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Chemical Society Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319221/fluorescent-chemical-probes-for-accurate-tumor-diagnosis-and-targeting-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Min Gao, Fabiao Yu, Changjun Lv, Jaebum Choo, Lingxin Chen
Surgical resection of solid tumors is currently the gold standard and preferred therapeutic strategy for cancer. Chemotherapy drugs also make a significant contribution by inhibiting the rapid growth of tumor cells and these two approaches are often combined to enhance treatment efficacy. However, surgery and chemotherapy inevitably lead to severe side effects and high systemic toxicity, which in turn results in poor prognosis. Precision medicine has promoted the development of treatment modalities that are developed to specifically target and kill tumor cells...
March 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317979/fluorescent-bioimaging-of-ph-from-design-to-applications
#2
Ji-Ting Hou, Wen Xiu Ren, Kun Li, Jinho Seo, Amit Sharma, Xiao-Qi Yu, Jong Seung Kim
Protons play crucial roles in many physiological and pathological processes, such as receptor-mediated signal transduction, ion transport, endocytosis, homeostasis, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. The urgent demand for pH imaging and measurement in biological systems has incited the development of fluorescent pH probes. Numerous fluorescent probes have been reported, but many lack the abilities needed for biological applications. Hence, the development of new pH probes with better biocompatibility, sensitivity, and site-specificity is still indispensable...
March 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317957/a-chemist-s-overview-of-surface-electron-spins
#3
REVIEW
Zhichao Huang, Yajie Zhang, Yang He, Huanjun Song, Cen Yin, Kai Wu
This review summarizes recent research progress in the measurement and tuning of the electron spins of alien atoms and molecules adsorbed on well-defined substrates. After a brief introduction to the main experimental techniques employed to study surface electron spins, some well-explored systems consisting of atomic and molecular spin-carriers at surfaces are overviewed from a chemist's viewpoint, focusing on the experimental measurements and chemical modifications of the electron spin states of the alien entities at the surfaces on the atomic/molecular level...
March 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317053/practical-applications-of-supramolecular-chemistry
#4
Igor V Kolesnichenko, Eric V Anslyn
This year marks the 50th anniversary of Charles Pedersen's discovery of crown ethers, what is widely considered the birth of supramolecular chemistry. Since then, the field has progressed greatly, winning two Nobel Prizes and seeing the implementation of many practical applications. In commemoration, we are exploring the more recent advances of the field, which have made it past the realm of chemistry, into the real world. Though not a comprehensive review, the topics that we discuss here are supramolecular sensors, imaging for medical applications, metal extraction from ores and nuclear waste, as well as drug delivery...
March 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304064/surface-point-defects-on-bulk-oxides-atomically-resolved-scanning-probe-microscopy
#5
Martin Setvín, Margareta Wagner, Michael Schmid, Gareth S Parkinson, Ulrike Diebold
Metal oxides are abundant in nature and they are some of the most versatile materials for applications ranging from catalysis to novel electronics. The physical and chemical properties of metal oxides are dramatically influenced, and can be judiciously tailored, by defects. Small changes in stoichiometry introduce so-called intrinsic defects, e.g., atomic vacancies and/or interstitials. This review gives an overview of using Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM), in particular Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), to study the changes in the local geometric and electronic structure related to these intrinsic point defects at the surfaces of metal oxides...
March 17, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288217/porous-membranes-in-secondary-battery-technologies
#6
REVIEW
Wenjing Lu, Zhizhang Yuan, Yuyue Zhao, Hongzhang Zhang, Huamin Zhang, Xianfeng Li
Secondary batteries have received huge attention due to their attractive features in applications of large-scale energy storage and portable electronic devices, as well as electrical vehicles. In a secondary battery, a membrane plays the role of separating the anode and cathode to prevent the occurrence of a short circuit, while allowing the transport of charge carriers to achieve a complete circuit. The properties of a membrane will largely determine the performance of a battery. In this article, we review the research and development progress of porous membranes in secondary battery technologies, such as lithium-based batteries together with flow batteries...
