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Chemical Society Reviews

M Iranmanesh, J Hulliger
The use of strong magnetic field gradients and high magnetic fields generated by permanent magnets or superconducting coils has found applications in many fields such as mining, solid state chemistry, biochemistry and medical research. Lab scale or industrial implementations involve separation of macro- and nanoparticles, cells, proteins, and macromolecules down to small molecules and ions. Most promising are those attempts where the object to be separated is attached to a strong magnetic nanoparticle. Here, all kinds of specific affinity interactions are used to attach magnetic carrier particles to mainly objects of biological interest...
July 21, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Chang Min, Daniel Seidel
Chiral Brønsted acids have found widespread applications as organocatalysts. Weakly acidic species such as diols and (thio)ureas, typically classified as hydrogen bonding catalysts, as well as stronger phosphoric acids, have proven to be highly effective in catalyzing a wide range of asymmetric transformations. In contrast, the use of chiral carboxylic acids as Brønsted acid catalysts is much less developed but has recently garnered increased attention. Given that their pKa's generally lie between those of typical hydrogen bond donors and chiral phosphoric acids, chiral carboxylic acids provide the opportunity to activate a different set of substrates requiring intermediate catalyst acidity...
July 21, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Qing-Qing Cheng, Yongming Deng, Marianne Lankelma, Michael P Doyle
Enoldiazo esters and amides have proven to be versatile reagents for cycloaddition reactions that allow highly efficient construction of various carbocycles and heterocycles. Their versatility is exemplified by (1) [2+n]-cycloadditions (n = 3, 4) by the enol silyl ether units of enoldiazo compounds with retention of the diazo functionality to furnish α-cyclic-α-diazo compounds that are themselves subject to further transformations of the diazo functional group; (2) [3+n]-cycloadditions (n = 1-5) by metallo-enolcarbenes formed by catalytic dinitrogen extrusion from enoldiazo compounds; (3) [2+n]-cycloadditions (n = 3, 4) by donor-acceptor cyclopropenes generated in situ from enoldiazo compounds that produce cyclopropane-fused ring systems...
July 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Jun Gao, Yaping Feng, Wei Guo, Lei Jiang
With the advance of chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology, significant progress has been achieved in the design and application of synthetic nanofluidic devices and materials, mimicking the gating, rectifying, and adaptive functions of biological ion channels. Fundamental physics and chemistry behind these novel transport phenomena on the nanoscale have been explored in depth on single-pore platforms. However, toward real-world applications, one major challenge is to extrapolate these single-pore devices into macroscopic materials...
July 19, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Giacomo Reina, José Miguel González-Domínguez, Alejandro Criado, Ester Vázquez, Alberto Bianco, Maurizio Prato
The graphene family has captured the interest and the imagination of an increasing number of scientists working in different fields, ranging from composites to flexible electronics. In the area of biomedical applications, graphene is especially involved in drug delivery, biosensing and tissue engineering, with strong contributions to the whole nanomedicine area. Besides the interesting results obtained so far and the evident success, there are still many problems to solve, on the way to the manufacturing of biomedical devices, including the lack of standardization in the production of the graphene family members...
July 19, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Pablo Garrido-Barros, Carolina Gimbert-Suriñach, Roc Matheu, Xavier Sala, Antoni Llobet
Energy has been a central subject for human development from Homo erectus to date. The massive use of fossil fuels during the last 50 years has generated a large CO2 concentration in the atmosphere that has led to the so-called global warming. It is very urgent to come up with C-neutral energy schemes to be able to preserve Planet Earth for future generations to come and still preserve our modern societies' life style. One of the potential solutions is water splitting with sunlight (hν-WS) that is also associated with "artificial photosynthesis", since its working mode consists of light capture followed by water oxidation and proton reduction processes...
July 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Daniel Janssen-Müller, Christoph Schlepphorst, Frank Glorius
Correction for 'Privileged chiral N-heterocyclic carbene ligands for asymmetric transition-metal catalysis' by Daniel Janssen-Müller et al., Chem. Soc. Rev., 2017, DOI: .
