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Chemical Society Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225107/chirality-in-curved-polyaromatic-systems
#1
Michel Rickhaus, Marcel Mayor, Michal Juríček
Carbon allotropes constituted of sp(2)-hybridised carbon atoms display a variety of properties that arise from their delocalised π-conjugated electronic structure. Apart from carbon's planar allotropic form graphene, bent or curved structures, such as carbon nanotubes or fullerenes, respectively, have been discovered. In this Tutorial Review, we analyse and conceptually categorise chiral synthetic molecular fragments of non-planar sp(2)-carbon allotropes, including hypothetical forms of carbon that have been proposed to exist as stable entities...
February 22, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224148/hypercrosslinked-porous-polymer-materials-design-synthesis-and-applications
#2
REVIEW
Liangxiao Tan, Bien Tan
Hypercrosslinked polymers (HCPs) are a series of permanent microporous polymer materials initially reported by Davankov, and have received an increasing level of research interest. In recent years, HCPs have experienced rapid growth due to their remarkable advantages such as diverse synthetic methods, easy functionalization, high surface area, low cost reagents and mild operating conditions. Judicious selection of monomers, appropriate length crosslinkers and optimized reaction conditions yielded a well-developed polymer framework with an adjusted porous topology...
February 22, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221385/ir-spectroscopic-investigations-of-chemical-and-photochemical-reactions-on-metal-oxides-bridging-the-materials-gap
#3
REVIEW
Yuemin Wang, Christof Wöll
In this review, we highlight recent progress (2008-2016) in infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) studies on oxide powders achieved by using different types of metal oxide single crystals as reference systems. Precise polarization- and azimuth-dependent IRRAS data recorded for single crystal substrates has allowed for fundamental insights into the surface chemistry and photochemistry of numerous probe molecules on various surfaces exposed by three very important metal oxides (ZnO, TiO2, and CeO2)...
February 21, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221384/switchable-divergent-asymmetric-synthesis-via-organocatalysis
#4
Gu Zhan, Wei Du, Ying-Chun Chen
The development of switchable chemo-, regio-, or diastereodivergent reactions, in which two or more structurally and stereogenically different types of chiral products could be produced efficiently from an identical set of starting materials under readily tunable catalytic conditions, is one of the ultimate goals in asymmetric catalysis. This tutorial review will focus on the application of a variety of chiral organic catalysts, including Lewis bases, and Brønsted bases and acids, in a diverse range of stereoselective reactions in a switchable manner...
February 21, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218764/aryne-multifunctionalization-with-benzdiyne-and-benztriyne-equivalents
#5
Jiarong Shi, Yuanyuan Li, Yang Li
One of the most distinct characters of aryne chemistry over other synthetic methodologies is its ability to simultaneously functionalize the vicinal two positions of a benzene ring with diverse combinations of substituents. Moreover, the functionalization of the remaining four positions can be also achieved through multiaryne equivalents, in which more than one triple bond is generated on the different locations of the same benzene ring. This tutorial review summarizes the applications of benzdiyne and benztriyne equivalents from the standpoint of synthetic organic chemistry as well as in the preparation of polycyclic aromatic functional frameworks...
February 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218318/metal-borohydrides-and-derivatives-synthesis-structure-and-properties
#6
REVIEW
Mark Paskevicius, Lars H Jepsen, Pascal Schouwink, Radovan Černý, Dorthe B Ravnsbæk, Yaroslav Filinchuk, Martin Dornheim, Flemming Besenbacher, Torben R Jensen
A wide variety of metal borohydrides, MBH4, have been discovered and characterized during the past decade, revealing an extremely rich chemistry including fascinating structural flexibility and a wide range of compositions and physical properties. Metal borohydrides receive increasing interest within the energy storage field due to their extremely high hydrogen density and possible uses in batteries as solid state ion conductors. Recently, new types of physical properties have been explored in lanthanide-bearing borohydrides related to solid state phosphors and magnetic refrigeration...
February 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211932/nanostructured-material-based-biofuel-cells-recent-advances-and-future-prospects
#7
REVIEW
Cui-E Zhao, Panpan Gai, Rongbin Song, Ying Chen, Jianrong Zhang, Jun-Jie Zhu
During the past decade, biofuel cells (BFCs) have emerged as an emerging technology on account of their ability to directly generate electricity from biologically renewable catalysts and fuels. Due to the boost in nanotechnology, significant advances have been accomplished in BFCs. Although it is still challenging to promote the performance of BFCs, adopting nanostructured materials for BFC construction has been extensively proposed as an effective and promising strategy to achieve high energy production. In this review, we presented the major novel nanostructured materials applied for BFCs and highlighted the breakthroughs in this field...
