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Journal of Human Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330740/estimating-body-size-in-early-primates-the-case-of-archicebus-and-teilhardina
#1
Marian Dagosto, Daniel Gebo, Xijun Ni, Thierry Smith
Obtaining accurate estimations of the body mass of fossil primates has always been a subject of interest in paleoanthropology because mass is an important determinant for so many other aspects of biology, ecology, and life history. This paper focuses on the issues involved in attempting to reconstruct the mass of two early Eocene haplorhine primates, Teilhardina and Archicebus, which pose particular problems due to their small size and temporal and phylogenetic distance from extant primates. In addition to a ranking of variables from more to less useful, the effect of using models of varying taxonomic and size compositions is examined...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318607/a-newly-discovered-galagid-fossil-from-nakali-an-early-late-miocene-locality-of-east-africa
#2
Yutaka Kunimatsu, Masato Nakatsukasa, Tetsuya Sakai, Mototaka Saneyoshi, Yoshihiro Sawada, Hideo Nakaya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366202/human-predatory-behavior-and-the-social-implications-of-communal-hunting-based-on-evidence-from-the-td10-2-bison-bone-bed-at-gran-dolina-atapuerca-spain
#3
Antonio Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Palmira Saladié, Andreu Ollé, Juan Luis Arsuaga, José María Bermúdez de Castro, Eudald Carbonell
Zooarcheological research is an important tool in reconstructing subsistence, as well as for inferring relevant aspects regarding social behavior in the past. The organization of hunting parties, forms of predation (number and rate of animals slaughtered), and the technology used (tactics and tools) must be taken into account in the identification and classification of hunting methods in prehistory. The archeological recognition of communal hunting reflects an interest in evolutionary terms and their inherent implications for anticipatory capacities, social complexity, and the development of cognitive tools, such as articulated language...
April 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366201/the-chronostratigraphy-of-the-haua-fteah-cave-cyrenaica-northeast-libya-optical-dating-of-early-human-occupation-during-marine-isotope-stages-4-5-and-6
#4
Zenobia Jacobs, Bo Li, Lucy Farr, Evan Hill, Chris Hunt, Sacha Jones, Ryan Rabett, Tim Reynolds, Richard G Roberts, David Simpson, Graeme Barker
The paper presents the results of optical dating of potassium-rich feldspar grains obtained from the Haua Fteah cave in Cyrenaica, northeast Libya, focussing on the chronology of the Deep Sounding excavated by Charles McBurney in the 1950s and re-excavated recently. Samples were also collected from a 1.25 m-deep trench (Trench S) excavated during the present project below the basal level of the Deep Sounding. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) data sets for multi-grain, single aliquots of quartz for samples from the Middle Trench were previously published...
April 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366200/a-comparative-analysis-of-infraorbital-foramen-size-in-paleogene-euarchontans
#5
Magdalena N Muchlinski, E Christopher Kirk
The size of the infraorbital foramen (IOF) is correlated with the size of the infraorbital nerve and number of mystacial vibrissae in mammals. Accordingly, IOF cross-sectional area has been used to infer both the rostral mechanoreceptive acuity and phylogenetic relationships of extinct crown primates and plesiadapiforms. Among living mammals, extant primates, scandentians, and dermopterans (Euarchonta) exhibit smaller IOF cross-sectional areas than most other mammals. Here we assess whether fossil adapoids, omomyoids, and plesiadapiforms show a reduction in relative IOF area similar to that characterizing extant euarchontans...
April 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366199/favorable-ecological-circumstances-promote-life-expectancy-in-chimpanzees-similar-to-that-of-human-hunter-gatherers
#6
Brian M Wood, David P Watts, John C Mitani, Kevin E Langergraber
Demographic data on wild chimpanzees are crucial for understanding the evolution of chimpanzee and hominin life histories, but most data come from populations affected by disease outbreaks and anthropogenic disturbance. We present survivorship data from a relatively undisturbed and exceptionally large community of eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. We monitored births, deaths, immigrations, and emigrations in the community between 1995 and 2016. Using known and estimated ages, we calculated survivorship curves for the whole community, for males and females separately, and for individuals ≤2 years old when identified...
April 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366198/another-look-at-the-foramen-magnum-in-bipedal-mammals
#7
Gabrielle A Russo, E Christopher Kirk
A more anteriorly positioned foramen magnum evolved in concert with bipedalism at least four times within Mammalia: once in macropodid marsupials, once in heteromyid rodents, once in dipodid rodents, and once in hominoid primates. Here, we expand upon previous research on the factors influencing mammalian foramen magnum position (FMP) and angle with four new analyses. First, we quantify FMP using a metric (basioccipital ratio) not previously examined in a broad comparative sample of mammals. Second, we evaluate the potential influence of relative brain size on both FMP and foramen magnum angle (FMA)...
