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Journal of Psycholinguistic Research

Nadiia Denhovska, Ludovica Serratrice
Incidental learning of grammar has been an area of interest for many decades; nevertheless, existing research has primarily focused on artificial or semi-artificial languages. The present study examines the incidental acquisition of the grammar of a natural language by exposing adult speakers of an ungendered L1 (English) to the gender agreement patterns in Russian (a language that was novel to the learners). Both receptive and productive knowledge and the mediating role of working memory (WM) in learning were measured...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Sugandha Kaur
The current study investigated the effects of the semantic context, cognate status of the word and second language age of acquisition and proficiency in two word naming experiments (Experiment 1 and 2). Three groups of Bodo-Assamese bilinguals named cognate and non-cognate words in their first language, Bodo and second language, Assamese, which were presented in categorized and randomized lists. Experiment 1 demonstrated significant category interference for both cognate and non-cognate words; whereas, in Experiment 2, category interference was observed only in case of cognate words, indicating that naming in L2 was more prone to semantic effects...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Simpson W L Wong, Jenny K Y Tsui, Bonnie Wing-Yin Chow, Vina W H Leung, Peggy Mok, Kevin Kien-Hoa Chung
Previous research has shown that learners of English-as-a-second-language (ESL) have difficulties in understanding connected speech spoken by native English speakers. Extending from past research limited to quiet listening condition, this study examined the perception of English connected speech presented under five adverse conditions, namely multi-talker babble noise, speech-shaped noise, factory noise, whispering and sad emotional tones. We tested a total of 64 Chinese ESL undergraduate students, using a battery of listening tasks...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Meichao Zhang, Aitao Lu, Pingfang Song
The present study used event-related potentials to investigate whether the syntactic structure was activated in the comprehension of lexical idioms, and if so, whether it varied as a function of familiarity and semantic transparency. Participants were asked to passively read the "1+2" structural Chinese lexical idioms with each being presented following 3-5 contextual "1+2" (congruent-structure condition) or "2+1" structural Chinese phrases (incongruent-structure condition). The N400 ERP responses showed more positivity in congruent-structure condition relative to incongruent-structure condition in idioms with high familiarity and high semantic transparency, but less positivity in congruent-structure condition in idioms with high familiarity but low semantic transparency, idioms with low familiarity but high semantic transparency, and idioms with low familiarity and low semantic transparency...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Canhuang Luo, Wei Chen, Ye Zhang
In studies of visual object recognition, strong inversion effects accompany the acquisition of expertise and imply the involvement of configural processing. Chinese literacy results in sensitivity to the orthography of Chinese characters. While there is some evidence that this orthographic sensitivity results in an inversion effect, and thus involves configural processing, that processing might depend on exact orthographic properties. Chinese character recognition is believed to involve a hierarchical process, involving at least two lower levels of representation: strokes and radicals...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Laura Winther Balling, Johannes Kizach
An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time increases with big changes in the relative entropy of possible parses, sometimes leading to anti-locality effects. We consider both lexicalised surprisal, expressed in conditional trigram probabilities, and syntactic surprisal expressed in the manipulation of the expectedness of the second NP in Danish constructions with two postverbal NP-objects...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Megumi Hamada
L2 reading research suggests that L1 orthographic experience influences L2 word recognition. Nevertheless, the findings on multi-syllabic words in English are still limited despite the fact that a vast majority of words are multi-syllabic. The study investigated whether L1 orthography influences the recognition of multi-syllabic words, focusing on the position of an embedded word. The participants were Arabic ESL learners, Chinese ESL learners, and native speakers of English. The task was a word search task, in which the participants identified a target word embedded in a pseudoword at the initial, middle, or final position...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Mahmood Saadatnia, Saeed Ketabi, Mansoor Tavakoli
The purpose of this study was to investigate two levels of reading comprehension, namely literal and inferential, of two text types of narration and exposition in Iranian EFL learners. The elicitation instruments were four expository texts and four narrative ones. One hundred eighty upper-intermediate EFL learners were assigned the reading passages followed by both literal and inferential multiple-choice items. Paired-samples t tests were run to provide answers to the research questions of this study. From an inter-text-type angle, the results demonstrated that the participants meaningfully outperformed on the expository texts at the level of literal comprehension...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Wenguang He, Na Xu, Runqing Ji
Three experiments investigated Chinese relative clause processing with children, youths and elders using sentence-picture matching and self-paced reading methods. In Experiment 1, we found that object-extracted clause were easier to comprehend than subject-extracted clause , and object-modified relative clause (i.e., object-modified subject-extracted clause[Formula: see text]object-modified object-extracted clause) were difficult to comprehend than subject modified relative clause (subject-modified subject-extracted clause[Formula: see text]subject-modified object-extracted clause)...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Baha Makhoul
The current study attempted to investigate the development of Arabic academic vocabulary knowledge among middle-school Arabic native speakers, taking into account the socioeconomic status of the Arab population in Israel. For this purpose, Arabic academic word list was developed, mapping the required academic words that are needed for adequate coping with informational texts as appearing in the different content areas text-books. Six-hundred Arabic speaking middle school pupils from the different areas in Israel, representing the different Arab subgroups: general Arab community, Druze and Bedouins, have participated in the current study...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Svetlana Alexeeva, Anastasia Frolova, Natalia Slioussar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Dina Abdel Salam El-Dakhs
