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Chemical Society Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451571/sea-spray-aerosol-chemical-composition-elemental-and-molecular-mimics-for-laboratory-studies-of-heterogeneous-and-multiphase-reactions
#1
REVIEW
Timothy H Bertram, Richard E Cochran, Vicki H Grassian, Elizabeth A Stone
Sea spray aerosol particles (SSA), formed through wave breaking at the ocean surface, contribute to natural aerosol particle concentrations in remote regions of Earth's atmosphere, and alter the direct and indirect effects of aerosol particles on Earth's radiation budget. In addition, sea spray aerosol serves as suspended surface area that can catalyze trace gas reactions. It has been shown repeatedly that sea spray aerosol is heavily enriched in organic material compared to the surface ocean. The selective enrichment of organic material complicates the selection of representative molecular mimics of SSA for laboratory or computational studies...
February 16, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446429/optical-nano-biosensing-interface-via-nucleic-acid-amplification-strategy-construction-and-application
#2
REVIEW
Hong Zhou, Jing Liu, Jing-Juan Xu, Shu-Sheng Zhang, Hong-Yuan Chen
Modern optical detection technology plays a critical role in current clinical detection due to its high sensitivity and accuracy. However, higher requirements such as extremely high detection sensitivity have been put forward due to the clinical needs for the early finding and diagnosing of malignant tumors which are significant for tumor therapy. The technology of isothermal amplification with nucleic acids opens up avenues for meeting this requirement. Recent reports have shown that a nucleic acid amplification-assisted modern optical sensing interface has achieved satisfactory sensitivity and accuracy, high speed and specificity...
February 15, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431828/key-factors-in-pincer-ligand-design
#3
Eduardo Peris, Robert H Crabtree
Pincers, tridentate ligands that prefer a meridional geometry, are a rising class because of their distinctive combination of properties. They permit a good level of control on the nature of the coordination sphere by holding the donor groups in a predictable arrangement. Some groups, such as an aryl or a pyridine, that would normally be easily lost as monodentate ligands, become reliably coordinated, especially if they form the central donor unit of the three. Many pincer complexes show exceptional thermal stability, a property that is particularly prized in homogeneous catalysis where they can permit high temperature operation...
February 12, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419826/how-should-multicomponent-supramolecular-gels-be-characterised
#4
Emily R Draper, Dave J Adams
Low molecular weight gels, or supramolecular gels, are formed when small molecules self-assemble into fibrous structures. Above a critical concentration, the entanglement and cross-linking of these structures leads to the formation of a self-supporting gel. There are many examples where a single component is used to form such gels. There is however an ever-increasing interest in using multiple components. Here, if each component is able to form a gel by itself, a range of fibre types are possible, formed by either random or specific associations between the low molecular weight gelators (LMWG)...
February 8, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417968/engineering-functional-inorganic-organic-hybrid-systems-advances-in-sirna-therapeutics
#5
REVIEW
Jianliang Shen, Wei Zhang, Ruogu Qi, Zong-Wan Mao, Haifa Shen
Cancer treatment still faces a lot of obstacles such as tumor heterogeneity, drug resistance and systemic toxicities. Beyond the traditional treatment modalities, exploitation of RNA interference (RNAi) as an emerging approach has immense potential for the treatment of various gene-caused diseases including cancer. The last decade has witnessed enormous research and achievements focused on RNAi biotechnology. However, delivery of small interference RNA (siRNA) remains a key challenge in the development of clinical RNAi therapeutics...
February 8, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417106/nanoparticle-triggered-in-situ-catalytic-chemical-reactions-for-tumour-specific-therapy
#6
Han Lin, Yu Chen, Jianlin Shi
Tumour chemotherapy employs highly cytotoxic chemodrugs, which kill both cancer and normal cells by cellular apoptosis or necrosis non-selectively. Catalysing/triggering the specific chemical reactions only inside tumour tissues can generate abundant and special chemicals and products locally to initiate a series of unique biological and pathologic effects, which may enable tumour-specific theranostic effects to combat cancer without bringing about significant side effects on normal tissues. Nevertheless, chemical reaction-initiated selective tumour therapy strongly depends on the advances in chemistry, materials science, nanotechnology and biomedicine...
