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Chemical Society Reviews

Tobin E Brown, Kristi S Anseth
Hydrogels mimic many of the physical properties of soft tissue and are widely used biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Synthetic hydrogels have been developed to recapitulate many of the healthy and diseased states of native tissues and can be used as a cell scaffold to study the effect of matricellular interactions in vitro. However, these matrices often fail to capture the dynamic and heterogenous nature of the in vivo environment, which varies spatially and during events such as development and disease...
August 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Qiutong Huang, Yijie Zou, Maria C Arno, Shuai Chen, Tao Wang, Jingyi Gao, Andrew P Dove, Jianzhong Du
Natural extracellular matrices (ECMs) have been widely used as a support for the adhesion, migration, differentiation, and proliferation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). However, poor mechanical behavior and unpredictable biodegradation properties of natural ECMs considerably limit their potential for bioapplications and raise the need for different, synthetic scaffolds. Hydrogels are regarded as the most promising alternative materials as a consequence of their excellent swelling properties and their resemblance to soft tissues...
August 17, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Andreas Schwaighofer, Markus Brandstetter, Bernhard Lendl
Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) are the first room temperature semiconductor laser source for the mid-IR spectral region, triggering substantial development for the advancement of mid-IR spectroscopy. Mid-IR spectroscopy in general provides rapid, label-free and objective analysis, particularly important in the field of biomedical analysis. Due to their unique properties, QCLs offer new possibilities for development of analytical methods to enable quantification of clinically relevant concentration levels and to support medical diagnostics...
August 17, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Marvin Parasram, Vladimir Gevorgyan
Employment of simple transition metal (TM = Co, Fe, Cu, Pd, Pt, Au)-based photocatalyst (PC) has led to the dramatic acceleration of known TM-catalyzed reactions, as well as to the discovery of unprecedented chemical transformations. Compared to the conventional cooperative/dual photocatalysis (type B), this new class of unconventional PCs operates via a single photoexcitation/catalytic cycle, where the TM complex plays a "double duty" role by harvesting light and catalyzing the chemical transformation. Also, these TM photocatalysts participate in the bond-forming/breaking event in the transformation via a substrate-TM interaction, an aspect that is uncommon for conventional photocatalysis (type A)...
August 11, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Russell E Morris, Lee Brammer
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are some of the most exciting materials in current science. Their utility and diversity of applications depends on a combination of their chemistry, their framework topology and the spatial dimensions of their pores. In this review we concentrate on the chemistry of MOFs. Specifically we bring together many aspects of MOFs that underpin their stability, reactivity and dynamic behaviour within a common theme related to (changes in) metal-ligand bonding. In each area we provide examples to illustrate the behaviour and discuss it in the context of metal lability and coordination changes...
August 10, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Huan Wang, Dong Ha Kim
While the field of perovskite-based optoelectronics has mostly been dominated by photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes, and transistors, semiconducting properties peculiar to perovskites make them interesting candidates for innovative and disruptive applications in light signal detection. Perovskites combine effective light absorption in the broadband range with good photo-generation yield and high charge carrier mobility, a combination that provides promising potential for exploiting sensitive and fast photodetectors that are targeted for image sensing, optical communication, environmental monitoring or chemical/biological detection...
August 10, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Hong-Jie Peng, Jia-Qi Huang, Qiang Zhang
Flexible energy storage systems are imperative for emerging flexible devices that are revolutionizing our life. Lithium-ion batteries, the current main power sources, are gradually approaching their theoretical limitation in terms of energy density. Therefore, alternative battery chemistries are urgently required for next-generation flexible power sources with high energy densities, low cost, and inherent safety. Flexible lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries and analogous flexible alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are of paramount interest owing to their high energy densities endowed by multielectron chemistry...
August 7, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Radislav A Potyrailo
For detection of gases and vapors in complex backgrounds, "classic" analytical instruments are an unavoidable alternative to existing sensors. Recently a new generation of sensors, known as multivariable sensors, emerged with a fundamentally different perspective for sensing to eliminate limitations of existing sensors. In multivariable sensors, a sensing material is designed to have diverse responses to different gases and vapors and is coupled to a multivariable transducer that provides independent outputs to recognize these diverse responses...
August 4, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Jiajun Peng, Yani Chen, Kaibo Zheng, Tõnu Pullerits, Ziqi Liang
Organo-metal halide perovskites have recently obtained world-wide attention as promising solar cell materials. They have broad and strong light absorption along with excellent carrier transport properties which partially explain their record power conversion efficiencies above 22%. However, the basic understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms is still limited and there remain large discrepancies among reported transport characteristics of perovskite materials. Notably, the carrier mobility of perovskite samples either in thin films or within solar cells obtained using different techniques can vary by up to 7-8 orders of magnitude...
August 3, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Jingfang Yu, Qiang Wang, Dermot O'Hare, Luyi Sun
Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with their highly flexible and tunable chemical composition and physical properties have attracted tremendous attention in recent years. LDHs have found widespread application as catalysts, anion exchange materials, fire retardants, and nano-fillers in polymer nanocomposites. The ability to exfoliate LDHs into ultrathin nanosheets enables a range of new opportunities for multifunctional materials. In this review we summarize the current available LDH exfoliation methods. In particular, we highlight recent developments for the direct synthesis of single-layer LDH nanosheets, as well as the emerging applications of LDH nanosheets in catalyzing oxygen evolution reactions and preparing light emitting devices, supercapacitors, and flame retardant nanocomposites...
August 2, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Dardan Hetemi, Jean Pinson
Many applications of polymers require the functionalisation of their surface for use in sensors, composite materials, membranes, microfluidic and biomedical devices and many others. Such surface modifications endow the surface with new properties independent of those of the bulk polymer. This tutorial review describes the different methods, based on very diverse principles, that are available to perform this surface functionalisation, including plasma and UV irradiation, atomic layer deposition, electrochemistry, oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, the use of radicals and grafting "on" or "from" polymers...
