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Chemical Society Reviews

Yifei Han, Yukui Tian, Zijian Li, Feng Wang
The bottom-up self-assembly of donor-acceptor (D-A) units has received tremendous attention in recent years. Charge-transfer interactions, which are inherently embedded in D-A pairs, have suffered from some disadvantages such as erratic arrangements and weak binding affinity, thus hampering the precise arrangement of D-A units into long-range-ordered supramolecular polymers. To address this issue, a feasible protocol is to incorporate D-A units into molecular tweezers/guest recognition motifs, which concurrently feature high complexation directionality, strong binding affinity and stimuli-responsiveness...
May 18, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Qingchen Dong, Zhengong Meng, Cheuk-Lam Ho, Hongen Guo, Weiyou Yang, Ian Manners, Linli Xu, Wai-Yeung Wong
In recent years, metallopolymers have attracted much attention as precursors to generate magnetic metal/metal alloy nanoparticles (NPs) through pyrolysis or photolysis because they offer the advantages of ease of solution processability, atomic level mixing and stoichiometric control over composition. The as-generated NPs usually possess narrow size distributions with precise control of composition and density per unit area. Moreover, patterned NPs can be achieved on various substrates in this way owing to the good film-forming property of metallopolymers and such work is important for many applications based on metal nanostructures...
May 18, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Daniel Quesada-González, Arben Merkoçi
In this review, we have discussed the capabilities of nanomaterials for point-of-care (PoC) diagnostics and explained how these materials can help to strengthen, miniaturize and improve the quality of diagnostic devices. Since the optical, electrochemical and other physical properties of nanomaterials are dictated by their composition, size and shape, these factors are critical in the design and function of nanomaterial-based PoC diagnostics.
May 17, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Meredith C Schuman, Ian T Baldwin
Plants are at the trophic base of most ecosystems, embedded in a rich network of ecological interactions in which they evolved. While their limited range and speed of motion precludes animal-typical behavior, plants are accomplished chemists, producing thousands of specialized metabolites which may function to convey information, or even to manipulate the physiology of other organisms. Plants' complex interactions and their underlying mechanisms are typically dissected within the controlled environments of growth chambers and glasshouses, but doing so introduces conditions alien to plants evolved in natural environments, such as being pot-bound, and receiving artificial light with a spectrum very different from sunlight...
May 17, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
D Westmeier, A Hahlbrock, C Reinhardt, J Fröhlich-Nowoisky, S Wessler, C Vallet, U Pöschl, S K Knauer, R H Stauber
The applications of nanoparticles (NPs) are increasing exponentially in consumer products, biotechnology and biomedicine, and humans, as well as the environment, are increasingly being exposed to NPs. Analogously, various (pathogenic) microorganisms are present at all the major exposure and entry sites for NPs in the human body as well as in environmental habitats. However, the field has just started to explore the complex interplay between NPs and microbes and the (patho)biological consequences. Based on recent insights, herein, we critically reviewed the available knowledge about the interaction of NPs with microbes and the analytical investigations including the latest intravital imaging tools...
May 17, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Qi An, Tao Huang, Feng Shi
Covalent layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly is a powerful method used to construct functional ultrathin films that enables nanoscopic structural precision, componential diversity, and flexible design. Compared with conventional LbL films built using multiple noncovalent interactions, LbL films prepared using covalent crosslinking offer the following distinctive characteristics: (i) enhanced film endurance or rigidity; (ii) improved componential diversity when uncharged species or small molecules are stably built into the films by forming covalent bonds; and (iii) increased structural diversity when covalent crosslinking is employed in componential, spacial, or temporal (labile bonds) selective manners...
