the age and quality of the skin. The response to mechanical stress in young and aged individuals, their subjective opinion and objective effectiveness of skin care products were evaluated by biophysical skin quality parameters (stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, skin pH, pigmentation and erythema) at baseline, 1, 6, 24hours and 7days at the forearms of 2 groups of healthy volunteers, younger than 35 years (n=11) and older than 60 years (n=13)...
November 15, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146308/-molecular-habituation-as-a-potential-mechanism-of-gradual-homeostatic-loss-with-age
#4
Alvaro Martinez Guimera, Ciaran M Welsh, Carole J Proctor, Anne McArdle, Daryl P Shanley
The ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to cause molecular damage has meant that chronic oxidative stress has been mostly studied from the point of view of being a source of toxicity to the cell. However, the known duality of ROS molecules as both damaging agents and cellular redox signals implies another perspective in the study of sustained oxidative stress. This is a perspective of studying oxidative stress as a constitutive signal within the cell. In this work, we adopt a theoretical perspective as an exploratory and explanatory approach to examine how chronic oxidative stress can interfere with signal processing by redox signalling pathways in the cell...
November 13, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137940/autoamplificatory-singlet-oxygen-generation-sensitizes-tumor-cells-for-intercellular-apoptosis-inducing-signaling
#5
Georg Bauer
Tumor cells express NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX1) in their membrane and control NOX1-based intercellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)-dependent apoptosis-inducing signaling through membrane-associated catalase and superoxide dismutase. TREATMENT: of tumor cells with high concentrations of H2O2, peroxnitrite, HOCl, or increasing the concentration of cell-derived NO causes initial generation of singlet oxygen and local inactivation of membrane-associated catalase. As a result, free peroxynitrite and H2O2 interact and generate secondary singlet oxygen...
November 11, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132871/the-role-of-tgf%C3%AE-in-wound-healing-pathologies
#6
REVIEW
Dimitra Kiritsi, Alexander Nyström
Wound healing is one of the most complex processes in multicellular organisms, involving numerous intra- and intercellular signalling pathways in various cell types. It involves extensive communication between the cellular constituents of diverse skin compartments and its extracellular matrix. Miscommunication during healing may have two distinct damaging consequences: the development of a chronic wound or the formation of a hypertrophic scar/keloid. Chronic wounds are defined as barrier defects that have not proceeded through orderly and timely reparation to regain structural and functional integrity...
November 10, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103985/keratinocytes-oxidative-damage-mechanisms-related-to-airbone-particle-matter-exposure
#7
Arianna Romani, Carlo Cervellati, Ximena M Muresan, Giuseppe Belmonte, Alessandra Pecorelli, Franco Cervellati, Mascia Benedusi, Pablo Evelson, Giuseppe Valacchi
Epidemiological evidences have correlated airbone particulate matter (PM) to adverse health effects, mainly linking to pulmonary and cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, only recently, some studies reported detrimental effects of PM on other organs such as skin. In a recent work, we have reported increased oxidative and inflammatory responses in Reconstituted Human Epidermis (RHE) exposed to ambient particles (CAPs) and we also demonstrated the ability of CAPs to penetrate the skin tissue. The present study was aimed to better understand the cellular mechanisms beyond the oxidative changes induced by CAPs (5-10-25μg/mL) in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT)...
November 8, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113732/oxidative-stress-in-ageing-and-disease-development-studied-by-ft-ir-spectroscopy
#8
Jane Anastassopoulou, Maria Kyriakidou, Stylianos Kyriazis, Andreas F Mavrogenis, Vasiliki Mamareli, Ioannis Mamarelis, Marianna Petra, Efthymia Malesiou, Christoforos Kotoulas, Panagiota Kolovou, Emmanouil Koutoulakis, Athina Markouizou, Theophile Theophanides
FT-IR spectroscopy was used to investigate the effect of oxidative stress and to approach the mechanism on cancer bone demineralization, aortic valve mineralization and heterotopic ossification on disease development. The FT-IR spectra obtained from paediatric, adult bone and ex vivo irradiated adult healthy bone with a dose of 20Gy were compared with those of healthy bone. The increase of band intensity changes of vasCH2,vsCH2 in the region 3000-2850cm(-1) depended on aging, the disease progression and the dose of irradiation...
