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Chemical Society Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644499/methods-for-the-detection-and-identification-of-pathogenic-bacteria-past-present-and-future
#1
Linda Váradi, Jia Lin Luo, David E Hibbs, John D Perry, Rosaleen J Anderson, Sylvain Orenga, Paul W Groundwater
In order to retard the rate of development of antibacterial resistance, the causative agent must be identified as rapidly as possible, so that directed patient treatment and/or contact precautions can be initiated. This review highlights the challenges associated with the detection and identification of pathogenic bacteria, by providing an introduction to the techniques currently used, as well as newer techniques that are in development. Focusing on the chemical basis for these techniques, the review also provides a comparison of their advantages and disadvantages...
June 23, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644493/photoelectrochemical-devices-for-solar-water-splitting-materials-and-challenges
#2
Chaoran Jiang, Savio J A Moniz, Aiqin Wang, Tao Zhang, Junwang Tang
It is widely accepted within the community that to achieve a sustainable society with an energy mix primarily based on solar energy we need an efficient strategy to convert and store sunlight into chemical fuels. A photoelectrochemical (PEC) device would therefore play a key role in offering the possibility of carbon-neutral solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis. The past five years have seen a surge in the development of promising semiconductor materials. In addition, low-cost earth-abundant co-catalysts are ubiquitous in their employment in water splitting cells due to the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER)...
June 23, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644491/mastering-high-resolution-tip-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-towards-a-shift-of-perception
#3
REVIEW
Marie Richard-Lacroix, Yao Zhang, Zhenchao Dong, Volker Deckert
Recent years have seen tremendous improvement of our understanding of high resolution reachable in TERS experiments, forcing us to re-evaluate our understanding of the intrinsic limits of this field, but also exposing several inconsistencies. On the one hand, more and more recent experimental results have provided us with clear indications of spatial resolutions down to a few nanometres or even on the subnanometre scale. Moreover, lessons learned from recent theoretical investigations clearly support such high resolutions, and vice versa the obvious theoretical impossibility to evade high resolution from a purely plasmonic point of view...
June 23, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640314/theory-of-2d-crystals-graphene-and-beyond
#4
Rafael Roldán, Luca Chirolli, Elsa Prada, Jose Angel Silva-Guillén, Pablo San-Jose, Francisco Guinea
This tutorial review presents an overview of the basic theoretical aspects of two-dimensional (2D) crystals. We revise essential aspects of graphene and the new families of semiconducting 2D materials, like transition metal dichalcogenides or black phosphorus. Minimal theoretical models for various materials are presented. Some of the exciting new possibilities offered by 2D crystals are discussed, such as manipulation and control of quantum degrees of freedom (spin and pseudospin), confinement of excitons, control of the electronic and optical properties with strain engineering, or unconventional superconducting phases...
June 22, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640313/expanding-applications-of-sers-through-versatile-nanomaterials-engineering
#5
M Fernanda Cardinal, Emma Vander Ende, Ryan A Hackler, Michael O McAnally, Peter C Stair, George C Schatz, Richard P Van Duyne
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy has evolved into a cross-disciplinary analytical technique by unveiling relevant chemical, biological, material, and structural information. The focus of this review is on two critical properties for successfully expanding applications of SERS spectroscopy: quality of the plasmonic substrate and molecule localization to the substrate. In this review, we discuss recent work on quantifying SERS distance dependence, key factors for substrate characterization and performance evaluation, expansion of SERS applications through substrate development for UV plasmonics and short-distance capture strategies for optimizing analyte-surface structures...
June 22, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640311/sers-facts-figures-and-the-future
#6
EDITORIAL
Duncan Graham, Martin Moskovits, Zhong-Qun Tian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640306/tip-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-from-early-developments-to-recent-advances
#7
REVIEW
Tanja Deckert-Gaudig, Atsushi Taguchi, Satoshi Kawata, Volker Deckert
An analytical technique operating at the nanoscale must be flexible regarding variable experimental conditions while ideally also being highly specific, extremely sensitive, and spatially confined. In this respect, tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) has been demonstrated to be ideally suited to, e.g., elucidating chemical reaction mechanisms, determining the distribution of components and identifying and localizing specific molecular structures at the nanometre scale. TERS combines the specificity of Raman spectroscopy with the high spatial resolution of scanning probe microscopies by utilizing plasmonic nanostructures to confine the incident electromagnetic field and increase it by many orders of magnitude...
