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Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

Ken Declerck, Wim Vanden Berghe
Aging is the most important risk factor for major human lifestyle diseases, including cancer, neurological and cardiometabolic disorders. Due to the complex interplay between genetics, lifestyle and environmental factors, some individuals seem to age faster than others, whereas centenarians seem to have a slower aging process. Therefore, a biochemical biomarker reflecting the relative biological age would be helpful to predict an individual's health status and aging disease risk. Although it is already known for years that cumulative epigenetic changes occur upon aging, DNA methylation patterns were only recently used to construct an epigenetic clock predictor for biological age, which is a measure of how well your body functions compared to your chronological age...
January 11, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Jing Zhou, Zhiyin Liao, Jinliang Chen, Kexiang Zhao, Qian Xiao
The present study aimed to reveal aging-related changes in the skeletal muscle of SD rats by comparing transcriptome analysis, integrated with muscle physiological parameters. Ten rats aged 25 months were set as the old group (OG) and ten rats aged 6 months were set as the young group (YG). After 6 weeks of feeding, the body mass, grip strength, and gastrocnemius muscle mass were determined, and the differentially expressed genes were analyzed by transcriptome sequencing, followed by GO enrichment analysis and KEGG analysis...
January 8, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Sha-Sha Xing, Jian Li, Lin Chen, Ya-Fei Yang, Ping-Lin He, Jun Li, Jin Yang
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial cellular senescence is an important contributor to the endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Our previous studies suggested that salidroside (SAL) can alleviate atherosclerosis and protect endothelial cells against oxidative stress induced damage. However, the effect and mechanism of SAL on endothelial cellular senescence is still unclear. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of SAL on preventing endothelial cellular premature senescence. METHODS AND RESULTS: We established a hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)mouse model via high methionine diet (HMD) to explore the protective effect of SAL...
December 28, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Karen E Burke
Recent research has given us new insights into the molecular biology of extrinsic aging of the skin. Not only does UV irradiation directly cause photoaging of the skin, but also environmental pollutants significantly damage exposed skin by several mechanisms. Exposure to the noxious gases of air pollution with simultaneous exposure to UVA can act synergistically to initiate skin cancer. Also ozone generated from pollutants reacting with UV induces oxidative stress of the skin's surface via formation of lipid peroxidation products, with cascading consequences to deeper layers...
December 26, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Recep A Ozdemir, Jose L Contreras-Vidal, William H Paloski
This study examined differences between young and elderly volunteers in cortical involvement to human posture control during quiet stance with normal and altered sensory stimulation (Experiment-1), and biomechanical perturbations (Experiment-2). The primary focus of the first part was to monitor changes in cortical activity when unexpectedly altering the sensory conditions of upright stance, such as switching from stable (eyes open, fixed support surface) to less-stable (eyes closed, sway-referenced support surface) conditions...
December 22, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Fabio Ciccarone, Stefano Tagliatesta, Paola Caiafa, Michele Zampieri
DNA methylation is currently the most promising molecular marker for monitoring aging and predicting life expectancy. However, the mechanisms underlying age-related DNA methylation changes remain mostly undiscovered. Here we discuss the current knowledge of the dynamic nature of DNA epigenome landscape in mammals, and propose putative molecular mechanisms for aging-associated DNA epigenetic changes. Specifically, we describe age-related variations of methylcytosine and its oxidative derivatives in relation to the dynamics of chromatin structure, histone post-translational modifications and their modulators...
December 18, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Jie-Jie Zhang, Yin-Zhuang Zhang, Jing-Jie Peng, Nian-Sheng Li, Xiao-Ming Xiong, Qi-Lin Ma, Xiu-Ju Luo, Bin Liu, Jun Peng
Statins are reported to exert benefits on endothelial function through a mechanism involving in prevention of endothelial senescence. This study aims to explore whether atorvastatin exerts inhibitory effect on endothelial senescence in hyperlipidemic rats or ox-LDL-treated HUVECs through a mechanism involving suppress of miR-21-5p/203a-3p expression and their downstream pathway. The rats were fed with high-fat diet to establish a hyperlipidemic model, which showed an increase in plasma lipids and endothelial senescence, accompanied by the elevation in plasma levels of miR-21-5p/203a-3p, down-regulation of Drp1 and up-regulation of p53 in the aorta of hyperlipidemic rats; these phenomena were reversed by atorvastatin...
