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Chemical Society Reviews

Shuang Gao, Xiaohui Yi, Jie Shang, Gang Liu, Run-Wei Li
The explosive increase in digital communications in the Big Data and internet of Things era spurs the development of universal memory that can run at high speed with high-density and nonvolatile storage capabilities, as well as demonstrating superior mechanical flexibility for wearable applications. Among various candidates for the next-generation information storage technology, resistive switching memories distinguish themselves with low power consumption, excellent downscaling potential, easy 3D stacking, and high CMOS compatibility, fulfilling key requirements for high-performance data storage...
November 6, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Zengsheng Yin, Yun He, Pauline Chiu
(4+3) Cycloadditions have been widely applied in synthesis, and in this review article, we summarize some of the more recent applications, including formal (4+3) cycloadditions, in the synthesis of natural products. Many of these natural product target frameworks have cycloheptane subunits, for which the (4+3) cycloaddition is a convergent strategy for their assembly. Some natural product targets do not possess seven membered rings, and their syntheses have exploited the functional group endowed (4+3) cycloadducts resulting from these reactions, highlighting the utility of this methodology for the synthesis of a range of complex molecules...
November 5, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Jingchao Li, Kanyi Pu
Biophotonics as a highly interdisciplinary frontier often requires the assistance of optical agents to control the light pathways in cells, tissues and living organisms for specific biomedical applications. Organic semiconducting materials (OSMs) composed of π-conjugated building blocks as the optically active components have recently emerged as a promising category of biophotonic agents. OSMs possess common features including excellent optical properties, good photostability and biologically benign composition...
November 2, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Jinbo Pang, Rafael G Mendes, Alicja Bachmatiuk, Liang Zhao, Huy Q Ta, Thomas Gemming, Hong Liu, Zhongfan Liu, Mark H Rummeli
Transition metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes), a family of two-dimensional (2D) inorganic compounds, are materials composed of a few atomic layers of transition metal carbides, nitrides, or carbonitrides. Ti3C2, the first 2D layered MXene, was isolated in 2011. This material, which is a layered bulk material analogous to graphite, was derived from its 3D phase, Ti3AlC2 MAX. Since then, material scientists have either determined or predicted the stable phases of >200 different MXenes based on combinations of various transition metals such as Ti, Mo, V, Cr, and their alloys with C and N...
November 2, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Jiří Čejka, Petr Nachtigall, Gabriele Centi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Shunxi Dong, Xiaoming Feng, Xiaohua Liu
Over the past two decades, chiral guanidines and their derivatives have emerged as one of the most powerful organocatalysts mainly on the basis of their strong basicity and/or hydrogen-bond donor ability. Structurally diverse guanidine catalysts (bicyclic, monocyclic and acyclic types) sprang up and enabled numerous fundamental organic transformations to be realized in high efficiency and stereoselectivity. Moreover, chiral guanidinium salts were successfully employed in H-bond donor catalysis, phase-transfer catalysis and others...
October 30, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Yangming Lin, Xiaoyan Sun, Dang Sheng Su, Gabriele Centi, Siglinda Perathoner
Hybrid sp2/sp3 nanocarbons, in particular sp3-hybridized ultra-dispersed nanodiamonds and derivative materials, such as the sp3/sp2-hybridized bucky nanodiamonds and sp2-hybridized onion-like carbons, represent a rather interesting class of catalysts still under consideration. Their characteristics, properties and catalytic reactivity are presented, with an analysis of the state-of-the-art of their use in gas- and liquid-phase reactions, including photo- and electro-catalysis. It is remarked that intrinsic differences exist between these and other nanostructured carbon catalysts...
October 29, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Adam C Sedgwick, Luling Wu, Hai-Hao Han, Steven D Bull, Xiao-Peng He, Tony D James, Jonathan L Sessler, Ben Zhong Tang, He Tian, Juyoung Yoon
In this review we will explore recent advances in the design and application of excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer (ESIPT) based fluorescent probes. Fluorescence based sensors and imaging agents (probes) are important in biology, physiology, pharmacology, and environmental science for the selective detection of biologically and/or environmentally important species. The development of ESIPT-based fluorescence probes is particularly attractive due to their unique properties, which include a large Stokes shift, environmental sensitivity and potential for ratiometric sensing...
October 26, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Yufei Zhao, Geoffrey I N Waterhouse, Guangbo Chen, Xuyang Xiong, Li-Zhu Wu, Chen-Ho Tung, Tierui Zhang
The discovery of improved chemical processes for CO and CO2 hydrogenation to valuable hydrocarbon fuels and alcohols is of paramount importance for the chemical industry. Such technologies have the potential to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions by adding value to a waste stream, whilst also reducing our consumption of fossil fuels. Current thermal catalytic technologies available for CO and CO2 hydrogenation are demanding in terms of energy input. Various alternative technologies are now being developed for COx hydrogenation, with solar-driven processes over two-dimensional (2D) and 2D-related composite materials being particularly attractive due to the abundance of solar energy on Earth and also the high selectivity of defect-engineered 2D materials towards specific valuable products under very mild reaction conditions...
October 24, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Minglei Mao, Tao Gao, Singyuk Hou, Chunsheng Wang
Benefiting from a higher volumetric capacity (3833 mA h cm-3 for Mg vs. 2046 mA h cm-3 for Li) and dendrite-free Mg metal anode, reversible Mg batteries (RMBs) are a promising chemistry for applications beyond Li ion batteries. However, RMBs are still severely restricted by the absence of high performance cathodes for any practical application. In this review, we provide a critical and rigorous review of Mg battery cathode materials, mainly reported since 2013, focusing on the impact of structure and composition on magnesiation kinetics...
