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Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093237/transgenerational-epigenetics-integrating-soma-to-germline-communication-with-gametic-inheritance
#1
REVIEW
Abhay Sharma
Evidence supporting germline mediated epigenetic inheritance of environmentally induced traits has increasingly emerged over the past several years. Although the mechanisms underlying this inheritance remain unclear, recent findings suggest that parental gamete-borne epigenetic factors, particularly RNAs, affect post-fertilization and developmental gene regulation, ultimately leading to phenotypic appearance in the offspring. Complex processes involving gene expression and epigenetic regulation are considered to perpetuate across generations...
January 13, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089621/exaptation-serendipity-and-aging
#2
Pierpaolo Andriani
The paper shows the importance of serendipity and exaptation in selected key moments of ageing research and argue that rationalistic dominant models in scientific research have masked the importance of reverse models of discovery based on serendipity and exaptation. I ask why this is the case and analyze three contributing factors: unprestatability of the functions of technologies, multidimensionality and astronomical complexity of the space over which biological reactions occurs and role of scientific paradigms in channeling research toward incrementalism...
January 12, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089620/the-use-of-information-theory-for-the-evaluation-of-biomarkers-of-aging-and-physiological-age
#3
David Blokh, Ilia Stambler
The present work explores the application of information theoretical measures, such as entropy and normalized mutual information, for research of biomarkers of aging. The use of information theory affords unique methodological advantages for the study of aging processes, as it allows evaluating non-linear relations between biological parameters, providing the precise quantitative strength of those relations, both for individual and multiple parameters, showing cumulative or synergistic effect. Here we illustrate those capabilities utilizing a dataset on heart disease, including diagnostic parameters routinely available to physicians...
January 12, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088449/the-role-of-sumoylation-in-ageing-and-senescent-decline
#4
REVIEW
Andrea Princz, Nektarios Tavernarakis
Posttranslational protein modifications are playing crucial roles in essential cellular mechanisms. SUMOylation is a reversible posttranslational modification of specific target proteins by the attachment of a small ubiquitin-like protein. Although the mechanism of conjugation of SUMO to proteins is analogous to ubiquitination, it requires its own, specific set of enzymes. The consequences of SUMOylation are widely variable, depending on the physiological state of the cell and the attached SUMO isoform. Accumulating recent findings have revealed a prominent role of SUMOylation in molecular pathways that govern senescence and ageing...
January 11, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057445/plasticity-vs-mutation-the-role-of-micrornas-in-human-adaptation
#5
REVIEW
Konstantinos Voskarides
The variability potential of a phenotype, on the background of the same genotype, is termed "phenotypic plasticity". This is considered by some scientists as a more important evolutionary procedure than mutation based natural selection. In this review, I discuss the fact that microRNAs have the potential to determine significantly the spectrum of phenotypic plasticity by regulating translation rate. MicroRNAs constitute a complicate network that can adjust at a variety of external environmental stimuli. They can also rebalance genome's function after genomic duplication events...
January 3, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049008/the-gut-microbiota-of-centenarians-signatures-of-longevity-in-the-gut-microbiota-profile
#6
REVIEW
Biagi Elena, Simone Rampelli, Silvia Turroni, Sara Quercia, Marco Candela, Patrizia Brigidi
The changing physiology and lifestyle of elderly people affect the gut microbiota composition, the changes of which can, in turn, affect the health maintenance of the ageing host. In a co-evolutionary vision of the relationship between gut microbiota and ageing as an adaptive process of the human superorganism, long-living individuals who get to "successfully" age might be the ones whose microbiota manages to continuously re-establish a mutualistic relationship with the host, adapting to the progressive endogenous and environmental changes...
December 31, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049007/cellular-aging-towards-osteoarthritis
#7
REVIEW
Yu-Sheng Li, Wen-Feng Xiao, Wei Luo
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common form of degenerative joint disease. Aging process is supposed to be a leading predictor for developing OA. In this review, we have discussed the potential roles of aging in OA, a better understanding of which might delay or stop the development and progression of OA. Different cellular signaling mechanisms are involved process of aging that induces age-related changes in chondrocytes. These changes influence the expression of catabolic factors resulting in increased production of matrix metalloproteinases and cytokines, reduced levels of collagen type II and aggrecan synthesis, and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
December 31, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043814/autophagy-induction-reduces-telomerase-activity-in-hela-cells
#8
Fatemeh Taji, Homa Mohseni Kouchesfahani, Farzaneh Sheikholeslami, Bizhan Romani, Kazem Baesi, Rouhollah Vahabpour, Mahdi Edalati, Ladan Teimoori-Toolabi, Ehsan Ollah Jazaeri, Asghar Abdoli
Autophagy is a cellular homeostatic process whereby damaged proteins and organelles are encapsulated into double membrane vesicles, called autophagosomes, for lysosomal digestion. Beclin1 plays a key role in the initial steps of autophagosome formation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Beclin 1 overexpression in induction of autophagy and the relationship between autophagy induction and telomerase activity in HeLa cells. We found that overexpression of Beclin 1 in HeLa cells leads to autophagosome formation as shown by intracellular autophagosomal marker LC3-II staining...
