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Journal of Human Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094004/the-vertebrae-and-ribs-of-homo-naledi
#1
Scott A Williams, Daniel García-Martínez, Markus Bastir, Marc R Meyer, Shahed Nalla, John Hawks, Peter Schmid, Steven E Churchill, Lee R Berger
Hominin evolution featured shifts from a trunk shape suitable for climbing and housing a large gut to a trunk adapted to bipedalism and higher quality diets. Our knowledge regarding the tempo, mode, and context in which these derived traits evolved has been limited, based largely on a small-bodied Australopithecus partial skeleton (A.L. 288-1; "Lucy") and a juvenile Homo erectus skeleton (KNM-WT 15000; "Turkana Boy"). Two recent discoveries, of a large-bodied Australopithecus afarensis (KSD-VP-1/1) and two Australopithecus sediba partial skeletons (MH1 and MH2), have added to our understanding of thorax evolution; however, little is known about thorax morphology in early Homo...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089508/a-reply-to-douze-and-delagnes-s-the-pattern-of-emergence-of-a-middle-stone-age-tradition-at-gademotta-and-kulluletti-ethiopia-through-convergent-tool-and-point-technologies-j-hum-evol-91-2016-93-121
#2
Yonatan Sahle, David R Braun
Douze and Delagnes (2016) revisit Middle Stone Age (MSA) lithic assemblages from the Gademotta Formation (Fm.), Ethiopia. Their analysis of selected assemblages from three of the 1972 excavations expands the original typo-technological interpretations by Wendorf and Schild (1974). We particularly welcome their evaluation of our recent inferences about the function of pointed artifacts and technological patterns in the Gademotta Fm. (Sahle et al., 2013, 2014). However, we find several arguments and conclusions in Douze and Delagnes (2016) to be rather unconvincing and irreconcilable with results from analyses of whole assemblages (Wendorf and Schild, 1974; Sahle et al...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166908/the-middle-stone-age-human-fossil-record-from-klasies-river-main-site
#3
Frederick E Grine, Sarah Wurz, Curtis W Marean
The paleoanthropological significance of Klasies River Main Site derives from its abundant Middle Stone Age (MSA) archaeological debris and the hominin fossils that have featured in discussions about modern human emergence. Despite their significance, the human remains have yet to be contextualized within the spatial, stratigraphic and geochronological framework of the site. We provide an updated overview of the stratigraphy and geochronology of the site, and review the human fossil record in this context. We also provide the first anatomical interpretations of many of the cranial vault fragments...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166907/practice-makes-perfect-performance-optimisation-in-arboreal-parkour-athletes-illuminates-the-evolutionary-ecology-of-great-ape-anatomy
#4
Lewis G Halsey, Samuel R L Coward, Robin H Crompton, Susannah K S Thorpe
An animal's size is central to its ecology, yet remarkably little is known about the selective pressures that drive this trait. A particularly compelling example is how ancestral apes evolved large body mass in such a physically and energetically challenging environment as the forest canopy, where weight-bearing branches and lianas are flexible, irregular and discontinuous, and the majority of preferred foods are situated on the most flexible branches at the periphery of tree crowns. To date the issue has been intractable due to a lack of relevant fossil material, the limited capacity of the fossil record to reconstruct an animal's behavioural ecology and the inability to measure energy consumption in freely moving apes...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166906/the-morphology-of-the-enamel-dentine-junction-in-neanderthal-molars-gross-morphology-non-metric-traits-and-temporal-trends
#5
Robert M G Martin, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Philipp Gunz, Matthew M Skinner
This study explores the morphological differences between the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) of maxillary and mandibular molars of Neanderthals (n = 150) and recent modern humans (n = 106), and between an earlier Neanderthal sample (consisting of Pre-Eemian and Eemian Neanderthals dating to before 115 ka) and a later Neanderthal sample (consisting of Post-Eemian Neanderthals dating to after 115 ka). The EDJ was visualised by segmenting microtomographic scans of each molar. A geometric morphometric methodology compared the positioning of the dentine horns, the shape of the marginal ridge between the dentine horns, and the shape of the cervix...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166905/the-earliest-long-distance-obsidian-transport-evidence-from-the-%C3%A2-200%C3%A2-ka-middle-stone-age-sibilo-school-road-site-baringo-kenya
#6
Nick Blegen
This study presents the earliest evidence of long-distance obsidian transport at the ∼200 ka Sibilo School Road Site (SSRS), an early Middle Stone Age site in the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya. The later Middle Pleistocene of East Africa (130-400 ka) spans significant and interrelated behavioral and biological changes in human evolution including the first appearance of Homo sapiens. Despite the importance of the later Middle Pleistocene, there are relatively few archaeological sites in well-dated contexts (n < 10) that document hominin behavior from this time period...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012463/microchoerus-hookeri-nov-sp-a-new-late-eocene-european-microchoerine-omomyidae-primates-new-insights-on-the-evolution-of-the-genus-microchoerus
#7
Raef Minwer-Barakat, Judit Marigó, Joan Femenias-Gual, Loïc Costeur, Soledad De Esteban-Trivigno, Salvador Moyà-Solà
The study of Eocene primates is crucial for understanding the evolutionary steps undergone by the earliest members of our lineage and the relationships between extinct and extant taxa. Recently, the description of new material from Spain has improved knowledge of European Paleogene primates considerably, particularly regarding microchoerines. Here we describe the remains of Microchoerus from Sossís (late Eocene, Northern Spain), consisting of more than 120 specimens and representing the richest sample of Microchoerus from Spain...
