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Journal of Human Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330740/estimating-body-size-in-early-primates-the-case-of-archicebus-and-teilhardina
#1
Marian Dagosto, Daniel Gebo, Xijun Ni, Thierry Smith
Obtaining accurate estimations of the body mass of fossil primates has always been a subject of interest in paleoanthropology because mass is an important determinant for so many other aspects of biology, ecology, and life history. This paper focuses on the issues involved in attempting to reconstruct the mass of two early Eocene haplorhine primates, Teilhardina and Archicebus, which pose particular problems due to their small size and temporal and phylogenetic distance from extant primates. In addition to a ranking of variables from more to less useful, the effect of using models of varying taxonomic and size compositions is examined...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318607/a-newly-discovered-galagid-fossil-from-nakali-an-early-late-miocene-locality-of-east-africa
#2
Yutaka Kunimatsu, Masato Nakatsukasa, Tetsuya Sakai, Mototaka Saneyoshi, Yoshihiro Sawada, Hideo Nakaya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274613/the-first-fossil-platyrrhini-primates-anthropoidea-from-venezuela-a-capuchin-monkey-from-the-plio-pleistocene-of-el-breal-de-orocual
#3
Damián Ruiz-Ramoni, Ascanio D Rincón, Andrés Solórzano, Salvador Moyà-Solà
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094004/the-vertebrae-and-ribs-of-homo-naledi
#4
Scott A Williams, Daniel García-Martínez, Markus Bastir, Marc R Meyer, Shahed Nalla, John Hawks, Peter Schmid, Steven E Churchill, Lee R Berger
Hominin evolution featured shifts from a trunk shape suitable for climbing and housing a large gut to a trunk adapted to bipedalism and higher quality diets. Our knowledge regarding the tempo, mode, and context in which these derived traits evolved has been limited, based largely on a small-bodied Australopithecus partial skeleton (A.L. 288-1; "Lucy") and a juvenile Homo erectus skeleton (KNM-WT 15000; "Turkana Boy"). Two recent discoveries, of a large-bodied Australopithecus afarensis (KSD-VP-1/1) and two Australopithecus sediba partial skeletons (MH1 and MH2), have added to our understanding of thorax evolution; however, little is known about thorax morphology in early Homo...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089508/a-reply-to-douze-and-delagnes-s-the-pattern-of-emergence-of-a-middle-stone-age-tradition-at-gademotta-and-kulluletti-ethiopia-through-convergent-tool-and-point-technologies-j-hum-evol-91-2016-93-121
#5
Yonatan Sahle, David R Braun
Douze and Delagnes (2016) revisit Middle Stone Age (MSA) lithic assemblages from the Gademotta Formation (Fm.), Ethiopia. Their analysis of selected assemblages from three of the 1972 excavations expands the original typo-technological interpretations by Wendorf and Schild (1974). We particularly welcome their evaluation of our recent inferences about the function of pointed artifacts and technological patterns in the Gademotta Fm. (Sahle et al., 2013, 2014). However, we find several arguments and conclusions in Douze and Delagnes (2016) to be rather unconvincing and irreconcilable with results from analyses of whole assemblages (Wendorf and Schild, 1974; Sahle et al...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317557/the-role-of-allometry-and-posture-in-the-evolution-of-the-hominin-subaxial-cervical-spine
#6
Mikel Arlegi, Asier Gómez-Olivencia, Lou Albessard, Ignacio Martínez, Antoine Balzeau, Juan Luis Arsuaga, Ella Been
Cervical vertebrae not only protect the spinal cord but also are the insertion and origin points for muscles related to the movement of the head, upper limb, and trunk, among others, and are thus important elements in primate evolution. While previous work has been undertaken on the first two cervical vertebrae, there is a dearth of studies on the subaxial cervical spine in hominines. In this paper, we provide detailed morphological information on two important aspects of the subaxial cervical vertebrae (C3 - C7): mid-sagittal morphology and superior facet orientation...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317556/skull-5-from-dmanisi-descriptive-anatomy-comparative-studies-and-evolutionary-significance
#7
G Philip Rightmire, Marcia S Ponce de León, David Lordkipanidze, Ann Margvelashvili, Christoph P E Zollikofer
A fifth hominin skull (cranium D4500 and mandible D2600) from Dmanisi is massively constructed, with a large face and a very small brain. Traits documented for the first time in a basal member of the Homo clade include the uniquely low ratio of endocranial volume to basicranial width, reduced vertex height, angular vault profile, smooth nasal sill coupled with a long and sloping maxillary clivus, elongated palate, and tall mandibular corpus. The convex clivus and receding symphysis of skull 5 produce a muzzle-like form similar to that of Australopithecus afarensis...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317555/the-cervical-spine-of-australopithecus-sediba
#8
Marc R Meyer, Scott A Williams, Peter Schmid, Steven E Churchill, Lee R Berger
