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Nephron

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214902/impact-of-renal-disease-on-patients-with-hepatitis-c-a-retrospective-analysis-of-disease-burden-clinical-outcomes-and-health-care-utilization-and-cost
#1
Craig A Solid, Senaka A Peter, Tanya Natwick, Haifeng Guo, Allan J Collins, Jean Marie Arduino
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Few studies explore the magnitude of the disease burden and health care utilization imposed by renal disease among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We aimed to describe the characteristics, outcomes, and health care utilization and costs of patients with HCV with and without renal impairment. METHODS: This retrospective analysis used 2 administrative claims databases: the US commercially insured population in Truven Health MarketScan® data (aged 20-64 years), and the US Medicare fee-for-service population in the Medicare 20% sample (aged ≥65 years)...
February 18, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214841/drug-dosing-and-estimated-renal-function-any-step-forward-from-effersoe
#2
Mads Hornum, Bo Feldt-Rasmussen
Drug dosing in accordance with the renal function is a long-standing challenge to clinicians. For many years it has been evident that in many clinical situations there is no easy way to correctly dose any drug that is mainly cleared by the kidneys. Despite the development of many formulas for estimating the glomerular filtration rate, they all have serious shortcomings. Much effort has been put in to develop estimation formulas to evaluate the renal function as an alternative to direct methods with the aim of safely dosing drugs that are mainly cleared by the kidneys...
February 18, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183082/current-parathyroid-hormone-assays-may-mislead-clinical-decision-making-particularly-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-with-secondary-hyperparathyroidism
#3
Berthold Hocher, Lianghong Yin
Preclinical studies in cell culture systems as well as in whole animal chronic kidney disease (CKD) models showed that parathyroid hormone (PTH), oxidized at the 2 methionine residues (positions 8 and 18), caused a loss of function. This was so far not considered in the development of PTH assays used in current clinical practice. Patients with advanced CKD are subject to oxidative stress, and plasma proteins (including PTH) are targets for oxidants. In patients with CKD, a considerable but variable fraction (about 70 to 90%) of measured PTH appears to be oxidized...
February 10, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183080/total-calcium-and-albumin-are-decreased-in-the-deeper-epidermis-of-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-associated-pruritus
#4
Akishi Momose, Yasuo Shiraiwa, Satoshi Narita, Tomomi Kusumi, Shoko Goto, Koichiro Sera
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In our earlier studies, we reported high concentrations of intra- and extracellular calcium ions (Ca2+) in the deeper epidermis of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated pruritus. To determine the cause of this phenomenon, we measured total calcium (TCa) concentrations in the deeper epidermis and performed immunostaining of epidermal albumin, which binds to Ca2+. METHODS: This study included 45 patients with CKD-stage 5, which was defined as severely reduced kidney function (i...
February 10, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178704/the-influence-of-renal-centre-and-patient-sociodemographic-factors-on-home-haemodialysis-prevalence-in-the-uk
#5
Anuradha Jayanti, Philip Foden, Alasdair Rae, Julie Morris, Paul Brenchley, Sandip Mitra
BACKGROUND: In the United Kingdom, socioeconomic disadvantage has been associated with lower use of home dialysis, mostly peritoneal dialysis. In this study, we explore the role of a patient's sociodemographic, socioeconomic differences and the centre's influence on home haemodialysis (HD) prevalence. METHODS: Data is derived from the cross-sectional arm of the UK multi-centre study investigating barriers and enablers of home HD (BASIC-HHD study). Centres were classified as low- (<3%), medium- (5-8%) and high-prevalence groups (>8%)...
February 9, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178702/dysregulation-of-the-expression-of-asparagine-linked-glycosylation-13-short-isoform-2-affects-nephrin-function-by-altering-its-n-linked-glycosylation
#6
Teresa Esposito, Giovanni De Stefano, Mafalda Giovanna Reccia, Ilaria Di Lorenzo, Filomena Napolitano, Francesco Scalabrì, Alessia Lombardi, Moin A Saleem, Lyn R Griffiths, Fernando Gianfrancesco
BACKGROUND: N-linked glycosylation, which is a post-translational modification process, plays an important role in protein folding, intracellular trafficking and membrane targeting, as well as in regulating the protein function. Recently, we identified a missense variant (p.T141L) in the short isoform 2 of the X-linked gene asparagine-linked glycosylation 13 (ALG13-is2), which segregated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and PCCD in a large Australian pedigree; however, any evidence of its pathogenicity was demonstrated...
February 9, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178698/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#7
Simon R Walker, Paul Komenda, Suhail Khojah, Wafa Al-Tuwaijri, Kerry MacDonald, Brett Hiebert, Neil Tangri, Stewart W D Nadurak, Thomas W Ferguson, Claudio Rigatto, Navdeep Tangri
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and limits therapeutic options. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors represent a novel class of oral glucose-lowering agents and are known to be safe and effective in the general population. METHODS: We searched Cochrane, EMBASE, and PubMed from the time of their inception until March 2015. We included randomized controlled trials analyzing the efficacy (change in hemoglobin A1C [HbA1C]) and safety of DPP-4 agents in individuals with reduced kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1...
