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Journal of Psycholinguistic Research

Julien Dirani, Arne Dietrich
Reading plays an essential role in our everyday lives. The aim of this study is to investigate how letters are represented in the brain using the unique characteristics of the Arabic language, which can be written with 2 different scripts. The hypothesis proposed is that the processing of script is sound based: Phonology is what determines letter identity. Using a forward-masked priming paradigm, we showed that Latin-script primes facilitated the recognition of subsequent Arabic-script targets which differed in orthography but shared phonology, thus suggesting a common level of phonological processing...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Michael Zuniga, Daphnée Simard
Self-repairs, that is revisions of speech that speakers themselves initiate and complete (Salonen and Laakso in J Child Lang 36:859, 2009. ), are frequently used to observe the cognitive and linguistic processes underlying second language (L2) speech production. Previous research has shown that factors such as L2 proficiency, attentional control and native language (L1) self-repair behavior interact with L2 self-repair behavior. To our knowledge, however, no research has examined how these three factors interact within a cohort of L2 speakers...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Manuel Dupont
This study investigated the phenomenon of personal name confusion, i.e. calling a familiar person by someone else's name. Two types of name confusion were considered: single confusions (i.e. confusions that appeared only once) and repeated confusions (i.e. confusions that appeared repeatedly). The main purpose of the present study was to compare these two types of personal name confusion and to identify the similarities and differences between them. Participants were asked to fill in two questionnaires (one for each type of confusion) in order to collect information about the properties of the confusions...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Yi Ding, Ru-De Liu, Catherine A McBride, Chung-Hau Fan, Le Xu, Jia Wang
This study examined pinyin (the official phonetic system that transcribes the lexical tones and pronunciation of Chinese characters) invented spelling and English invented spelling in 72 Mandarin-speaking 6th graders who learned English as their second language. The pinyin invented spelling task measured segmental-level awareness including syllable and phoneme awareness, and suprasegmental-level awareness including lexical tones and tone sandhi in Chinese Mandarin. The English invented spelling task manipulated segmental-level awareness including syllable awareness and phoneme awareness, and suprasegmental-level awareness including word stress...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Dina Abdel Salam El-Dakhs, Jeanette Altarriba
Empirical evidence has recently been provided for the distinctiveness of emotion words as compared to abstract and concrete words for monolinguals, calling for a reconsideration of the relation between emotion and language. The present study investigates whether the distinctiveness of emotion words among monolinguals holds for foreign language learners. To this end, three groups (n = 120 per group) of late Arabic-English bilinguals who learned English as a foreign language completed tasks including free recall, rating, and discrete word association...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Hyunwoo Kim
This study investigated whether Chinese-Korean bilinguals can use structure-based information to interpret Korean sentences containing floating numeral quantifiers during online processing. A numeral quantifier in Korean can be stranded from its modified noun through scrambling as long as the quantifier forms a constituent with the noun. For Chinese-Korean bilinguals, acquiring this structural knowledge gives rise to a learnability problem because this ability cannot be derived from the L1, not easily induced from Korean input and is not obtained through classroom instruction...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Hui-Ching Chen, Krista Szendrői, Stephen Crain, Barbara Höhle
This study investigated whether Mandarin speakers interpret prosodic information as focus markers in a sentence-picture verification task. Previous production studies have shown that both Mandarin-speaking adults and Mandarin-speaking children mark focus by prosodic information (Ouyang and Kaiser in Lang Cogn Neurosc 30(1-2):57-72, 2014; Yang and Chen in Prosodic focus marking in Chinese four-and eight-year-olds, 2014). However, while prosodic focus marking did not seem to affect sentence comprehension in adults Mandarin-speaking children showed enhanced sentence comprehension when the sentence focus was marked by prosodic information in a previous study (Chen in Appl Psycholinguist 19(4):553-582, 1998)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Jihad M Hamdan, Rose Fowler Al-Hawamdeh
This empirical study examines the extent to which 'face', i.e. (audio visual dialogues), affects the listening comprehension of advanced Jordanian EFL learners in a TOFEL-like test, as opposed to its absence (i.e. a purely audio test) which is the current norm in many English language proficiency tests, including but not limited to TOFEL iBT, TOEIC and academic IELTS. Through an online experiment, 60 Jordanian postgraduate linguistics and English literature students (advanced EFL learners) at the University of Jordan sit for two listening tests (simulating English proficiency tests); namely, one which is purely audio [i...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Shenai Hu, Maria Teresa Guasti, Anna Gavarró
There is a debate as to whether topic structures in Chinese involve A'-movement or result from base-generation of the topic in the left periphery. If Chinese topicalization was derived by movement, under the assumptions of Friedmann et al.'s Relativized Minimality (Lingua 119:67-88, 2009), we would expect children's comprehension of object topicalization (with OSV order) to be worse than their comprehension of subject topicalization (with SVO order). This study examined 146 Mandarin-speaking children from age three to age six by means of a picture-sentence matching task with an appropriate context...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Fang Huang, Cathy Ka Weng Hoi, Timothy Teo
Learning style is one of the main factors that determines how students learn English and has a significant influence on students' learning strategy selection, which further affects their learning outcomes (Ehrman and Oxford in Mod Lang J 74(3):311-327, 1990; Oxford in Language learning styles and strategies: an overview, 2003. ). This study examines the learning style preferences of Chinese university students and whether those preferences influence their English achievements...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Emilia Carlsson, Carmela Miniscalco, Christopher Gillberg, Jakob Åsberg Johnels