July 14, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Giovanni Bottari, Ma Ángeles Herranz, Leonie Wibmer, Michel Volland, Laura Rodríguez-Pérez, Dirk M Guldi, Andreas Hirsch, Nazario Martín, Francis D'Souza, Tomás Torres
Graphene-based materials (GBMs), with graphene, their most known member, at the head, constitute a large family of materials which has aroused the interest of scientists working in different research fields such as chemistry, physics, or materials science, to mention a few, arguably as no other material before. In this review, we offer a general overview on the most relevant synthetic approaches for the covalent and non-covalent functionalization and characterization of GBMs. Moreover, some representative examples of the incorporation into GBMs of electroactive units such as porphyrins, phthalocyanines, or ferrocene, among others, affording electron donor-acceptor (D-A) hybrids are presented...
July 12, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Pu Chun Ke, Marc-Antonie Sani, Feng Ding, Aleksandr Kakinen, Ibrahim Javed, Frances Separovic, Thomas P Davis, Raffaele Mezzenga
Neurodegenerative disorders and type 2 diabetes are global epidemics compromising the quality of life of millions worldwide, with profound social and economic implications. Despite the significant differences in pathology - much of which are poorly understood - these diseases are commonly characterized by the presence of cross-β amyloid fibrils as well as the loss of neuronal or pancreatic β-cells. In this review, we document research progress on the molecular and mesoscopic self-assembly of amyloid-beta, alpha synuclein, human islet amyloid polypeptide and prions, the peptides and proteins associated with Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, type 2 diabetes and prion diseases...
July 12, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Tristram Chivers, Risto S Laitinen
Binary S,N anions, e.g., NSN(2-) and SSNSS(-), and related ternary S,N,O anions such as the structural isomers NSO(-)/SNO(-) and SSNO(-) are rarely mentioned in inorganic chemistry textbooks, despite the fact that their salts were synthesised and structurally characterised more than 30 years ago. These fundamentally important species and their conjugate acids, e.g. HNSO and HSNO, have been the focus of numerous investigations in recent years in view of their significance in disciplines as diverse as atmospheric chemistry and cell biology...
July 12, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Deborah Pedone, Mauro Moglianetti, Elisa De Luca, Giuseppe Bardi, Pier Paolo Pompa
Oxidative stress-dependent inflammatory diseases represent a major concern for the population's health worldwide. Biocompatible nanomaterials with enzymatic properties could play a crucial role in the treatment of such pathologies. In this respect, platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) are promising candidates, showing remarkable catalytic activity, able to reduce the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and impair the downstream pathways leading to inflammation. This review reports a critical overview of the growing evidence revealing the anti-inflammatory ability of PtNPs and their potential applications in nanomedicine...
July 11, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Daniel J Scott, Matthew J Fuchter, Andrew E Ashley
The past decade has seen the subject of transition metal-free catalytic hydrogenation develop incredibly rapidly, transforming from a largely hypothetical possibility to a well-established field that can be applied to the reduction of a diverse variety of functional groups under mild conditions. This remarkable change is principally attributable to the development of so-called 'frustrated Lewis pairs': unquenched combinations of bulky Lewis acids and bases whose dual reactivity can be exploited for the facile activation of otherwise inert chemical bonds...
July 10, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Dongdong Su, Chai Lean Teoh, Lu Wang, Xiaogang Liu, Young-Tae Chang
The need for detecting and labelling environmentally and biologically important analytes has driven considerable research efforts in developing fluorescent probes. During the sensing process, molecular motions (i.e., molecular rotations or vibrations) of a flexible fluorescent probe can be significantly altered by its embedding micro-environment or analyte, thereby leading to substantial changes in readout signals. Motion-induced change in emission (MICE) can be utilized as an effective sensing mechanism. However, in comparison to the well-understood sensing mechanisms, such as photo-induced electron transfer (PET), intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), aggregation-induced emission (AIE) and disaggregation-induced emission (DIE), MICE has not been systematically discussed to date...