Cervical vertebrae are rare in the early hominin fossil record, presenting a challenge for understanding the evolution of the neck and head carriage in hominin evolution. Here, we examine the cervical vertebrae of Australopithecus sediba, which unlike other South African taxa is known from associated cervical vertebrae. The A. sediba cervical vertebrae exhibit human-like values for wedging, pedicle cross-sectional areas, and articular facet heights, indicating reduced ventral loading relative to African apes...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317554/chimpanzee-and-human-midfoot-motion-during-bipedal-walking-and-the-evolution-of-the-longitudinal-arch-of-the-foot
#9
Nicholas B Holowka, Matthew C O'Neill, Nathan E Thompson, Brigitte Demes
The longitudinal arch of the human foot is commonly thought to reduce midfoot joint motion to convert the foot into a rigid lever during push off in bipedal walking. In contrast, African apes have been observed to exhibit midfoot dorsiflexion following heel lift during terrestrial locomotion, presumably due to their possession of highly mobile midfoot joints. This assumed dichotomy between human and African ape midfoot mobility has recently been questioned based on indirect assessments of in vivo midfoot motion, such as plantar pressure and cadaver studies; however, direct quantitative analyses of African ape midfoot kinematics during locomotion remain scarce...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317553/dietary-reconstruction-of-the-el-sidr%C3%A3-n-neandertal-familial-group%C3%A2-spain-in-the-context-of-other-neandertal-and-modern-hunter-gatherer-groups-a-molar-microwear-texture-analysis
#10
Almudena Estalrrich, Sireen El Zaatari, Antonio Rosas
Here, we present the analysis of occlusal molar microwear textures of eight individuals from the El Sidrón Neandertal group (Spain). The aims of the study were: 1) to document potential age-, sex-, and maternal lineage-related differences in diet within a Neandertal familial group, and 2) to place the diet of El Sidrón individuals in the context of those of other Neandertal groups. This study also offers an interpretation of the diet of the El Sidrón Neandertals by comparing their microwear signatures to those of recent hunter-gatherer populations with diverse but known diets...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317552/adaptation-to-suspensory-locomotion-in-australopithecus-sediba
#11
Thomas R Rein, Terry Harrison, Kristian J Carlson, Katerina Harvati
Australopithecus sediba is represented by well-preserved fossilized remains from the locality of Malapa, South Africa. Recent work has shown that the combination of features in the limb skeleton of A. sediba was distinct from that of earlier species of Australopithecus, perhaps indicating that this species moved differently. The bones of the arm and forearm indicate that A. sediba was adapted to suspensory and climbing behaviors. We used a geometric morphometric approach to examine ulnar shape, potentially identifying adaptations to forelimb suspensory locomotion in A...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166908/the-middle-stone-age-human-fossil-record-from-klasies-river-main-site
#12
Frederick E Grine, Sarah Wurz, Curtis W Marean
The paleoanthropological significance of Klasies River Main Site derives from its abundant Middle Stone Age (MSA) archaeological debris and the hominin fossils that have featured in discussions about modern human emergence. Despite their significance, the human remains have yet to be contextualized within the spatial, stratigraphic and geochronological framework of the site. We provide an updated overview of the stratigraphy and geochronology of the site, and review the human fossil record in this context. We also provide the first anatomical interpretations of many of the cranial vault fragments...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166907/practice-makes-perfect-performance-optimisation-in-arboreal-parkour-athletes-illuminates-the-evolutionary-ecology-of-great-ape-anatomy
#13
Lewis G Halsey, Samuel R L Coward, Robin H Crompton, Susannah K S Thorpe
An animal's size is central to its ecology, yet remarkably little is known about the selective pressures that drive this trait. A particularly compelling example is how ancestral apes evolved large body mass in such a physically and energetically challenging environment as the forest canopy, where weight-bearing branches and lianas are flexible, irregular and discontinuous, and the majority of preferred foods are situated on the most flexible branches at the periphery of tree crowns. To date the issue has been intractable due to a lack of relevant fossil material, the limited capacity of the fossil record to reconstruct an animal's behavioural ecology and the inability to measure energy consumption in freely moving apes...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166906/the-morphology-of-the-enamel-dentine-junction-in-neanderthal-molars-gross-morphology-non-metric-traits-and-temporal-trends
#14
Robert M G Martin, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Philipp Gunz, Matthew M Skinner