March 13, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287660/biocatalysis-engineering-the-big-picture
#7
Roger A Sheldon, Pedro C Pereira
In this tutorial review we describe a holistic approach to the invention, development and optimisation of biotransformations utilising isolated enzymes. Increasing attention to applied biocatalysis is motivated by its numerous economic and environmental benefits. Biocatalysis engineering concerns the development of enzymatic systems as a whole, which entails engineering its different components: substrate engineering, medium engineering, protein (enzyme) engineering, biocatalyst (formulation) engineering, biocatalytic cascade engineering and reactor engineering...
March 13, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287652/supramolecular-chemistry-where-from-where-to
#8
EDITORIAL
Jean-Marie Lehn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280821/correction-the-medicinal-chemist-s-toolbox-for-late-stage-functionalization-of-drug-like-molecules
#9
Tim Cernak, Kevin D Dykstra, Sriram Tyagarajan, Petr Vachal, Shane W Krska
Correction for 'The medicinal chemist's toolbox for late stage functionalization of drug-like molecules' by Tim Cernak et al., Chem. Soc. Rev., 2016, 45, 546-576.
March 10, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280815/lyotropic-liquid-crystal-engineering-moving-beyond-binary-compositional-space-ordered-nanostructured-amphiphile-self-assembly-materials-by-design
#10
REVIEW
Leonie van 't Hag, Sally L Gras, Charlotte E Conn, Calum J Drummond
Ordered amphiphile self-assembly materials with a tunable three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure are of fundamental interest, and crucial for progressing several biological and biomedical applications, including in meso membrane protein crystallization, as drug and medical contrast agent delivery vehicles, and as biosensors and biofuel cells. In binary systems consisting of an amphiphile and a solvent, the ability to tune the 3D cubic phase nanostructure, lipid bilayer properties and the lipid mesophase is limited...
March 10, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276544/advanced-optoacoustic-methods-for-multiscale-imaging-of-in-vivo-dynamics
#11
REVIEW
X L Deán-Ben, S Gottschalk, B Mc Larney, S Shoham, D Razansky
Visualization of dynamic functional and molecular events in an unperturbed in vivo environment is essential for understanding the complex biology of living organisms and of disease state and progression. To this end, optoacoustic (photoacoustic) sensing and imaging have demonstrated the exclusive capacity to maintain excellent optical contrast and high resolution in deep-tissue observations, far beyond the penetration limits of modern microscopy. Yet, the time domain is paramount for the observation and study of complex biological interactions that may be invisible in single snapshots of living systems...
March 9, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272608/new-trends-in-the-functionalization-of-metallic-gold-from-organosulfur-ligands-to-n-heterocyclic-carbenes
#12
Sabrina Engel, Eva-Corinna Fritz, Bart Jan Ravoo
In this Tutorial Review, we describe the development of new ligands for functionalizing and stabilizing metallic gold in the form of planar gold surfaces and gold nanoparticles (NPs). Starting from the state-of-the-art of organosulfur ligands, we describe the gold-sulfur bond formation and the nature of the resulting interface. In addition, we explain methods to prepare ordered monolayers on planar surfaces and stable ligand shells around NPs, illustrating important pioneering studies and examples of current research...
March 8, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246670/strategies-for-stable-water-splitting-via-protected-photoelectrodes
#13
REVIEW
Dowon Bae, Brian Seger, Peter C K Vesborg, Ole Hansen, Ib Chorkendorff
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar-fuel conversion is a promising approach to provide clean and storable fuel (e.g., hydrogen and methanol) directly from sunlight, water and CO2. However, major challenges still have to be overcome before commercialization can be achieved. One of the largest barriers to overcome is to achieve a stable PEC reaction in either strongly basic or acidic electrolytes without degradation of the semiconductor photoelectrodes. In this work, we discuss fundamental aspects of protection strategies for achieving stable solid/liquid interfaces...
March 1, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245014/colloidal-metal-oxide-nanocrystals-as-charge-transporting-layers-for-solution-processed-light-emitting-diodes-and-solar-cells
#14
REVIEW
Xiaoyong Liang, Sai Bai, Xin Wang, Xingliang Dai, Feng Gao, Baoquan Sun, Zhijun Ning, Zhizhen Ye, Yizheng Jin
Colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals offer a unique combination of excellent low-temperature solution processability, rich and tuneable optoelectronic properties and intrinsic stability, which makes them an ideal class of materials as charge transporting layers in solution-processed light-emitting diodes and solar cells. Developing new material chemistry and custom-tailoring processing and properties of charge transporting layers based on oxide nanocrystals hold the key to boosting the efficiency and lifetime of all-solution-processed light-emitting diodes and solar cells, and thereby realizing an unprecedented generation of high-performance, low-cost, large-area and flexible optoelectronic devices...
