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Yanting Yu, Feng Bai, Nan Qin, Wenjin Liu, Qi Sun, Yang Zhou, Junwei Yang
BACKGROUND: Renal fibrosis is a common outcome of nearly all kinds of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and eventually progresses to end-stage renal disease. The identification of an optimal biomarker of renal fibrosis to replace the invasive renal biopsy will have important clinical implications. METHODS: We isolated urinary exosomes from 50 participants and examined the exosomal protein content and particle number in 38 CKD patients with different degrees of renal fibrosis and in 12 normal individuals...
March 14, 2018: Nephron
Nilgun Çakar, Z Birsin Ozcakar, Fatih Ozaltin, Mustafa Koyun, Banu Celikel Acar, Elif Bahat, Bora Gulhan, Emine Korkmaz, Ayşe Yurt, Songül Yılmaz, Oğuz Soylemezoglu, Fatoş Yalcinkaya
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on infants with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and laboratory features, and to evaluate treatment modalities and outcomes in infants with aHUS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant data on patients with onset of aHUS at age <2 years were obtained from the Turkish Pediatric aHUS Registry. RESULTS: Among the 146 patients included in the Registry, 53 (36%) (23 male and 30 female) were enrolled for the study...
March 13, 2018: Nephron
Khajohn Tiranathanagul, Paweena Susantitaphong, Nattachai Srisawat, Nanta Mahatanan, Kriang Tungsanga, Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa, Somchai Eiam-Ong
BACKGROUND: Recently, in the first hemodiafiltration (HDF) experience report from South East Asia (SEA), we reported a 3-year prospective study demonstrating the various short-term benefits of high-efficiency online HDF (OL-HDF) over high-flux hemodialysis (HD). Very few long-term survival reports of high-efficiency OL-HDF are available and the data are heterogeneous and incomplete. OBJECTIVES: The present historical cohort study was conducted to determine the long-term survival and outcome of high-efficiency OL-HDF-treated patients...
March 7, 2018: Nephron
Primploy Greeviroj, Thidarat Kitrungphaiboon, Pisut Katavetin, Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa, Somchai Eiam-Ong, Bertrand L Jaber, Paweena Susantitaphong
BACKGROUND: Cinacalcet could decrease serum calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in previous meta-analyses. However, the effect of cinacalcet on the new biomarkers such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), bone markers, and vascular calcification are still unestablished. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the effects of cinacalcet on all laboratory and clinical spectrums of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders (CKD-MBD). METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Clinical Trials...
March 7, 2018: Nephron
Nariman Nezami, Kamyar Ghabili, Behrooz Shokouhi-Gogani, Mohammad Mirchi, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Javid Safa, Afshar Zomorrodi, Abasad Gharadaghi, Mohammad Khalid Mojadidi, Mohammad Kazem Tarzamni, Ghazal Khajir, Sona Ghorashi, Margarita Revzin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Variability in the grade of atherosclerosis among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) could affect the ultrasound measurements of intima media thickness (IMT). We sought to investigate IMTs of carotid (cIMT) and femoral (fIMT) arteries in CKD patients and assess the degree of their correlation with histopathological atherosclerosis. METHODS: Eighty-nine out of 99 enrolled subjects completed this study. The subjects were divided into 3 groups: 34 patients with CKD (Case group), 31 with coronary artery disease undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, positive control group), and 24 healthy kidney donors (negative control group)...
March 7, 2018: Nephron
Ernesto L Schiffrin
Gupta et al. [Cell 2017; 170: 522-533] have shown that a genetic variant associated with the 5 vascular diseases is a distal regulator of endothelin (ET)-1 gene (EDN1) expression. A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the third intron of the PHACTR1 gene, rs9349379, is the potential variant responsible for increased risk of coronary artery disease, and lower risk of migraine, carotid dissection, fibromuscular dysplasia, and hypertension. Since ET-1 acts through ET type B receptors (ETBR) on endothelial cells to stimulate the production of nitric oxide and prostacyclin and induce vasodilation, this may contribute to these findings...