February 9, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171864/obesity-and-kidney-disease-hidden-consequences-of-the-epidemic
#8
Csaba P Kovesdy, Susan L Furth, Carmine Zoccali
Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic, and its prevalence has been projected to grow by 40% in the next decade. This increasing prevalence has implications for the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and also for chronic kidney disease. A high body mass index is one of the strongest risk factors for new-onset chronic kidney disease. In individuals affected by obesity, a compensatory hyperfiltration occurs to meet the heightened metabolic demands of the increased body weight. The increase in intraglomerular pressure can damage the kidneys and raise the risk of developing chronic kidney disease in the long-term...
February 8, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171854/short-term-non-steroid-anti-inflammatory-drug-use-in-spondyloarthritis-patients-induces-subclinical-acute-kidney-injury-biomarkers-study
#9
Anuj Shukla, Mohit Kumar Rai, Narayan Prasad, Vikas Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) usage is associated with kidney injury. Rise in serum creatinine (sCr) often represents irreversible process. Thus to assess the early effects of regular NSAID use, we studied sensitive serum and urine biomarkers of kidney injury. METHODS: In a protocol-based intervention study, 103 subjects were enrolled in 3 mutually exclusive groups. Group 1 included 37 healthy controls having minimal baseline NSAID exposure as per a definition, and group 2 had 41 spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients on regular NSAID therapy for >3 months...
February 8, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161698/adenine-rich-diet-is-not-a-surrogate-of-5-6-nephrectomy-in-rabbits
#10
Nans Florens, Sandrine Lemoine, Caroline C Pelletier, Maud Rabeyrin, Laurent Juillard, Christophe O Soulage
BACKGROUND: Animal models are important tools needed to understand the mechanisms underlying the progression of renal disease and to implement new therapeutic approaches. A non-surgical model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) developed by chemical nephrectomy using an adenine-enriched diet has been shown to be a robust model to induce kidney failure in mice and rats. The purpose of this study was to implement an adenine diet to induce CKD in rabbits. METHODS: Male New Zealand rabbits were fed for 4 weeks with a diet containing 0...
February 4, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161697/in-the-wake-of-systolic-blood-pressure-intervention-trial-new-targets-for-improving-hypertension-management-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
Crystal C Tyson, Thomas M Coffman
Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) was a multicenter randomized controlled trial showing the significant benefit of intensive reduction of blood pressure to a target of 120 mm Hg in individuals with hypertension and elevated cardiovascular risk. Because SPRINT includes the largest cohort of adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to be prospectively studied in a hypertension intervention trial, it has particular relevance to the field of nephrology. Here, we review the findings of SPRINT and assess their potential impact on guidelines for treatment of hypertension in patients with CKD...
February 4, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161696/l-carnitine-ameliorates-the-decrease-of-aquaporin-2-levels-in-rats-with-cisplatin-induced-kidney-injury
#12
Jianjun Gao, Zhaoyan Gu, Min Li, Yongxing Xu, Yuehua Gao, Jiamei Wei, Boran Liang, Yu Na
BACKGROUND: It has been found that L-carnitine ameliorated cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. However, the detailed role of L-carnitine in improving the renal urinary concentration function in cisplatin-induced AKI is not fully understood. METHODS: In this study, 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 5 groups: control, cisplatin (CIS), L-carnitine (CAR), L-carnitine plus cisplatin (CAR + CIS), and cisplatin plus L-carnitine (CIS + CAR) groups...
February 4, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152540/vancomycin-during-the-last-hour-of-the-hemodialysis-session-a-pharmacokinetic-analysis
#13
Lila Ghouti-Terki, Elodie Chasseuil, Nolwenn Rabot, Gilles Paintaud, Maud François, Béatrice Birmelé, François Darrouzain, Matthias Büchler, Jean-Michel Halimi, David Ternant
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin is usually administered after the dialysis sessions to patients undergoing hemodialysis. Administration of vancomycin during (as opposed to after) sessions would save time, and would be more acceptable to patients and staff, but may lead to vancomycin underexposure. The aim of this study was to propose a new dosing regimen of vancomycin taking into account the dialysis-related losses of vancomycin when administered during dialysis. METHODS: In this monocentric prospective study, vancomycin was infused to dialyzed patients during the last hour of the dialysis session at increased doses...
