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Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

Luigi Fontana, Jamil Nehme, Marco Demaria
Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible growth arrest characterized by hypertrophy and secretion of various bioactive molecules, a phenomenon defined the Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP). Senescent cells are implicated in a number of biological functions, from embryogenesis to aging. Significantly, excessive accumulation of senescent cells is associated to a decline of regenerative capacity and chronic inflammation. In accordance, the removal of senescent cells is sufficient to delay several pathologies and promote healthspan...
November 3, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Nahid Tamanna, Shyamchand Mayengbam, James D House, Jason R Treberg
Dietary methionine restriction (MR) increases lifespan in several animal models. Despite low dietary intake of sulphur amino acids, rodents on MR develop hyperhomocysteinemia. On the contrary, MR has been reported to increase H2 S production in mice. Enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism also take part in H2 S production and hence, in this study, the impact of MR on hyperhomocysteinemia and H2 S production capacity were investigated using Fischer-344 rats assigned either a control or a MR diet for 8 weeks...
October 25, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Kedar N Prasad, Stephen C Bondy
Many studies show that daily consumption of high-fiber diet is associated with a reduced risk of developing kidney stones, inflammatory disease, colon cancer and other malignancies, obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Dietary fibers are non-digestible polysaccharides that are composed of complex carbohydrates. Based on their relative solubility in water, dietary fibers can be divided into insoluble and soluble forms. An important property of insoluble fibers is their ability to bind with carcinogens, mutagens, and other toxic chemicals that are formed during digestion of food and eliminate them through the feces...
October 15, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Nithya Mary Joseph, Nateshwar Yogindra Elphick, Sasha Mohammad, Johannes H Bauer
Many insect behaviors, including foraging, aggression, mating or group behavior, are tightly regulated by pheromones. Recently, it has been shown that pheromones may influence extreme longevity in the honeybee Apis mellifera, while changes in pheromone profile have been observed during ageing in Drosophila melanogaster. These data suggest a potential link between the pheromone system, behavior and longevity in insects. Here, we investigate this potential link by examining changes in behavior and longevity in fruit flies with altered pheromone profiles...
October 10, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Dmitry A Knorre, Aglaia V Azbarova, Kseniia V Galkina, Boris A Feniouk, Fedor F Severin
While deviations from the optimal phenotype are deleterious, increased variation can prevent population extinction under severe stresses. Cell division asymmetry is an important source of microbial phenotypic heterogeneity. A consecutive set of asymmetric divisions can cause the gradual accumulation of deleterious factors and, at late stages, the death of old pole (mother) cells. This phenomenon is known as replicative aging. As the old cells are constantly being diluted by the progeny, the majority of a microbial population is represented by replicatively young cells...
October 4, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Markus Schosserer, Gareth Banks, Soner Dogan, Peter Dungel, Adelaide Fernandes, Darja Marolt Presen, Ander Matheu, Marcin Osuchowski, Paul Potter, Coral Sanfeliu, Bilge Guvenc Tuna, Isabel Varela-Nieto, Ilaria Bellantuono
Geroprotectors, a class of drugs targeting multiple deficits occurring with age, necessitate the development of new animal models to test their efficacy. The COST Action MouseAGE is a European network whose aim is to reach consensus on the translational path required for geroprotectors, interventions targeting the biology of ageing. In our previous work we identified frailty and loss of resilience as a potential target for geroprotectors. Frailty is the result of an accumulation of deficits, which occurs with age and reduces the ability to respond to adverse events (physical resilience)...
October 2, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Martin S Denzel, Louis R Lapierre, Hildegard I D Mack
Key discoveries in aging research have been made possible with the use of model organisms. Caenorhabditis elegans is a short-lived nematode that has become a well-established system to study aging. The practicality and powerful genetic manipulations associated with this metazoan have revolutionized our ability to understand how organisms age. 25 years after the publication of the discovery of the daf-2 gene as a genetic modifier of lifespan, C. elegans remains as relevant as ever in the quest to understand the process of aging...
August 19, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Angyang Hou, Peng Chen, He Tang, Haoye Meng, Xiaoqing Cheng, Yu Wang, Yuming Zhang, Jiang Peng
In older adults, the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) increases directly with age and is the most common cause of chronic disability. It is necessary to recognize that OA is a degenerative disease that strongly correlates with age, and often promotes elevated levels of cartilage injury. Chondrocytes undergo an age-dependent decline in proliferative and synthetic capacity. It is thought that cellular senescence may play a significant role in the pathology of OA, with chondrocytes exhibiting a variety of senescence-associated phenotypes...
October 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Justin Cohen, Luca D'Agostino, Ferit Tuzer, Claudio Torres
Developments in medicine have led to a significant increase in the average human lifespan. This increase in aging is most readily apparent in the case of HIV where antiretroviral therapy has shifted infection from a terminal to a chronic but manageable disease. Despite this advance, patients suffer from co-morbidities best described as an accelerated aging phenotype. A potential contributor is cellular senescence, an aging-associated growth arrest, which has already been linked to other HIV co-morbidities such as lipodystrophies and osteoporosis in response to antiretroviral drugs...
October 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Anna A Wawer, Amy Jennings, Susan J Fairweather-Tait
A comprehensive literature review of iron status in the elderly was undertaken in order to update a previous review (Fairweather-Tait et al, 2014); 138 summarised papers describe research on the magnitude of the problem, aetiology and age-related physiological changes that may affect iron status, novel strategies for assessing iron status with concurrent health conditions, hepcidin, lifestyle factors, iron supplements, iron status and health outcomes (bone mineral density, frailty, inflammatory bowel disease, kidney failure, cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases)...
