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Journal of Environmental Quality

Pramod Pandey, Michelle L Soupir, Yi Wang, Wenlong Cao, Sagor Biswas, Venkata Vaddella, Robert Atwill, Venkatesh Merwade, Gregory Pasternack
Increased public health risk caused by pathogen contamination in streams is a serious issue, and mitigating the risk requires improvement in existing microbial monitoring of streams. To improve understanding of microbial contamination in streams, we monitored in stream water columns and streambed sediment. Two distinct streams and their subwatersheds were studied: (i) a mountain stream (Merced River, California), which represents pristine and wild conditions, and (ii) an agricultural stream (Squaw Creek, Iowa), which represents an agricultural setting (i...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Ebrahim Benyas, Jennifer Owens, Salome Seyedalikhani, Brett Robinson
Cadmium accumulates in soils that receive repeated applications of Cd-rich superphosphate fertilizers. There is evidence that adding clovers to a crop solubilizes soil Cd, increasing the bioavailability of Cd. This can lead to high plant Cd concentrations. This research aimed to test whether liming-induced increases in pH in mixed crops of clovers and ryegrasses reduced forage Cd concentrations. A greenhouse pot trial applied lime at three rates (0, 1, and 2% of soil dry weight) to eight different plant treatments-four as monocultures (perennial ryegrass [ L...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Christopher Konrad, Allen Gellis
Fine sediment (particles <2 mm in diameter) in stream beds has wide-ranging effects on hydraulics, geomorphology, and ecology and is a primary focus for stream quality management in many regions. We identify reach- and basin-scale factors associated with fine sediment in the beds of 83 stream reaches in the Midwestern United States using recursive partitioning of sand-bed and gravel-bed streams and a generalized linear model for the fraction of a stream bed covered by fine sediment. A water-surface gradient of 0...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
F López-Gálvez, W Randazzo, A Vásquez, G Sánchez, L Tombini Decol, R Aznar, M I Gil, Ana Allende
Reclaimed water obtained from urban wastewater is currently being used as irrigation water in water-scarce regions in Spain. However, wastewater can contain enteric viruses that water reclamation treatment cannot remove or inactivate completely. In the present study, greenhouse-grown baby lettuce ( L.) was irrigated with secondary treatment effluent from a wastewater treatment plant untreated and treated using chlorine dioxide (ClO). The effect of ClO treatment on the physicochemical characteristics and the presence of enteric viruses in irrigation water and lettuce was assessed...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Gurleen Taggar, Muhammad Attiq Rehman, Xianhua Yin, Dion Lepp, Kim Ziebell, Patrick Handyside, Patrick Boerlin, Moussa Sory Diarra
Untreated surface waters can be contaminated with a variety of bacteria, including , some of which can be pathogenic for both humans and animals. Therefore, such waters need to be treated before their use in dairy operations to mitigate risks to dairy cow health and milk safety. To understand the molecular ecology of , this study aimed to assess antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in recovered from untreated surface water sources of dairy farms. Untreated surface water samples ( = 240) from 15 dairy farms were collected and processed to isolate ...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
E L Rieke, T B Moorman, M L Soupir, F Yang, A Howe
Increases in swine production and concomitant manure application provide beneficial nutrients for crops but also include the potential to spread pathogenic bacteria in the environment. While manure is known to contain a variety of pathogens, little is known regarding the long-term effect of manure application on fate and transport of this diverse set of pathogens into surrounding waterways. We report on the use of 16S-rRNA gene sequencing to detect pathogen-containing genera in the agriculturally dominated South Fork Iowa River watershed, home to approximately 840,000 swine in the 76,000-ha basin...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
David Kost, Ken J Ladwig, Liming Chen, Tom M DeSutter, Leo Espinoza, L Darrell Norton, Dan Smeal, H Allen Torbert, Dexter B Watts, Richard P Wolkowski, Warren A Dick
Gypsum has a long history as a soil amendment. Information on how flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum affects soil, water, and plant properties across a range of climates and soils is lacking. We conducted a meta-analysis using data from 10 field sites in the United States (Alabama, Arkansas, Indiana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, and Wisconsin). Each site used three rates each of mined and FGD gypsums plus an untreated control treatment. Gypsum rates included a presumed optimal agronomic rate plus one rate lower and one rate higher than the optimal...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Stephanie A Nummer, Song S Qian, R Daren Harmel