December 30, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040447/demographics-phenotypic-health-characteristics-and-genetic-analysis-of-centenarians-in-china
#9
REVIEW
Yi Zeng, Qiushi Feng, Danan Gu, James W Vaupel
After a brief introduction to the background, significance and unique features of the centenarian population in China, we describe the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Study (CLHLS), which is the world's largest study of centenarians, nonagenarians, octogenarians, and compatible young-old aged 65-79. Based on the CLHLS data and other relevant studies, we summarize demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as self-reported and objectively-tested health indicators of centenarians in China, with an emphasis on gender differences and rural/urban disparities...
December 28, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038993/inflammaging-and-omics-in-human-longevity
#10
REVIEW
Daniela Monti, Rita Ostan, Vincenzo Borelli, Gastone Castellani, Claudio Franceschi
Inflammaging is a recent theory of aging originally proposed in 2000 where data and conceptualizations regarding the aging of the immune system (immunosenescence) and the evolution of immune responses from invertebrates to mammals converged. This theory has received an increasing number of citations and experimental confirmations. Here we present an updated version of inflammaging focused on omic data - particularly on glycomics - collected on centenarians, supercentenarians and their offspring. Accordingly, we arrived to the following conclusions: i) inflammaging has a structure where specific combinations of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators are involved; ii) inflammaging is systemic and more complex than we previously thought, as many organs, tissues and cell types participate in producing pro- and anti-inflammatory stimuli conceptualized as "molecular garbage"; iii) inflammaging is dynamic, can be propagated locally to neighboring cells and systemically from organ to organ by circulating products and microvesicles, and amplified by chronic age-related diseases constituting a "local fire" which in turn produces additional inflammatory stimuli and molecular garbage; iv) an integrated Systems Medicine approach is urgently needed to let emerge a robust and highly informative set/combination of omic markers able to better grasp the complex molecular core of inflammaging in elderly and centenarians...
December 27, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017699/aging-rather-than-stress-strongly-influences-amino-acid-metabolisms-in-the-brain-and-genital-organs-of-female-mice
#11
Momoko Kodaira, Mao Nagasawa, Takeshi Yamaguchi, Hiromi Ikeda, Kimie Minaminaka, Vishwajit S Chowdhury, Shinobu Yasuo, Mitsuhiro Furuse
Aging and stress affect quality of life, and proper nourishment is one of means of preventing this effect. Today, there is a focus on the amount of protein consumed by elderly people; however, changes in the amino acid metabolism of individuals have not been fully considered. In addition, the difference between average life span and healthy life years is larger in females than it is in males. To prolong the healthy life years of females, in the present study we evaluated the influence of stress and aging on metabolism and emotional behavior by comparing young and middle-aged female mice...
December 23, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017698/metabonomics-of-ageing-towards-understanding-metabolism-of-a-long-and-healthy-life
#12
REVIEW
Francois-Pierre J Martin, Ivan Montoliu, Martin Kussmann
Systems biology approaches have been increasingly employed in clinical studies to enhance our understanding of the role of genetics, environmental factors and their interactions on nutritional, health and disease status. Amongst the new omics technologies, metabonomics has emerged as a robust platform to capture metabolic and nutritional requirements by enabling, in a minimally invasive fashion, the monitoring of a wide range of biochemical compounds. Their variations reflect comprehensively the various molecular regulatory processes, which are tightly controlled and under the influence of genetics, diet, gut microbiota and other environmental factors...
December 23, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012731/another-stage-of-development-biological-degeneracy-and-the-study-of-bodily-ageing
#13
REVIEW
Paul H Mason, Ryszard Maleszka, Juan F Dominguez D
Ageing is a poorly understood process of human development mired by a scientific approach that struggles to piece together distributed variable factors involved in ongoing transformations of living systems. Reconfiguring existing research paradigms, we review the concept of 'degeneracy', which has divergent popular and technical definitions. The technical meaning of degeneracy refers to the structural diversity underlying functional plasticity. Degeneracy is a distributed system property that can be observed within individual brains or across different brains...
December 21, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993601/mitochondrial-activity-and-dynamics-changes-regarding-metabolism-in-ageing-and-obesity
#14
REVIEW
Guillermo López-Lluch
Mitochondria play an essential role in ageing and longevity. During ageing, a general deregulation of metabolism occurs, affecting molecular, cellular and physiological activities in the organism. Dysfunction of mitochondria has been associated with ageing and age-related diseases indicating their importance in the maintenance of cell homeostasis. Three major nutritional sensors, mTOR, AMPK and Sirtuins are involved in the control of mitochondrial physiology. These nutritional sensors control mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics by regulating fusion and fission processes, and turnover through mito- and autophagy...
