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Chemical Society Reviews

Dong Wang, Didier Astruc
Whereas noble metal compounds have long been central in catalysis, Earth-abundant metal-based catalysts have in the same time remained undeveloped. Yet the efficacy of Earth-abundant metal catalysts was already shown at the very beginning of the 20th century with the Fe-catalyzed Haber-Bosch process of ammonia synthesis and later in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Nanoscience has revolutionized the world of catalysis since it was observed that very small Au nanoparticles (NPs) and other noble metal NPs are extraordinarily efficient...
January 19, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Guowei Li, Graeme R Blake, Thomas T M Palstra
Vacancies exist throughout nature and determine the physical properties of materials. By manipulating the density and distribution of vacancies, it is possible to influence their physical properties such as band-gap, conductivity, magnetism, etc. This can generate exciting applications in the fields of water treatment, energy storage, and physical devices such as resistance-change memories. In this review, we focus on recent progress in vacancy engineering for the design of materials for energy harvesting applications...
January 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Christina O Baker, Xinwei Huang, Wyatt Nelson, Richard B Kaner
Polyaniline is a conducting polymer with incredible promise, but it has had limited use due to poor reaction control and processability associated with conventional morphologies. Polyaniline nanofibers, on the other hand, have demonstrated, through manufacturing techniques discovered during the past decade, increased processability, higher surface area, and improved consistency and stability in aqueous dispersions, which are finally allowing for expanded commercial development of this promising polymer. This review explores some intriguing applications of polyaniline nanofibers, as well as the advantages and remaining challenges in developing better products using polyaniline in this new morphology...
January 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Heng Zhang, Chunmei Li, Michal Piszcz, Estibaliz Coya, Teofilo Rojo, Lide M Rodriguez-Martinez, Michel Armand, Zhibin Zhou
Electrochemical energy storage is one of the main societal challenges to humankind in this century. The performances of classical Li-ion batteries (LIBs) with non-aqueous liquid electrolytes have made great advances in the past two decades, but the intrinsic instability of liquid electrolytes results in safety issues, and the energy density of the state-of-the-art LIBs cannot satisfy the practical requirement. Therefore, rechargeable lithium metal batteries (LMBs) have been intensively investigated considering the high theoretical capacity of lithium metal and its low negative potential...
January 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Noémie Elgrishi, Matthew B Chambers, Xia Wang, Marc Fontecave
Polypyridyl transition metal complexes represent one of the more thoroughly studied classes of molecular catalysts towards CO2 reduction to date. Initial reports in the 1980s began with an emphasis on 2nd and 3rd row late transition metals, but more recently the focus has shifted towards earlier metals and base metals. Polypyridyl platforms have proven quite versatile and amenable to studying various parameters that govern product distribution for CO2 reduction. However, open questions remain regarding the key mechanistic steps that govern product selectivity and efficiency...
January 13, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Sophie Hameury, Pierre de Frémont, Pierre Braunstein
Ligand design has met with considerable success with both categories of hybrid ligands, which are characterized by chemically different donor groups, and of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs). Their spectacular development and diversity are attracting worldwide interest and offers almost unlimited diversity and potential in e.g. coordination/organometallic main group and transition metal chemistry, catalysis, medicinal chemistry and materials science. This review aims at providing a comprehensive update on a specific class of ligands that has enjoyed much attention in the past few years, at the intersection between the two categories mentioned above, that of hybrid NHC ligands in which the functionality associated with the carbene donor is of the oxygen-donor type...
January 13, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Nian-Tzu Suen, Sung-Fu Hung, Quan Quan, Nan Zhang, Yi-Jun Xu, Hao Ming Chen
There is still an ongoing effort to search for sustainable, clean and highly efficient energy generation to satisfy the energy needs of modern society. Among various advanced technologies, electrocatalysis for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays a key role and numerous new electrocatalysts have been developed to improve the efficiency of gas evolution. Along the way, enormous effort has been devoted to finding high-performance electrocatalysts, which has also stimulated the invention of new techniques to investigate the properties of materials or the fundamental mechanism of the OER...
January 13, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Goran Angelovski, Éva Tóth
A great deal of research involving multidisciplinary approaches is currently dedicated to the understanding of brain function. The complexity of physiological processes that underlie neural activity is the greatest hurdle to faster advances. Among imaging techniques, MRI has great potential to enable mapping of neural events with excellent specificity, spatiotemporal resolution and unlimited tissue penetration depth. To this end, molecular imaging approaches using neurotransmitter-sensitive MRI agents have appeared recently to study neuronal activity, along with the first successful in vivo MRI studies...
January 6, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Cong Yan, Tie Wang
Studies on nanoparticle assemblies and their applications have been research frontiers in nanoscience in the past few decades and remarkable progress has been made in the synthetic strategies and techniques. Recently, the design and fabrication of the nanoparticle-based nanomaterials or nanodevices with integrated and enhanced properties compared to those of the individual components have gradually become the mainstream. However, a systematic solution to provide a big picture for future development and guide the investigation of different aspects of the study of nanoparticle assemblies remains a challenge...
January 6, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Ho Ting Luk, Cecilia Mondelli, Daniel Curulla Ferré, Joseph A Stewart, Javier Pérez-Ramírez
Higher alcohols are important compounds with widespread applications in the chemical, pharmaceutical and energy sectors. Currently, they are mainly produced by sugar fermentation (ethanol and isobutanol) or hydration of petroleum-derived alkenes (heavier alcohols), but their direct synthesis from syngas (CO + H2) would comprise a more environmentally-friendly, versatile and economical alternative. Research efforts in this reaction, initiated in the 1930s, have fluctuated along with the oil price and have considerably increased in the last decade due to the interest to exploit shale gas and renewable resources to obtain the gaseous feedstock...