February 17, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210734/ceria-based-model-catalysts-fundamental-studies-on-the-importance-of-the-metal-ceria-interface-in-co-oxidation-the-water-gas-shift-co2-hydrogenation-and-methane-and-alcohol-reforming
#8
REVIEW
José A Rodriguez, David C Grinter, Zongyuan Liu, Robert M Palomino, Sanjaya D Senanayake
Model metal/ceria and ceria/metal catalysts have been shown to be excellent systems for studying fundamental phenomena linked to the operation of technical catalysts. In the last fifteen years, many combinations of well-defined systems involving different kinds of metals and ceria have been prepared and characterized using the modern techniques of surface science. So far most of the catalytic studies have been centered on a few reactions: CO oxidation, the hydrogenation of CO2, and the production of hydrogen through the water-gas shift reaction and the reforming of methane or alcohols...
February 17, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191579/synthetic-mimics-of-biotin-strept-avidin
#9
Wenqi Liu, Soumen K Samanta, Bradley D Smith, Lyle Isaacs
Biotin/(strept)avidin self-assembly is a powerful platform for nanoscale fabrication and capture with many different applications in science, medicine, and nanotechnology. However, biotin/(strept)avidin self-assembly has several well-recognized drawbacks that limit performance in certain technical areas and there is a need for synthetic mimics that can either become superior replacements or operational partners with bio-orthogonal recognition properties. The goal of this tutorial review is to describe the recent progress in making high affinity synthetic association partners that operate in water or biological media...
February 13, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180223/structural-motifs-of-water-on-metal-oxide-surfaces
#10
REVIEW
Rentao Mu, Zhi-Jian Zhao, Zdenek Dohnálek, Jinlong Gong
Understanding water/solid interactions is of great importance in a variety of fundamental and technological processes, such as photocatalytic water splitting, heterogeneous catalysis, electrochemistry, and corrosion. This review describes recent advancements in the molecular-level understanding of water adsorption, dissociation and clustering on model surfaces of metal oxides, achieved primarily by combining scanning probe microscopies with ensemble-averaged techniques and density functional theory calculations...
February 9, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168253/electrochemical-micro-nano-machining-principles-and-practices
#11
REVIEW
Dongping Zhan, Lianhuan Han, Jie Zhang, Quanfeng He, Zhao-Wu Tian, Zhong-Qun Tian
Micro/nano-machining (MNM) is becoming the cutting-edge of high-tech manufacturing because of the increasing industrial demand for supersmooth surfaces and functional three-dimensional micro/nano-structures (3D-MNS) in ultra-large scale integrated circuits, microelectromechanical systems, miniaturized total analysis systems, precision optics, and so on. Taking advantage of no tool wear, no surface stress, environmental friendliness, simple operation, and low cost, electrochemical micro/nano-machining (EC-MNM) has an irreplaceable role in MNM...
February 7, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165079/a-review-of-high-temperature-co-electrolysis-of-h2o-and-co2-to-produce-sustainable-fuels-using-solid-oxide-electrolysis-cells-soecs-advanced-materials-and-technology
#12
REVIEW
Yun Zheng, Jianchen Wang, Bo Yu, Wenqiang Zhang, Jing Chen, Jinli Qiao, Jiujun Zhang
High-temperature solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) are advanced electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices with high conversion/energy efficiencies. They offer attractive high-temperature co-electrolysis routes that reduce extra CO2 emissions, enable large-scale energy storage/conversion and facilitate the integration of renewable energies into the electric grid. Exciting new research has focused on CO2 electrochemical activation/conversion through a co-electrolysis process based on the assumption that difficult C[double bond, length as m-dash]O double bonds can be activated effectively through this electrochemical method...
February 6, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138679/supramolecular-shape-memory-hydrogels-a-new-bridge-between-stimuli-responsive-polymers-and-supramolecular-chemistry
#13
Wei Lu, Xiaoxia Le, Jiawei Zhang, Youju Huang, Tao Chen
Supramolecular shape memory hydrogels (SSMHs) refer to shape memory polymers, in which temporary shapes are stabilized by reversible crosslinks such as supramolecular interactions and dynamic covalent bonds. Following a brief introduction of the conventional shape memory polymers (SMPs), this tutorial review is focused to summarize the recent advancement in various reversible crosslinks employed to construct SSMHs (supramolecular interactions and dynamic covalent bonds) and different shape memory behaviors (dual and triple shape memory effects)...