December 16, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986629/circulating-mirnas-and-mirna-shuttles-as-biomarkers-perspective-trajectories-of-healthy-and-unhealthy-aging
#15
REVIEW
Fabiola Olivieri, Miriam Capri, Massimiliano Bonafè, Cristina Morsiani, Hwa Jin Jung, Liana Spazzafumo, Jose Viña, Yousin Suh
Human aging is a lifelong process characterized by a continuous trade-off between pro-and anti-inflammatory responses, where the best-adapted and/or remodeled genetic/epigenetic profile may develop a longevity phenotype. Centenarians and their offspring represent such a phenotype and their comparison to patients with age-related diseases (ARDs) is expected to maximize the chance to unravel the genetic makeup that better associates with healthy aging trajectories. Seemingly, such comparison is expected to allow the discovery of new biomarkers of longevity together with risk factor for the most common ARDs...
December 13, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964991/mitochondria-and-mitochondria-induced-signalling-molecules-as-longevity-determinants
#16
REVIEW
Giuseppina Rose, Aurelia Santoro, Stefano Salvioli
An intense cross talk between mitochondria and nucleus continuously informs the cell about the functional state of these crucial organelles and elicits an effective stress response that strenghtens the cell, promoting its survival. Interestingly, this effect can spread also in a non-cell autonomous fashion to distal tissues by means of soluble factors. This stress response is responsible of a consistent lifespan increase in many animal models, while in humans there is still a lack of knowledge. This review summarises the available data on the involvement of mitochondria in longevity focusing in particular on this signalling activity and the consequent stress response that is elicited, and proposes the idea that, similarly to animal models, humans may benefit from this response in terms of delayed aging and longevity...
December 11, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964992/oxidative-stress-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-may-act-as-one-of-the-signals-for-regulating-micrornas-expression-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Kedar N Prasad
Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are one of the earliest defects that initiate and promote Alzheimer's disease (AD). Studies showed that expressions of microRNAs were upregulated or downregulated in AD. Therefore, these biochemical defects may influence the levels of microRNAs. The up-regulated microRNAs cause neurodegeneration by: (a) decreasing the levels of a nuclear transcriptional factor-2 (Nrf2), (b) reducing the levels of α-secretase ADM10; and (c) reducing the levels of phosphatases. The down-regulated microRNAs cause neurodegeneration by: (a) increasing the levels of β-secretase, (b) increasing the levels of tau kinase; (c) elevating the levels of tau proteins; (d) increasing the levels of APP; and (e) increasing the levels of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB)...
December 10, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932301/gh-igf-i-insulin-system-in-centenarians
#18
REVIEW
Giovanni Vitale, Michelangela Barbieri, Marina Kamenetskaya, Giuseppe Paolisso
The endocrine system plays a major role in the regulation of several biological activity and in the ageing process. Evolutionary conservation of GH/IGF-I/insulin pathway from worms to mice and similarities in this system between mice and humans raised expectations that downregulated activity of the GH/IGF-I/insulin pathway could be beneficial for the extension of human life span. Centenarians represent the best example of successful ageing having reached the very extremes of the human life span, escaping and delaying the occurrence of several fatal age-related diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases...
December 5, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876385/in-old-balb-c-mice-bone-marrow-pre-b-cell-and-surrogate-light-chain-reduction-is-associated-with-increased-b-cell-reactivity-to-phosphorylcholine-but-reduced-t15-idiotype-dominance
#19
Kelly Khomtchouk, Sarah Alter, Michelle Ratliff, Bonnie B Blomberg, Richard L Riley
In young adult BALB/c mice, antibodies to phosphorylcholine (PC) bearing the T15 (TEPC 15) idiotype confer protection against pneumococcal infections. In old age, even though PC reactive B cells are often increased, the proportion of T15(+) antibodies declines. We hypothesize that limited surrogate light chain (SLC) and compromise of the pre-B cell receptor checkpoint in old mice contribute to both reduced new B cell generation and changes in the anti-PC antibodies seen in old age. In old mice: 1) early pre-B cell loss is most pronounced at the preBCR checkpoint; however, the reduced pool of early pre-B cells continues to proliferate consistent with preBCR signaling; 2) increased PC reactivity is seen in bone marrow immature B cells; 3) deficient SLC promotes increased B cell PC reactivity and diminished T15 idiotype expression; and 4) as pre-B cell losses and reduced SLC become progressively more severe, increased T15 negative PC reactive B cells occur...
November 19, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871808/new-mechanism-of-lipotoxicity-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-deficiency-of-endogenous-h2s-production-and-er-stress
#20
Runmin Guo, Zijun Wu, Jiamei Jiang, Chang Liu, Bin Wu, Xingyue Li, Teng Li, Hailiang Mo, Songjian He, Shanghai Li, Hai Yan, Ruina Huang, Qiong You, Keng Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the roles and mechanisms of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). METHODS: Blood of DCM patients included in the study were collected. The model of DCM rats was established using streptozotocin (STZ) injection. Cardiac lipotoxicity in vitro models were established using 500μM palmitic acid (PA) treatment for 24h in AC16 cardiomyocytes. Endogenous H2S production in plasma, culture supernatant and heart was measured by sulphur ion-selective electrode assay...
November 18, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
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