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Chemical Society Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426052/artificial-molecular-motors
#1
REVIEW
Salma Kassem, Thomas van Leeuwen, Anouk S Lubbe, Miriam R Wilson, Ben L Feringa, David A Leigh
Motor proteins are nature's solution for directing movement at the molecular level. The field of artificial molecular motors takes inspiration from these tiny but powerful machines. Although directional motion on the nanoscale performed by synthetic molecular machines is a relatively new development, significant advances have been made. In this review an overview is given of the principal designs of artificial molecular motors and their modes of operation. Although synthetic molecular motors have also found widespread application as (multistate) switches, we focus on the control of directional movement, both at the molecular scale and at larger magnitudes...
April 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426030/1-3-n-o-complexes-of-late-transition-metals-ligands-with-flexible-bonding-modes-and-reaction-profiles
#2
REVIEW
Marcus W Drover, Jennifer A Love, Laurel L Schafer
1,3-N,O-Chelating ligands are ubiquitous in nature owing to their occurrence as α-chiral amino acids in metalloproteins. These structural units also display diverse coordination modes, which lend themselves to applications in catalysis as well as novel fundamental stoichiometric reactivity, including the activation of inert bonds. This review comments on recent developments in N,O-ligated late transition metal complexes with an emphasis on preparation, characterization, and reactivity.
April 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425532/emerging-tellurium-nanostructures-controllable-synthesis-and-their-applications
#3
REVIEW
Zhen He, Yuan Yang, Jian-Wei Liu, Shu-Hong Yu
Tellurium (Te) is a rare element in trace amounts of about one part per billion, comparable to that of platinum and ranked 75th in the abundance of the elements in the earth crust. Te nanostructures, as narrow bandgap semiconductors, have numerous potential applications in the fabrication of many modern devices. The past decades have witnessed an explosion in new strategies for synthesizing diverse emerging Te nanostructures with controlled compositions, sizes, shapes, and structures. Their structure-determined nature makes functional Te nanomaterials an attractive candidate for modern applications...
April 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422212/trends-and-challenges-for-microporous-polymers
#4
REVIEW
Nicolas Chaoui, Matthias Trunk, Robert Dawson, Johannes Schmidt, Arne Thomas
Microporous polymers are covalently bound, entirely organic materials which possess very high surface areas. These materials have been intensively studied within recent years and various interesting properties and possible applications have been discovered and described. This review article starts with the question, what makes microporous polymers special and are there certain features which differentiate them from other microporous materials? Indeed, there are some special structural and functional features found in microporous polymers which make them really unique and merit further exploration...
April 19, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422193/challenges-in-developing-direct-carbon-fuel-cells
#5
REVIEW
Cairong Jiang, Jianjun Ma, Gael Corre, Sneh L Jain, John T S Irvine
A direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) can produce electricity with both superior electrical efficiency and fuel utilisation compared to all other types of fuel cells. Although the first DCFC prototype was proposed in 1896, there was, until the 1970s, little sustained effort to investigate further, because of technology development issues. Interest in DCFCs has recently been reinvigorated as a possible method of replacing conventional coal-fired power plants to meet the demands for lower CO2 emissions, and indeed for efficient utilisation of waste derived chars...
April 19, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418061/self-powered-electrochemical-systems-as-neurochemical-sensors-toward-self-triggered-in-vivo-analysis-of-brain-chemistry
#6
Fei Wu, Ping Yu, Lanqun Mao
Real-time in vivo analysis of neurochemical dynamics has great physiological and pathological implications for a full understanding of the brain. Self-powered electrochemical systems (SPESs) built on galvanic cell configurations bear the advantages of easy miniaturization for implantation and no interference to electric activities of neurons over traditional externally-powered electrochemical sensors for self-triggered in vivo analysis. However, this is still a new concept for in vivo neurochemical sensing with few implanted examples reported so far...
April 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418060/reaction-chemistry-in-rechargeable-li-o2-batteries
#7
REVIEW
Hee-Dae Lim, Byungju Lee, Youngjoon Bae, Hyeokjun Park, Youngmin Ko, Haegyeom Kim, Jinsoo Kim, Kisuk Kang
The seemingly simple reaction of Li-O2 batteries involving lithium and oxygen makes this chemistry attractive for high-energy-density storage systems; however, achieving this reaction in practical rechargeable Li-O2 batteries has proven difficult. The reaction paths leading to the final Li2O2 discharge products can be greatly affected by the operating conditions or environment, which often results in major side reactions. Recent research findings have begun to reveal how the reaction paths may be affected by the surrounding conditions and to uncover the factors contributing to the difficulty in achieving the reactions of lithium and oxygen...
