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Chemical Society Reviews

Lian-Hua Fu, Chao Qi, Jing Lin, Peng Huang
Glucose oxidase (GOx) is an endogenous oxido-reductase that is widely distributed in living organisms. Over recent years, GOx has attracted increasing interest in the biomedical field due to its inherent biocompatibility, non-toxicity, and unique catalysis against β-d-glucose. GOx efficiently catalyzes the oxidization of glucose into gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which can be employed by various biosensors for the detection of cancer biomarkers. Various cancer therapeutic strategies have also been developed based on the catalytic chemistry of GOx: (1) the consumption of glucose provides an alternative strategy for cancer-starvation therapy; (2) the consumption of oxygen increases tumor hypoxia, which can be harnessed for hypoxia-activated therapy; (3) the generation of gluconic acid enhances the acidity of the tumor microenvironment, which can trigger pH-responsive drug release; (4) the generation of H2O2 increases the levels of tumor oxidative stress, and the H2O2 can be converted into toxic hydroxyl radicals that can kill cancer cells upon exposure to light irradiation or via the Fenton reaction...
July 19, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Hongmei Wang, Chunhe Li, Pengfei Fang, Zulei Zhang, Jin Zhong Zhang
As a two-dimensional (2D) material, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) exhibits unique electronic and optical properties useful for a variety of optoelectronic applications including light harvesting. In this article, we review recent progress in the synthesis, properties and applications of MoS2 and related heterostructures. Heterostructured materials are developed to add more functionality or flexibility compared to single component materials. Our focus is on their novel properties and functionalities as well as emerging applications, especially in the areas of light energy harvesting or conversion...
July 19, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Victor W Brar, Michelle C Sherrott, Deep Jariwala
The isolation of thermodynamically stable, free standing materials with single to few atom thicknesses has brought about a revolution in materials science, condensed matter physics and device engineering for opto-electronic applications. These two dimensional (2D) materials cover a broad range of electronic properties ranging from zero-band gap, semi-metallic graphene to wide band gap semiconductors in sulfides and selenides of Mo and W to metallic behavior in Ti, Nb and Ta sulfides and selenides. This permits their potential application in opto-electronic devices from terahertz frequencies up to the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum...
July 19, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Geo Paul, Chiara Bisio, Ilaria Braschi, Maurizio Cossi, Giorgio Gatti, Enrica Gianotti, Leonardo Marchese
Understanding the structure-property relationship of solids is of utmost relevance for efficient chemical processes and technological applications in industries. This contribution reviews the concept of coupling three well-known characterization techniques (solid-state NMR, FT-IR and computational methods) for the study of solid state materials which possess 2D and 3D architectures and discusses the way it will benefit the scientific communities. It highlights the most fundamental and applied aspects of the proactive combined approach strategies to gather information at a molecular level...
July 17, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Rijun Gui, Hui Jin, Zonghua Wang, Jinghong Li
Zero-dimensional (0D) black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs) are emerging functional nanomaterials. 0D BPQDs are a new form of black phosphorus (BP) nanostructures that were first prepared in 2015; they are different from typical two-dimensional (2D) BP layered nanosheets and one-dimensional (1D) BP nanoribbons. Since 2015, numerous studies have been devoted to exploring various synthetic methods, properties and modifications of BPQDs, which exhibit a broad range of applications. This review systematically summarizes PBQDs for the first time...
July 17, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Suchithra Padmajan Sasikala, Joonwon Lim, In Ho Kim, Hong Ju Jung, Taeyeong Yun, Tae Hee Han, Sang Ouk Kim
Graphene, despite being the best known strong and electrical/thermal conductive material, has found limited success in practical applications, mostly due to difficulties in the formation of desired large-scale highly organized structures. Our discovery of a liquid crystalline phase formation in graphene oxide dispersion has enabled a broad spectrum of highly aligned graphene-based structures, including films, fibers, membranes, and mesoscale structures. In this review, the current understanding of the structure-property relationship of graphene oxide liquid crystals (GOLCs) is overviewed...