November 4, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103984/olr1-scavenger-receptor-knockdown-affects-mitotic-gene-expression-but-is-dispensable-for-oxidized-phospholipid-mediated-stress-signaling-in-sz-95-sebocytes
#9
Ionela-Mariana Nagelreiter, Masomeh Parvardeh, Marie-Sophie Narzt, Lucian Beer, Christopher Kremslehner, Ximena Maria Muresan, Johannes Grillari, Christos C Zouboulis, Erwin Tschachler, Florian Gruber
Phospholipid oxidation products (OxPL) are versatile stress signaling mediators in the skin. These lipid signaling molecules can be generated non-enzymatically or enzymatically by ultraviolet light, the major extrinsic skin aging factor. OxPL regulate cytoprotective, immunological and metabolic adaptation of the skin to oxidant stress. We here investigated whether the scavenger receptor Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor 1 (OLR1, LOX-1) would have a function in cutaneous oxPL signaling. We found, that OLR1 is expressed in several cutaneous cell types, most prominently in cells of the sebaceous gland and in keratinocytes...
November 2, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103983/p38-but-not-p53-is-responsible-for-uva-induced-mcpip1-expression
#10
Lukasz Skalniak, Marta Smejda, Agnieszka Cierniak, Anna Adamczyk, Piotr Konieczny, Ewelina Madej, Agnieszka Wolnicka-Glubisz
MCPIP1 (Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 Induced Protein) is an important regulator of inflammation and cell apoptosis, but its role in UVA-induced stress response in the epidermis has never been studied. We have found that moderate apoptosis-inducing dose of UVA (27J/cm(2)) increases the level of MCPIP1 expression in HaCaT cells and normal human keratinocytes (NHEK) within 6-9h after the treatment. MCPIP1 upregulation was dependent on the induction of p38, but not p53, as demonstrated by using p38 inhibitor SB203580 and p53 inducer RG7388, respectively...
November 2, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103982/phagocyte-nadph-oxidase-oxidative-stress-and-lipids-anti-or-pro-ageing
#11
Laura Baciou, Rawand Masoud, Hager Souabni, Xavier Serfaty, Gilda Karimi, Tania Bizouarn, Chantal Houée Levin
The role of NADPH oxidase in ageing is debated because of the dual roles of free radicals, toxic though necessary. In this paper we summarize some results about two aspects linked to the regulation of the activity of phagocyte NADPH oxidase (Nox2), encountered frequently in elderly people: inflammation and hypercholesterolemia. In the presence of a high amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) created by itself or by any other source, the enzyme activity is mostly lowered. Oxidation of the membrane and/or of one of the cytosolic partners could be responsible for this loss of activity...
November 2, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102450/modulation-of-cutaneous-scavenger-receptor-b1-levels-by-exogenous-stressors-impairs-in-vitro-wound-closure
#12
Ximena Maria Muresan, Claudia Sticozzi, Giuseppe Belmonte, Vinno Savelli, Pablo Evelson, Giuseppe Valacchi
Scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) is a trans-membrane protein, involved in tissue reverse cholesterol transport. Several studies have demonstrated that SR-B1 is also implicated in other physiological processes, such as bacteria and apoptotic cells recognition and regulation of intracellular tocopherol and carotenoids levels. Among the tissues where it is localized, SR-B1 has been shown to be significantly expressed in human epidermis. Our group has demonstrated that SR-B1 levels are down-regulated in human cultured keratinocytes by environmental stressors, such as cigarette smoke, via cellular redox imbalance...
November 1, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096878/centenarians-as-a-model-to-discover-genetic-and-epigenetic-signatures-of-healthy-ageing
#13
REVIEW
Annibale Alessandro Puca, Chiara Spinelli, Giulia Accardi, Francesco Villa, Calogero Caruso
Centenarians are a model of successful ageing. The data favours the theory that, in order to live to 100, it is mandatory to inherit the right genetic variants from parents or acquire epigenetic variants through the environment. Therefore, the study of epigenetic signatures of healthy ageing is becoming an important aspect to identify the role of chromatin modification in ageing and understand how manage this fine-tuning system. So, according to the concept of developmental plasticity, establishment of a longevity phenotype requires a combination of stochastic and non-stochastic events that modulate the genetic substrate and leads to a different outcome...
October 30, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037490/alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis-is-there-a-role-for-folate
#14
REVIEW
Natassia Robinson, Peter Grabowski, Ishtiaq Rehman
Epigenetic modifications, including changes in DNA methylation, have been implicated in a wide range of diseases including neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's. The role of dietary folate in providing methyl groups required for maintenance and modulation of DNA methylation makes it a nutrient of interest in Alzheimer's. Late onset Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and at present its aetiology is largely undetermined. From epidemiological studies, the interactions between folate, B-vitamins and homocysteine as well as the long latency period has led to difficulties in interpretation of the data, thus current evidence exploring the role of dietary folate in Alzheimer's is contradictory and unresolved...