The present study investigates the patterns of word associations among Arab EFL learners and compares these patterns with those of native speakers of English. The study also examines the influence of increased language exposure and word characteristics on the learners' association patterns. To this end, 45 native speakers of English and 421 Arab learners of English at a Saudi university with two distinct levels of English language exposure completed a multiple-response word association test and their responses were analyzed, examined and compared...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Lauren J Stites, Şeyda Özçalışkan
Children achieve increasingly complex language milestones initially in gesture or in gesture+speech combinations before they do so in speech, from first words to first sentences. In this study, we ask whether gesture continues to be part of the language-learning process as children begin to develop more complex language skills, namely narratives. A key aspect of narrative development is tracking story referents, specifying who did what to whom. Adults track referents primarily in speech by introducing a story character with a noun phrase and then following the same referent with a pronoun-a strategy that presents challenges for young children...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Wei-Lun Chung, Linda Jarmulowicz
For monolingual English-speaking children, judgment and production of stress in derived words, including words with phonologically neutral (e.g., -ness) and non-neutral suffixes (e.g., -ity), is important to both academic vocabulary growth and to word reading. For Mandarin-speaking adult English learners (AELs) the challenge of learning the English stress system might be complicated by cross-linguistic differences in prosodic function and features. As Mandarin-speakers become more proficient in English, patterns similar to those seen in monolingual children could emerge in which awareness and use of stress and suffix cues benefit word reading...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Jefferson de Carvalho Maia, Mirta Vernice, Carlos Gelormini-Lezama, Maria Luiza Cunha Lima, Amit Almor
In this study, we investigate whether co-referential processing across sentence boundaries is driven by universal properties of the general architecture of memory systems and whether cross-linguistic differences concerning the number of anaphoric forms available in a language's referential inventory can impact the process of inter-sentential co-reference resolution. As a window into these questions, we test whether the repeated-name penalty (RNP) and the overt-pronoun penalty (OPP)-comprehension delays associated with repeated names and overt pronouns, respectively, in comparison to more reduced anaphoric forms in reference to salient antecedents-occur in Italian, examining the extent to which Italian resembles other null-subject languages, with focus on Spanish...
April 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Marlena Bartczak, Barbara Bokus
Using the Semantic Distance Task, we investigated the semantic distances between ME and five metaphorically conceptualized notions: PAST, FUTURE, JOY, SADNESS, and HAPPINESS. Three Polish-speaking groups participated in the study: depressive subjects ([Formula: see text]), patients in remission ([Formula: see text]), and non-depressed individuals ([Formula: see text]). T-test and the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric equivalent of ANOVA analyses showed that subjects in remission placed ME significantly farther away from PAST than non-depressed individuals and depressed patients...
April 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Pelle Söderström, Merle Horne, Mikael Roll
Results from the present event-related potentials (ERP) study show that tones on Swedish word stems can rapidly pre-activate upcoming suffixes, even when the word stem does not carry any lexical meaning. Results also show that listeners are able to rapidly restore suffixes which are replaced with a cough. Accuracy in restoring suffixes correlated positively with the amplitude of an anterior negative ERP elicited by stem tones. This effect is proposed to reflect suffix pre-activation. Suffixes that were cued by an incorrect tone elicited a left-anterior negativity and a P600, suggesting that the correct processing of the suffix is crucially tied to the activation of the preceding validly associated tone...
April 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Arnout Koornneef, Iris Mulders
In an eye-tracking experiment we examined the risky reading hypothesis, in which long saccades and many regressions are considered to be indicative of a proactive reading style (Rayner et al. in Psychol Aging 21(3):448, 2006; Psychol Aging 24(3):755, 2009). We did so by presenting short texts-that confirmed or disconfirmed verb-based implicit causality expectations-to two types of readers: proactive readers (long saccades, many regressions) and conservative readers (short saccades, few regressions). Whereas proactive readers used implicit causality information to predict upcoming referents, and slowed down immediately when they encountered a pronoun that was inconsistent with these verb-based expectations, the conservative readers slowed down much later in the sentence...
February 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Richard Stephens, Amy Zile
This study assessed the effect of experimentally manipulated emotional arousal on swearing fluency. We hypothesised that swear word generation would be increased with raised emotional arousal. The emotional arousal of 60 participants was manipulated by having them play a first-person shooter video game or, as a control, a golf video game, in a randomised order. A behavioural measure of swearing fluency based on the Controlled Oral Word Association Test was employed. Successful experimental manipulation was indicated by raised State Hostility Questionnaire scores after playing the shooter game...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Jeong-Im Han, Joo-Yeon Kim
This study investigated the influence of orthographic information on the production of allophones in a second language (L2). Two proficiency levels of native Mandarin speakers learned novel Korean words with potential variants of /h/ based on auditory stimuli, and then they were provided various types of spellings for the variants, including the letters for [[Formula: see text]] and ø. Subsequently, picture-naming and spelling recall tasks were given to the Mandarin-speaking learners. The results showed that Mandarin-speaking learners, after exposure to the spellings, began to produce and lexically store the /h/ variants following the given forms of the spellings of words, which provides support for the impact of spellings in the production and lexical storage of L2 allophones...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
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