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Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

Fawaz Awad, Eman Assrawi, Camille Louvrier, Claire Jumeau, Irina Giurgea, Serge Amselem, Sonia-Athina Karabina
Photoaging and epithelial skin tumorigenesis are complex processes triggered mainly by UV radiation from chronic sun exposure. This leads to DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which initiate an inflammatory response that alters cell structure and function. Changes in cell homeostasis and ROS production activate intracellular multiprotein platforms called inflammasomes. Inflammasomes nucleate around cytoplasmic receptors mainly of the NLR (nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat) family and regulate caspase-1-dependant secretion of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 cytokines, and an inflammatory form of death named pyroptosis...
March 12, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Ana Dolinar, Metka Ravnik-Glavač, Damjan Glavač
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease. Decades of research show that the etiology of this disease is affected by genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors rather than limited by a patient's genotype. The interaction between these factors is complex, and research has only begun to unravel this issue. The main epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation, miRNA, and histone modifications, can explain a portion of the disease complexity. However, the interplay among the epigenetic mechanisms themselves and with genetic factors remains largely uncharacterized...
March 12, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Iris Lim, Russ Chess-Williams, Donna Sellers
This study investigated the role of calcium sensitisation in the regulation of ureteral contractility with ageing. Isolated ureteral strips from young (6-month old) and older (3-year old) pigs were mounted in Krebs bicarbonate solution and contractility induced by the α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (30 and 300 μM) and 5-HT (10 and 100 μM), recorded in the absence and presence of the rho-kinase inhibitors Y-27632 (10 μM) and fasudil (30 μM). Ureteral strips developed bursts of contractile activity which was measured as area under the curve (AUC) and frequency...
March 9, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Debarati Chattopadhyay, Kavitha Thirumurugan
Past investigations have shown that various plant extracts are capable of promoting longevity in lower model organisms like Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bombyx mori etc. Longevity studies on such organisms provide a foundation to explore anti-aging efficacies of such plant extracts in higher organisms. Plant extracts of acai palm, apple, asparagus, blueberry, cinnamon, cocoa, Damnacanthus, maize, mistletoe, peach, pomegranate, Rhodiola, rose, Sasa, turmeric, and Withania have extended lifespan in lower model organisms via diverse mechanisms like insulin like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway, and antioxidant defense mechanisms...
March 8, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Teppei Shibata, Shinsuke Shibata, Yasuhito Ishigaki, Etsuko Kiyokawa, Masahito Ikawa, Dhirendra P Singh, Hiroshi Sasaki, Eri Kubo
The process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs) after cataract surgery contributes to tissue fibrosis, wound healing and lens regeneration via a mechanism not yet fully understood. Here, we show that tropomyosin 2 (Tpm2) plays a critical role in wound healing and lens aging. Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) after lens extraction surgery was accompanied by elevated expression of Tpm2. Tpm2 heterozygous knockout mice, generated via the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system showed promoted progression of cataract with age...
March 3, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Varvara Trachana, Eleni Ntoumou, Lydia Anastasopoulou, Aspasia Tsezou
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA species with the ability to post-transcriptionally control the expression of multiple genes, that have gained substantial interest because of their expression alterations that accompanies aging and possible age-related pathologies. Given the constant rise in the number of patients suffering from age-related diseases -due to the increase of the aging population in the western world- the exploration of the role of specific microRNAs in the etiopathology of these diseases is expected to have great impact...
February 26, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Alexandra Barbouti, Konstantinos Evangelou, Ioannis S Pateras, Alexandra Papoudou-Bai, Amalia Patereli, Kalliopi Stefanaki, Dimitra Rontogianni, Daniel Muñoz-Espín, Panagiotis Kanavaros, Vassilis G Gorgoulis
Cellular senescence, an age-related process in response to damage and stress, also occurs during normal development and adult life. The thymus is a central lymphoepithelial organ of the immune system that exhibits age-related changes termed thymic involution. Since the mechanisms regulating thymic involution are still not well elucidated, we questioned whether cellular senescence is implicated in this process. We demonstrate, for the first time in situ, that cellular senescence occurs during human thymic involution using SenTraGor™, a novel chemical compound that is applicable in archival tissue material, providing thus further insights in thymus histophysiology...