October 13, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993210/telomere-length-sibling-competition-and-development-of-antioxidant-defense-in-wild-house-mice
#15
Janina Stauffer, Bineet Panda, Petteri Ilmonen
Antioxidants and telomere length are potential biomarkers for individuals' exposure and ability to cope with environmental stressors. However, intraspecific variations in antioxidant alterations due to natural, life cycle related stress, have been rarely estimated. We investigated those changes in wild-derived house mice in a longitudinal study with natural sibling competition as a stressor. Blood was used for telomere length measurements at 8-weeks age and for several selected antioxidants at 8-weeks and 6-months age...
October 7, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965790/dna-methylation-age-and-perceived-age-in-elderly-danish-twins
#16
Birgit Debrabant, Mette Soerensen, Lene Christiansen, Qihua Tan, Matt McGue, Kaare Christensen, Jacob Hjelmborg
Perceived age is an easily accessible biomarker of aging. Here, we studied its relation to DNA methylation age (DNAm age) as introduced in (Horvath, 2013) in 180 elderly Danish twins. We found perceived age and DNAm age to be associated with chronological age (P=0.04 resp. P=2.2e-10) when correcting for gender, but did not see an association between perceived age and DNAm age (P=0.44). Intrapair-analysis showed that the proportion of pairs where the twin with the highest perceived age also had the highest DNAm age was not different from 0...
September 28, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947171/a-preliminary-attempt-to-establish-multiple-stress-response-profiles-of-human-skin-fibroblasts-exposed-to-mild-or-severe-stress-during-ageing-in-vitro
#17
Suresh I S Rattan, Dino Demirovic, Carine Nizard
Optimal stress response (SR) is an essential aspect of the property of dynamic homeostasis of all biological systems, including cells in culture. Whereas severe stress can induce the so-called stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS), a model developed by Olivier Toussaint, mild stress can strengthen homeodynamics and can postpone senescence through the phenomenon of hormesis. We have attempted to establish multiple stress response profiles (SRP) of early passage young and late passage senescent human facial skin fibroblasts, FSF-1, exposed to either mild (41°C) and severe (43°C) heat shock for 1h, or to mild (2%) and severe (0%) serum deprivation for up to 48h...
September 22, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923392/mitochondrial-depletion-in-cd4-and-cd19-peripheral-lymphocytes-in-early-stage-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Gökhan Terzioğlu, Burcu Örmeci, Özlem Türksoy, Ceyhun Sayman, Nilgün Çınar, Gökçen Akar Öztürk, Gülderen Yanıkkaya Demirel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be associated with mitochondrial defects. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in mitochondrial abundance in peripheral lymphocytes of early and late stage AD patients. We analysed levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the mitochondria-specific antibody 113-1 in CD4(+), CD8(+), CD19(+) and CD56(+) peripheral lymphocytes of early and late stage AD by quantitative real-time PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. In early stage AD, the levels of mtDNA were significantly decreased in CD4(+), CD19(+) and CD56(+) peripheral lymphocytes while the MFI of 113-1 staining was significantly decreased in CD4(+) and CD19(+) cells...
September 18, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888705/regulated-expression-of-the-lncrna-terra-and-its-impact-on-telomere-biology
#19
REVIEW
Diego Oliva-Rico, Luis A Herrera
The telomere protects against genomic instability by minimizing the accelerated end resection of the genetic material, a phenomenon that results in severe chromosome instability that could favor the transformation of a cell by enabling the emergence of tumor-promoting mutations. Some mechanisms that avoid this fate, such as capping and loop formation, have been very well characterized; however, telomeric non-coding transcripts, such as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), should also be considered in this context because they play roles in the organization of telomere dynamics, involving processes such as replication, degradation, extension, and heterochromatin stabilization...
September 6, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865932/the-role-of-nitric-oxide-in-diabetic-skin-patho-physiology
#20
REVIEW
Ana Stancic, Aleksandra Jankovic, Aleksandra Korac, Biljana Buzadzic, Vesna Otasevic, Bato Korac
The role of nitric oxide (NO) in cutaneous physiology/pathology became a growing research field since the discovery that almost all types of skin cells can synthetize this redox signaling molecule about 20 years ago. Now, it is evident that NO is an important player in skin physiological processes and in responses of cutaneous cells to external insults, while the impaired NO signaling has an important consequence in skin pathology. Skin disorders are common complications in diabetic conditions. Various metabolic/biochemical and immunological dysregulations in diabetic skin are tightly coupled with the disturbances in the redox state, primarily the ratio between NO and superoxide (О2(-))...
September 1, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
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