January 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012462/new-sivaladapid-primate-from-lower-siwalik-deposits-surrounding-ramnagar-jammu-and-kashmir-state-india
#8
Christopher C Gilbert, Biren A Patel, N Premjit Singh, Christopher J Campisano, John G Fleagle, Kathleen L Rust, Rajeev Patnaik
Over the past century, numerous vertebrate fossils collected near the town of Ramnagar, India, have proven to be important for understanding the evolution and biogeography of many mammalian groups. Primates from Ramnagar, though rare, include a number of hominoid specimens attributable to Sivapithecus, as well as a single published mandibular fragment preserving the P4-M1 of the Miocene adapoid Sivaladapis palaeindicus. Since 2010, we have renewed fossil prospecting in the Lower Siwalik deposits near Ramnagar in an attempt to better understand the evolution, biogeographic timing, and paleoclimatic context of mammalian radiations in Asia, with a particular focus on primates...
January 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012461/ten-years-in-the-dump-an-updated-review-of-the-miocene-primate-bearing-localities-from-abocador-de-can-mata-ne-iberian-peninsula
#9
David M Alba, Isaac Casanovas-Vilar, Miguel Garcés, Josep M Robles
More than ten years of paleontological fieldwork during the enlargement of the Can Mata Landfill (Abocador de Can Mata [ACM]), in els Hostalets de Pierola (Vallès-Penedès Basin, NE Iberian Peninsula) led to the recovery of >60,000 Miocene vertebrate remains. The huge sampling effort (due to continuous surveillance of heavy machinery digging activity, coupled with manual excavation and screen-washing of sediments) enabled generally rare faunal elements such as pliopithecoid and hominoid primates to be found...
January 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012460/a-new-high-resolution-3-d-quantitative-method-for-identifying-bone-surface-modifications-with-implications-for-the-early-stone-age-archaeological-record
#10
Michael C Pante, Matthew V Muttart, Trevor L Keevil, Robert J Blumenschine, Jackson K Njau, Stephen R Merritt
Bone surface modifications have become important indicators of hominin behavior and ecology at prehistoric archaeological sites. However, the method by which we identify and interpret these marks remains largely unchanged despite decades of research, relying on qualitative criteria and lacking standardization between analysts. Recently, zooarchaeologists have begun using new technologies capable of capturing 3-D data from bone surface modifications to advance our knowledge of these informative traces. However, an important step in this research has been overlooked and after years of work, we lack both a universal and replicable protocol and an understanding of the precision of these techniques...