February 8, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412208/wearable-energy-sources-based-on-2d-materials
#7
REVIEW
Fang Yi, Huaying Ren, Jingyuan Shan, Xiao Sun, Di Wei, Zhongfan Liu
Wearable energy sources are in urgent demand due to the rapid development of wearable electronics. Besides flexibility and ultrathin thickness, emerging 2D materials present certain extraordinary properties that surpass the properties of conventional materials, which make them advantageous for high-performance wearable energy sources. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of recent advances in 2D material based wearable energy sources including wearable batteries, supercapacitors, and different types of energy harvesters...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412198/recent-advances-in-three-dimensional-graphene-based-materials-for-catalysis-applications
#8
REVIEW
Bocheng Qiu, Mingyang Xing, Jinlong Zhang
Over the past few decades, two-dimensional graphene based materials (2DGMs) have piqued the interest of scientists worldwide, and the exploration of their potential applications in catalysis, sensors, electronic devices and energy storage due to their extraordinary physical and chemical properties has rapidly progressed. As for these 2DGMs, there is a complementary need to assemble 2D building blocks hierarchically into more complicated and hierarchical three-dimensional graphene-based materials (3DGMs). Such a capability is vitally crucial in order to design sophisticated and multi-functional catalysts with tailorable properties...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411809/the-emerging-era-of-supramolecular-polymeric-binders-in-silicon-anodes
#9
REVIEW
Tae-Woo Kwon, Jang Wook Choi, Ali Coskun
Silicon (Si) anode is among the most promising candidates for the next-generation high-capacity electrodes in Li-ion batteries owing to its unparalleled theoretical capacity (4200 mA h g-1 for Li4.4Si) that is approximately 10 times higher than that of commercialized graphitic anodes (372 mA h g-1 for LiC6). The battery community has witnessed substantial advances in research on new polymeric binders for silicon anodes mainly due to the shortcomings of conventional binders such as polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) to address problems caused by the massive volume change of Si (300%) upon (de)lithiation...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410995/-solvent-in-salt-systems-for-design-of-new-materials-in-chemistry-biology-and-energy-research
#10
REVIEW
Vladimir A Azov, Ksenia S Egorova, Marina M Seitkalieva, Alexey S Kashin, Valentine P Ananikov
Inorganic and organic "solvent-in-salt" (SIS) systems have been known for decades but have attracted significant attention only recently. Molten salt hydrates/solvates have been successfully employed as non-flammable, benign electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries leading to a revolution in battery development and design. SIS with organic components (for example, ionic liquids containing small amounts of water) demonstrate remarkable thermal stability and tunability, and present a class of admittedly safer electrolytes, in comparison with traditional organic solvents...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400389/coiled-coil-protein-origami-from-modular-design-principles-towards-biotechnological-applications
#11
REVIEW
Fabio Lapenta, Jana Aupič, Žiga Strmšek, Roman Jerala
The design of new protein folds represents a grand challenge for synthetic, chemical and structural biology. Due to the good understanding of the principles governing its pairing specificity, coiled coil (CC) peptide secondary structure elements can be exploited for the construction of modular protein assemblies acting as a proxy for the straightforward complementarity of DNA modules. The prerequisite for the successful translation of the modular assembly strategy pioneered by DNA nanotechnology to protein design is the availability of orthogonal building modules: a collection of peptides that assemble into CCs only with their predetermined partners...
February 5, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399689/towards-flexible-solid-state-supercapacitors-for-smart-and-wearable-electronics
#12
REVIEW
Deepak P Dubal, Nilesh R Chodankar, Do-Heyoung Kim, Pedro Gomez-Romero
Flexible solid-state supercapacitors (FSSCs) are frontrunners in energy storage device technology and have attracted extensive attention owing to recent significant breakthroughs in modern wearable electronics. In this study, we review the state-of-the-art advancements in FSSCs to provide new insights on mechanisms, emerging electrode materials, flexible gel electrolytes and novel cell designs. The review begins with a brief introduction on the fundamental understanding of charge storage mechanisms based on the structural properties of electrode materials...
February 5, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399680/design-and-synthesis-of-multifunctional-metal-organic-zeolites
#13
REVIEW
Yan-Xi Tan, Fei Wang, Jian Zhang
Metal-organic zeolites (MOZs) are an important branch of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and combine the advantages of zeolites and MOFs, such as high surface area and porosity as well as the exceptional stability of zeolites, which would have a significant impact on catalysis chemistry, inorganic chemistry, coordination chemistry, materials science and other areas. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in MOZs with a brief outline of the most prominent examples. In particular, we highlight the basic principles of the design and synthesis approaches toward the construction of MOZs...