April 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418059/hybrid-micro-nano-structures-derived-from-metal-organic-frameworks-preparation-and-applications-in-energy-storage-and-conversion
#8
Xiehong Cao, Chaoliang Tan, Melinda Sindoro, Hua Zhang
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), an important class of inorganic-organic hybrid crystals with intrinsic porous structures, can be used as versatile precursors or sacrificial templates for preparation of numerous functional nanomaterials for various applications. Recent developments of MOF-derived hybrid micro-/nano-structures, constructed by more than two components with varied functionalities, have revealed their extensive capabilities to overcome the weaknesses of the individual counterparts and thus give enhanced performance for energy storage and conversion...
April 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418049/systems-chemistry
#9
REVIEW
Gonen Ashkenasy, Thomas M Hermans, Sijbren Otto, Annette F Taylor
Building on our ability to design and synthesise molecules and our understanding of the noncovalent interactions between these molecules, the chemical sciences are currently entering the new territory of Systems Chemistry. This young field aims to develop complex molecular systems showing emergent properties; i.e. properties that go beyond the sum of the characteristics of the individual consituents of the system. This review gives an impression of the state of the art of the field by showing a diverse number of recent highlights, including out-of-equilibrium self-assembly, chemically fuelled molecular motion, compartmentalised chemical networks and designed oscillators...
April 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401976/frontiers-of-supramolecular-chemistry-at-solid-surfaces
#10
REVIEW
Kunal S Mali, Nicholas Pearce, Steven De Feyter, Neil R Champness
The application of supramolecular chemistry on solid surfaces represents an exciting field of research that continues to develop in new and unexpected directions. This review highlights recent advances in the field which range from the fundamental aspects of the thermodynamics of self-assembly through to the development of new materials with potential application as new materials. The unique aspects of working on solid surfaces are highlighted and advances in the assembly of many component systems and highly complex fractal-like and quasicrystalline systems discussed...
April 12, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398449/photonics-and-spectroscopy-in-nanojunctions-a-theoretical-insight
#11
REVIEW
Michael Galperin
The progress of experimental techniques at the nanoscale in the last decade made optical measurements in current-carrying nanojunctions a reality, thus indicating the emergence of a new field of research coined optoelectronics. Optical spectroscopy of open nonequilibrium systems is a natural meeting point for (at least) two research areas: nonlinear optical spectroscopy and quantum transport, each with its own theoretical toolbox. We review recent progress in the field comparing theoretical treatments of optical response in nanojunctions as is accepted in nonlinear spectroscopy and quantum transport communities...
April 11, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397917/charles-j-pedersen-s-legacy-to-chemistry
#12
Reed M Izatt
The serendipitous discovery in 1961 of dibenzo-18-crown-6 by Charles J. Pedersen marked the beginning of research on cyclic polyether macrocyclic compounds. These compounds have a remarkably selective affinity for certain metal ions and provide a framework for studying molecular recognition processes. Pedersen's work excited much interest in the scientific community and fueled important advances in macrocyclic and supramolecular chemistry. Born in Korea of a Japanese mother and a Norwegian engineer father, he was educated in Japan and later graduated from the University of Dayton (BS, chemical engineering) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MS, chemistry)...
April 11, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397889/synthetic-approaches-towards-structurally-defined-electrochemically-and-photo-redox-active-polymer-architectures
#13
REVIEW
Robert Schroot, Michael Jäger, Ulrich S Schubert
Electrochemically active polymers are widely used in (opto)electronic applications, e.g. organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), solar cells or other light harvesting devices. In this regard, the progress in controlled polymerization techniques opens new possibilities to construct covalently linked polymer architectures, e.g. block copolymers or graft copolymers, from defined building blocks. These architectures represent promising candidates for application in (opto)electronic devices as they allow control of the morphology through self-assembly processes and, furthermore, are capable of mimicking fundamental processes for directional charge transport or light harvesting...