February 15, 2018: Nephron
Denise Maria do Nascimento Costa, Lucila Maria Valente, Gisele Vajgel Fernandes, Paula Sandrin-Garcia, Heidi Lacerda Alves da Cruz, Sergio Crovella, Antônio Henrique Santana Cavalcante, Maria Alina Gomes de Mattos Cavalcante, Camila Barbosa Lyra de Oliveira, Carolina de Andrade Jordão de Vasconcelos, Emanuel Sávio Cavalcante Sarinho
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) has been linked to the lectin pathway, IgG4 and genetic susceptibility. We investigated the frequency of mannose-binding lectin2 (MBL2) gene polymorphisms and the serum ratio of IgG4 in patients with membranous nephropathy (MN). METHODS: Polymorphisms in the exon 1 of the MBL2 gene (codons 52, 54, and 57) and single base polymorphisms at positions -550 (HL) and -221 (XY) in the promoter region were evaluated in 60 patients compared to a control group (CG) of 101 blood donors...
February 13, 2018: Nephron
Giorgina B Piccoli, Mona Alrukhaimi, Zhi-Hong Liu, Elena Zakharova, Adeera Levin
Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 10% of the world's adult population: it is within the top 20 causes of death worldwide, and its impact on patients and their families can be devastating. World Kidney Day and International Women's Day in 2018 coincide, thus offering an opportunity to reflect on the importance of women's health and specifically their kidney health, on the community and the next generations, as well as to strive to be more curious about the unique aspects of kidney disease in women so that we may apply those learnings more broadly...
February 13, 2018: Nephron
Mine Koruyucu, Figen Seymen, Genco Gencay, Koray Gencay, Elif Bahar Tuna, Teo Jeon Shin, Hong-Keun Hyun, Young-Jae Kim, Jung-Wook Kim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Enamel-renal syndrome is characterized by nephrocalcinosis, enamel defects, gingival hyperplasia and eruption failures. It has been recently identified that recessive mutations in the FAM20A gene result in amelogenesis imperfecta (AI)-gingival fibromatosis. The aim of this research to determine whether AI patients with known -FAM20A mutations also have nephrocalcinosis. METHODS: Complete oral and radiological examinations were performed for all participating family members...
February 13, 2018: Nephron
Hao Liu, Rong Lu, Shani Shastri, Mark Sonderman, Peter Noel Van Buren
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Extracellular volume (ECV) overload is a mortality risk factor in hemodialysis patients, but no standard approach exists to objectively assess this clinically. We aimed to quantify relationships between slopes of repeated intradialytic blood pressure (BP) measurements and ECV. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 71 hemodialysis patients, we calculated BP slopes from all intradialytic measurements using Gaussian regression. We measured extracellular and total body water (TBW) with bioimpedance spectroscopy...
February 13, 2018: Nephron
Lucie Kovarova, Anna Valerianova, Tereza Kmentova, Jana Lachmanova, Zuzana Hladinova, Jan Malik
BACKGROUND/AIMS: High rates of cognitive impairment (CI) are an alarming problem in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD). Its pathophysiology remains unclear and there are indications that brain ischemia might be one of the key causes. Cerebral tissue oxygenation, as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy, is known to be decreased in HD patients. However, it is unknown whether CI is associated or not associated with lower cerebral oxygenation in these patients. The primary aim of our study was to probe this possible association...
February 13, 2018: Nephron
Taro Misaki, Shuhei Naka, Kaoruko Wato, Rina Hatakeyama, Yasuyuki Nagasawa, Seigo Ito, Hiroaki Inaba, Ryota Nomura, Michiyo Matsumoto-Nakano, Kazuhiko Nakano
BACKGROUND: Periodontitis-related pathogens, such as Campylobacter or Treponema species, have recently been shown to be associated with immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). Some strains of Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of dental caries, harbour the cnm gene that encodes a collagen-binding protein (Cnm). This has also been demonstrated to be associated with urinary protein levels in IgAN patients. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to analyse the association of IgAN with C...
February 9, 2018: Nephron
Amal M Hagras, Doaa M Salah, Dina H Ahmed, Omnia K Abd Elaal, Hany Ahmed Fouad Elghobary, Fatina I Fadel
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in immunosuppression, acute allograft rejection remains one of the key factors affecting patient and graft survival in pediatric kidney transplantation. The aim of the study is to evaluate the role of serum soluble IL2 receptor (sIL2R) level as a noninvasive assessment parameter of acute rejection (AR). METHOD: Serum sIL2R level was measured (using enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay technique) in 60 pediatric kidney transplant recipients (30 recipients with AR and 30 transplant recipients with stable graft function)...