February 3, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125814/risks-for-all-cause-mortality-stratified-by-age-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-and-albuminuria
#14
David G Warnock, Pierre Delanaye, Richard J Glassock
The relative reduction of risk for all-cause mortality among the elderly has been described as attenuated compared to younger subjects, but the risk for all-cause mortality increases with age when absolute risk is considered. The objectives of the present inquiry were to calculate the relative and absolute risks of all-cause mortality based on incidence rate ratios, and summarize these risks for age, gender, and race strata. We conclude that strata-specific risk summaries are more informative than a single all-encompassing risk summary, and that gender- and race-specific strata need to be considered as well as age-specific strata...
January 27, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118643/the-association-of-baseline-and-longitudinal-change-in-endothelial-microparticle-count-with-mortality-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
Darren Green, Sarah Skeoch, M Yvonne Alexander, Philip A Kalra, Ben Parker
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a unique milieu of vascular pathology, and effective biomarkers of active vascular damage are lacking. A candidate biomarker is the quantification of circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs). This study observed baseline and longitudinal EMP change (δEMP) and established the association of these with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in CKD. METHOD: An observational study in adults with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1...
January 25, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064277/smad2-phosphorylation-in-diabetic-kidney-tubule-epithelial-cells-is-associated-with-modulation-of-several-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-family-members
#16
Lise Høj Thomsen, Morten Fog-Tonnesen, Lisbeth Nielsen Fink, Jenny Norlin, Amaya García de Vinuesa, Troels Krarup Hansen, Emile de Heer, Peter Ten Dijke, Alexander Rosendahl
BACKGROUND: The role of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has recently gained much attention in diabetic nephropathy and kidney fibrosis. In this study, we extend this to an assessment of transcriptional regulation of the entire TGF-β superfamily in kidneys from diabetic vs. healthy mice. In order to study the translation between mouse model and patients, we evaluated the signature of phosphorylated Sma- and Mad-related protein 2 (pSmad2), as molecular marker of TGF-β/activin activity, in the kidneys of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice compared to that of type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients...
January 7, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052302/rationale-for-the-evaluation-of-renal-functional-reserve-in-living-kidney-donors-and-recipients-a-pilot-study
#17
Alessandra Spinelli, Aashish Sharma, Gianluca Villa, Sara Samoni, Francesco Ramponi, Alessandra Brocca, Alessandra Brendolan, Stefano Chiaramonte, Giuseppe Castellano, Loreto Gesualdo, Claudio Ronco
BACKGROUND: In living kidney transplantation, preoperative donors' renal functional reserve (RFR) may correlate with postoperative residual renal function in both donors and recipients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the donors' RFR before transplantation and to compare basal and stress renal function before and after transplantation in both donors and recipients. METHODS: Seven pairs of living kidney donors and recipients were considered for this observational study...
January 5, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030868/implementation-of-an-automated-primary-care-acute-kidney-injury-warning-system-a-quantitative-and-qualitative-review-of-2-years-of-experience
#18
Omid Sadeghi Alavijeh, Jas Bansal, Katie Hadfield, Christopher Laing, Anne Dawnay
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is often detected late, leading to worse clinical outcomes. In 2012, we pioneered an AKI-alerting system for primary care clinicians (PCCs). We retrospectively analysed the alerts and evaluated PCC satisfaction to assess the feasibility of the system. METHODS: The study used a 2-pronged approach. AKI alerts, generated by an algorithm designed by University College London Hospital biochemistry department between June 2012 and June 2014, were analysed to reveal the demographics and outcomes of each patient generating an alert...
December 29, 2016: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030861/the-use-of-automated-electronic-alerts-in-studying-short-term-outcomes-associated-with-community-acquired-acute-kidney-injury
#19
Adil M Hazara, Musab Elgaali, Sarah Naudeer, Stephen Holding, Sunil Bhandari
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The use of electronic alerts (e-alerts) may increase the detection rate of acute kidney injury (AKI) since they are sensitive to small changes in serum creatinine. Our aim was to follow-up a cohort of patients presenting to hospital from the community with AKI (community-acquired AKI [c-AKI]), detected through the use of e-alerts, and describe their short-term outcomes regardless of whether they were subsequently admitted to hospital. METHODS: Blood samples for all hospital attenders from the community either to the Accidents and Emergency department or one of the acute care areas of the hospital during a 6-month period (November 1, 2013-April 30, 2014) were screened for presence of c-AKI using a locally developed e-alerts system based on Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria...
December 29, 2016: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013303/the-impact-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-and-its-interaction-with-abdominal-obesity-on-diabetic-nephropathy-in-chinese-han
#20
Meihong Zhang, Hongying Yuan, Changsheng Li, Chunling Li
BACKGROUND: Several studies have focused on the association between peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, the results of these studies were inconsistent, and until now, no population-based study has focused on the impact of PPARG gene-abdominal obesity interaction on DN risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of PPARG polymorphisms and its interaction with abdominal obesity on DN risk in the Chinese Han population...
December 24, 2016: Nephron
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