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International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913717/assessing-the-macro-level-correlates-of-malware-infections-using-a-routine-activities-framework
#1
Thomas J Holt, George W Burruss, Adam M Bossler
The ability to gain unauthorized access to computer systems to engage in espionage and data theft poses a massive threat to individuals worldwide. There has been minimal focus, however, on the role of malicious software, or malware, which can automate this process. This study examined the macro-correlates of malware infection at the national level by using an open repository of known malware infections and utilizing a routine activities framework. Negative inflated binomial models for counts indicated that nations with greater technological infrastructure, more political freedoms, and with less organized crime financial impact were more likely to report malware infections...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913716/single-and-multiple-clinical-syndromes-in-incarcerated-offenders-associations-with-dissociative-experiences-and-emotionality
#2
Carlo Garofalo, Patrizia Velotti, Cristina Crocamo, Giuseppe Carrà
The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of clinical syndromes in a large group (N = 438) of incarcerated violent offenders, looking at differences between inmates with one and those with more than one clinical syndromes. More than a half of the sample (57%) reported clinically relevant symptoms for at least one clinical syndrome (n = 252), and the majority of them (38%) reported more syndromes in comorbidity (n = 169). Increased severity of clinical conditions (none, one, more than one syndrome) corresponded with significantly greater levels of personality disorder traits, psychological symptoms, dissociation, and negative emotionality, with large effect sizes...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913715/doping-among-professional-athletes-in-iran-a-test-of-akers-s-social-learning-theory
#3
Saeed Kabiri, John K Cochran, Bernadette J Stewart, Mahmoud Sharepour, Mohammad Mahdi Rahmati, Syede Massomeh Shadmanfaat
The use of performance-enhancing drugs (PED) is common among Iranian professional athletes. As this phenomenon is a social problem, the main purpose of this research is to explain why athletes engage in "doping" activity, using social learning theory. For this purpose, a sample of 589 professional athletes from Rasht, Iran, was used to test assumptions related to social learning theory. The results showed that there are positive and significant relationships between the components of social learning theory (differential association, differential reinforcement, imitation, and definitions) and doping behavior (past, present, and future use of PED)...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913714/measuring-offenders-belief-in-the-possibility-of-desistance
#4
Kevin O'Sullivan, Rochelle Williams, Xiang Yan Hong, David Bright, Richard Kemp
This article describes the use of a questionnaire to measure offenders' belief in the likelihood of their making a successful re-entry into society after having committed crime, a "belief in redeemability" (BIR) as described by Maruna and King. The 37 items for the scale were taken from statements by offenders about their prospects of making good. This set of items was tested with a pilot group of offenders recruited from clients on parole or on supervised bonds at community corrections offices in metropolitan Sydney, Australia, and their responses were coded to yield a score we called the "BIR" score...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913713/the-allocation-of-sexually-transgressive-juveniles-to-intensive-specialized-treatment-an-assessment-of-the-application-of-rnr-principles
#5
Ellis Ter Beek, Rachel E A van der Rijken, Chris H Z Kuiper, Jan Hendriks, Geert Jan J M Stams
The aim of this study was to compare results of and develop guidelines for mandatory allocation of sexually transgressive juveniles to Multisystemic Therapy - Problem Sexual Behavior (MST-PSB), Secure Youth Care (SYC), or Forensic Youth Care (FYC), based on the risk-need-responsivity model. Results of current allocation showed a population with relatively less treatment needs to receive community-based MST-PSB, compared with populations receiving residential SYC and FYC. Furthermore, estimated recidivism risk levels did not always support the need for risk reduction by the imposition of limitation of freedom of movement and maximum supervision, provided by all three treatment modalities...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913712/money-now-money-later-linking-time-discounting-and-criminal-convictions-in-the-cambridge-study-in-delinquent-development
#6
Alex R Piquero, David P Farrington, Wesley G Jennings
Two prominent criminological theories offer time discounting, or the preference for an immediate reward over a later one, as a central part of understanding involvement in criminal activity. Yet, there exist only a few studies investigating this issue, and they are limited in a few respects. The current study extends prior work in this area by using multiple measures of time discounting collected at three different periods of the life course to examine the link to criminal offending into late middle adulthood in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884945/evaluation-of-european-domestic-violence-perpetrator-programmes-toward-a-model-for-designing-and-reporting-evaluations-related-to-perpetrator-treatment-interventions
