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Journal of Human Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712471/early-pliocene-anuran-fossils-from-kanapoi-kenya-and-the-first-fossil%C3%A2-record-for-the-african-burrowing-frog-hemisus-neobatrachia-hemisotidae
#1
Massimo Delfino
Isolated amphibian bones from the early Pliocene of Kanapoi (West Turkana, Kenya) help to improve the scarce fossil record of the late Neogene and Quaternary amphibians from East Africa. All currently available 579 bones are referable exclusively to the Anura (frogs and toads). More than half of the remains (366) are identified as Hemisus cf. Hemisus marmoratus, an extant species that still inhabits Kenya, but apparently not the northwest of the country and the Turkana area in particular. The rest of the remains are identified simply as Anura indet...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625408/a-contextual-review-of-the-carnivora-of-kanapoi
#2
Lars Werdelin, Margaret E Lewis
The Early Pliocene is a crucial time period in carnivoran evolution. Holarctic carnivoran faunas suffered a turnover event at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. This event is also observed in Africa but its onset is later and the process more drawn-out. Kanapoi is one of the earliest faunas in Africa to show evidence of a fauna that is more typical Pliocene than Miocene in character. The taxa recovered from Kanapoi are: Torolutra sp., Enhydriodon (2 species), Genetta sp., Helogale sp., Homotherium sp., Dinofelis petteri, Felis sp...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602430/comment-on-ecological-niche-of-neanderthals-from-spy-cave-revealed-by-nitrogen-isotopes-of-individual-amino-acids-in-collagen-j-hum-evol-93-2016-82-90
#3
Tamsin C O'Connell, Matthew J Collins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552208/the-omo-kibish-i-pelvis
#4
Ashley S Hammond, Danielle F Royer, John G Fleagle
Omo-Kibish I (Omo I) from southern Ethiopia is the oldest anatomically modern Homo sapiens skeleton currently known (196 ± 5 ka). A partial hipbone (os coxae) of Omo I was recovered more than 30 years after the first portion of the skeleton was recovered, a find which is significant because human pelves can be informative about an individual's sex, age-at-death, body size, obstetrics and parturition, and trunk morphology. Recent human pelves are distinct from earlier Pleistocene Homo spp. pelves because they are mediolaterally narrower in bispinous breadth, have more vertically oriented ilia, lack a well-developed iliac pillar, and have distinct pubic morphology...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499698/dental-microwear-and-pliocene-paleocommunity-ecology-of-bovids-primates-rodents-and-suids-at-kanapoi
#5
Peter S Ungar, Elicia F Abella, Jenny H E Burgman, Ignacio A Lazagabaster, Jessica R Scott, Lucas K Delezene, Fredrick K Manthi, J Michael Plavcan, Carol V Ward
Reconstructions of habitat at sites like Kanapoi are key to understanding the environmental circumstances in which hominins evolved during the early Pliocene. While Australopithecus anamensis shows evidence of terrestrial bipedality traditionally associated with a more open setting, its enamel has low δ(13)C values consistent with consumption of C3 foods, which predominate in wooded areas of tropical Africa. Habitat proxies, ranging from paleosols and their carbonates to associated herbivore fauna and their carbon isotope ratios, suggest a heterogeneous setting with both grass and woody plant components, though the proportions of each have been difficult to pin down...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478935/interpretation-of-footprints-from-site-s-confirms-human-like-bipedal-biomechanics-in-laetoli-hominins
#6
David A Raichlen, Adam D Gordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476281/evaluating-morphometric-body-mass-prediction-equations-with-a-juvenile-human-test-sample-accuracy-and-applicability-to-small-bodied-hominins
#7
Christopher S Walker, Gabriel S Yapuncich, Shilpa Sridhar, Noël Cameron, Steven E Churchill
Body mass is an ecologically and biomechanically important variable in the study of hominin biology. Regression equations derived from recent human samples allow for the reasonable prediction of body mass of later, more human-like, and generally larger hominins from hip joint dimensions, but potential differences in hip biomechanics across hominin taxa render their use questionable with some earlier taxa (i.e., Australopithecus spp.). Morphometric prediction equations using stature and bi-iliac breadth avoid this problem, but their applicability to early hominins, some of which differ in both size and proportions from modern adult humans, has not been demonstrated...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476280/alternative-methods-for-calculating-percentage-prediction-error-and-their-implications-for-predicting-body-mass-in-fossil-taxa
#8
Gabriel S Yapuncich