August 2, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Jin Xie, Hongming Jin, A Stephen K Hashmi
Visible-light photoredox catalysis has been esteemed as one sustainable and attractive synthetic tool. In the past four years, a new yet challenging trend, visible-light-driven redox-neutral radical C-C cross-coupling involving putative radical intermediates, has been booming rapidly. Its advent brings a powerful platform to achieve non-classical C-C connections, and should lead to fundamental changes in retrosynthetic analysis. In this tutorial review, we highlight the recent achievements of visible-light-mediated redox-neutral radical C(sp(3))-C(sp(2)), C(sp(3))-C(sp), and C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) bond formation, opening a new window for C-C cross-coupling through the photoredox electron shuttling cycle between two coupling partners...
August 1, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Jie Zhang, Erik Luijten, Bartosz A Grzybowski, Steve Granick
The collective mobility of active matter (self-propelled objects that transduce energy into mechanical work to drive their motion, most commonly through fluids) constitutes a new frontier in science and achievable technology. This review surveys the current status of the research field, what kinds of new scientific problems can be tackled in the short term, and what long-term directions are envisioned. We focus on: (1) attempts to formulate design principles to tailor active particles; (2) attempts to design principles according to which active particles interact under circumstances where particle-particle interactions of traditional colloid science are augmented by a family of nonequilibrium effects discussed here; (3) attempts to design intended patterns of collective behavior and dynamic assembly; (4) speculative links to equilibrium thermodynamics...
August 1, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
J Li, R Güttinger, R Moré, F Song, W Wan, G R Patzke
Development of efficient and economic water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) remains a crucial bottleneck on the way to artificial photosynthesis applications. Over the past few decades, WOC research has turned into a fascinating interdisciplinary field that ranges from bio-inspired molecular design over nanomaterials and thin films to solid materials tuning. Under the umbrella of WOC optimization, advanced in situ/operando analytical techniques are being developed as increasingly powerful tools to elucidate the controversial discussions about the molecular or nanoscale nature of many WOCs...
July 26, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Ethan B Van Arnam, Cameron R Currie, Jon Clardy
Insects cope with environmental threats using a broad array of strategies. A key strategy, widespread among insects but unappreciated until recently, is the use of molecular defenses from symbiotic microbes. Insect-microbe defensive symbioses span the diversity of insect lineages and microbial partners and use molecules ranging from reactive oxygen species to small molecules to protein toxins to defend against predators, parasites, and microbial pathogens. These systems have a strong initial track record as sources of novel biologically active compounds with therapeutic potential...
July 26, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Pim van der Asdonk, Paul H J Kouwer
Chemistry quickly moves from a molecular science to a systems science. This requires spatial and temporal control over the organisation of molecules and molecular assemblies. Whilst Nature almost by default (transiently) organises her components at multiple different length scales, scientists struggle to realise even relatively straightforward patterns. In the past decades, supramolecular chemistry has taught us the rules to precisely engineer molecular assembly at the nanometre scale. At higher length scales, however, we are bound to top-down nanotechnology techniques to realise order...
July 24, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
M Iranmanesh, J Hulliger
The use of strong magnetic field gradients and high magnetic fields generated by permanent magnets or superconducting coils has found applications in many fields such as mining, solid state chemistry, biochemistry and medical research. Lab scale or industrial implementations involve separation of macro- and nanoparticles, cells, proteins, and macromolecules down to small molecules and ions. Most promising are those attempts where the object to be separated is attached to a strong magnetic nanoparticle. Here, all kinds of specific affinity interactions are used to attach magnetic carrier particles to mainly objects of biological interest...
July 21, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Chang Min, Daniel Seidel
Chiral Brønsted acids have found widespread applications as organocatalysts. Weakly acidic species such as diols and (thio)ureas, typically classified as hydrogen bonding catalysts, as well as stronger phosphoric acids, have proven to be highly effective in catalyzing a wide range of asymmetric transformations. In contrast, the use of chiral carboxylic acids as Brønsted acid catalysts is much less developed but has recently garnered increased attention. Given that their pKa's generally lie between those of typical hydrogen bond donors and chiral phosphoric acids, chiral carboxylic acids provide the opportunity to activate a different set of substrates requiring intermediate catalyst acidity...
July 21, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Qing-Qing Cheng, Yongming Deng, Marianne Lankelma, Michael P Doyle
Enoldiazo esters and amides have proven to be versatile reagents for cycloaddition reactions that allow highly efficient construction of various carbocycles and heterocycles. Their versatility is exemplified by (1) [2+n]-cycloadditions (n = 3, 4) by the enol silyl ether units of enoldiazo compounds with retention of the diazo functionality to furnish α-cyclic-α-diazo compounds that are themselves subject to further transformations of the diazo functional group; (2) [3+n]-cycloadditions (n = 1-5) by metallo-enolcarbenes formed by catalytic dinitrogen extrusion from enoldiazo compounds; (3) [2+n]-cycloadditions (n = 3, 4) by donor-acceptor cyclopropenes generated in situ from enoldiazo compounds that produce cyclopropane-fused ring systems...
July 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Jun Gao, Yaping Feng, Wei Guo, Lei Jiang
With the advance of chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology, significant progress has been achieved in the design and application of synthetic nanofluidic devices and materials, mimicking the gating, rectifying, and adaptive functions of biological ion channels. Fundamental physics and chemistry behind these novel transport phenomena on the nanoscale have been explored in depth on single-pore platforms. However, toward real-world applications, one major challenge is to extrapolate these single-pore devices into macroscopic materials...
July 19, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
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