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Journal of Psycholinguistic Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929452/how-possessive-relations-are-mapped-onto-child-language-a-view-from-mandarin-chinese
#1
Jiawei Shi, Peng Zhou
The present studies sought to investigate the mapping relations between language and cognition by focusing on how Mandarin-speaking children acquire the mapping between their conceptual knowledge of possession and their linguistic expressions of possession. Two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 used a comprehension task to explore whether young children are able to map their knowledge of possessive constructions onto their interpretation of possessive relations. Experiment 2 employed a production task to examine whether they are able to map their knowledge of possessive relations onto their linguistic expressions of possession...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879414/language-skills-in-classical-chinese-text-comprehension
#2
Kit-Ling Lau
This study used both quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the role of lower- and higher-level language skills in classical Chinese (CC) text comprehension. A CC word and sentence translation test, text comprehension test, and questionnaire were administered to 393 Secondary Four students; and 12 of these were randomly selected to participate in retrospective interviews. The findings revealed that students' CC reading performance was unsatisfactory with respect to both lower- and text-level comprehension...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865039/the-roles-of-relative-linguistic-proficiency-and-modality-switching-in-language-switch-cost-evidence-from-chinese-visual-unimodal-and-bimodal-bilinguals
#3
Aitao Lu, Lu Wang, Yuyang Guo, Jiahong Zeng, Dongping Zheng, Xiaolu Wang, Yulan Shao, Ruiming Wang
The current study investigated the mechanism of language switching in unbalanced visual unimodal bilinguals as well as balanced and unbalanced bimodal bilinguals during a picture naming task. All three groups exhibited significant switch costs across two languages, with symmetrical switch cost in balanced bimodal bilinguals and asymmetrical switch cost in unbalanced unimodal bilinguals and bimodal bilinguals. Moreover, the relative proficiency of the two languages but not their absolute proficiency had an effect on language switch cost...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856553/improving-naming-abilities-among-healthy-young-old-adults-using-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#4
Adi Lifshitz-Ben-Basat, Nira Mashal
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive tool to facilitate brain plasticity and enhance language abilities. Our study aims to search for a potential beneficial influence of tDCS on a cognitive linguistic task of naming which found to decline during aging. A group of fifteen healthy old adults [Formula: see text] were tested in naming 50 pictures of objects. Each subject participated in two sessions spanning on a one week period. One session included active tDCS stimulation and the other sham-placebo like stimulation...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856547/learning-a-foreign-language-a-new-path-to-enhancement-of-cognitive-functions
#5
Sara Shoghi Javan, Behzad Ghonsooly
The complicated cognitive processes involved in natural (primary) bilingualism lead to significant cognitive development. Executive functions as a fundamental component of human cognition are deemed to be affected by language learning. To date, a large number of studies have investigated how natural (primary) bilingualism influences executive functions; however, the way acquired (secondary) bilingualism manipulates executive functions is poorly understood. To fill this gap, controlling for age, gender, IQ, and socio-economic status, the researchers compared 60 advanced learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) to 60 beginners on measures of executive functions involving Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) and Wechsler's digit span tasks...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852917/perceptual-training-of-second-language-vowels-does-musical-ability-play-a-role
#6
Payam Ghaffarvand Mokari, Stefan Werner
The present study attempts to extend the research on the effects of phonetic training on the production and perception of second-language (L2) vowels. We also examined whether success in learning L2 vowels through high-variability intensive phonetic training is related to the learners' general musical abilities. Forty Azerbaijani learners of Standard Southern British English participated in a pre-test/training/post-test setting. Discrimination and production tests were used in pre- and post-tests. The participants' musical ability was evaluated through three musical aptitude tests...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770465/tracking-the-eye-movement-of-four-years-old-children-learning-chinese-words
#7
Dan Lin, Guangyao Chen, Yingyi Liu, Jiaxin Liu, Jue Pan, Lei Mo
Storybook reading is the major source of literacy exposure for beginning readers. The present study tracked 4-year-old Chinese children's eye movements while they were reading simulated storybook pages. Their eye-movement patterns were examined in relation to their word learning gains. The same reading list, consisting of 20 two-character Chinese words, was used in the pretest, 5-min eye-tracking learning session, and posttest. Additionally, visual spatial skill and phonological awareness were assessed in the pretest as cognitive controls...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752195/processing-lexical-and-speaker-information-in-repetition-and-semantic-associative-priming