Conservation practices are widely used to reduce N and P loads from agricultural fields and minimize their impact on water quality, but research using field-scale data to model the national average impact of conservation practices for different forms of N and P is needed. Thus, we quantified the effects of conservation practices (grassed waterways, terraces, contour farming, filter strips, and riparian buffers) on total, particulate, and dissolved N and P runoff from farmlands. Specifically, we conducted a meta-analysis of the Measured Annual Nutrient loads from AGricultural Environments (MANAGE) database using propensity score matching and multilevel modeling to remove the influence of confounding factors...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Salini Sasidharan, Scott A Bradford, Jiří Šimůnek, Saeed Torkzaban
The influence of virus type (PRD1 and ΦX174), temperature (flow at 4 and 20°C), a no-flow storage duration (0, 36, 46, and 70 d), and temperature cycling (flow at 20°C and storage at 4°C) on virus transport and fate were investigated in saturated sand-packed columns. The vast majority (84-99.5%) of viruses were irreversibly retained on the sand, even in the presence of deionized water and beef extract at pH = 11. The reversibly retained virus fraction () was small (1.6 × 10 to 0.047) but poses a risk of long-term virus contamination...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Richard W Muirhead, Esther D Meenken
concentrations in rivers are known to vary considerably. Much research has focused on storm events and the relationships between fecal microbe concentrations and flows. However, there is still considerable variability in microbial concentrations during base-flow conditions, and little research has been conducted to understand this short-term variability in rivers. We investigated the variability of concentrations in base flows at the time scales of minutes, hours, and days and compared this to variability from laboratory replication of the measurement methods...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Asli Aslan, Kendall W Anderson, Asheley Chapman
Most coastal freshwater ecosystems in the United States have semi-tidal movements during the day. Routine monitoring of these environments is conducted once during the day when tides can be at either ebb or flood conditions, causing a variability in bacterial concentrations and misinterpretation of the illness risk associated with human activities. The occurrence and levels of enterococci (enterococci 23S rDNA [Ent23S]) and human- (HF183) and avian- (GFD) associated microbial source tracking (MST) markers were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) along with detection of culturable enterococci and environmental parameters...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Alison M Emmons, Michael Bizimis, Susan Q Lang, William Stangler, Gwendelyn Geidel, Mohammed Baalousha, Emma Wanamaker, Sarah E Rothenberg
Exposure to microbial pathogens is the primary concern of sanitary sewer overflows; however, sewage spills may also be a significant source of toxic metals, including methylmercury (MeHg). Between November 2015 and January 2017, after Hurricane Joaquin, surface water samples were collected routinely from three creeks in Columbia, SC. Routine sampling coincided with six sewage spills. Total mercury (THg) and MeHg (unfiltered and filtered) and 32 other metals (filtered) were measured. Compared with surface water samples, THg (unfiltered and filtered), MeHg (unfiltered), and 19 other metals were significantly higher in sewage spills (all log-transformed) (two-tailed test, < 0...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Dae-Ik Son, Prince Aleta, Minseung Park, Hyojik Yoon, Kyung Hwa Cho, Young Mo Kim, Sungpyo Kim
The fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in aquatic environments, especially in rivers and reservoirs, is receiving growing attention in South Korea because reservoirs are an important source of drinking water in this country. Seasonal changes in the abundance of 11 ARGs and a mobile genetic element () in two reservoirs in South Korea, located near drinking water treatment plants in Cheonan and Cheongju cities, were monitored for 6 mo. In these drinking water sources, total ARG concentrations reached 2...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Minjeong Kim, Laurie Boithias, Kyung Hwa Cho, Oloth Sengtaheuanghoung, Olivier Ribolzi