April 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366197/anterior-dental-microwear-textures-show-habitat-driven-variability-in-neandertal-behavior
#8
Kristin L Krueger, Peter S Ungar, Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Alejandro Pérez-Pérez, Erik Trinkaus, John C Willman
The causes of Neandertal anterior tooth wear patterns, including labial rounding, labial scratches, and differential anterior-posterior wear, have been debated for decades. The most common explanation is the "stuff-and-cut" hypothesis, which describes Neandertals clamping down on a piece of meat and slicing a portion close to their lips. "Stuff-and-cut" has been accepted as a general aspect of Neandertal behavior without fully assessing its variability. This study analyzes anterior dental microwear textures across habitats, locations, and time intervals to discern possible variation in Neandertal anterior tooth-use behavior...
April 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366196/a-highly-derived-pliopithecoid-from-the-late-miocene-of-haritalyangar-india
#9
Anek R Sankhyan, Jay Kelley, Terry Harrison
The Late Miocene sequence at Haritalyangar, Himachal Pradesh, India, has produced abundant remains of the hominid Sivapithecus and the sivaladapids Sivaladapis and Indraloris. Also recovered from these sediments is an isolated and worn upper molar that was made the holotype of Krishnapithecus krishnaii and assigned to the Pliopithecoidea. However, the heavy wear and absence of definitive pliopithecoid features on the tooth rendered the assignment to this superfamily unconvincing. Here, we describe two lower molars from Haritalyangar that bear unmistakable pliopithecoid features and that are plausibly assignable to the same species as the type specimen of K...
April 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274613/the-first-fossil-platyrrhini-primates-anthropoidea-from-venezuela-a-capuchin-monkey-from-the-plio-pleistocene-of-el-breal-de-orocual
#10
Damián Ruiz-Ramoni, Ascanio D Rincón, Andrés Solórzano, Salvador Moyà-Solà
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317557/the-role-of-allometry-and-posture-in-the-evolution-of-the-hominin-subaxial-cervical-spine
#11
Mikel Arlegi, Asier Gómez-Olivencia, Lou Albessard, Ignacio Martínez, Antoine Balzeau, Juan Luis Arsuaga, Ella Been
Cervical vertebrae not only protect the spinal cord but also are the insertion and origin points for muscles related to the movement of the head, upper limb, and trunk, among others, and are thus important elements in primate evolution. While previous work has been undertaken on the first two cervical vertebrae, there is a dearth of studies on the subaxial cervical spine in hominines. In this paper, we provide detailed morphological information on two important aspects of the subaxial cervical vertebrae (C3 - C7): mid-sagittal morphology and superior facet orientation...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317556/skull-5-from-dmanisi-descriptive-anatomy-comparative-studies-and-evolutionary-significance
#12
G Philip Rightmire, Marcia S Ponce de León, David Lordkipanidze, Ann Margvelashvili, Christoph P E Zollikofer
A fifth hominin skull (cranium D4500 and mandible D2600) from Dmanisi is massively constructed, with a large face and a very small brain. Traits documented for the first time in a basal member of the Homo clade include the uniquely low ratio of endocranial volume to basicranial width, reduced vertex height, angular vault profile, smooth nasal sill coupled with a long and sloping maxillary clivus, elongated palate, and tall mandibular corpus. The convex clivus and receding symphysis of skull 5 produce a muzzle-like form similar to that of Australopithecus afarensis...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317555/the-cervical-spine-of-australopithecus-sediba
#13
Marc R Meyer, Scott A Williams, Peter Schmid, Steven E Churchill, Lee R Berger
Cervical vertebrae are rare in the early hominin fossil record, presenting a challenge for understanding the evolution of the neck and head carriage in hominin evolution. Here, we examine the cervical vertebrae of Australopithecus sediba, which unlike other South African taxa is known from associated cervical vertebrae. The A. sediba cervical vertebrae exhibit human-like values for wedging, pedicle cross-sectional areas, and articular facet heights, indicating reduced ventral loading relative to African apes...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317554/chimpanzee-and-human-midfoot-motion-during-bipedal-walking-and-the-evolution-of-the-longitudinal-arch-of-the-foot
#14
Nicholas B Holowka, Matthew C O'Neill, Nathan E Thompson, Brigitte Demes
The longitudinal arch of the human foot is commonly thought to reduce midfoot joint motion to convert the foot into a rigid lever during push off in bipedal walking. In contrast, African apes have been observed to exhibit midfoot dorsiflexion following heel lift during terrestrial locomotion, presumably due to their possession of highly mobile midfoot joints. This assumed dichotomy between human and African ape midfoot mobility has recently been questioned based on indirect assessments of in vivo midfoot motion, such as plantar pressure and cadaver studies; however, direct quantitative analyses of African ape midfoot kinematics during locomotion remain scarce...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317553/dietary-reconstruction-of-the-el-sidr%C3%A3-n-neandertal-familial-group%C3%A2-spain-in-the-context-of-other-neandertal-and-modern-hunter-gatherer-groups-a-molar-microwear-texture-analysis