December 23, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
John R Swierk, Thomas E Mallouk
Correction for 'Design and development of photoanodes for water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells' by John R. Swierk et al., Chem. Soc. Rev., 2013, 42, 2357-2387.
December 19, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Daan van der Es, Wouter F J Hogendorf, Herman S Overkleeft, Gijsbert A van der Marel, Jeroen D C Codée
This review describes the developments in the synthesis of teichoic acids (TA) - glycosylated poly(alditolphosphates) - and the application of these fragments in immunological studies. These structurally diverse biopolymers are omnipresent constituents of the Gram-positive bacterial cell wall where they fulfill a variety of vital functions. They have been and continue to be attractive synthetic targets because of their challenging structures and the fact that their microheterogeneity precludes their isolation in single and pure enough form from natural sources...
December 19, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Mariateresa Giustiniano, Andrea Basso, Valentina Mercalli, Alberto Massarotti, Ettore Novellino, Gian Cesare Tron, Jieping Zhu
The term functionalized isocyanides refers to all those isocyanides in which a neighbouring functional group can finely tune the reactivity of the isocyano group or can be exploited in post-functionalization processes. In this manuscript, we have reviewed all the isocyanides in which the pendant functional group causes either deviation from or reinforces the normal reactivity of the isocyano group and categorized them to highlight their common features and differences. An analysis of their synthetic potential and the possible unexplored directions for future research studies is also addressed...
December 16, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Xingjun Zhu, Qianqian Su, Wei Feng, Fuyou Li
Anti-Stokes shift luminescence is a special optical process, which converts long-wavelength excitation to short-wavelength emission. This unique ability is especially helpful for bio-applications, because the longer-wavelength light source, usually referring to near infrared light, has a larger penetration depth offering a longer working distance for in vivo applications. The anti-Stokes shift luminescence signal can also be distinguished from the auto-fluorescence of biological tissues, thus reducing background interference during bioimaging...
December 14, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Ana B Cuenca, Ryosuke Shishido, Hajime Ito, Elena Fernández
This review is a guided tour along the activation modes and reactivity of B-B, B-Si, B-N, B-S, B-Se and B-P reagents, in the absence of any transition metal complex. Here are disclosed the general concepts related to the homolytic and heterolytic cleavage of B-B and B-interelement bonds, as well as the generation of new C-B and C-interelement bonds, in a selective way. The greener consequences of these novel routes facilitate the gram scale preparations of target functionalised organic compounds. Intrinsic data about the suggested mechanisms and spectroscopic evidence that supports the innovative theories are provided along the review...
December 12, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Xianfeng Chen, Wenjun Zhang
Diamond features an attractive combination of outstanding mechanical, optical, thermal and electrical properties; tunable surface characteristics; and unprecedented biocompatibility. Additionally, diamond can possess unique nitrogen-vacancy emission centers that are highly photostable and extremely sensitive to magnetic fields, temperatures, ion concentrations, and spin densities. With these inherent merits, diamond in various nanoscale configurations has demonstrated a variety of distinctive applications in a broad range of fields...
December 12, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Juhong Chen, Stephanie M Andler, Julie M Goddard, Sam R Nugen, Vincent M Rotello
Pathogenic bacterial contamination is a major threat to human health and safety. In this review, we summarize recent strategies for the integration of recognition elements with nanomaterials for the detection and sensing of pathogenic bacteria. Nanoprobes can provide sensitive and specific detection of bacterial cells, which can be applied across multiple applications and industries.
December 12, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Xing Meng, Hai-Ning Wang, Shu-Yan Song, Hong-Jie Zhang
Crystalline porous materials are currently a hot research topic in the field of proton-conducting materials. Crystalline porous materials include metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), coordination polymers (CPs), polyoxometalates (POMs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs). The designable structures and high surface areas of these materials provide great opportunities to orderly accommodate proton carriers and to systemically modify the concentration and mobility of proton carriers in available spaces. Based on the understanding of the relationship between the structure and proton conductivity, controllable synthesis of porous materials with high proton conductivity will gradually be achieved...
December 5, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Dorian S N Parker, Ralf I Kaiser
The chemical evolution of extraterrestrial environments leads to the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via gas phase radical mediated aromatization reactions. We review that these de facto barrierless reactions are capable of forming prebiotic molecules such as nitrogen substituted PAHs (NPAHs), which represent the missing link between nitrogen bearing acyclic molecules and prebiotic nucleobases along with vitamins found in meteorites. Crucial routes leading to the incorporation of nitrogen atoms into the aromatic ring have been exposed...
December 2, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Xiao-Yu Yang, Li-Hua Chen, Yu Li, Joanna Claire Rooke, Clément Sanchez, Bao-Lian Su
Owing to their immense potential in energy conversion and storage, catalysis, photocatalysis, adsorption, separation and life science applications, significant interest has been devoted to the design and synthesis of hierarchically porous materials. The hierarchy of materials on porosity, structural, morphological, and component levels is key for high performance in all kinds of applications. Synthesis and applications of hierarchically structured porous materials have become a rapidly evolving field of current interest...
December 1, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
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