Since body mass covaries with many ecological aspects of an animal, body mass prediction of fossil taxa is a frequent goal of paleontologists. Body mass prediction often relies on a body mass prediction equation (BMPE): a bivariate relationship between a predictor variable (e.g., molar occlusal area, femoral head breadth) and body mass as observed in extant taxa. A variety of metrics have been used to assess the reliability of BMPEs, including percentage prediction error (%PE), which involves predicting body masses of a test sample comprising individuals with associated masses...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688461/further-human-fossils-from-the-middle-stone-age-deposits-of-die-kelders-cave-1-western-cape-province-south-africa
#9
Frederick E Grine, Curtis W Marean, J Tyler Faith, Wendy Black, Carrie S Mongle, Erik Trinkaus, Stephan G le Roux, Anton du Plessis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688460/chronometric-investigations-of-the-middle-to-upper-paleolithic-transition-in-the-zagros-mountains-using-ams-radiocarbon-dating-and-bayesian-age-modelling
#10
Lorena Becerra-Valdivia, Katerina Douka, Daniel Comeskey, Behrouz Bazgir, Nicholas J Conard, Curtis W Marean, Andreu Ollé, Marcel Otte, Laxmi Tumung, Mohsen Zeidi, Thomas F G Higham
The Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition is often linked with a bio-cultural shift involving the dispersal of modern humans outside of Africa, the concomitant replacement of Neanderthals across Eurasia, and the emergence of new technological traditions. The Zagros Mountains region assumes importance in discussions concerning this period as its geographic location is central to all pertinent hominin migration areas, pointing to both east and west. As such, establishing a reliable chronology in the Zagros Mountains is crucial to our understanding of these biological and cultural developments...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688459/new-cranium-of-the-large-cercopithecid-primate-theropithecus-oswaldi-leakeyi-hopwood-1934-from-the-paleoanthropological-site-of-makuyuni-tanzania
#11
Stephen R Frost, Charles Saanane, Britt M Starkovich, Hilde Schwartz, Friedemann Schrenk, Katerina Harvati
The Pleistocene hominin site of Makuyuni, near Lake Manyara, Tanzania, is known for fossils attributable to Homo and Acheulean artifacts (Ring et al., 2005; Kaiser et al., 2010; Frost et al., 2012). Here we describe the fossil primate material from the Manyara Beds, which includes the first nearly complete female cranium of Theropithecus oswaldi leakeyi and a proximal tibia from the same taxon. The cranium is dated to between 633 and 780 Ka and the tibia to the Pleistocene. The T. oswaldi lineage is one of the most important among Neogene mammals of Africa: it is both widespread and abundant...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688458/dating-the-middle-paleolithic-deposits-of-la-quina-amont-charente-%C3%A2-france-using-luminescence-methods
#12
Marine Frouin, Christelle Lahaye, Hélène Valladas, Thomas Higham, André Debénath, Anne Delagnes, Norbert Mercier
The site of La Quina Amont, located in the Charente region, is one of the most important sites in southwestern France for studying major changes in human behaviors from the Middle Paleolithic (MP) to the Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP). Extensively excavated over the past 50 years, numerous dating studies have been focused on the Upper Paleolithic deposits using radiocarbon on bone collagen and thermoluminescence (TL) on heated flints; however, the Mousterian levels remain undated due to the scarcity of suitable materials...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688457/u-series-dating-and-classification-of-the-apidima-2-hominin-from-mani-peninsula-southern-greece
#13
Antonis Bartsiokas, Juan Luis Arsuaga, Maxime Aubert, Rainer Grün
Laser ablation U-series dating results on a human cranial bone fragment from Apidima, on the western cost of the Mani Peninsula, Southern Greece, indicate a minimum age of 160,000 years. The dated cranial fragment belongs to Apidima 2, which preserves the facial skeleton and a large part of the braincase, lacking the occipital bone. The morphology of the preserved regions of the cranium, and especially that of the facial skeleton, indicates that the fossil belongs to the Neanderthal clade. The dating of the fossil at a minimum age of 160,000 years shows that most of the Neanderthal traits were already present in the MIS 6 and perhaps earlier...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688456/the-social-organization-of-homo-ergaster-inferences-from-anti-predator-responses-in-extant-primates
#14
Erik P Willems, Carel P van Schaik
Patterns of primate socioecology have been used to suggest that the first truly savanna-dwelling hominin, Homo ergaster, lived in sizeable groups. Here, we revisit these estimates and infer additional features of the social organization of these early hominins based on anti-predator responses observed across the primate taxon. We first show that the effect of habitat on primate group size, composition, and sexual dimorphism is negligible after controlling for substrate use and phylogeny: terrestrial species live in larger groups with more and bigger males than arboreal taxa...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688455/foot-use-during-vertical-climbing-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#15