#7
Sarah-Jane Lilley-Walker, Marianne Hester, William Turner
This article is based on a review of 60 evaluations (published and unpublished) relating to European domestic violence perpetrator programmes, involving 7,212 programme participants across 12 countries. The purpose of the review, part of the "IMPACT: Evaluation of European Perpetrator Programmes" project funded by the European Commission (Daphne III Programme), was to provide detailed knowledge about the range of European evaluation studies with particular emphasis on the design, methods, input, output, and outcome measures used in order to identify the possibilities and challenges of a multicountry, Europe-wide evaluation methodology that could be used to assess perpetrator programmes in the future...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864533/calculating-probability-in-sex-offender-risk-assessment
#8
Richard W Elwood
Risk is the probability of an adverse event or outcome. In a previous article, I compared the Bayesian and Frequentist models of defining probability. This article compares the Bayesian and regression models of quantifying probability. Both approaches are widely used in the biomedical and behavioral sciences even though they yield different results. No consensus has emerged as to which is more appropriate. The choice between them remains controversial. This article concludes that the Bayesian model provides a viable alternative to logistic regression and may be more useful in quantifying the absolute recidivism risk of individual sex offenders...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864532/the-impact-of-types-and-extent-of-trauma-on-depressive-affect-among-male-juvenile-sexual-offenders
#9
Jennifer W Jencks, George S Leibowitz
High levels of depression have been found among incarcerated youth, which suggests that mental health problems are associated with delinquent behavior and are part of a constellation of risk factors that contribute to youth entering the juvenile justice system. In this project, we investigated trauma and mental health issues among male youth in residential treatment, and addressed the following questions: (a) Does childhood trauma predict current depression for male juvenile sexual offenders? (b) If so, do different types of traumas predict depressive affect better than others? and, (c) Does extent of trauma exposure predict depression? Data on incarcerated male juvenile sexual offenders were analyzed (n = 379)...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864531/familial-depressive-symptoms-and-delinquency-separate-self-reports-from-mothers-and-their-offspring
#10
Lee Ellis, Anthony Hoskin
Research has documented that both unipolar and bipolar depression are positively correlated with involvement in delinquency and crime. The present study sought to broaden the understanding of these relationships by looking for links between offending and family histories of depressive symptoms in relationship to offspring delinquency. More than 6,000 college students and their mothers provided self-reported information regarding feelings of depression. Students provided self-reports of involvement in various categories of offending and drug use from ages 10 through 18...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864530/why-information-matters-examining-the-consequences-of-suggesting-that-pedophilia-is-immutable
#11
Safiye Tozdan, Anna Kalt, Arne Dekker, Livia B Keller, Stephanie Thiel, Jürgen L Müller, Peer Briken
In this study, the impact of suggesting that pedophilia is immutable on a man's specific self-efficacy for modifying his sexual interest in children was examined in 94 men with a sexual interest in children. The participants were selected from differing contexts and included non-forensic patients, forensic patients, and participants from the Internet. Randomly distributed to two conditions, the mutable condition group received the information that experts consider pedophilia to be modifiable, whereas the immutable condition group received the information that experts consider pedophilia to be stable...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799417/predicting-re-incarceration-status-of-prisoners-in-contemporary-china-applying-western-criminological-theories
#12
Steven F Messner, Jianhong Liu, Yunhan Zhao
Studies have revealed that self-control theory, social learning theory, and strain theory are useful in explaining criminal activity in China. Previous research with Chinese data, however, has focused almost exclusively on samples of adolescents and the minor types of offending that are typically captured in such samples. The present study builds upon prior work by considering the extent to which these three major etiological theories of crime can help differentiate between profiles of Chinese prisoners categorized with respect to re-incarceration status...