June 22, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640299/anchoring-groups-for-photocatalytic-water-oxidation-on-metal-oxide-surfaces
#8
Kelly L Materna, Robert H Crabtree, Gary W Brudvig
Surface anchoring groups are needed to attach molecular units to photoanodes for photocatalytic water oxidation. The anchoring group must be hydrolytically stable and oxidation resistant under a variety of pH conditions. They must sometimes be electrically conducting for efficient light-induced electron injection from a photosensitizer to a metal oxide, but other times not conducting for accumulation of oxidizing equivalents on a water-oxidation catalyst. Commonly used anchors such as carboxylic acids and phosphonic acids have limited stability in aqueous environments, leading to surface hydrolysis and loss of catalytic function...
June 22, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639669/plasmon-enhanced-fluorescence-spectroscopy
#9
REVIEW
Jian-Feng Li, Chao-Yu Li, Ricardo F Aroca
Fluorescence spectroscopy with strong emitters is a remarkable tool with ultra-high sensitivity for detection and imaging down to the single-molecule level. Plasmon-enhanced fluorescence (PEF) not only offers enhanced emissions and decreased lifetimes, but also allows an expansion of the field of fluorescence by incorporating weak quantum emitters, avoiding photobleaching and providing the opportunity of imaging with resolutions significantly better than the diffraction limit. It also opens the window to a new class of photostable probes by combining metal nanostructures and quantum emitters...
June 22, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639667/recent-progress-in-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-for-biological-and-biomedical-applications-from-cells-to-clinics
#10
REVIEW
D Cialla-May, X-S Zheng, K Weber, J Popp
The application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in biological and biomedical detection schemes is feasible due to its excellent molecular specificity and high sensitivity as well as the capability of SERS to be performed in complex biological compositions. SERS-based investigation of cells, which are the basic structure and functional unit of organisms, represents the starting point of this review. It is demonstrated that SERS provides a deep understanding of living cells as well as their microenvironment which is needed to assess the development of diseases...
June 22, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635998/heterogeneous-catalytic-hydrogenation-of-co2-by-metal-oxides-defect-engineering-perfecting-imperfection
#11
Jia Jia, Chenxi Qian, Yuchan Dong, Young Feng Li, Hong Wang, Mireille Ghoussoub, Keith T Butler, Aron Walsh, Geoffrey A Ozin
Metal oxides with their myriad compositions, structures and bonding exhibit an incredibly diverse range of properties. It is however the defects in metal oxides that endow them with a variety of functions and it is the ability to chemically tailor the type, population and distribution of defects on the surface and in the bulk of metal oxides that delivers utility in different applications. In this Tutorial Review, we discuss how metal oxides with designed defects can be synthesized and engineered, to enable heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of gaseous carbon dioxide to chemicals and fuels...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632258/materials-and-microfluidics-enabling-the-efficient-isolation-and-analysis-of-circulating-tumour-cells
#12
REVIEW
Joshua M Jackson, Małgorzata A Witek, Joyce W Kamande, Steven A Soper
We present a critical review of microfluidic technologies and material effects on the analyses of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) selected from the peripheral blood of cancer patients. CTCs are a minimally invasive source of clinical information that can be used to prognose patient outcome, monitor minimal residual disease, assess tumour resistance to therapeutic agents, and potentially screen individuals for the early diagnosis of cancer. The performance of CTC isolation technologies depends on microfluidic architectures, the underlying principles of isolation, and the choice of materials...
June 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621376/current-and-future-directions-in-electron-transfer-chemistry-of-graphene
#13
REVIEW
Amir Kaplan, Zhe Yuan, Jesse D Benck, Ananth Govind Rajan, Ximo S Chu, Qing Hua Wang, Michael S Strano
The participation of graphene in electron transfer chemistry, where an electron is transferred between graphene and other species, encompasses many important processes that have shown versatility and potential for use in important applications. Examples of these processes range from covalent functionalization of graphene to modify its properties and incorporate different functional groups, to electrochemical reactions and selective etching. In this paper, we review recent developments in these areas of the electron transfer chemistry of graphene...
June 16, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621356/dye-sensitized-lanthanide-doped-upconversion-nanoparticles
#14
Xindong Wang, Rashid R Valiev, Tymish Y Ohulchanskyy, Hans Ågren, Chunhui Yang, Guanying Chen
Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are promising for applications as wide as biological imaging, multimodal imaging, photodynamic therapy, volumetric displays, and solar cells. Yet, the weak and narrow absorption of lanthanide ions poses a fundamental limit of UCNPs to withhold their brightness, creating a long-standing hurdle for the field. Dye-sensitized UCNPs are emerging to address this performance-limiting problem, yielding up to thousands-fold brighter luminescence than conventional UCNPs without dye sensitization...