October 19, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Nitinun Varongchayakul, Jiaxi Song, Amit Meller, Mark W Grinstaff
Proteins are the structural elements and machinery of cells responsible for a functioning biological architecture and homeostasis. Advances in nanotechnology are catalyzing key breakthroughs in many areas, including the analysis and study of proteins at the single-molecule level. Nanopore sensing is at the forefront of this revolution. This tutorial review provides readers a guidebook and reference for detecting and characterizing proteins at the single-molecule level using nanopores. Specifically, the review describes the key materials, nanoscale features, and design requirements of nanopores...
October 17, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Zheng Wang, Can Li, Kazunari Domen
Overall water splitting based on particulate photocatalysts is an easily constructed and cost-effective technology for the conversion of abundant solar energy into clean and renewable hydrogen energy on a large scale. This promising technology can be achieved in a one-step excitation system using a single photocatalyst or via a Z-scheme process based on a pair of photocatalysts. Ideally, such photocatalysis will proceed with charge separation and transport unaffected by recombination and trapping, and surface catalytic processes will not involve undesirable reactions...
October 17, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Romas Kazlauskas
Protein function requires the folded protein form, but this form is unstable mainly because it readily unfolds into a flexible, unstructured form. Protein folding is favored by burying of hydrophobic side chains and hydrogen bonding between the amino acids. Protein unfolding is favored by the increase in conformational freedom of the main chain of amino acids upon unfolding. Protein stability is usually measured by the reversible unfolding of the protein with either heat or chemical additives like urea. Engineering mores stable proteins involves making substitutions that shift the folding-unfolding balance toward the folded form...
October 11, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Jie Wang, Qinqin Ma, Yingqian Wang, Zhiheng Li, Zhihao Li, Quan Yuan
Mesoporous materials are ideal carriers for guest molecules and they have been widely used in analytical science. The unique mesoporous structure provides special properties including large specific surface area, tunable pore size, and excellent pore connectivity. The structural properties of mesoporous materials have been largely made use of to improve the performance of analytical methods. For instance, the large specific surface area of mesoporous materials can provide abundant active sites and increase the probability of contact between analytes and active sites to produce stronger signals, thus leading to the improvement of detection sensitivity...
October 11, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Xu Xiao, Hao Wang, Patrick Urbankowski, Yury Gogotsi
Since the demonstration of the unique properties of single-layer graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), research on two-dimensional (2D) materials has become one of the hottest topics, with the family of 2D materials quickly expanding. This expansion is mainly attributable to the development of new synthesis methods to create new materials. This review will summarize and critically analyze topochemical synthesis methods for synthesizing novel 2D materials. For example, the emerging family of 2D transition metal carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides (MXenes) are synthesized primarily by selective etching of "A" (metal) elements from MAX phases...
October 10, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Xinyou Ke, Joseph M Prahl, J Iwan D Alexander, Jesse S Wainright, Thomas A Zawodzinski, Robert F Savinell
Rechargeable redox flow batteries are being developed for medium and large-scale stationary energy storage applications. Flow batteries could play a significant role in maintaining the stability of the electrical grid in conjunction with intermittent renewable energy. However, they are significantly different from conventional batteries in operating principle. Recent contributions on flow batteries have addressed various aspects, including electrolyte, electrode, membrane, cell design, etc. In this review, we focus on the less-discussed practical aspects of devices, such as flow fields, stack and design considerations for developing high performance large-scale flow batteries...
October 9, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Chunyan Ma, Aatto Laaksonen, Chang Liu, Xiaohua Lu, Xiaoyan Ji
Ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been suggested as eco-friendly alternatives to organic solvents. A trace amount of water is often unavoidable as impurity, and water is also added on purpose to reduce their problematically high viscosity and lower their high price. Understanding the distinct effects of water on the properties of ILs/DESs is highly important. In this review, we collect published experimental and theoretical results for IL/DES-H2O systems at varied water concentrations and analyze them...
October 9, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Pietro Sormanni, Francesco A Aprile, Michele Vendruscolo
Owing to their outstanding performances in molecular recognition, antibodies are extensively used in research and applications in molecular biology, biotechnology and medicine. Recent advances in experimental and computational methods are making it possible to complement well-established in vivo (first generation) and in vitro (second generation) methods of antibody discovery with novel in silico (third generation) approaches. Here we describe the principles of computational antibody design and review the state of the art in this field...
October 9, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Wen Li, Zhengqing Yan, Jinsong Ren, Xiaogang Qu
The cell microenvironment choreographs the behaviors of cells through multiple well-controlled signals. For basic biological study and cell-based therapies, it is essential to decipher the complicated cell-matrix interactions, and to develop ways to mimic the dynamic microenvironment so that desired biological functions of cells can be guided. For this, biomaterials with the ability to spatiotemporally impart biochemical and biophysical cues to manipulate cell fate have been developed recently. The dynamic property and programmable features of stimuli-responsive biointerfaces endow them with the outstanding ability to develop advanced biological systems...
October 4, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Javier Urieta-Mora, Inés García-Benito, Agustín Molina-Ontoria, Nazario Martín
Photovoltaic solar cells based on perovskites have come to the forefront in science by achieving exceptional power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in less than a decade of research. This "still young" generation of solar cells is currently rivalling, in PCEs, well-established technologies, such as cadmium telluride (CdTe) and silicon. Further improvements in device stability by means of innovative materials are yet to come, with technology becoming closer to meeting the market requirements. Emerging from this groundbreaking discovery, a great number of charge transporting materials have flourished, which is particularly true for hole transporting materials (HTMs)...
October 4, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
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