January 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887742/corrigendum-to-dentognathic-remains-of-australopithecus-afarensis-from-nefuraytu-woranso-mille-ethiopia-comparative-description-geology-and-paleoecological-context-j-hum-evol-100-2016-35-53
#11
Yohannes Haile-Selassie, Stephanie M Melillo, Timothy M Ryan, Naomi E Levin, Beverly Z Saylor, Alan Deino, Ronald Mundil, Gary Scott, Mulugeta Alene, Luis Gibert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866756/cuboid-morphology-of-a-basal-anthropoid-from-the-eocene-of-china
#12
Daniel L Gebo, Marian Dagosto, K Christopher Beard, Xijun Ni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865439/a-scratch-by-any-other-name-a-comment-on-lucas-et%C3%A2-al-s-reply-to-scratching-the-surface-a-critique-of-lucas-et%C3%A2-al-2013-s-conclusion-that-phytoliths-do-not-abrade-enamel-j-hum-evol-74-2016-130-133
#13
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756484/on-the-calculation-of-occlusal-bite-pressures-for-fossil-hominins
#14
Javier Ruiz, Juan Luis Arsuaga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692570/tooth-wear-a-response-to-scratching-the-surface-a-critique-of-lucas-et%C3%A2-al-2013-s-conclusion-that-phytoliths-do-not-abrade-enamel-j-hum-evol-74-2014-130-133
#15
Peter W Lucas, Ridwaan Omar, Khaled Al-Fadhalah, Abdulwahab S Almusallam, Amanda G Henry, Shaji Michael, Lidia Arockia Thai, Jörg Watzke, David S Strait, Adam van Casteren, Anthony G Atkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886813/cranial-vault-thickness-in-non-human-primates-allometric-and-geometric-analyses-of-the-vault-and-its-component-layers
#16
Lynn E Copes
Extremely thick cranial vaults have been noted as a diagnostic characteristic of Homo erectus since the first fossil of the species was identified, but relatively little work has been done on elucidating its variation within extant non-human primates. Cranial vault thickness (CVT) is not a monolithic trait, and the relationship of its layers to other morphological variables is unknown. Total CVT and the thickness of the cortical and diploë layers individually, as well as the ratio between diploë and total thickness, were calculated from 258 female individuals from 47 species of non-human primate...
December 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886812/foraging-potential-of-underground-storage-organ-plants-in-the-southern-cape-south-africa
#17
Elzanne Singels, Alastair J Potts, Richard M Cowling, Curtis W Marean, Jan De Vynck, Karen J Esler
Underground storage organs (USOs) serve as a staple source of carbohydrates for many hunter-gatherer societies and they feature prominently in discussions of diets of early modern humans. While the way of life of hunter-gatherers in South Africa's Cape no longer exists, there is extensive ethnographic, historical, and archaeological evidence of hunter-gatherers' use of USOs. This is to be expected, given that the Cape supports the largest concentration of plant species with USOs globally. The southern Cape is the location of several Middle Stone Age sites that are highly significant to research on the origins of behaviourally modern humans, and this provided the context for our research...
December 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886811/morphoarchitectural-variation-in-south-african-fossil-cercopithecoid-endocasts
#18
Amélie Beaudet, Jean Dumoncel, Frikkie de Beer, Benjamin Duployer, Stanley Durrleman, Emmanuel Gilissen, Jakobus Hoffman, Christophe Tenailleau, John Francis Thackeray, José Braga
Despite the abundance of well-preserved crania and natural endocasts in the South African Plio-Pleistocene cercopithecoid record, which provide direct information relevant to the evolution of their endocranial characteristics, few studies have attempted to characterize patterns of external brain morphology in this highly successful primate Superfamily. The availability of non-destructive penetrating radiation imaging systems, together with recently developed computer-based analytical tools, allow for high resolution virtual imaging and modeling of the endocranial casts and thus disclose new perspectives in comparative paleoneurology...
December 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886810/early-modern-human-lithic-technology-from-jerimalai-east-timor
#19
Ben Marwick, Chris Clarkson, Sue O'Connor, Sophie Collins
Jerimalai is a rock shelter in East Timor with cultural remains dated to 42,000 years ago, making it one of the oldest known sites of modern human activity in island Southeast Asia. It has special global significance for its record of early pelagic fishing and ancient shell fish hooks. It is also of regional significance for its early occupation and comparatively large assemblage of Pleistocene stone artefacts. Three major findings arise from our study of the stone artefacts. First, there is little change in lithic technology over the 42,000 year sequence, with the most noticeable change being the addition of new artefact types and raw materials in the mid-Holocene...
December 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886809/small-mammal-utilization-by-middle-stone-age-humans-at-die-kelders-cave-1-and-pinnacle-point-site-5-6-western-cape-province-south-africa
#20
Aaron Armstrong
Reported here are the results of a taphonomic analysis of the small mammals (between 0.75 kg and 4.5 kg adult body weight) and size 1 bovids (≤20 kg adult body weight) from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites of Die Kelders Cave 1 (DK1) and Pinnacle Point Site 5-6 (PP5-6), Western Cape Province, South Africa. This study provides a comprehensive taphonomic analysis of MSA small mammals with a focus on discerning the role of humans in their accumulation and the implications for human behavioral adaptations...
December 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
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