October 30, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794135/do-extremely-violent-juveniles-respond-differently-to-treatment
#13
Jessica J Asscher, M Deković, Alithe L Van den Akker, Pier J M Prins, Peter H Van der Laan
This study increases knowledge on effectiveness of treatment for extremely violent (EV) youth by investigating their response to multisystemic therapy (MST). Using data of a randomized controlled trial on effectiveness of MST, we investigated differences in treatment response between EV youth and not extremely violent (NEV) youth. Pre- to post-treatment comparison indicated MST was equally effective for EV and NEV youth, whereas treatment as usual was not effective for either group. Growth curves of within-treatment changes indicated EV youth responded differently to MST than NEV youth...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756856/social-work-contribution-to-desistance-among-at-risk-youth
#14
Chau-Kiu Cheung, Jessica Chi-Mei Li, Tak-Yan Lee
Desistance as a process to forgo delinquent habits is an important target for intervention into youth at risk of delinquency. The intervention through social work services, nevertheless, has not clearly demonstrated its effectiveness. For such a demonstration, the present study examines the contribution of social work services with reference to the voluntaristic theory of action. The theory suggests that promoting the youth's voluntarism underlying desistance, encompassing appreciation, facilitation, observation, and identification concerning desistance is essential...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707935/how-does-it-work-mechanisms-of-action-in-an-in-prison-restorative-justice-program
#15
Marilyn Armour, Shannon Sliva
Research is limited on mechanisms of action in restorative justice interventions. This multimethods study delineates the change processes underlying a successful in-prison group treatment program by (a) examining shifts in offenders' self-schemas and (b) identifying key program components that influence this movement. Researchers assigned to small groups as "co-facilitators" gathered data using participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and psychological assessments at three time points. Mechanisms of action include group norms and behaviors that contrast with prior experiences and uncover offenders' self-schemas through intrapsychic processes, which prompt them to test and act upon new possible selves through the group process...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707934/beyond-the-walls-the-social-reintegration-of-prisoners-through-the-dialogic-reading-of-classic-universal-literature-in-prison
#16
Pilar Alvarez, Rocío García-Carrión, Lidia Puigvert, Cristina Pulido, Tinka Schubert
This study analyzed whether it was possible to successfully transfer an experience of dialogic literary gatherings (DLGs) developed in a prison in the Basque Country (Spain), which was found to enhance the participants' readiness to return to their communities. A case study was conducted in a different prison in Catalonia that comprised interviews and focus groups with a group of female prisoners and volunteers involved in the DLG. The communicative analysis conducted showed that the replication of the DLG allowed the participants to discuss and reflect on their biographies and their expected pathways upon release, thus opening possibilities for personal and social change...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707933/batterer-intervention-programs-in-spain-an-analysis-of-their-effectiveness
#17
Victoria A Ferrer-Perez, Esperanza Bosch-Fiol
Intimate partner violence against women is a social and women's health concern. Much effort has gone into providing services and support for victims of this violence. By contrast, intervention programs focusing on the batterers themselves have received far less attention. The purpose of this article is to provide a systematic review of the evidence regarding the effectiveness of batterer intervention programs (BIPs) implemented in Spain as provided by research published in peer-reviewed journals and scientific reports...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694400/an-epidemiological-study-of-burglary-offenders-trends-and-predictors-of-self-reported-arrests-for-burglary-in-the-united-states-2002-2013
#18
Matt DeLisi, Erik J Nelson, Michael G Vaughn, Brian B Boutwell, Christopher P Salas-Wright
Burglary is serious property crime with a relatively high incidence and has been shown to be variously associated with other forms of criminal behavior. Unfortunately, an epidemiological understanding of burglary and its correlates is largely missing from the literature. Using public-use data collected between 2002 and 2013 as part of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), the current study compared those who self-reported burglary arrest in the prior 12 months with and without criminal history...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669732/sex-offending-and-situational-motivation-findings-from-a-qualitative-analysis-of-desistance-from-sexual-offending
#19
Mark Farmer, Anne-Marie McAlinden, Shadd Maruna
Sex offending is typically understood from a pathology perspective with the origin of the behavior thought to be within the offending individual. Such a perspective may not be beneficial for those seeking to desist from sexual offending and reintegrate into mainstream society. A thematic analysis of 32 self-narratives of men convicted of sexual offences against children suggests that such individuals typically explain their pasts utilizing a script consistent with routine activity theory, emphasizing the role of circumstantial changes in both the onset of and desistance from sexual offending...
September 25, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669731/a-randomized-controlled-trial-exploring-the-effects-of-brief-anger-management-on-community-based-offenders-in-malta
#20
Kevin Sammut Henwood, Kevin Dominic Browne, Shihning Chou
The aim of this article is to examine the effects of a short-term one-to-one anger management program delivered to community-based offenders in Malta. The program delivered was the Individual Managing Anger Program (I-MAP), a Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based anger management intervention developed as an EU project. A randomized control trial (RCT)with waitlist controls was carried out to investigate the effects of I-MAP on the reduction in anger dysfunction among offenders serving a community-based sanction...
September 25, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
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