July 10, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Pablo Solís-Fernández, Mark Bissett, Hiroki Ago
With the profuse amount of two-dimensional (2D) materials discovered and the improvements in their synthesis and handling, the field of 2D heterostructures has gained increased interest in recent years. Such heterostructures not only overcome the inherent limitations of each of the materials, but also allow the realization of novel properties by their proper combination. The physical and mechanical properties of graphene mean it has a prominent place in the area of 2D heterostructures. In this review, we will discuss the evolution and current state in the synthesis and applications of graphene-based 2D heterostructures...
July 10, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Kai Liu, Lifei Zheng, Chao Ma, Robert Göstl, Andreas Herrmann
Over the last few years, DNA-surfactant complexes have gained traction as unique and powerful materials for potential applications ranging from optoelectronics to biomedicine because they self-assemble with outstanding flexibility spanning packing modes from ordered lamellar, hexagonal and cubic structures to disordered isotropic phases. These materials consist of a DNA backbone from which the surfactants protrude as non-covalently bound side chains. Their formation is electrostatically driven and they form bulk films, lyotropic as well as thermotropic liquid crystals and hydrogels...
July 7, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Ryosuke Takise, Kei Muto, Junichiro Yamaguchi
Catalytic cross-coupling reactions of aromatic esters and amides have recently gained considerable attention from synthetic chemists as de novo and efficient synthetic methods to form C-C and C-heteroatom bonds. Esters and amides can be used as diversifiable groups in metal-catalyzed cross-coupling: in a decarbonylative manner, they can be utilized as leaving groups, whereas in a non-decarbonylative manner, they can form ketone derivatives. In this review, recent advances of this research topic are discussed...
July 7, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Jinxuan Liu, Christof Wöll
Surface-supported metal-organic framework thin films are receiving increasing attention as a novel form of nanotechnology. New deposition techniques that enable the control of the film thickness, homogeneity, morphology, and dimensions with a huge number of metal-organic framework compounds offer tremendous opportunities in a number of different application fields. In response to increasing demands for environmental sustainability and cleaner energy, much effort in recent years has been devoted to the development of MOF thin films for applications in photovoltaics, CO2 reduction, energy storage, water splitting, and electronic devices, as well as for the fabrication of membranes...
July 6, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Shangfeng Yang, Tao Wei, Fei Jin
Fullerenes have the characteristic of a hollow interior, and this unique feature triggers intuitive inspiration to entrap atoms, ions or clusters inside the carbon cage in the form of endohedral fullerenes. In particular, upon entrapping an otherwise unstable metal cluster into a carbon cage, the so-called endohedral clusterfullerenes fulfil the mutual stabilization of the inner metal cluster and the outer fullerene cage with a specific isomeric structure which is often unstable as an empty fullerene. A variety of metal clusters have been reported to form endohedral clusterfullerenes, including metal nitrides, carbides, oxides, sulfides, cyanides and so on, making endohedral clusterfullerenes the most variable and intriguing branch of endohedral fullerenes...
July 6, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Antony J Fairbanks
The endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidases (ENGases) are an enzyme class (EC produced by a range of organisms, ranging from bacteria, through fungi, to higher order species, including humans, comprising two-sub families of glycosidases which all cleave the chitobiose core of N-linked glycans. Synthetic applications of these enzymes, i.e. to catalyse the reverse of their natural hydrolytic mode of action, allow the attachment of N-glycans to a wide variety of substrates which contain an N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residue to act as an 'acceptor' handle...
July 6, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Andrew J Orr-Ewing
The dynamics of chemical reactions in liquid solutions are now amenable to direct study using ultrafast laser spectroscopy techniques and advances in computer simulation methods. The surrounding solvent affects the chemical reaction dynamics in numerous ways, which include: (i) formation of complexes between reactants and solvent molecules; (ii) modifications to transition state energies and structures relative to the reactants and products; (iii) coupling between the motions of the reacting molecules and the solvent modes, and exchange of energy; (iv) solvent caging of reactants and products; and (v) structural changes to the solvation shells in response to the changing chemical identity of the solutes, on timescales which may be slower than the reactive events...
July 6, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
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