#8
Chao-Yang Lee, Yu Zhang
The purpose of this study is to investigate the interaction between processing lexical and speaker-specific information in spoken word recognition. The specific question is whether repetition and semantic/associative priming is reduced when the prime and target are produced by different speakers. In Experiment 1, the prime and target were repeated (e.g., queen-queen) or unrelated (e.g., bell-queen). In Experiment 2, the prime and target were semantically/associatively related (e.g., king-queen) or unrelated (e...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710697/the-basis-of-the-syllable-hierarchy-articulatory-pressures-or-universal-phonological-constraints
#9
Xu Zhao, Iris Berent
Across languages, certain syllable types are systematically preferred to others (e.g., [Formula: see text] lbif, where [Formula: see text] indicates a preference). Previous research has shown that these preferences are active in the brains of individual speakers, they are evident even when none of these syllable types exists in participants' language, and even when the stimuli are presented in print. These results suggest that the syllable hierarchy cannot be reduced to either lexical or auditory/phonetic pressures...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707124/examining-the-functional-category-in-chinese-english-code-switching-evidence-from-the-eye-movements
#10
Rui Li, Zhiyi Zhang, Chuanbin Ni, Wei Xiao, Junyan Wei, Haoyun Dai
To investigate the grammatical constraints of code-switching (CS hereafter) under the disputes of the constraint-based account versus the constraint-free account, the effects of functional category on CS have long been investigated in the existing studies. Thus, the present study, by asking 47 participants to take part in an eye-movement experiment, examined the potential effects of functional category on Chinese-English CS. We found that differential switch costs at varying code-switched conditions as well as robust switch effects that last from the early to the late stage...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669038/asymmetrical-priming-effects-an-exploration-of-trilingual-german-english-french-lexico-semantic-memory
#11
Agnieszka Ewa Tytus
The growing number of multilingual speakers poses an interesting question as to the way in which three or more languages are represented in the memory of a language user. The Revised Hierarchical Model (Kroll and Stewart in J Mem Lang 33: 149-174, 1994) or the Sense Model (Finkbeiner et al. in J Mem Lang 51(1), 1-22, 2004) skillfully capture the prediction regarding two languages, with the lexical level being separate and the conceptual one being unified or distributed to a varying degree. In this set of experiments, we employed primed animacy decision tasks to address the lexico-semantic representation of trilingual German-English-French speakers...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224258/investigating-arabic-academic-vocabulary-knowledge-among-middle-school-pupils-receptive-versus-productive-knowledge
#12
Baha Makhoul
The current study attempted to investigate the development of Arabic academic vocabulary knowledge among middle-school Arabic native speakers, taking into account the socioeconomic status of the Arab population in Israel. For this purpose, Arabic academic word list was developed, mapping the required academic words that are needed for adequate coping with informational texts as appearing in the different content areas text-books. Six-hundred Arabic speaking middle school pupils from the different areas in Israel, representing the different Arab subgroups: general Arab community, Druze and Bedouins, have participated in the current study...
August 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194634/the-effect-of-language-exposure-and-word-characteristics-on-the-arab-efl-learners-word-associations
#13
Dina Abdel Salam El-Dakhs
The present study investigates the patterns of word associations among Arab EFL learners and compares these patterns with those of native speakers of English. The study also examines the influence of increased language exposure and word characteristics on the learners' association patterns. To this end, 45 native speakers of English and 421 Arab learners of English at a Saudi university with two distinct levels of English language exposure completed a multiple-response word association test and their responses were analyzed, examined and compared...
August 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185052/who-did-what-to-whom-children-track-story-referents-first-in-gesture
#14
Lauren J Stites, Şeyda Özçalışkan
Children achieve increasingly complex language milestones initially in gesture or in gesture+speech combinations before they do so in speech, from first words to first sentences. In this study, we ask whether gesture continues to be part of the language-learning process as children begin to develop more complex language skills, namely narratives. A key aspect of narrative development is tracking story referents, specifying who did what to whom. Adults track referents primarily in speech by introducing a story character with a noun phrase and then following the same referent with a pronoun-a strategy that presents challenges for young children...
