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Chemical Society Reviews

Anna Notaro, Gilles Gasser
Due to the increasing impact of cancer on worldwide mortality, more and more attention is being devoted to the investigation of novel anticancer strategies. Among these, chemotherapy plays a key role in fighting cancer. This explains the increasing engagement of both the pharmaceutical industry and academia towards the discovery of new chemotherapeutic agents. In recent years, metal-based drugs have attracted much attention due to their atypical physico-chemical properties compared to organic molecules. After the approval of cisplatin as a chemotherapeutic agent in 1978, several types of metal-based drugs have been explored...
October 13, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Nuria Martínez-Sáez, Jesús M Peregrina, Francisco Corzana
Cancer is currently one of the world's most serious public health problems. Significant efforts are being made to develop new strategies that can eradicate tumours selectively without detrimental effects to healthy cells. One promising approach is focused on the design of vaccines that contain partially glycosylated mucins in their formulation. Although some of these vaccines are in clinical trials, a lack of knowledge about the molecular basis that governs the antigen presentation, and the interactions between antigens and the elicited antibodies has limited their success thus far...
October 12, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Li Cao, Xueyi He, Zhongyi Jiang, Xueqin Li, Yifan Li, Yanxiong Ren, Leixin Yang, Hong Wu
Biological membranes possess hierarchical channels and thus exhibit ultrahigh permselectivity for molecules and ions. Intrigued by the delicate structure and transport mechanisms in biochannels, polymer composite membranes with selective transport channels are successfully fabricated for diverse energy- and environment-related applications. This tutorial review aims to present the latest progress in the design and construction of selective molecule/ion transport channels within polymer composite membranes with emphasis on the regulation of the physical and chemical microenvironments of these channels...
October 12, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Swati Shikha, Thoriq Salafi, Jinting Cheng, Yong Zhang
Encoded nano-structures/particles have been used for barcoding and are in great demand for the simultaneous analysis of multiple targets. Due to their nanoscale dimension(s), nano-barcodes have been implemented favourably for bioimaging, in addition to their security and multiplex bioassay application. In designing nano-barcodes for a specific application, encoding techniques, synthesis strategies, and decoding techniques need to be considered. The encoding techniques to generate unique multiple codes for nano-barcodes are based on certain encoding elements including optical (fluorescent and non-fluorescent), graphical, magnetic, and phase change properties of nanoparticles or their different shapes and sizes...
October 12, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Andrew G Cheetham, Rami W Chakroun, Wang Ma, Honggang Cui
Covalent modification of therapeutic compounds is a clinically proven strategy to devise prodrugs with enhanced treatment efficacies. This prodrug strategy relies on the modified drugs that possess advantageous pharmacokinetic properties and administration routes over their parent drug. Self-assembling prodrugs represent an emerging class of therapeutic agents capable of spontaneously associating into well-defined supramolecular nanostructures in aqueous solutions. The self-assembly of prodrugs expands the functional space of conventional prodrug design, affording a possible pathway to more effective therapies as the assembled nanostructure possesses distinct physicochemical properties and interaction potentials that can be tailored to specific administration routes and disease treatment...
October 11, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Di Wu, Adam C Sedgwick, Thorfinnur Gunnlaugsson, Engin U Akkaya, Juyoung Yoon, Tony D James
Fluorescent chemosensors for ions and neutral analytes have been widely applied in many diverse fields such as biology, physiology, pharmacology, and environmental sciences. The field of fluorescent chemosensors has been in existence for about 150 years. In this time, a large range of fluorescent chemosensors have been established for the detection of biologically and/or environmentally important species. Despite the progress made in this field, several problems and challenges still exist. This tutorial review introduces the history and provides a general overview of the development in the research of fluorescent sensors, often referred to as chemosensors...
October 11, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Olga J G M Goor, Simone I S Hendrikse, Patricia Y W Dankers, E W Meijer
The most striking and general property of the biological fibrous architectures in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is the strong and directional interaction between biologically active protein subunits. These fibers display rich dynamic behavior without losing their architectural integrity. The complexity of the ECM taking care of many essential properties has inspired synthetic chemists to mimic these properties in artificial one-dimensional fibrous structures with the aim to arrive at multi-component biomaterials...
October 9, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Jiong Zhou, Guocan Yu, Feihe Huang
Chemotherapy is currently one of the most effective ways to treat cancer. However, traditional chemotherapy faces several obstacles to clinical trials, such as poor solubility/stability, non-targeting capability and uncontrollable release of the drugs, greatly limiting their anticancer efficacy and causing severe side effects towards normal tissues. Supramolecular chemotherapy integrating non-covalent interactions and traditional chemotherapy is a highly promising candidate in this regard and can be appropriately used for targeted drug delivery...
October 5, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Joel M Bowman, Paul L Houston
The phenomenon of roaming in chemical reactions has now become both commonly observed in experiment and extensively supported by theory and simulations. Roaming occurs in highly-excited molecules when the trajectories of atomic motion often bypass the minimum energy pathway and produce reaction in unexpected ways from unlikely geometries. The prototypical example is the unimolecular dissociation of formaldehyde (H2CO), in which the "normal" reaction proceeds through a tight transition state to yield H2 + CO but for which a high fraction of dissociations take place via a "roaming" mechanism in which one H atom moves far from the HCO, almost to dissociation, and then returns to abstract the second H atom...