May 16, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Rein V Ulijn, Roman Jerala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
A Lampel, R V Ulijn, T Tuttle
Life's diverse molecular functions are largely based on only a small number of highly conserved building blocks - the twenty canonical amino acids. These building blocks are chemically simple, but when they are organized in three-dimensional structures of tremendous complexity, new properties emerge. This review explores recent efforts in the directed discovery of functional nanoscale systems and materials based on these same amino acids, but that are not guided by copying or editing biological systems. The review summarises insights obtained using three complementary approaches of searching the sequence space to explore sequence-structure relationships for assembly, reactivity and complexation, namely: (i) strategic editing of short peptide sequences; (ii) computational approaches to predicting and comparing assembly behaviours; (iii) dynamic peptide libraries that explore the free energy landscape...
May 11, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
M Rosa Palacín
Performance degradation over Li-ion battery lifetime is unavoidable and ultimately rooted in chemical processes. Their extent is mostly determined by battery material components and operation conditions (charge/discharge rates, voltage operation limits and temperature) and can also be influenced by battery design. The two major factors contributing to loss of negative electrode performance are the instability of the passivation layer formed at the electrode/electrolyte interface (enhanced at higher temperatures) and lithium metal plating (intensified at low temperatures)...
May 10, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Yunqian Dai, Ping Lu, Zhenming Cao, Charles T Campbell, Younan Xia
Catalyst sintering, a main cause of the loss of catalytic activity and/or selectivity at high reaction temperatures, is a major concern and grand challenge in the general area of heterogeneous catalysis. Although all heterogeneous catalysts are inevitably subjected to sintering during their operation, the immediate and drastic consequences can be mitigated by carefully engineering the catalytic particles and their interactions with the supports. In this tutorial review, we highlight recent progress in understanding the physical chemistry and materials science involved in sintering, including the discussion of advanced techniques, such as in situ microscopy and spectroscopy, for investigating the sintering process and its rate...
May 10, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Xiaoling Wu, Changlong Hao, Jatish Kumar, Hua Kuang, Nicholas A Kotov, Luis M Liz-Marzán, Chuanlai Xu
Assemblies of plasmonic nanoparticles enable new modalities for biosensing. Engineered superstructures from metal nanoparticles can enhance the plasmon resonances and chiroptical activity of nanoscale dispersions. Such phenomena are keys to the fabrication of highly sensitive, selective and fast-responding detection platforms, making them promising candidates for clinical applications. This tutorial review summarizes and discusses recent advances in this area. The topics covered in the review include the basic strategies adopted for assembly and engineering of plasmonic nanoparticles, optical properties of the assembled nanostructures and their applications to both in vitro and in vivo detection of biological compounds...
May 8, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Jiafu Shi, Yizhou Wu, Shaohua Zhang, Yu Tian, Dong Yang, Zhongyi Jiang
Enzyme catalysis, as a green, efficient process, displays exceptional functionality, adaptivity and sustainability. Multi-enzyme catalysis, which can accomplish the tandem synthesis of valuable materials/chemicals from renewable feedstocks, establishes a bridge between single-enzyme catalysis and whole-cell catalysis. Multi-enzyme catalysis occupies a unique and indispensable position in the realm of biological reactions for energy and environmental applications. Two complementary strategies, i.e., compartmentalization and substrate channeling, have been evolved by living organisms for implementing the complex in vivo multi-enzyme reactions (MERs), which have been applied to construct multi-enzyme catalytic systems (MECSs) with superior catalytic activity and stabilities in practical biocatalysis...
May 8, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Marc Renom-Carrasco, Laurent Lefort
To accelerate the discovery of new or improved homogeneous catalysts, research groups in industry and academia have embraced high throughput experimentation (HTE). Such methodologies consist of preparing and testing large numbers of catalysts in parallel. Homogeneous metal catalysts are very well-suited for HTE, since in many cases, they can be prepared by simply mixing a metal precursor and a ligand. However, an HTE program requires a large set of chemically diverse ligands, i.e. a ligand library. In this review, we describe five different approaches for assembling ligand libraries based on an extensive survey of the literature...
