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Journal of Psycholinguistic Research

Mark Lowry, Judith Bryant
The linguistic relativity hypothesis states that the language one speaks affects how one thinks. Color categorization across languages has often been studied in order to examine the hypothesis. However, those studies often rely on uniform color stimuli or focus on one aspect of cognition. In experiment one, we examined how Russian- and English-speaking participants rated the color of blue/grey eyes perceptually and from memory. Russian-speakers are more likely to describe such eyes as grey, whereas English-speakers are more likely to describe them as blue...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Tianxu Chen
Character learning is a key issue for second language (L2) Chinese learners. However, our understanding is limited regarding the extent to which the multilevel linguistic knowledge simultaneously works for learning characters, particularly for L2 compound character meaning retention. To fill these gaps, two research questions were addressed. (1) What are the relationships among L2 learners' radical knowledge, character knowledge, and character meaning retention? (2) To what extent do radical knowledge and character knowledge independently and jointly contribute to character meaning retention? Fifty-six English-speaking L2 Chinese collegiate participants in the U...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Amber R Massey-Abernathy, Elizabeth Haseltine
Humans are social beings that form hierarchies to gain and maintain resources. Dominant positions are often obtained through resource control strategies, displayed through language. Language can be examined in a number of ways including number of vocalizations and pragmatic skills. The benefit of pragmatic skills, in relationship to popularity (group dominance), can be explained by virtue signalling and the sociometer theory. The current study examined the relationship of individuals in a novel group setting...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
N A Mahler, H J Chenery
The current investigation examined the developmental changes involved in processing semantic context in auditorily presented sentences, as well as underlying attentional and suppression mechanisms. Thirty-nine typically developing school-aged children aged 6;0-14;0 years participated in the current cross-sectional sentential auditory word repetition study. Component processes involved in auditory word recognition were examined and their respective developmental trajectories systematically delineated. Experimental manipulations included semantic congruity (congruous, incongruous), sentence constraint (high, low), cloze probability (high, low), and processing mode...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Haomin Zhang
The current study aimed to explore the effect of first language (L1) orthography on second language (L2) Chinese morphological awareness. One hundred and twenty-nine students (61 L1 English readers and 68 L1 Thai readers) who studied Chinese as a second language participated in this study. They completed four tasks of morphological awareness (morpheme segmentation, morpheme discrimination, compound structure discrimination, compound structure analysis) and two control measures (reading vocabulary tasks). Drawing upon MANCOVA analysis, the study revealed that Thai readers outperformed English readers on compound awareness after the effect of L2 reading vocabulary was accounted for...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Xiaolu Yang, Rushen Shi, Kailin Xu
The study assessed 30-month-old Mandarin-speaking children's awareness of aspectual distinctions involving the perfective marker le and the imperfective marker zhe in a preferential looking experiment. In the experiment, we presented our child subjects with a choice between two video clips (one depicting a closed event and the other depicting an on-going event), in the presence of an auditory stimulus (either the le sentence, the zhe sentence or the control sentence without any aspect marker). Children's looking behavior in the task was recorded and analyzed...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Byurakn Ishkhanyan, Kasper Boye, Jesper Mogensen
The interaction between working memory and language processing is widely discussed in cognitive research. However, those studies often explore the relationship between language comprehension and working memory (WM). The role of WM is rarely considered in language production, despite some evidence suggesting a relationship between the two cognitive systems. This study attempts to fill that gap by using a complex span task during language production. We make our predictions based on the reorganization of elementary functions neurocognitive model, a usage based theory about grammatical status, and language production models...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Jill de Villiers, Chunyan Ning, Xueman Lucy Liu, Yi Wen Zhang, Fan Jiang
The comprehension of paired wh-questions is examined in child Mandarin, to compare the age of acquisition with that of children speaking European languages like English and German. In Study 1, participants were 734 Mandarin speakers aged 2;6-7;11, drawn from four regions of China. Results reveal a striking parallel between the acquisition of exhaustive answers in Mandarin and that in languages with wh-movement. The significant correlation with children's exhaustive interpretations of the universal quantifier every (dou) also parallels findings in English...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Julien Dirani, Arne Dietrich
Reading plays an essential role in our everyday lives. The aim of this study is to investigate how letters are represented in the brain using the unique characteristics of the Arabic language, which can be written with 2 different scripts. The hypothesis proposed is that the processing of script is sound based: Phonology is what determines letter identity. Using a forward-masked priming paradigm, we showed that Latin-script primes facilitated the recognition of subsequent Arabic-script targets which differed in orthography but shared phonology, thus suggesting a common level of phonological processing...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Michael Zuniga, Daphnée Simard
Self-repairs, that is revisions of speech that speakers themselves initiate and complete (Salonen and Laakso in J Child Lang 36:859, 2009. ), are frequently used to observe the cognitive and linguistic processes underlying second language (L2) speech production. Previous research has shown that factors such as L2 proficiency, attentional control and native language (L1) self-repair behavior interact with L2 self-repair behavior. To our knowledge, however, no research has examined how these three factors interact within a cohort of L2 speakers...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Manuel Dupont