February 25, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
M Zuberek, T M Stępkowski, M Kruszewski, A Grzelak
The Lund human mesencephalic (LUHMES) cell line originated from mesencephalon of 8-week human foetus is a renowned in vitro model of human dopaminergic neurons. After differentiation the cells exhibit dopaminergic and neuronal characteristics of biochemically and morphologically mature dopamine-like neurons. In this study we analysed expression of 42 genes from ABC transporter superfamily in both proliferating cells and differentiated neurons after treatment with silver nanoparticles. ABC transporter superfamily is especially known due to the involvement in multidrug resistance phenomenon, but also involvement in transport through blood-brain barrier...
February 24, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Maurizio Cardelli
Endogenous retroelements, transposons that mobilize through RNA intermediates, include some of the most abundant repetitive sequences of the human genome, such as Alu and LINE-1 sequences, and human endogenous retroviruses. Recent discoveries demonstrate that these mobile genetic elements not only act as intragenomic parasites, but also exert regulatory roles in living cells. The risk of genomic instability represented by endogenous retroelements is normally counteracted by a series of epigenetic control mechanisms which include, among the most important, CpG DNA methylation...
February 16, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Francesco Guarasci, Patrizia D'Aquila, Maurizio Mandalà, Sabrina Garasto, F Lattanzio, Andrea Corsonello, Giuseppe Passarino, Dina Bellizzi
A number of epigenetic studies have demonstrated that DNA methylation patterns exhibit a tissue specificity, but not much has been done to highlight the extent of this phenomenon. Moreover, it is unknown how external factors modulate the plasticity of the tissue specific epigenetic profile. We examined global DNA methylation profiles in tissues from rats of different age, fed with standard or low-calorie diet, and evaluated their association with aging and nutrition. Tissue-specific variations occur during aging with hyper-methylation taking place in all tissues except for liver...
February 7, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Shangrong Wu, Nana Han, Yong Zheng, Chengjun Hu, Yueshan Lei
The osteogenic capacities of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) diminish during replicative senescence, and these changes affect the success of therapeutic application of BMSCs. In this study, we sought to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the osteogenic differentiation capacities that occur during replicative senescence. It is well known that Oct4 is a key transcription factor essential for maintaining differentiation capacities of the stem cells. In this study, we found that BMSCs at passage 6 (replicative senescent BMSCs) showed marked decreases in the osteogenic differentiation potential and the level of Oct4...
February 1, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Ken Declerck, Wim Vanden Berghe
Aging is the most important risk factor for major human lifestyle diseases, including cancer, neurological and cardiometabolic disorders. Due to the complex interplay between genetics, lifestyle and environmental factors, some individuals seem to age faster than others, whereas centenarians seem to have a slower aging process. Therefore, a biochemical biomarker reflecting the relative biological age would be helpful to predict an individual's health status and aging disease risk. Although it is already known for years that cumulative epigenetic changes occur upon aging, DNA methylation patterns were only recently used to construct an epigenetic clock predictor for biological age, which is a measure of how well your body functions compared to your chronological age...
January 11, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Jing Zhou, Zhiyin Liao, Jinliang Chen, Kexiang Zhao, Qian Xiao
The present study aimed to reveal aging-related changes in the skeletal muscle of SD rats by comparing transcriptome analysis, integrated with muscle physiological parameters. Ten rats aged 25 months were set as the old group (OG) and ten rats aged 6 months were set as the young group (YG). After 6 weeks of feeding, the body mass, grip strength, and gastrocnemius muscle mass were determined, and the differentially expressed genes were analyzed by transcriptome sequencing, followed by GO enrichment analysis and KEGG analysis...