October 5, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Rasel Das, Chad D Vecitis, Agnes Schulze, Bin Cao, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Xianbo Lu, Jiping Chen, Seeram Ramakrishna
The efficient handling of wastewater pollutants is a must, since they are continuously defiling limited fresh water resources, seriously affecting the terrestrial, aquatic, and aerial flora and fauna. Our vision is to undertake an exhaustive examination of current research trends with a focus on nanomaterials (NMs) to considerably improve the performance of classical wastewater treatment technologies, e.g. adsorption, catalysis, separation, and disinfection. Additionally, NM-based sensor technologies are considered, since they have been significantly used for monitoring water contaminants...
September 29, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Junwen Zhou, Bo Wang
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent-organic frameworks (COFs) are two emerging and explosively growing families of crystalline porous materials (CPMs). These robust frameworks are characterized by their extraordinary porosity, tremendous structural diversity, and versatile functional tunability with precision at the molecular level. In this review, we present recent milestones of MOFs and COFs in the fields of batteries and supercapacitors, two important technologies in electrochemical energy storage (EES), and highlight the functions that a CPM can offer in EES devices, including the storage of electrochemical energy, stabilization of electrode materials, pathways for charge transport, manipulation on mass transport, and promotion of electrochemical reactions...
September 28, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Gary W Brudvig, Sebastiano Campagna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Leilei Xu, Fangzhi Mou, Haotian Gong, Ming Luo, Jianguo Guan
Light, as an external stimulus, is capable of driving the motion of micro/nanomotors (MNMs) with the advantages of reversible, wireless and remote manoeuvre on demand with excellent spatial and temporal resolution. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art light-driven MNMs, which are able to move in liquids or on a substrate surface by converting light energy into mechanical work. The general design strategies for constructing asymmetric fields around light-driven MNMs to propel themselves are introduced as well as the photoactive materials for light-driven MNMs, including photocatalytic materials, photothermal materials and photochromic materials...
September 26, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Ziyuan Song, Zhiyuan Han, Shixian Lv, Chongyi Chen, Li Chen, Lichen Yin, Jianjun Cheng
Synthetic polypeptides from the ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs) are one of the most important biomaterials. The unique features of these synthetic polypeptides, including their chemical diversity of side chains and their ability to form secondary structures, enable their broad applications in the field of gene delivery, drug delivery, bio-imaging, tissue engineering, and antimicrobials. In this review article, we summarize the recent advances in the design of polypeptide-based supramolecular structures, including complexes with nucleic acids, micelles, vesicles, hybrid nanoparticles, and hydrogels...
September 25, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Jamie C Wang, Sean P Hill, Tristan Dilbeck, Omotola O Ogunsolu, Tanmay Banerjee, Kenneth Hanson
High surface area metal oxides offer a unique substrate for the assembly of multiple molecular components at an interface. The choice of molecules, metal oxide, and the nature of the assembly method can have a profound influence on the mechanism, rate, and efficiency of photoinduced energy and electron transfer events at the interface. Owing to their diversity and high level of control, these interfacial assemblies are of interest for numerous applications including solar energy conversion, photoelectrosynthesis, photo-writable memory, and more...
September 22, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Tomáš Pluskal, Jing-Ke Weng
Humans perceive physical information about the surrounding environment through their senses. This physical information is registered by a collection of highly evolved and finely tuned molecular sensory receptors. A multitude of bioactive, structurally diverse ligands have evolved in nature that bind these molecular receptors. The complex, dynamic interactions between the ligands and the receptors lead to changes in our sensory perception or mood. Here, we review our current knowledge of natural products and their derived analogues that interact specifically with human G protein-coupled receptors, ion channels, and nuclear hormone receptors to modulate the sensations of taste, smell, temperature, pain, and itch, as well as mood and its associated behaviour...
September 21, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Shun Mao, Jingbo Chang, Haihui Pu, Ganhua Lu, Qiyuan He, Hua Zhang, Junhong Chen
Meeting the increasing demand for sensors with high sensitivity, high selectivity, and rapid detection presents many challenges. In the last decade, electronic sensors based on field-effect transistors (FETs) have been widely studied due to their high sensitivity, rapid detection, and simple test procedure. Among these sensors, two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial-based FET sensors have been demonstrated with tremendous potential for the detection of a wide range of analytes which is attributed to the unique structural and electronic properties of 2D nanomaterials...
September 21, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Scott Lambert, Martin Wagner
Future plastic materials will be very different from those that are used today. The increasing importance of sustainability promotes the development of bio-based and biodegradable polymers, sometimes misleadingly referred to as 'bioplastics'. Because both terms imply "green" sources and "clean" removal, this paper aims at critically discussing the sometimes-conflicting terminology as well as renewable sources with a special focus on the degradation of these polymers in natural environments. With regard to the former we review innovations in feedstock development (e...
September 21, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Wing-Fu Lai, Andrey L Rogach, Wing-Tak Wong
Cyclodextrins (CDs) are naturally occurring cyclic oligosaccharides bearing a basket-shaped topology with an "inner-outer" amphiphilic character. The abundance of hydroxyl groups enables CDs to be functionalized with multiple targeting ligands and imaging elements. The imaging time, and the payload of different imaging elements, can be tuned by taking advantage of the commercial availability of CDs with different sizes of the cavity. This review aims to offer an outlook of the chemistry and engineering of CDs for the development of molecular probes...
September 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Renwen Yu, Luis M Liz-Marzán, F Javier García de Abajo
Control over the optical response of metal nanoparticles and their associated plasmons is currently enabling many promising applications in areas as diverse as biosensing and photocatalysis. In this context, experiments based upon colloid synthesis and nanofabricated structures are assisted by numerical electromagnetic modeling, which supplies predictive simulations, but not the kind of physical intuition needed for exploration of new ideas, such as one finds when simple mathematical expressions can describe a problem...
September 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
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