January 31, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134366/materials-learning-from-life-concepts-for-active-adaptive-and-autonomous-molecular-systems
#14
REVIEW
Rémi Merindol, Andreas Walther
Bioinspired out-of-equilibrium systems will set the scene for the next generation of molecular materials with active, adaptive, autonomous, emergent and intelligent behavior. Indeed life provides the best demonstrations of complex and functional out-of-equilibrium systems: cells keep track of time, communicate, move, adapt, evolve and replicate continuously. Stirred by the understanding of biological principles, artificial out-of-equilibrium systems are emerging in many fields of soft matter science. Here we put in perspective the molecular mechanisms driving biological functions with the ones driving synthetic molecular systems...
January 30, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117864/recent-advances-in-organic-thermally-activated-delayed-fluorescence-materials
#15
REVIEW
Zhiyong Yang, Zhu Mao, Zongliang Xie, Yi Zhang, Siwei Liu, Juan Zhao, Jiarui Xu, Zhenguo Chi, Matthew P Aldred
Organic materials that exhibit thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) are an attractive class of functional materials that have witnessed a booming development in recent years. Since Adachi et al. reported high-performance TADF-OLED devices in 2012, there have been many reports regarding the design and synthesis of new TADF luminogens, which have various molecular structures and are used for different applications. In this review, we summarize and discuss the latest progress concerning this rapidly developing research field, in which the majority of the reported TADF systems are discussed, along with their derived structure-property relationships, TADF mechanisms and applications...
January 24, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106210/multi-step-continuous-flow-synthesis
#16
Joshua Britton, Colin L Raston
Organic chemistry is continually evolving to improve the syntheses of value added and bioactive compounds. Through this progression, a concomitant advancement in laboratory technology has occurred. Many researchers now choose to mediate transformations in continuous-flow systems given the many benefits over round bottom flasks. Furthermore, reaction scale up is often less problematic as this is addressed at the inception of the science. Although single-step transformations in continuous-flow systems are common, multi-step transformations are more valuable...
January 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105472/macroporous-materials-microfluidic-fabrication-functionalization-and-applications
#17
REVIEW
Bingjie Wang, Pepijn Prinsen, Huizhi Wang, Zhishan Bai, Hualin Wang, Rafael Luque, Jin Xuan
This article provides an up-to-date highly comprehensive overview (594 references) on the state of the art of the synthesis and design of macroporous materials using microfluidics and their applications in different fields.
January 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101543/the-recent-development-of-efficient-earth-abundant-transition-metal-nanocatalysts
#18
REVIEW
Dong Wang, Didier Astruc
Whereas noble metal compounds have long been central in catalysis, Earth-abundant metal-based catalysts have in the same time remained undeveloped. Yet the efficacy of Earth-abundant metal catalysts was already shown at the very beginning of the 20th century with the Fe-catalyzed Haber-Bosch process of ammonia synthesis and later in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Nanoscience has revolutionized the world of catalysis since it was observed that very small Au nanoparticles (NPs) and other noble metal NPs are extraordinarily efficient...
January 19, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098299/vacancies-in-functional-materials-for-clean-energy-storage-and-harvesting-the-perfect-imperfection
#19
Guowei Li, Graeme R Blake, Thomas T M Palstra
Vacancies exist throughout nature and determine the physical properties of materials. By manipulating the density and distribution of vacancies, it is possible to influence their physical properties such as band-gap, conductivity, magnetism, etc. This can generate exciting applications in the fields of water treatment, energy storage, and physical devices such as resistance-change memories. In this review, we focus on recent progress in vacancy engineering for the design of materials for energy harvesting applications...
January 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098293/polyaniline-nanofibers-broadening-applications-for-conducting-polymers
#20
REVIEW
Christina O Baker, Xinwei Huang, Wyatt Nelson, Richard B Kaner
Polyaniline is a conducting polymer with incredible promise, but it has had limited use due to poor reaction control and processability associated with conventional morphologies. Polyaniline nanofibers, on the other hand, have demonstrated, through manufacturing techniques discovered during the past decade, increased processability, higher surface area, and improved consistency and stability in aqueous dispersions, which are finally allowing for expanded commercial development of this promising polymer. This review explores some intriguing applications of polyaniline nanofibers, as well as the advantages and remaining challenges in developing better products using polyaniline in this new morphology...
January 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
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