This study explores the morphological differences between the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) of maxillary and mandibular molars of Neanderthals (n = 150) and recent modern humans (n = 106), and between an earlier Neanderthal sample (consisting of Pre-Eemian and Eemian Neanderthals dating to before 115 ka) and a later Neanderthal sample (consisting of Post-Eemian Neanderthals dating to after 115 ka). The EDJ was visualised by segmenting microtomographic scans of each molar. A geometric morphometric methodology compared the positioning of the dentine horns, the shape of the marginal ridge between the dentine horns, and the shape of the cervix...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166905/the-earliest-long-distance-obsidian-transport-evidence-from-the-%C3%A2-200%C3%A2-ka-middle-stone-age-sibilo-school-road-site-baringo-kenya
#15
Nick Blegen
This study presents the earliest evidence of long-distance obsidian transport at the ∼200 ka Sibilo School Road Site (SSRS), an early Middle Stone Age site in the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya. The later Middle Pleistocene of East Africa (130-400 ka) spans significant and interrelated behavioral and biological changes in human evolution including the first appearance of Homo sapiens. Despite the importance of the later Middle Pleistocene, there are relatively few archaeological sites in well-dated contexts (n < 10) that document hominin behavior from this time period...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012463/microchoerus-hookeri-nov-sp-a-new-late-eocene-european-microchoerine-omomyidae-primates-new-insights-on-the-evolution-of-the-genus-microchoerus
#16
Raef Minwer-Barakat, Judit Marigó, Joan Femenias-Gual, Loïc Costeur, Soledad De Esteban-Trivigno, Salvador Moyà-Solà
The study of Eocene primates is crucial for understanding the evolutionary steps undergone by the earliest members of our lineage and the relationships between extinct and extant taxa. Recently, the description of new material from Spain has improved knowledge of European Paleogene primates considerably, particularly regarding microchoerines. Here we describe the remains of Microchoerus from Sossís (late Eocene, Northern Spain), consisting of more than 120 specimens and representing the richest sample of Microchoerus from Spain...
January 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012462/new-sivaladapid-primate-from-lower-siwalik-deposits-surrounding-ramnagar-jammu-and-kashmir-state-india
#17
Christopher C Gilbert, Biren A Patel, N Premjit Singh, Christopher J Campisano, John G Fleagle, Kathleen L Rust, Rajeev Patnaik
Over the past century, numerous vertebrate fossils collected near the town of Ramnagar, India, have proven to be important for understanding the evolution and biogeography of many mammalian groups. Primates from Ramnagar, though rare, include a number of hominoid specimens attributable to Sivapithecus, as well as a single published mandibular fragment preserving the P4-M1 of the Miocene adapoid Sivaladapis palaeindicus. Since 2010, we have renewed fossil prospecting in the Lower Siwalik deposits near Ramnagar in an attempt to better understand the evolution, biogeographic timing, and paleoclimatic context of mammalian radiations in Asia, with a particular focus on primates...
January 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012461/ten-years-in-the-dump-an-updated-review-of-the-miocene-primate-bearing-localities-from-abocador-de-can-mata-ne-iberian-peninsula
#18
David M Alba, Isaac Casanovas-Vilar, Miguel Garcés, Josep M Robles
More than ten years of paleontological fieldwork during the enlargement of the Can Mata Landfill (Abocador de Can Mata [ACM]), in els Hostalets de Pierola (Vallès-Penedès Basin, NE Iberian Peninsula) led to the recovery of >60,000 Miocene vertebrate remains. The huge sampling effort (due to continuous surveillance of heavy machinery digging activity, coupled with manual excavation and screen-washing of sediments) enabled generally rare faunal elements such as pliopithecoid and hominoid primates to be found...
January 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012460/a-new-high-resolution-3-d-quantitative-method-for-identifying-bone-surface-modifications-with-implications-for-the-early-stone-age-archaeological-record
#19
Michael C Pante, Matthew V Muttart, Trevor L Keevil, Robert J Blumenschine, Jackson K Njau, Stephen R Merritt
Bone surface modifications have become important indicators of hominin behavior and ecology at prehistoric archaeological sites. However, the method by which we identify and interpret these marks remains largely unchanged despite decades of research, relying on qualitative criteria and lacking standardization between analysts. Recently, zooarchaeologists have begun using new technologies capable of capturing 3-D data from bone surface modifications to advance our knowledge of these informative traces. However, an important step in this research has been overlooked and after years of work, we lack both a universal and replicable protocol and an understanding of the precision of these techniques...
January 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887742/corrigendum-to-dentognathic-remains-of-australopithecus-afarensis-from-nefuraytu-woranso-mille-ethiopia-comparative-description-geology-and-paleoecological-context-j-hum-evol-100-2016-35-53
#20
Yohannes Haile-Selassie, Stephanie M Melillo, Timothy M Ryan, Naomi E Levin, Beverly Z Saylor, Alan Deino, Ronald Mundil, Gary Scott, Mulugeta Alene, Luis Gibert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
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