August 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185051/stress-judgment-and-production-in-english-derivation-and-word-reading-in-adult-mandarin-speaking-english-learners
#15
Wei-Lun Chung, Linda Jarmulowicz
For monolingual English-speaking children, judgment and production of stress in derived words, including words with phonologically neutral (e.g., -ness) and non-neutral suffixes (e.g., -ity), is important to both academic vocabulary growth and to word reading. For Mandarin-speaking adult English learners (AELs) the challenge of learning the English stress system might be complicated by cross-linguistic differences in prosodic function and features. As Mandarin-speakers become more proficient in English, patterns similar to those seen in monolingual children could emerge in which awareness and use of stress and suffix cues benefit word reading...
August 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091853/does-emotional-arousal-influence-swearing-fluency
#16
Richard Stephens, Amy Zile
This study assessed the effect of experimentally manipulated emotional arousal on swearing fluency. We hypothesised that swear word generation would be increased with raised emotional arousal. The emotional arousal of 60 participants was manipulated by having them play a first-person shooter video game or, as a control, a golf video game, in a randomised order. A behavioural measure of swearing fluency based on the Controlled Oral Word Association Test was employed. Successful experimental manipulation was indicated by raised State Hostility Questionnaire scores after playing the shooter game...
August 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091852/the-influence-of-orthography-on-the-production-of-alphabetic-second-language-allophones-by-speakers-of-a-non-alphabetic-language
#17
Jeong-Im Han, Joo-Yeon Kim
This study investigated the influence of orthographic information on the production of allophones in a second language (L2). Two proficiency levels of native Mandarin speakers learned novel Korean words with potential variants of /h/ based on auditory stimuli, and then they were provided various types of spellings for the variants, including the letters for [[Formula: see text]] and ø. Subsequently, picture-naming and spelling recall tasks were given to the Mandarin-speaking learners. The results showed that Mandarin-speaking learners, after exposure to the spellings, began to produce and lexically store the /h/ variants following the given forms of the spellings of words, which provides support for the impact of spellings in the production and lexical storage of L2 allophones...
August 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078598/an-interaction-between-the-effects-of-bilingualism-and-cross-linguistic-similarity-in-balanced-and-unbalanced-bilingual-adults-l2-mandarin-word-reading-production
#18
Hsiu-Ling Hsu
We conducted three experiments investigating in more detail the interaction between the two effects of bilingualism and L1-L2 similarity in the speech performance of balanced and unbalanced bilinguals. In Experiment 1, L1 Mandarin monolinguals and two groups of Hakka and Minnan balanced bilinguals (Hakka: more similar to Mandarin) performed a non-contextual single-character reading task in Mandarin, which required more inhibitory control. The two bilingual groups outperformed the monolinguals, regardless of their L1 background...
August 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032308/the-effect-of-pinyin-input-experience-on-the-link-between-semantic-and-phonology-of-chinese-character-in-digital-writing
#19
Jingjun Chen, Rong Luo, Huashan Liu
With the development of ICT, digital writing is becoming much more common in people's life. Differently from keyboarding alphabets directly to input English words, keyboarding Chinese character is always through typing phonetic alphabets and then identify the glyph provided by Pinyin input-method software while in this process which do not need users to produce orthography spelling, thus it is different from traditional written language production model based on handwriting process. Much of the research in this domain has found that using Pinyin input method is beneficial to Chinese characters recognition, but only a small part explored the effects of individual's Pinyin input experience on the Chinese characters production process...
August 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028662/self-addressed-questions-and-filled-pauses-a-cross-linguistic-investigation
#20
Ye Tian, Takehiko Maruyama, Jonathan Ginzburg
There is an ongoing debate whether phenomena of disfluency (such as filled pauses) are produced communicatively. Clark and Fox Tree (Cognition 84(1):73-111, 2002) propose that filled pauses are words, and that different forms signal different lengths of delay. This paper evaluates this Filler-As-Words hypothesis by analyzing the distribution of self-addressed-questions or SAQs (such as "what's the word") in relation to filled pauses. We found that SAQs address different problems in different languages (most frequently about memory-retrieval in English and Chinese, and about appropriateness in Japanese)...
August 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
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