We have developed a False-Belief (FB) understanding task for use on a computer tablet, trying to assess FB understanding in a less social way. It is based on classical FB protocols, and additionally includes a manipulation of language in an attempt to explore the facilitating effect of linguistic support during FB processing. Specifically, the FB task was presented in three auditory conditions: narrative, silent, and interference. The task was assumed to shed new light on the FB difficulties often observed in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Loes Koring, Luisa Meroni, Vincenzo Moscati
This study investigates children's interpretation of sentences with two logical operators: Dutch universal modal hoeven and negation (niet). In adult Dutch, hoeven is an NPI that necessarily scopes under negation, giving rise to a NOT > NECESSARY reading. The findings from a hidden-object task with 5- and 6-year-old children showed that children's performance is suggestive of an interpretation of sentences with hoeft niet in which the modal scopes over negation (NECESSARY > NOT). This is in line with the Semantic Subset Principle that dictates that children should opt for the strongest possible reading in case of potential scope ambiguities...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Tuyuan Cheng, Jei-Tun Wu, Shuanfan Huang
The processing advantage of Subject-gapped relative clause (SRC) versus Object-gapped relative clause (ORC) has been advocated by competing processing accounts. Using a self-paced listening paradigm, this study investigates what Chinese RC online processing asymmetry looks like under concurrent memory load manipulation. Both On-line listening times and Post-online measures of Chinese SRCs and ORCs are estimated and compared. The on-line results show that ORCs and SRCs demonstrate no differential processing patterns under the interfering conditions...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Jane Noll, Mark Lowry, Judith Bryant
An epicene pronoun is a gender-neutral singular pronoun used in sentences when the gender of the subject is unknown or unspecified. In English, he and they are commonly-used epicene pronouns. Until recently, he has been widely accepted as being grammatically correct. However, many have argued that he is sexist because it may bias people to think about males. Two experiments were performed using a lexical decision task in which participants reacted to gendered words (e.g., aunt and uncle) after reading sentences using he, they, or unrelated epicene pronouns...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Jacqueline Cummine, Daniel Aalto, Amberley Ostevik, Kulpreet Cheema, William Hodgetts
Reading is a complex process that includes the integration of information about letters (graphemes) and sounds (phonemes). In many circumstances, such as noisy environments, response inhibition is an additional factor that plays a marked role in successful oral reading. Response inhibition can take the form of task relevant inhibition (i.e., foils in a go/no-go task) and task irrelevant inhibition (i.e., distractor information). Here we investigated task relevant inhibition by having participants (N = 30) take part in two tasks: go/no-go naming with nonwords foils (GNG-NW) and go/no-go naming with pseudohomophones foils (GNG-PH)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Jeong-Im Han, Sujin Oh
This study examined two possible sources of asymmetrical lexical access: phonetic proximity to the nearest L1 category and orthographic information. Three groups of native Korean speakers learned Arabic non-words with sound pairs with/without an L1-dominant category (/l-r/ vs. /χ-ħ/), and then their phonetic categorization and lexical encoding abilities were evaluated. One group was presented with the same letters for the target pair (e.g., <l> for both /l/ and /r/), the second group, different letters (e...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Chia-Ying Chu, Utako Minai
Previous studies have shown that young children often fail to comprehend demonstratives correctly when they are uttered by a speaker whose perspective is different from children's own, and instead tend to interpret them with respect to their own perspective (e.g., Webb and Abrahamson in J Child Lang 3(3):349-367, 1976); Clark and Sengul in J Child Lang 5(3):457-475, 1978). In the current study, we examined children's comprehension of demonstratives in English (this and that) and Mandarin Chinese (zhe and na) in order to test the hypothesis that children's non-adult-like demonstrative comprehension is related to their still-developing non-linguistic cognitive abilities supporting perspective-taking, including Theory of Mind and Executive Function...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Saman Ebadi, Hiwa Weisi, Zahra Khaksar
Grit as an interesting and significant topic in psychology has been associated with better study habits and higher grades through perseverance and passion for long term goals. The only available measurement instrument of grit (Duckworth et al. in J Personal Soc Psychol 92:1087-1101, 2007) is general both in terms of its subject matter and context. Thus, this study aims to develop and validate an English as a foreign language (EFL) grit instrument whose items are specific to EFL context to obtain a more detailed view of its components for Iranian EFL learners, and to tap on other grit related factors in the EFL context...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Çiğdem Koşe Demiray, Tülin Gençöz
Aim of present study was to understand changes in speech of clients with regard to certain linguistic features from 5th to 15th session of psychotherapy. First person pronoun use in information structure positions were analyzed in speech of clients. Participants of this study were 11 psychotherapists (clinical psychology master and doctorate students) and 16 clients (applicants to AYNA Psychotherapy Unit). In present study word count results of clinets' speeches were analyzed by ANOVA method. According to results, use of first person pronoun changed significantly in preverbal position from 5th to 15th sessions of psychotherapy...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Ariadne Loutrari, Freideriki Tselekidou, Hariklia Proios
Prosodic patterns of speech appear to make a critical contribution to memory-related processing. We considered the case of a previously unexplored prosodic feature of Greek storytelling and its effect on free recall in thirty typically developing children between the ages of 10 and 12 years, using short ecologically valid auditory stimuli. The combination of a falling pitch contour and, more notably, extensive final-syllable vowel lengthening, which gives rise to the prosodic feature in question, led to statistically significantly higher performance in comparison to neutral phrase-final prosody...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
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