January 8, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Sha-Sha Xing, Jian Li, Lin Chen, Ya-Fei Yang, Ping-Lin He, Jun Li, Jin Yang
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial cellular senescence is an important contributor to the endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Our previous studies suggested that salidroside (SAL) can alleviate atherosclerosis and protect endothelial cells against oxidative stress induced damage. However, the effect and mechanism of SAL on endothelial cellular senescence is still unclear. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of SAL on preventing endothelial cellular premature senescence. METHODS AND RESULTS: We established a hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)mouse model via high methionine diet (HMD) to explore the protective effect of SAL...
December 28, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Karen E Burke
Recent research has given us new insights into the molecular biology of extrinsic aging of the skin. Not only does UV irradiation directly cause photoaging of the skin, but also environmental pollutants significantly damage exposed skin by several mechanisms. Exposure to the noxious gases of air pollution with simultaneous exposure to UVA can act synergistically to initiate skin cancer. Also ozone generated from pollutants reacting with UV induces oxidative stress of the skin's surface via formation of lipid peroxidation products, with cascading consequences to deeper layers...
December 26, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Recep A Ozdemir, Jose L Contreras-Vidal, William H Paloski
This study examined differences between young and elderly volunteers in cortical involvement to human posture control during quiet stance with normal and altered sensory stimulation (Experiment-1), and biomechanical perturbations (Experiment-2). The primary focus of the first part was to monitor changes in cortical activity when unexpectedly altering the sensory conditions of upright stance, such as switching from stable (eyes open, fixed support surface) to less-stable (eyes closed, sway-referenced support surface) conditions...
December 22, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Florence Debacq-Chainiaux, Efstathios S Gonos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Haseeb Valli, Shiraz Ahmad, Anita Y Jiang, Robert Smyth, Kamalan Jeevaratnam, Hugh R Matthews, Christopher L-H Huang
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies reported that energetically deficient murine Pgc-1β-/- hearts replicate age-dependent atrial arrhythmic phenotypes associated with their corresponding clinical conditions, implicating action potential (AP) conduction slowing consequent upon reduced AP upstroke rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested a hypothesis implicating Na+ current alterations as a mechanism underlying these electrophysiological phenotypes. We applied loose patch-clamp techniques to intact young and aged, WT and Pgc-1β-/- , atrial cardiomyocyte preparations preserving their in vivo extracellular and intracellular conditions...
January 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Fabio Ciccarone, Stefano Tagliatesta, Paola Caiafa, Michele Zampieri
DNA methylation is currently the most promising molecular marker for monitoring aging and predicting life expectancy. However, the mechanisms underlying age-related DNA methylation changes remain mostly undiscovered. Here we discuss the current knowledge of the dynamic nature of DNA epigenome landscape in mammals, and propose putative molecular mechanisms for aging-associated DNA epigenetic changes. Specifically, we describe age-related variations of methylcytosine and its oxidative derivatives in relation to the dynamics of chromatin structure, histone post-translational modifications and their modulators...
December 18, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Jie-Jie Zhang, Yin-Zhuang Zhang, Jing-Jie Peng, Nian-Sheng Li, Xiao-Ming Xiong, Qi-Lin Ma, Xiu-Ju Luo, Bin Liu, Jun Peng
Statins are reported to exert benefits on endothelial function through a mechanism involving in prevention of endothelial senescence. This study aims to explore whether atorvastatin exerts inhibitory effect on endothelial senescence in hyperlipidemic rats or ox-LDL-treated HUVECs through a mechanism involving suppress of miR-21-5p/203a-3p expression and their downstream pathway. The rats were fed with high-fat diet to establish a hyperlipidemic model, which showed an increase in plasma lipids and endothelial senescence, accompanied by the elevation in plasma levels of miR-21-5p/203a-3p, down-regulation of Drp1 and up-regulation of p53 in the aorta of hyperlipidemic rats; these phenomena were reversed by atorvastatin...
December 14, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
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