February 28, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230870/colloidal-capsules-nano-and-microcapsules-with-colloidal-particle-shells
#15
REVIEW
Tobias Bollhorst, Kurosch Rezwan, Michael Maas
Utilizing colloidal particles for the assembly of the shell of nano- and microcapsules holds great promise for the tailor-made design of new functional materials. Increasing research efforts are devoted to the synthesis of such colloidal capsules, by which the integration of modular building blocks with distinct physical, chemical, or morphological characteristics in a capsule's shell can result in novel properties, not present in previous encapsulation structures. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the synthesis strategies and the progress made so far of bringing nano- and microcapsules with shells of densely packed colloidal particles closer to application in fields such as chemical engineering, materials science, or pharmaceutical and life science...
February 23, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229154/reactions-of-water-and-c1-molecules-on-carbide-and-metal-modified-carbide-surfaces
#16
REVIEW
Weiming Wan, Brian M Tackett, Jingguang G Chen
The formation of carbides can significantly modify the physical and chemical properties of the parent metals. In the current review, we summarize the general trends in the reactions of water and C1 molecules over transition metal carbide (TMC) and metal-modified TMC surfaces and thin films. Although the primary focus of the current review is on the theoretical and experimental studies of reactions of C1 molecules (CO, CO2, CH3OH, etc.), the reactions of water will also be reviewed because water plays an important role in many of the C1 transformation reactions...
February 23, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225107/chirality-in-curved-polyaromatic-systems
#17
Michel Rickhaus, Marcel Mayor, Michal Juríček
Carbon allotropes constituted of sp(2)-hybridised carbon atoms display a variety of properties that arise from their delocalised π-conjugated electronic structure. Apart from carbon's planar allotropic form graphene, bent or curved structures, such as carbon nanotubes or fullerenes, respectively, have been discovered. In this Tutorial Review, we analyse and conceptually categorise chiral synthetic molecular fragments of non-planar sp(2)-carbon allotropes, including hypothetical forms of carbon that have been proposed to exist as stable entities...
February 22, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224148/hypercrosslinked-porous-polymer-materials-design-synthesis-and-applications
#18
REVIEW
Liangxiao Tan, Bien Tan
Hypercrosslinked polymers (HCPs) are a series of permanent microporous polymer materials initially reported by Davankov, and have received an increasing level of research interest. In recent years, HCPs have experienced rapid growth due to their remarkable advantages such as diverse synthetic methods, easy functionalization, high surface area, low cost reagents and mild operating conditions. Judicious selection of monomers, appropriate length crosslinkers and optimized reaction conditions yielded a well-developed polymer framework with an adjusted porous topology...
February 22, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221385/ir-spectroscopic-investigations-of-chemical-and-photochemical-reactions-on-metal-oxides-bridging-the-materials-gap
#19
REVIEW
Yuemin Wang, Christof Wöll
In this review, we highlight recent progress (2008-2016) in infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) studies on oxide powders achieved by using different types of metal oxide single crystals as reference systems. Precise polarization- and azimuth-dependent IRRAS data recorded for single crystal substrates has allowed for fundamental insights into the surface chemistry and photochemistry of numerous probe molecules on various surfaces exposed by three very important metal oxides (ZnO, TiO2, and CeO2)...
February 21, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221384/switchable-divergent-asymmetric-synthesis-via-organocatalysis
#20
Gu Zhan, Wei Du, Ying-Chun Chen
The development of switchable chemo-, regio-, or diastereodivergent reactions, in which two or more structurally and stereogenically different types of chiral products could be produced efficiently from an identical set of starting materials under readily tunable catalytic conditions, is one of the ultimate goals in asymmetric catalysis. This tutorial review will focus on the application of a variety of chiral organic catalysts, including Lewis bases, and Brønsted bases and acids, in a diverse range of stereoselective reactions in a switchable manner...
February 21, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
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