July 16, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Jongsik Park, Taehyun Kwon, Jun Kim, Haneul Jin, Ho Young Kim, Byeongyoon Kim, Sang Hoon Joo, Kwangyeol Lee
While the realization of clean and sustainable energy conversion systems primarily requires the development of highly efficient catalysts, one of the main issues had been designing the structure of the catalysts to fulfill minimum cost as well as maximum performance. Until now, noble metal-based nanocatalysts had shown outstanding performances toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, the scarcity and high cost of them impeded their practical use...
July 16, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Amarajothi Dhakshinamoorthy, Zhaohui Li, Hermenegildo Garcia
Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of porous crystalline materials that feature a series of unique properties, such as large surface area and porosity, high content of transition metals, and possibility to be designed and modified after synthesis, that make these solids especially suitable as heterogeneous catalysts. The active sites can be coordinatively unsaturated metal ions, substituents at the organic linkers or guest species located inside the pores. The defects on the structure also create these open sites...
July 13, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Wen Li, Liyuan Zhang, Xuehui Ge, Biyi Xu, Weixia Zhang, Liangliang Qu, Chang-Hyung Choi, Jianhong Xu, Afang Zhang, Hyomin Lee, David A Weitz
Droplet microfluidics offers exquisite control over the flows of multiple fluids in microscale, enabling fabrication of advanced microparticles with precisely tunable structures and compositions in a high throughput manner. The combination of these remarkable features with proper materials and fabrication methods has enabled high efficiency, direct encapsulation of actives in microparticles whose features and functionalities can be well controlled. These microparticles have great potential in a wide range of bio-related applications including drug delivery, cell-laden matrices, biosensors and even as artificial cells...
July 12, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Wei Li, Biao Yu
The methodological developments in gold(i)- and gold(iii)-catalyzed glycosylation reactions are fully surveyed, which exploit the special alkynophilicity or the Lewis acidity of the gold cationic complexes. The application of the new methods in the total synthesis of naturally occurring glycoconjugates and glycans is comprehensively reviewed, with a focus on glycosylation of various complex aglycones.
July 11, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Baochao Yang, Shuanhu Gao
In recent decades, transient and highly reactive ortho-quinodimethanes (o-QDMs), ortho-quinone methides (o-QMs) and aza-ortho-quinone methides (aza-o-QMs) have attracted much attention and have been extensively studied and applied in organic synthesis, especially natural product total synthesis. This review summarizes recent advances in Diels-Alder reactions involving in situ-generated o-QDMs, o-QMs and aza-o-QMs, highlighting the power and potential of this strategy in organic synthesis and natural product total synthesis...
July 11, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Feng Wang, Zhenxing Wang, Lei Yin, Ruiqing Cheng, Junjun Wang, Yao Wen, Tofik Ahmed Shifa, Fengmei Wang, Yu Zhang, Xueying Zhan, Jun He
Two-dimensional layered materials (2DLMs) have attracted a tremendous amount of attention as photodetectors due to their fascinating features, including high potentials in new-generation electronic devices, wide coverage of bandgaps, ability to construct van der Waals heterostructures, extraordinary light-mass interaction, strong mechanical flexibility, and the capability of enabling synthesis of 2D nonlayered materials. Until now, most attention has been focused on the well-known graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs)...
July 10, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Sason Shaik, Rajeev Ramanan, David Danovich, Debasish Mandal
This is a tutorial on use of external-electric-fields (EEFs) as effectors of chemical change. The tutorial instructs readers how to conceptualize and design electric-field effects on bonds, structures, and reactions. Most effects can be comprehended as the field-induced stabilization of ionic structures. Thus, orienting the field along the "bond axis" will facilitate bond breaking. Similarly, orienting the field along the "reaction axis", the direction in which "electron pairs transform" from reactants- to products-like, will catalyse the reaction...