#15
Almudena Estalrrich, Sireen El Zaatari, Antonio Rosas
Here, we present the analysis of occlusal molar microwear textures of eight individuals from the El Sidrón Neandertal group (Spain). The aims of the study were: 1) to document potential age-, sex-, and maternal lineage-related differences in diet within a Neandertal familial group, and 2) to place the diet of El Sidrón individuals in the context of those of other Neandertal groups. This study also offers an interpretation of the diet of the El Sidrón Neandertals by comparing their microwear signatures to those of recent hunter-gatherer populations with diverse but known diets...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317552/adaptation-to-suspensory-locomotion-in-australopithecus-sediba
#16
Thomas R Rein, Terry Harrison, Kristian J Carlson, Katerina Harvati
Australopithecus sediba is represented by well-preserved fossilized remains from the locality of Malapa, South Africa. Recent work has shown that the combination of features in the limb skeleton of A. sediba was distinct from that of earlier species of Australopithecus, perhaps indicating that this species moved differently. The bones of the arm and forearm indicate that A. sediba was adapted to suspensory and climbing behaviors. We used a geometric morphometric approach to examine ulnar shape, potentially identifying adaptations to forelimb suspensory locomotion in A...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166908/the-middle-stone-age-human-fossil-record-from-klasies-river-main-site
#17
Frederick E Grine, Sarah Wurz, Curtis W Marean
The paleoanthropological significance of Klasies River Main Site derives from its abundant Middle Stone Age (MSA) archaeological debris and the hominin fossils that have featured in discussions about modern human emergence. Despite their significance, the human remains have yet to be contextualized within the spatial, stratigraphic and geochronological framework of the site. We provide an updated overview of the stratigraphy and geochronology of the site, and review the human fossil record in this context. We also provide the first anatomical interpretations of many of the cranial vault fragments...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166907/practice-makes-perfect-performance-optimisation-in-arboreal-parkour-athletes-illuminates-the-evolutionary-ecology-of-great-ape-anatomy
#18
Lewis G Halsey, Samuel R L Coward, Robin H Crompton, Susannah K S Thorpe
An animal's size is central to its ecology, yet remarkably little is known about the selective pressures that drive this trait. A particularly compelling example is how ancestral apes evolved large body mass in such a physically and energetically challenging environment as the forest canopy, where weight-bearing branches and lianas are flexible, irregular and discontinuous, and the majority of preferred foods are situated on the most flexible branches at the periphery of tree crowns. To date the issue has been intractable due to a lack of relevant fossil material, the limited capacity of the fossil record to reconstruct an animal's behavioural ecology and the inability to measure energy consumption in freely moving apes...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166906/the-morphology-of-the-enamel-dentine-junction-in-neanderthal-molars-gross-morphology-non-metric-traits-and-temporal-trends
#19
Robert M G Martin, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Philipp Gunz, Matthew M Skinner
This study explores the morphological differences between the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) of maxillary and mandibular molars of Neanderthals (n = 150) and recent modern humans (n = 106), and between an earlier Neanderthal sample (consisting of Pre-Eemian and Eemian Neanderthals dating to before 115 ka) and a later Neanderthal sample (consisting of Post-Eemian Neanderthals dating to after 115 ka). The EDJ was visualised by segmenting microtomographic scans of each molar. A geometric morphometric methodology compared the positioning of the dentine horns, the shape of the marginal ridge between the dentine horns, and the shape of the cervix...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166905/the-earliest-long-distance-obsidian-transport-evidence-from-the-%C3%A2-200%C3%A2-ka-middle-stone-age-sibilo-school-road-site-baringo-kenya
#20
Nick Blegen
This study presents the earliest evidence of long-distance obsidian transport at the ∼200 ka Sibilo School Road Site (SSRS), an early Middle Stone Age site in the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya. The later Middle Pleistocene of East Africa (130-400 ka) spans significant and interrelated behavioral and biological changes in human evolution including the first appearance of Homo sapiens. Despite the importance of the later Middle Pleistocene, there are relatively few archaeological sites in well-dated contexts (n < 10) that document hominin behavior from this time period...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
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