May 8, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Kyu Hyung Park, Woojae Kim, Jaesung Yang, Dongho Kim
π-Conjugated oligothiophene is considered a chain segment of its polymeric counterpart, whose size and shape can be precisely controlled. Because of its simplified structure, it is possible to understand complex excited-state dynamics of the π-conjugated polymers by employing a bottom-up approach. We review theoretical and experimental aspects of π-conjugated oligothiophenes by summarizing recent works employing time-resolved spectroscopy. The extent of exciton delocalization, which is a prerequisite to efficient charge generation at organic heterojunctions, is described sequentially in model linear and cyclic oligothiophenes, and their analogues...
May 8, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Changli Li, Qi Cao, Faze Wang, Yequan Xiao, Yanbo Li, Jean-Jacques Delaunay, Hongwei Zhu
Graphene and two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted significant interest due to their unique properties that cannot be obtained in their bulk counterparts. These atomically thin 2D materials have demonstrated strong light-matter interactions, tunable optical bandgap structures and unique structural and electrical properties, rendering possible the high conversion efficiency of solar energy with a minimal amount of active absorber material. The isolated 2D monolayer can be stacked into arbitrary van der Waals (vdWs) heterostructures without the need to consider lattice matching...
May 8, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Yuzhong Liu, Michael O'Keeffe, Michael M J Treacy, Omar M Yaghi
The geometry of simple knots and catenanes is described using the concept of linear line segments (sticks) joined at corners. This is extended to include woven linear threads as members of the extended family of knots. The concept of transitivity that can be used as a measure of regularity is explained. Then a review is given of the simplest, most 'regular' 2- and 3-periodic patterns of polycatenanes and weavings. Occurrences in crystal structures are noted but most structures are believed to be new and ripe targets for designed synthesis...
May 4, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Changrong Rose Zhu, Daqiang Gao, Jun Ding, Dongliang Chao, John Wang
As a large family of two-dimensional (2D) materials, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been attracting an increasing level of attention and therefore considerable research input, owing to their intriguing catalytic, chemical and physical properties. The high exposed surface area, potentially large number of active sites, and chemical stability provide TMDs with vast opportunities for use as a unique class of electrocatalysts, while their low electrical conductivity and other deficiencies have drawn considerable research efforts for further modification...
May 4, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Shuqing He, Jun Song, Junle Qu, Zhen Cheng
The development of fluorophores and molecular probes for the second near-infrared biological window (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) represents an important, newly emerging and dynamic field in molecular imaging, chemical biology and materials chemistry. Because of reduced scattering, minimal absorption and negligible autofluorescence, NIR-II imaging provides high resolution, a high signal-to-noise ratio, and deep tissue penetration capability. Among various state-of-the-art bioimaging modalities, one of the greatest challenges in developing novel probes is to achieve both high resolution and sensitivity...
May 4, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Hongye Ye, Kangyi Zhang, Dan Kai, Zibiao Li, Xian Jun Loh
Polyester elastomers are soft, biodegradable and biocompatible and are commonly used in various biomedical applications, especially in tissue engineering. These synthetic polyesters can be easily fabricated using various techniques such as solvent casting, particle leaching, molding, electrospinning, 3-dimensional printing, photolithography, microablation etc. A large proportion of tissue engineering research efforts have focused on the use of allografts, decellularized animal scaffolds or other biological materials as scaffolds, but they face the major concern of triggering immunological responses from the host, on top of other issues...
May 3, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Dongrui Wang, Yaokang Zhang, Xi Lu, Zhijun Ma, Chuan Xie, Zijian Zheng
Flexible and wearable electronics is one major technology after smartphones. It shows remarkable application potential in displays and informatics, robotics, sports, energy harvesting and storage, and medicine. As an indispensable part and the cornerstone of these devices, soft metal electrodes (SMEs) are of great significance. Compared with conventional physical processes such as vacuum thermal deposition and sputtering, chemical approaches for preparing SMEs show significant advantages in terms of scalability, low-cost, and compatibility with the soft materials and substrates used for the devices...
May 3, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
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