This study investigated the phenomenon of personal name confusion, i.e. calling a familiar person by someone else's name. Two types of name confusion were considered: single confusions (i.e. confusions that appeared only once) and repeated confusions (i.e. confusions that appeared repeatedly). The main purpose of the present study was to compare these two types of personal name confusion and to identify the similarities and differences between them. Participants were asked to fill in two questionnaires (one for each type of confusion) in order to collect information about the properties of the confusions...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Yi Ding, Ru-De Liu, Catherine A McBride, Chung-Hau Fan, Le Xu, Jia Wang
This study examined pinyin (the official phonetic system that transcribes the lexical tones and pronunciation of Chinese characters) invented spelling and English invented spelling in 72 Mandarin-speaking 6th graders who learned English as their second language. The pinyin invented spelling task measured segmental-level awareness including syllable and phoneme awareness, and suprasegmental-level awareness including lexical tones and tone sandhi in Chinese Mandarin. The English invented spelling task manipulated segmental-level awareness including syllable awareness and phoneme awareness, and suprasegmental-level awareness including word stress...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Melissa L Glasser, Rebecca A Williamson, Şeyda Özçalışkan
Children can understand iconic co-speech gestures that characterize entities by age 3 (Stanfield et al. in J Child Lang 40(2):1-10, 2014; e.g., "I'm drinking" [Formula: see text] tilting hand in C-shape to mouth as if holding a glass). In this study, we ask whether children understand co-speech gestures that characterize events as early as they do so for entities, and if so, whether their understanding is influenced by the patterns of gesture production in their native language. We examined this question by studying native English speaking 3- to 4 year-old children and adults as they completed an iconic co-speech gesture comprehension task involving motion events across two studies...
June 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Lorenzo Desideri, Paola Bonifacci
Empirical evidence collected so far has revealed that the bilingual advantage cannot be reduced to a single component of the executive functioning, and point to the need to understand the effects of bilingual experience on cognition as influencing a wider family of mental processes, including, but not limited to, cognitive control. The present study aims to explore a relatively underinvestigated domain of bilingual cognitive processes, namely anticipation, through a series of different paradigms tapping proactive and reactive mechanisms at different levels of cognitive complexity and linguistic components...
June 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Ayşe Altıparmak, Gülmira Kuruoğlu
The focus of this research is to verify the influence of the age variable on fluent Turkish native speakers' production of the various types of speech disfluencies. To accomplish this, four groups of native speakers of Turkish between ages 4-8, 18-23, 33-50 years respectively and those over 50-year-olds were constructed. A total of 84 participants took part in this study. Prepared and unprepared speech samples of at least 300 words were collected from each participant via face-to-face interviews that were tape recorded and transcribed; for practical reasons, only the unprepared speech samples were collected from children...
June 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Katarzyna Jankowiak, Paweł Korpal
Though previous research has shown a decreased sensitivity to emotionally-laden linguistic stimuli presented in the non-native (L2) compared to the native language (L1), studies conducted thus far have not examined how different modalities influence bilingual emotional language processing. The present experiment was therefore aimed at investigating how late proficient Polish (L1)-English (L2) bilinguals process emotionally-laden narratives presented in L1 and L2, in the visual and auditory modality. To this aim, we employed the galvanic skin response (GSR) method and a self-report measure (Polish adaptation of the PANAS questionnaire)...
June 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Alex Miklashevsky
A number of new psycholinguistic variables has been proposed during the last years within embodied cognition framework: modality experience rating (i.e., relationship between words and images of a particular perceptive modality-visual, auditory, haptic etc.), manipulability (the necessity for an object to interact with human hands in order to perform its function), vertical spatial localization. However, it is not clear how these new variables are related to each other and to such traditional variables as imageability, AoA and word frequency...
June 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Juan Haro, Pilar Ferré
It is not clear whether multiple unrelated meanings inhibit or facilitate word recognition. Some studies have found a disadvantage for words having multiple meanings with respect to unambiguous words in lexical decision tasks (LDT), whereas several others have shown a facilitation for such words. In the present study, we argue that these inconsistent findings may be due to the approach employed to select ambiguous words across studies. To address this issue, we conducted three LDT experiments in which we varied the measure used to classify ambiguous and unambiguous words...
June 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Salar Faramarzi, Mohammadreza Moradi, Ahmad Abedi
The present study aimed to develop the thinking maps training package and compare its training effect with the thinking maps method on the reading performance of second and fifth grade of elementary school male dyslexic students. For this mixed method exploratory study, from among the above mentioned grades' students in Isfahan, 90 students who met the inclusion criteria were selected by multistage sampling and randomly assigned into six experimental and control groups. The data were collected by reading and dyslexia test and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-fourth edition...
June 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
A J Benjamin Clarke, Jason D Ludington
Normative databases containing psycholinguistic variables are commonly used to aid stimulus selection for investigations into language and other cognitive processes. Norms exist for many languages, but not for Thai. The aim of the present research, therefore, was to obtain Thai normative data for the BOSS, a set of 480 high resolution color photographic images of real objects (Brodeur et al. in PLoS ONE 5(5), 2010. ). Norms were provided by 584 Thai university students on eight dimensions: name agreement, object familiarity, visual complexity, category agreement, image agreement, two types of manipulability (graspability and mimeability), and age of acquisition...
June 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
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