June 16, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621347/nonlinear-optical-properties-upconversion-and-lasing-in-metal-organic-frameworks
#15
REVIEW
Raghavender Medishetty, Jan K Zaręba, David Mayer, Marek Samoć, Roland A Fischer
The building block modular approach that lies behind coordination polymers (CPs) and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) results not only in a plethora of materials that can be obtained but also in a vast array of material properties that could be aimed at. Optical properties appear to be particularly predetermined by the character of individual structural units and by the intricate interplay between them. Indeed, the "design principles" shaping the optical properties of these materials seem to be well explored for luminescence and second-harmonic generation (SHG) phenomena; these have been covered in numerous previous reviews...
June 16, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621344/metal-organic-frameworks-meet-metal-nanoparticles-synergistic-effect-for-enhanced-catalysis
#16
REVIEW
Qihao Yang, Qiang Xu, Hai-Long Jiang
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), established as a relatively new class of crystalline porous materials with high surface area, structural diversity, and tailorability, attract extensive interest and exhibit a variety of applications, especially in catalysis. Their permanent porosity enables their inherent superiority in confining guest species, particularly small metal nanoparticles (MNPs), for improved catalytic performance and/or the expansion of reaction scope. This is a rapidly developing interdisciplinary research field...
June 16, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608906/fluorine-18-labelled-building-blocks-for-pet-tracer-synthesis
#17
REVIEW
Dion van der Born, Anna Pees, Alex J Poot, Romano V A Orru, Albert D Windhorst, Danielle J Vugts
Positron emission tomography (PET) is an important driver for present day healthcare. Fluorine-18 is the most widely used radioisotope for PET imaging and a thorough overview of the available radiochemistry methodology is a prerequisite for selection of a synthetic approach for new fluorine-18 labelled PET tracers. These PET tracers can be synthesised either by late-stage radiofluorination, introducing fluorine-18 in the last step of the synthesis, or by a building block approach (also called modular build-up approach), introducing fluorine-18 in a fast and efficient manner in a building block, which is reacted further in one or multiple reaction steps to form the PET tracer...
June 13, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604845/beyond-sulfide-centric-catalysis-recent-advances-in-the-catalytic-cyclization-reactions-of-sulfur-ylides
#18
Liang-Qiu Lu, Tian-Ren Li, Qiang Wang, Wen-Jing Xiao
Great achievements in the asymmetric cyclization reactions of sulfur ylides have been reached by using chiral sulfides; however, this method usually suffers from the high loading of chiral sulfides. Over the past decade, new catalysis technologies beyond chiral sulfide-based catalysis have been gradually applied to the cyclizations of sulfur ylides. These technologies, including organocatalysis, organometallic catalysis and photocatalysis, can avoid the use of stoichiometric chiral pools and enable the development of new cyclization reactions of sulfur ylides...
June 12, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598465/dispersity-effects-in-polymer-self-assemblies-a-matter-of-hierarchical-control
#19
Kay E B Doncom, Lewis D Blackman, Daniel B Wright, Matthew I Gibson, Rachel K O'Reilly
Advanced applications of polymeric self-assembled structures require a stringent degree of control over such aspects as functionality location, morphology and size of the resulting assemblies. A loss of control in the polymeric building blocks of these assemblies can have drastic effects upon the final morphology or function of these structures. Gaining precise control over various aspects of the polymers, such as chain lengths and architecture, blocking efficiency and compositional distribution is a challenge and, hence, measuring the intrinsic mass and size dispersity within these areas is an important aspect of such control...
June 9, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590479/tip-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-for-surfaces-and-interfaces
#20
REVIEW
Xiang Wang, Sheng-Chao Huang, Teng-Xiang Huang, Hai-Sheng Su, Jin-Hui Zhong, Zhi-Cong Zeng, Mao-Hua Li, Bin Ren
Surface and interfaces play key roles in heterogeneous catalysis, electrochemistry and photo(electro)chemistry. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) combines plasmon-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with scanning probe microscopy to simultaneously provide a chemical fingerprint and morphological information for the sample at the nanometer spatial resolution. It is an ideal tool for achieving an in-depth understanding of the surface and interfacial processes, so that the relationship between structure and chemical performance can be established...
June 7, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
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