Land use change from annual crops to commercial tree plantations can modify flow and transport processes at the watershed scale, including the fate and transport of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), such as . The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a useful means for integrating watershed characteristics and simulating water and contaminants. The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the impact of land use change on microbial transfer from soils to streams using the SWAT model...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Wensheng Fang, Qiuxia Wang, Dongdong Yan, Bin Huang, Zongjie Ren, Qian Wang, Zhaoxin Song, Xiaoman Liu, Yuan Li, Canbin Ouyang, Aocheng Cao
Dazomet (3,5-dimethyl-1,3,5-thiadiazinane-2-thione) is widely used as a soil fumigant for controlling soil-borne diseases and pests in China and other agricultural countries. The active ingredient of dazomet is its degradation product, methyl isothiocyanate. Little is known about the environmental conditions that affect the degradation of dazomet in soil. In this study, we conducted laboratory incubation experiments to test the effects of several environmental factors, including soil texture, water content, temperature, pH, and soil amendments, such as chicken manure or urea fertilizer, on the decomposition of dazomet...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Khurram Rafi, Kevin L Wagner, Terry Gentry, Raghupathy Karthikeyan, Amanda Dube
This research examines the relationship of concentrations to stream order and watershed size and considers the implications on water quality standards. To assess geospatial effects, data were obtained from 743 monitoring stations in the Central Great Plains, Cross Timbers, and South Central Plains ecoregions of Texas and Oklahoma. Median and geometric mean concentrations were analyzed for correlation with stream order and watershed size at each site. Comparison of the three ecoregions revealed concentrations were highest in the westernmost Central Great Plains and lowest in the easternmost South Central Plains...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Meredith B Nevers, Murulee N Byappanahalli, Dawn Shively, Paul M Buszka, P Ryan Jackson, Mantha S Phanikumar
Restoration of highly degraded urban coastal waters often requires large-scale, complex projects, but in the interim, smaller-scale efforts can provide immediate improvements to water quality conditions for visitor use. We examined short-term efforts to improve recreational water quality near the Grand Calumet River (GC) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Identified as an Area of Concern (AOC) by the International Joint Commission, the GC has experienced years of industrial and municipal waste discharges, and as a result, coastal beaches have some of the highest rates of beach closings (>70%) in the United States...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Matthew D Stocker, Yakov A Pachepsky, Robert L Hill, Gonzalo Martinez
After rainfall or irrigation begins, surface-applied chemicals and manure-borne microorganisms typically enter the soil with infiltration until the soil saturates, after which time the chemicals and microbes are exported from the field in the overland flow. This process is viewed as a reason for the dependence of chemical export on the time between rainfall start and runoff initiation that has been documented for agricultural chemicals. The objective of this work was to observe and quantify such dependence for released from solid farmyard dairy manure in field conditions...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Brianna R Wegner, Kopila Subedi Chalise, Shikha Singh, Liming Lai, Gandura Omar Abagandura, Sandeep Kumar, Shannon L Osborne, R Michael Lehman, Sindhu Jagadamma
Excessive crop residue returned to the soil hinders farm operations, but residue removal can affect soil quality. In contrast, cover cropping can return additional residue to the soil and improve soils and environmental quality compared with no cover cropping. Residue and cover crop impacts on soil surface greenhouses gas (GHG) emissions are undetermined and site specific. Thus, the present study was conducted to investigate the impacts of corn ( L.) residue management and cover cropping on GHG fluxes. The fluxes were measured from 2013 to 2015 using static chamber under corn and soybean [ (L...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Yijun Yao, Fang Mao, Yuting Xiao, Huanyu Chen, Iason Verginelli, Jian Luo
In this work we investigate the role of soil texture in petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) by performing numerical modeling, analytical calculations, and statistical analysis of the USEPA's PVI database. Numerical simulations were conducted for three kinds of soil (sand, sandy loam, and clay), and the results indicate that the maximum attenuations of vapor concentrations from source to indoor air were observed when the clay soil is below the building. In the anaerobic zone, the normalized soil gas concentration profiles were observed to be similar and independent of soil type, whereas in the aerobic zone, a more significant attenuation was observed in finer grained soils...
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
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