April 11, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397882/photoanodes-based-on-tio2-and-%C3%AE-fe2o3-for-solar-water-splitting-superior-role-of-1d-nanoarchitectures-and-of-combined-heterostructures
#14
REVIEW
Stepan Kment, Francesca Riboni, Sarka Pausova, Lei Wang, Lingyun Wang, Hyungkyu Han, Zdenek Hubicka, Josef Krysa, Patrik Schmuki, Radek Zboril
Solar driven photoelectrochemical water splitting (PEC-WS) using semiconductor photoelectrodes represents a promising approach for a sustainable and environmentally friendly production of renewable energy vectors and fuel sources, such as dihydrogen (H2). In this context, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and iron oxide (hematite, α-Fe2O3) are among the most investigated candidates as photoanode materials, mainly owing to their resistance to photocorrosion, non-toxicity, natural abundance, and low production cost. Major drawbacks are, however, an inherently low electrical conductivity and a limited hole diffusion length that significantly affect the performance of TiO2 and α-Fe2O3 in PEC devices...
April 11, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383595/-fuelled-motion-phoretic-motility-and-collective-behaviour-of-active-colloids
#15
Pierre Illien, Ramin Golestanian, Ayusman Sen
Designing microscopic and nanoscopic self-propelled particles and characterising their motion have become a major scientific challenge over the past few decades. To this purpose, phoretic effects, namely propulsion mechanisms relying on local field gradients, have been the focus of many theoretical and experimental studies. In this review, we adopt a tutorial approach to present the basic physical mechanisms at stake in phoretic motion, and describe the different experimental works that led to the fabrication of active particles based on this principle...
April 6, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383083/nanoplasmonic-sensors-for-biointerfacial-science
#16
REVIEW
Joshua A Jackman, Abdul Rahim Ferhan, Nam-Joon Cho
In recent years, nanoplasmonic sensors have become widely used for the label-free detection of biomolecules across medical, biotechnology, and environmental science applications. To date, many nanoplasmonic sensing strategies have been developed with outstanding measurement capabilities, enabling detection down to the single-molecule level. One of the most promising directions has been surface-based nanoplasmonic sensors, and the potential of such technologies is still emerging. Going beyond detection, surface-based nanoplasmonic sensors open the door to enhanced, quantitative measurement capabilities across the biointerfacial sciences by taking advantage of high surface sensitivity that pairs well with the size of medically important biomacromolecules and biological particulates such as viruses and exosomes...
April 6, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379237/crystallography-of-encapsulated-molecules
#17
REVIEW
Kari Rissanen
The crystallography of supramolecular host-guest complexes is reviewed and discussed as a part of small molecule crystallography. In these complexes, the host binds the guests through weak supramolecular interactions, such as hydrogen and halogen bonding, cation-π, anion-π, C-H-π, π-π, C-H-anion interactions and the hydrophobic effect. As the guest often shows severe disorder, large thermal motion and low occupancies, the reliable crystallographic determination of the guest can be very demanding. The analysis of host-guest interactions using tools such as Hirshfeld and cavity volume surface analysis will help to look closely at the most important host-guest interactions...
April 5, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379234/anion-transport-and-supramolecular-medicinal-chemistry
#18
REVIEW
Philip A Gale, Jeffery T Davis, Roberto Quesada
New approaches to the transmembrane transport of anions are discussed in this review. Advances in the design of small molecule anion carriers are reviewed in addition to advances in the design of synthetic anion channels. The application of anion transporters to the potential future treatment of disease is discussed in the context of recent findings on the selectivity of anion transporters.
April 5, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368064/hybridization-of-mofs-and-polymers
#19
REVIEW
Takashi Kitao, Yuanyuan Zhang, Susumu Kitagawa, Bo Wang, Takashi Uemura
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received much attention because of their attractive properties. They show great potential applications in many fields. An emerging trend in MOF research is hybridization with flexible materials, which is the subject of this review. Polymers possess a variety of unique attributes, such as softness, thermal and chemical stability, and optoelectrical properties that can be integrated with MOFs to make hybrids with sophisticated architectures. Hybridization of MOFs and polymers is producing new and versatile materials that exhibit peculiar properties hard to realize with the individual components...
April 3, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368055/coordination-chemistry-in-the-design-of-heterogeneous-photocatalysts
#20
REVIEW
Chao Gao, Jin Wang, Hangxun Xu, Yujie Xiong
Heterogeneous catalysts have been widely used for photocatalysis, which is a highly important process for energy conversion, owing to their merits such as easy separation of catalysts from the reaction products and applicability to continuous chemical industry and recyclability. Yet, homogenous photocatalysis receives tremendous attention as it can offer a higher activity and selectivity with atomically dispersed catalytic sites and tunable light absorption. For this reason, there is a major trend to combine the advantages of both homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalysts, in which coordination chemistry plays a role as the bridge...
April 3, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
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