December 14, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Haseeb Valli, Shiraz Ahmad, Anita Y Jiang, Robert Smyth, Kamalan Jeevaratnam, Hugh R Matthews, Christopher L-H Huang
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies reported that energetically deficient murine Pgc-1β-/- hearts replicate age-dependent atrial arrhythmic phenotypes associated with their corresponding clinical conditions, implicating action potential (AP) conduction slowing consequent upon reduced AP upstroke rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested a hypothesis implicating Na+ current alterations as a mechanism underlying these electrophysiological phenotypes. We applied loose patch-clamp techniques to intact young and aged, WT and Pgc-1β-/-, atrial cardiomyocyte preparations preserving their in vivo extracellular and intracellular conditions...
November 29, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Adonis Sfera, Kelsey Bullock, Amy Price, Luzmin Inderias, Carolina Osorio
Aging has been associated with iron retention in many cell types, including the neurons, promoting neurodegeneration by ferroptosis. Excess intracellular iron accelerates aging by damaging the DNA and blocking genomic repair systems, a process we define as ferrosenescence. Novel neuroimaging and proteomic techniques have pinpointed indicators of both iron retention and ferrosenescence, allowing for their early correction, potentially bringing prevention of neurodegenerative disorders within reach. In this review, we take a closer look at the early markers of iron dyshomeostasis in neurodegenerative disorders, focusing on preventive strategies based on nutritional and microbiome manipulations...
November 24, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Priftis Alexandros, Goutzourelas Nikolaos, Chalabalaki Maria, Ntasi Georgia, Stagos Dimitrios, Amoutzias D Grigorios, Skaltsounis A Leandros, Kouretas Dimitrios
Coffee and grape contain various bioactive compounds like polyphenols that may exert beneficial effects, especially antioxidant activity, on human health upon consumption. However, the molecular mechanisms through which these effects are achieved are not fully elucidated. Thus, in the present study in order to investigate these mechanisms, a whole genome expression DNA microarray analysis was carried out in myoblasts treated with polyphenols of coffee and grape pomace at concentrations that improved the redox status...
November 22, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Christos C Zouboulis, Rana Elewa, Monica Ottaviani, Joachim Fluhr, Mauro Picardo, Armand Bernois, Catherine Heusèle, Emanuela Camera
Skin aging is associated with alterations of surface texture, sebum composition and immune response. Mechanical stress induces repair mechanisms, which may be dependent on the age and quality of the skin. The response to mechanical stress in young and aged individuals, their subjective opinion and the objective effectiveness of skin care products were evaluated by biophysical skin quality parameters (stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, skin pH, pigmentation and erythema) at baseline, 1, 6, 24h and 7days at the forearms of 2 groups of healthy volunteers, younger than 35 years (n=11) and older than 60 years (n=13)...
November 21, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Robert G Wallace, Laura C Twomey, Marc-Antoine Custaud, Jonathan Turner, Niall Moyna, Philip M Cummins, Ronan P Murphy
The cardiovascular system is responsible for transport of blood and nutrients to tissues, and is pivotal to the physiological health and longevity. Epigenetic modification is a natural, age-associated process resulting in highly contextualised gene expression with clear implications for cell differentiation and disease onset. Biological/epigenetic age is independent of chronological age, constituting a highly reflective snapshot of an individual's overall health. Accelerated vascular aging is of major concern, effectively lowering disease threshold...
November 16, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Ioana Baldea, Ioana Teacoe, Diana Elena Olteanu, Cristina Vaida-Voievod, Andra Clichici, Alexandru Sirbu, Gabriela Adriana Filip, Simona Clichici
INTRODUCTION: Exposure of the endothelial cells to hypoxia, the decrease in oxygen supply can trigger an endothelial response. This response is involved in inflammatory diseases, tumorigenesis, and also with the micro vascular damage associated with aging. The aim of our study was to determine the hypoxia/re-oxygenation induced response in vitro, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cultures, at different time points with focus on cell viability, apoptosis oxidative stress and angiogenesis stimulation...
November 15, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Alvaro Martinez Guimera, Ciaran M Welsh, Carole J Proctor, Anne McArdle, Daryl P Shanley
The ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to cause molecular damage has meant that chronic oxidative stress has been mostly studied from the point of view of being a source of toxicity to the cell. However, the known duality of ROS molecules as both damaging agents and cellular redox signals implies another perspective in the study of sustained oxidative stress. This is a perspective of studying oxidative stress as a constitutive signal within the cell. In this work, we adopt a theoretical perspective as an exploratory and explanatory approach to examine how chronic oxidative stress can interfere with signal processing by redox signalling pathways in the cell...