February 5, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393942/ionic-liquids-and-derived-materials-for-lithium-and-sodium-batteries
#14
REVIEW
Qiwei Yang, Zhaoqiang Zhang, Xiao-Guang Sun, Yong-Sheng Hu, Huabin Xing, Sheng Dai
The ever-growing demand for advanced energy storage devices in portable electronics, electric vehicles and large scale power grids has triggered intensive research efforts over the past decade on lithium and sodium batteries. The key to improve their electrochemical performance and enhance the service safety lies in the development of advanced electrode, electrolyte, and auxiliary materials. Ionic liquids (ILs) are liquids consisting entirely of ions near room temperature, and are characterized by many unique properties such as ultralow volatility, high ionic conductivity, good thermal stability, low flammability, a wide electrochemical window, and tunable polarity and basicity/acidity...
February 2, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376542/construction-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticle-based-hybrid-platforms-for-tumor-imaging-and-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Yong Hu, Serge Mignani, Jean-Pierre Majoral, Mingwu Shen, Xiangyang Shi
The aim of this original review is to highlight and analyze the most recent progress and challenges in the synthesis and surface modifications of superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) for multimodal imaging and therapy applications, which represent important fields in medicine in general and cancer in particular. Thus, the oncology domain is rapidly moving to a more personalized medicine including precision imaging and theranostic approaches. Novel biocompatible Fe3O4 nanoparticulate systems have been designed for enhanced and targeted cellular uptake by surface layer coating modifications, to have improved r2 relaxivity for sensitive magnetic resonance (MR) imaging applications, to have the ability to be used for dual mode imaging, and to be used for imaging-guided cancer therapy...
January 29, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372207/a-continuing-challenge-n-heterocyclic-carbene-catalyzed-syntheses-of-%C3%AE-butyrolactones
#16
Kathleen J R Murauski, Ashley A Jaworski, Karl A Scheidt
Catalytic, stereoselective N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed reactions facilitate efficient construction of many different heterocyclic compounds, such as the enantioenriched 5-membered (γ) lactones highlighted in this tutorial review. Herein, various strategies to enable formal [3+2] type annulations between electrophilic carbonyl equivalents and homoenolate nucleophiles for the synthesis of γ-lactones are summarized.
January 26, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368764/raman-spectroscopy-of-graphene-based-materials-and-its-applications-in-related-devices
#17
REVIEW
Jiang-Bin Wu, Miao-Ling Lin, Xin Cong, He-Nan Liu, Ping-Heng Tan
Graphene-based materials exhibit remarkable electronic, optical, and mechanical properties, which has resulted in both high scientific interest and huge potential for a variety of applications. Furthermore, the family of graphene-based materials is growing because of developments in preparation methods. Raman spectroscopy is a versatile tool to identify and characterize the chemical and physical properties of these materials, both at the laboratory and mass-production scale. This technique is so important that most of the papers published concerning these materials contain at least one Raman spectrum...
January 25, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367988/designed-transition-metal-catalysts-for-intracellular-organic-synthesis
#18
REVIEW
Yugang Bai, Junfeng Chen, Steven C Zimmerman
The development of synthetic, metal-based catalysts to perform intracellular bioorthogonal reactions represents a relatively new and important area of research that combines transition metal catalysis and chemical biology. The ability to perform reactions in cellulo, especially those transformations without a natural counterpart, offers a versatile tool for medicinal chemists and chemical biologists. With proper modification of the metal catalysts, it is even possible to direct a reaction to certain intracellular sites...
January 25, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362736/enzymatic-asymmetric-synthesis-of-chiral-amino-acids
#19
REVIEW
Ya-Ping Xue, Cheng-Hao Cao, Yu-Guo Zheng
Chiral amino acids are extensively applied in the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic, agricultural, and feedstuff industries. The development of synthetic methodologies for optically pure amino acids has been driven by their significant applications. Among the various synthesis methods for the production of chiral amino acids, enzymatic asymmetric synthesis is a unique preparation strategy that shows great potential. This review provides an overview of the reported methods for enzymatic asymmetric synthesis of chiral amino acids, including asymmetric reductive amination of keto acids, asymmetric transfer of an amino group to keto acids, enantioselective addition of ammonia to α,β-unsaturated acids, and aldol condensation of an amino acid to aldehydes...
January 24, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355873/chiral-phosphoric-acid-catalysis-from-numbers-to-insights
#20
Rajat Maji, Sharath Chandra Mallojjala, Steven E Wheeler
Chiral phosphoric acids (CPAs) have emerged as powerful organocatalysts for asymmetric reactions, and applications of computational quantum chemistry have revealed important insights into the activity and selectivity of these catalysts. In this tutorial review, we provide an overview of computational tools at the disposal of computational organic chemists and demonstrate their application to a wide array of CPA catalysed reactions. Predictive models of the stereochemical outcome of these reactions are discussed along with specific examples of representative reactions and an outlook on remaining challenges in this area...
January 22, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
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