February 8, 2018: Nephron
Jesús Calviño, Secundino Cigarrán, Lourdes Gonzalez-Tabares, Monica Guijarro, Beatriz Millán, Carmen Cobelo, Sonia Cillero, María-Jesús Sobrido
BACKGROUND: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common complication of uremia that may improve after transplantation. Its frequency might not be as low as expected, as some uremic disturbances may continue even after a successful graft. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and related conditions for RLS in renal transplant patients. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional, observational study. A self-administered questionnaire following the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group diagnostic criteria was administered to 129 patients (82 men and 47 women) aged 57 ± 12...
February 1, 2018: Nephron
Megan Stevens, Christopher R Neal, Andrew H J Salmon, David O Bates, Steven J Harper, Sebastian Oltean
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Genetic cell ablation using the human diphtheria toxin receptor (hDTR) is a new strategy used for analysing cellular function. Diphtheria toxin (DT) is a cytotoxic protein that leaves mouse cells relatively unaffected, but upon binding to hDTR it ultimately leads to cell death. We used a podocyte-specific hDTR expressing (Pod-DTR) mouse to assess the anti-permeability and cyto-protective effects of the splice isoform vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A165b). METHODS: The Pod-DTR mouse was crossed with a mouse that over-expressed VEGF-A165b specifically in the podocytes (Neph-VEGF-A165b)...
January 26, 2018: Nephron
Zach Rozenbaum, Sydney Benchetrit, Eliezer Rozenbaum, Eran Neumark, Morris Mosseri, David Pereg
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with adverse clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary interventions, particularly in patients with advanced chronic kidney. The study was aimed to assess the real-life feasibility and safety of ultra-low volume coronary procedures in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. METHODS: A prospective study that included patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <45 mL/min/1...
January 24, 2018: Nephron
Neil K Fennelly, Claire Kennedy, Allan C Jenkinson, Dervla M Connaughton, Caragh Stapleton, Anthony M Dorman, Brendan Doyle, Peter J Conlon
BACKGROUND: IgA nephropathy is the most common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide and a significant cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). While most cases of IgA nephropathy are considered sporadic, familial cases have been reported. METHODS: We performed a national audit of 1,809 patients attending renal clinics and dialysis units to identify a family history among patients with kidney disease. We reviewed all renal biopsies performed at our institution spanning a 30-year period...
January 19, 2018: Nephron
Tae Woo Kim, Tae Ik Chang, Tae Hee Kim, Jason A Chou, Melissa Soohoo, Vanessa A Ravel, Csaba P Kovesdy, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Elani Streja
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ultrafiltration rate (UFR) appears to be associated with mortality in prevalent hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, the association of UFR with mortality in incident HD patients remains unknown. METHODS: We examined a US cohort of 110,880 patients who initiated HD from 2007 to 2011. Baseline UFR was divided into 5 groups (<4, 4 to <6, 6 to <8, 8 to <10, and ≥10 mL/h/kg body weight [BW]). We examined predictors of higher baseline UFR using logistic regression and the association of baseline UFR and all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality using Cox proportional hazard models with adjustments for demographics, comorbidities, and markers of malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia syndrome...
January 18, 2018: Nephron
Ellen van Rooijen, Glenn van de Hoek, Ive Logister, Henry Ajzenberg, Nine V A M Knoers, Freek van Eeden, Emile E Voest, Stefan Schulte-Merker, Rachel H Giles
BACKGROUND: von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is characterized by the development of benign and malignant tumours in many organ systems, including renal cysts and clear cell renal cell carcinoma. It is not completely understood what underlies the development of renal pathology, and the use of murine Vhl models has been challenging due to limitations in disease conservation. We previously described a zebrafish model bearing inactivating mutations in the orthologue of the human VHL gene. METHODS: We used histopathological and functional assays to investigate the pronephric and glomerular developmental defects in vhl mutant zebrafish, supported by human cell culture assays...
January 17, 2018: Nephron
Supawat Chatchen, Nutkridta Pongsakul, Chantragan Srisomsap, Wararat Chiangjong, Suradej Hongeng, Jisnuson Svasti, Somchai Chutipongtanate
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that ceftriaxone can cause acute kidney injury (AKI) in the pediatric population. This study proposed a cellular model of crystalline nephropathy in ceftriaxone-associated AKI and explored the related pathophysiology by using a proteomic approach. METHODS: Ceftriaxone was crystallized with calcium in artificial urine. Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, a model of distal renal tubular cell, were cultured in the absence (untreated control) or presence of ceftriaxone crystals for 48-h (n = 5 each)...
January 16, 2018: Nephron
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