October 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Paweł Smykiewicz, Agnieszka Segiet, Michelle Keag, Tymoteusz Żera
Cardiovascular health deteriorates with age, and age is one of the strongest risk factors for cardiovascular complications including myocardial infarction, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, and death related to heart diseases. In this review, we show that expression of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs) increases throughout the human lifespan, and this increase is correlated with cardiovascular health, morbidity, and mortality. We argue that increased concentrations of circulating PICs are not only markers of chronic low-grade inflammation, but they also serve as an important pathophysiological link between CV health and ageing...
October 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Shanrong Bi, Hanyu Wang, Weihong Kuang
Stem cells being pluripotent in nature can differentiate into a wide array of specific cells and asymmetrically divide to produce new ones but may undergo aging by themselves. Aging has both quantitative and qualitative effects on stem cells, and could eventually restrain them from replenishing into progenitor cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulated in the aging cells could not only block the cell cycle but also affect autophagy by damaging the mitochondria. Autophagy could eliminate redundant production of ROS in aging stem cells and helps to maintain the proliferation capacity by restraining the expression of p16INK4a ...
October 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Lucas Bet da Rosa Orssatto, Matheus Joner Wiest, Fernando Diefenthaeler
Ageing leads to substantial force production capacity reductions, which is an indicator of frailty and disability, and a mortality predictor in elders. Understanding the age-dependent neuromuscular mechanisms underlying force reductions can optimize healthcare professionals' exercise protocol choices for patients and allows researchers to investigate new interventions to mitigate these reductions. Our primary goal was to provide an updated review about the main neural and musculotendinous mechanisms underpinning age-related reductions in force capacity...
October 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Ines Sanchez-Roman, Sofie Lautrup, Maria Diget Aamann, Edward G Neilan, John R Østergaard, Tinna Stevnsner
Cockayne Syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, which leads to neurodegeneration, growth failure and premature aging. Most of the cases are due to mutations in the ERCC6 gene, which encodes the protein CSB. CSB is involved in several functions including DNA repair and transcription. Here we describe two Danish brothers with CS. Both patients carried a novel splice site mutation (c.2382+2T>G), and a previously described nonsense mutation (c.3259C>T, p.Arg1087X) in a biallelic state. Both patients presented the cardinal features of the disease including microcephaly, congenital cataract and postnatal growth failure...
October 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Mary Revelas, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Christopher Oldmeadow, Tiffany-Jane Evans, Nicola J Armstrong, John B Kwok, Henry Brodaty, Peter R Schofield, Rodney J Scott, Perminder S Sachdev, John R Attia, Karen A Mather
BACKGROUND: Many factors contribute to exceptional longevity, with genetics playing a significant role. However, to date, genetic studies examining exceptional longevity have been inconclusive. This comprehensive review seeks to determine the genetic variants associated with exceptional longevity by undertaking meta-analyses. METHODS: Meta-analyses of genetic polymorphisms previously associated with exceptional longevity (85+) were undertaken. For each variant, meta-analyses were performed if there were data from at least three independent studies available, including two unpublished additional cohorts...
October 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Zaynab El-Gammal, Abdelrahman AlOkda, Nagwa El-Badri
Cellular reprograming paves the way for creating functional patient-specific tissues to eliminate immune rejection responses by applying the same genetic profile. However, the epigenetic memory of a cell remains a challenge facing the current reprograming methods and does not allow transcription factors to bind properly. Because somatic cells can be reprogramed by transferring their nuclear contents into oocytes, introducing specific oocyte factors into differentiated cells is considered a promising approach for mimicking the reprograming process that occurs during fertilization...
October 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Sha-Sha Xing, Jian Li, Lin Chen, Ya-Fei Yang, Ping-Lin He, Jun Li, Jin Yang
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial cellular senescence is an important contributor to the endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Our previous studies suggested that salidroside (SAL) can alleviate atherosclerosis and protect endothelial cells against oxidative stress induced damage. However, the effect and mechanism of SAL on endothelial cellular senescence is still unclear. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of SAL on preventing endothelial cellular premature senescence. METHODS AND RESULTS: We established a hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)mouse model via high methionine diet (HMD) to explore the protective effect of SAL...
October 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Rosita Gabbianelli, Marco Malavolta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Carolina J Simoes da Silva, Rocío Simón, Ana Busturia
Over the last decades significant advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling organismal development. Among these mechanisms the knowledge gained on the roles played by epigenetic regulation of gene expression is extensive. Epigenetic control of transcription requires the function of protein complexes whose specific biochemical activities, such as histone mono-ubiquitylation, affect chromatin compaction and, consequently activation or repression of gene expression. Complexes composed of Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins promote transcriptional silencing while those containing trithorax group (trxG) proteins promote transcriptional activation...
September 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Ana Dolinar, Metka Ravnik-Glavač, Damjan Glavač
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease. Decades of research show that the etiology of this disease is affected by genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors rather than limited by a patient's genotype. The interaction between these factors is complex, and research has only begun to unravel this issue. The main epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation, miRNA, and histone modifications, can explain a portion of the disease complexity. However, the interplay among the epigenetic mechanisms themselves and with genetic factors remains largely uncharacterized...
September 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
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