July 6, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Shanshan Wang, Alex Robertson, Jamie H Warner
Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) offer monolayer 2D systems with diverse properties that extend beyond what graphene alone can achieve. The properties of TMDs are heavily influenced by the atomic structure and in particular imperfects in the crystallinity in the form of vacancy defects, grain boundaries, cracks, impurity dopants, ripples and edge terminations. This review will cover the current knowledge of the detailed structural forms of some of the most intensively studied 2D TMDs, such as MoS2, WSe2, MoTe2, WTe2, NbSe2, PtSe2, and also covers MXenes...
July 5, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Xiehong Cao, Chaoliang Tan, Melinda Sindoro, Hua Zhang
Correction for 'Hybrid micro-/nano-structures derived from metal-organic frameworks: preparation and applications in energy storage and conversion' by Xiehong Cao et al., Chem. Soc. Rev., 2017, 46, 2660-2677.
July 5, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Meiting Zhao, Ying Huang, Yongwu Peng, Zhiqi Huang, Qinglang Ma, Hua Zhang
Two-dimensional (2D) metal-organic framework (MOF) nanosheets are attracting increasing research attention due to their unique properties originating from their ultrathin thickness, large surface area and high surface-to-volume atom ratios. Many great advances have been made in the synthesis and application of 2D MOF nanosheets over the past few years. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the synthesis of 2D MOF nanosheets by using top-down methods, e.g. sonication exfoliation, mechanical exfoliation, Li-intercalation exfoliation and chemical exfoliation, and bottom-up methods, i...
July 4, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Geng Li, Yu-Yang Zhang, Hui Guo, Li Huang, Hongliang Lu, Xiao Lin, Ye-Liang Wang, Shixuan Du, Hong-Jun Gao
The discovery of graphene opened a door for manufacturing and investigating two-dimensional (2D) materials. After more than ten years of development, 2D materials have become one of the most important topics in materials research, with dozens of new materials having been synthesized experimentally and even more predicted theoretically. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the fabrication of 2D materials based on epitaxial growth in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) experimental environment and the investigation of their physical and chemical properties...
July 4, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Longlong Wang, Bingbing Chen, Jun Ma, Guanglei Cui, Liquan Chen
By breaking through the energy density limits step-by-step, the use of lithium cobalt oxide-based Li-ion batteries (LCO-based LIBs) has led to the unprecedented success of consumer electronics over the past 27 years. Recently, strong demands for the quick renewal of the properties of electronic products every so often have resulted in smarter, larger screened, more lightweight devices with longer standby times that have pushed the energy density of LCO-based LIBs nearly to their limit. As a result, with the aim of achieving a higher energy density and lifting the upper cut-off voltage of LCO above 4...
June 29, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Tao Wang, Tiangang Yang, Chunlei Xiao, Zhigang Sun, Donghui Zhang, Xueming Yang, Marissa L Weichman, Daniel M Neumark
The transition state is a key concept in the field of chemistry and is important in the study of chemical kinetics and reaction dynamics. Chemical reactions in the gas phase are essentially molecular scattering processes, which are quantum mechanical in nature. Thus probing and understanding detailed quantum structure in the transition state region of chemical reactions, such as reactive resonances, is a central topic in this field. In this article, we focus on recent progress in the study of resonances in elementary bimolecular reactions using state-of-the-art transition state spectroscopy methods: high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum state specific backward scattering spectroscopy...
June 29, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Aishun Ding, Marta Meazza, Hao Guo, Jung Woon Yang, Ramon Rios
The enantioselective synthesis of spirocycles has long been pursued by organic chemists. Despite their unique 3D properties and presence in several natural products, the difficulty in their enantioselective synthesis makes them underrepresented in pharmaceutical libraries. Since the first pioneering reports of the enantioselective construction of spirosilanes by Tamao et al., significant effort has been devoted towards the development of new promising asymmetric methodologies. Remarkably, with the advent of organocatalysis, particularly over six years, the reported methodologies for the synthesis of spirocycles have increased exponentially...
June 28, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
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