R E Wunderlich, S B Ischinger
Upright bipedalism is a hallmark of hominin locomotion, however debates continue regarding the extent of arboreal locomotion and the nature of bipedalism practiced by early hominins. Pedal form and function play a prominent role in these debates, as the foot is the element that directly interacts with the locomotor substrate. Recent finds have substantially increased the availability of associated foot remains of early hominins and emphasized the enigmatic nature of the early evolution of human bipedalism. New discoveries of associated forefoot remains have afforded the opportunity to assess relative proportions across the forefoot of fossil hominins and illuminated the need for data on relative loading across the forefoot in extant hominoids...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587753/comment-on-relative-brain-size-in-early-primates-and-the-use-of-encephalization-quotients-in-primate-evolution
#16
Christopher C Gilbert, William L Jungers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622934/selection-to-outsmart-the-germs-the-evolution-of-disease-recognition-and-social-cognition
#17
Sharon E Kessler, Tyler R Bonnell, Richard W Byrne, Colin A Chapman
The emergence of providing care to diseased conspecifics must have been a turning point during the evolution of hominin sociality. On a population level, care may have minimized the costs of socially transmitted diseases at a time of increasing social complexity, although individual care-givers probably incurred increased transmission risks. We propose that care-giving likely originated within kin networks, where the costs may have been balanced by fitness increases obtained through caring for ill kin. We test a novel hypothesis of hominin cognitive evolution in which disease may have selected for the cognitive ability to recognize when a conspecific is infected...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622933/evaluating-the-potential-for-tactical-hunting-in-the-middle-stone-age-insights-from-a-bonebed-of-the-extinct-bovid-rusingoryx-atopocranion
#18
Kirsten E Jenkins, Sheila Nightingale, J Tyler Faith, Daniel J Peppe, Lauren A Michel, Steven G Driese, Kieran P McNulty, Christian A Tryon
The foraging behaviors of Middle Stone Age (MSA) early modern humans have largely been based on evidence from well-stratified cave sites in South Africa. Whereas these sites have provided an abundance of data for behavioral reconstruction that are unmatched elsewhere in Africa, they are unlikely to preserve evidence of the diversity of foraging strategies employed by MSA hunters who lived in a variety of ecological and landscape settings across the African continent. Here we describe the results of recent excavations at the open-air site of Bovid Hill at Wakondo, Rusinga Island, Kenya, which yielded 24 in situ MSA artifacts within an assemblage of bones comprised exclusively of the extinct alcelaphin bovid Rusingoryx atopocranion...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622932/an-evolutionary-medicine-perspective-on-neandertal-extinction
#19
Alexis P Sullivan, Marc de Manuel, Tomas Marques-Bonet, George H Perry
The Eurasian sympatry of Neandertals and anatomically modern humans - beginning at least 45,000 years ago and possibly lasting for more than 5000 years - has sparked immense anthropological interest into the factors that potentially contributed to Neandertal extinction. Among many different hypotheses, the "differential pathogen resistance" extinction model posits that Neandertals were disproportionately affected by exposure to novel infectious diseases that were transmitted during the period of spatiotemporal sympatry with modern humans...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622931/three-dimensional-morphometrics-of-thoracic-vertebrae-in-neandertals-and-the-fossil-evidence-from-el-sidr%C3%A3-n-asturias-northern-spain
#20
Markus Bastir, Daniel García Martínez, Luis Rios, Antonio Higuero, Alon Barash, Sandra Martelli, Antonio García Tabernero, Almudena Estalrrich, Rosa Huguet, Marco de la Rasilla, Antonio Rosas
Well preserved thoracic vertebrae of Neandertals are rare. However, such fossils are important as their three-dimensional (3D) spatial configuration can contribute to the understanding of the size and shape of the thoracic spine and the entire thorax. This is because the vertebral body and transverse processes provide the articulation and attachment sites for the ribs. Dorsal orientation of the transverse processes relative to the vertebral body also rotates the attached ribs in a way that could affect thorax width...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
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