November 13, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Georg Bauer
Tumor cells express NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX1) in their membrane and control NOX1-based intercellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)-dependent apoptosis-inducing signaling through membrane-associated catalase and superoxide dismutase. TREATMENT: of tumor cells with high concentrations of H2O2, peroxnitrite, HOCl, or increasing the concentration of cell-derived NO causes initial generation of singlet oxygen and local inactivation of membrane-associated catalase. As a result, free peroxynitrite and H2O2 interact and generate secondary singlet oxygen...
November 11, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Dimitra Kiritsi, Alexander Nyström
Wound healing is one of the most complex processes in multicellular organisms, involving numerous intra- and intercellular signalling pathways in various cell types. It involves extensive communication between the cellular constituents of diverse skin compartments and its extracellular matrix. Miscommunication during healing may have two distinct damaging consequences: the development of a chronic wound or the formation of a hypertrophic scar/keloid. Chronic wounds are defined as barrier defects that have not proceeded through orderly and timely reparation to regain structural and functional integrity...
November 10, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Arianna Romani, Carlo Cervellati, Ximena M Muresan, Giuseppe Belmonte, Alessandra Pecorelli, Franco Cervellati, Mascia Benedusi, Pablo Evelson, Giuseppe Valacchi
Epidemiological evidences have correlated airbone particulate matter (PM) to adverse health effects, mainly linking to pulmonary and cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, only recently, some studies reported detrimental effects of PM on other organs such as skin. In a recent work, we have reported increased oxidative and inflammatory responses in Reconstituted Human Epidermis (RHE) exposed to ambient particles (CAPs) and we also demonstrated the ability of CAPs to penetrate the skin tissue. The present study was aimed to better understand the cellular mechanisms beyond the oxidative changes induced by CAPs (5-10-25μg/mL) in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT)...
November 8, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Jane Anastassopoulou, Maria Kyriakidou, Stylianos Kyriazis, Andreas F Mavrogenis, Vasiliki Mamareli, Ioannis Mamarelis, Marianna Petra, Efthymia Malesiou, Christoforos Kotoulas, Panagiota Kolovou, Emmanouil Koutoulakis, Athina Markouizou, Theophile Theophanides
FT-IR spectroscopy was used to investigate the effect of oxidative stress and to approach the mechanism on cancer bone demineralization, aortic valve mineralization and heterotopic ossification on disease development. The FT-IR spectra obtained from paediatric, adult bone and ex vivo irradiated adult healthy bone with a dose of 20Gy were compared with those of healthy bone. The increase of band intensity changes of vasCH2,vsCH2 in the region 3000-2850cm(-1) depended on aging, the disease progression and the dose of irradiation...
November 4, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Ionela-Mariana Nagelreiter, Masomeh Parvardeh, Marie-Sophie Narzt, Lucian Beer, Christopher Kremslehner, Ximena Maria Muresan, Johannes Grillari, Christos C Zouboulis, Erwin Tschachler, Florian Gruber
Phospholipid oxidation products (OxPL) are versatile stress signaling mediators in the skin. These lipid signaling molecules can be generated non-enzymatically or enzymatically by ultraviolet light, the major extrinsic skin aging factor. OxPL regulate cytoprotective, immunological and metabolic adaptation of the skin to oxidant stress. We here investigated whether the scavenger receptor Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor 1 (OLR1, LOX-1) would have a function in cutaneous oxPL signaling. We found, that OLR1 is expressed in several cutaneous cell types, most prominently in cells of the sebaceous gland and in keratinocytes...
November 2, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Lukasz Skalniak, Marta Smejda, Agnieszka Cierniak, Anna Adamczyk, Piotr Konieczny, Ewelina Madej, Agnieszka Wolnicka-Glubisz
MCPIP1 (Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 Induced Protein) is an important regulator of inflammation and cell apoptosis, but its role in UVA-induced stress response in the epidermis has never been studied. We have found that moderate apoptosis-inducing dose of UVA (27J/cm(2)) increases the level of MCPIP1 expression in HaCaT cells and normal human keratinocytes (NHEK) within 6-9h after the treatment. MCPIP1 upregulation was dependent on the induction of p38, but not p53, as demonstrated by using p38 inhibitor SB203580 and p53 inducer RG7388, respectively...
November 2, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
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