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Journal of Environmental Quality

Roman Babko, Katarzyna Jaromin-Gleń, Grzegorz Łagód, Yaroslav Danko, Tatiana Kuzmina, Małgorzata Pawłowska, Artur Pawłowski
This work presents the results of studies on the impact of spent drilling fluids cotreated with municipal wastewater on the rate of the wastewater treatment process and the structure of the community of eukaryotic organisms inhabiting an activated sludge. The studies were conducted under laboratory conditions in sequencing batch reactors. The effect of added polymer-potassium drilling fluid (DF1) and polymer drilling fluid (DF2) at dosages of 1 and 3% of wastewater volume on the rate of removal of total suspended solids, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, and the content of total and ammonium nitrogen were analyzed, taking into account the values of these parameters measured at the end of each operating cycle...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Erin M Karppinen, Steven D Siciliano, Katherine J Stewart
To integrate biochar as a practical and successful remedial amendment at northern landfarms, components of its formulation and application must be optimized for site-specific environmental conditions. Different biochar amendments were applied to petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC)-contaminated soil at two northern field sites (Iqaluit and Whitehorse) and in a laboratory study at -5°C to determine the effects of application method (injection or incorporation) and biochar type (wood, fishmeal, bonemeal, and/or compost) on PHC degradation and associated soil properties...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
J P McNeal, L J Krutz, M A Locke, M M Kenty, R L Atwill, D M Pickelmann, C J Bryant, C W Wood, B R Golden, M S Cox
Polyacrylamides (PAMs), when applied as a soil amendment, purportedly improve soil infiltration, decrease erosion, and reduce offsite agrochemical transport. The effect of PAM on infiltration, erosion, agrochemical transport, and crop yield when applied in furrow to mid-southern US production systems has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess PAM effects on infiltration, erosion, corn ( L.) grain yield, and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport when applied at 10 mg L through lay-flat polyethylene tubing...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Yijun Yao, Yue Wang, Zhong Zhong, Mengling Tang, Eric M Suuberg
Soil texture is believed to play a significant role in the migration of subsurface volatile chemicals into buildings at contaminated sites, an exposure process known as vapor intrusion (VI). In this study, we investigated the role of soil texture in determining the attenuation of contaminant soil gas concentration from groundwater source to receptor building. We performed soil column experiments, numerical simulations, and statistical analysis of the USEPA's VI database. The soil column experiments were conducted with commercial sand and soils with sand and sandy loam textures...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Ben W Thomas, Xiying Hao
Limited information is available about soil nitrous oxide (NO) fluxes, NO emission factors (EFs), and yield-scaled NO emissions for biogas residues used to fertilize crops in semiarid regions. To address this knowledge gap, a 4-yr field experiment was conducted in a semiarid climate to determine growing season NO fluxes from soil receiving (i) anaerobically digested solid beef cattle manure (digestate), (ii) separated solids from the digestate (separated solids), and (iii) undigested solid beef cattle manure (cattle manure) applied to target one and two times the recommended rates (200 and 400 kg total N ha) for barley ( L...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Frédéric Rees, Françoise Watteau, Sandrine Mathieu, Marie-Pierre Turpault, Yann Le Brech, Rongliang Qiu, Jean Louis Morel
Metals can be immobilized on biochars by precipitation with carbonate. The distribution of metal-carbonate phases at the surface of biochars and the conditions of their formation, however, are unknown. Electron microscopy and X-photon spectroscopy were used to characterize carbonate phases in various morphological groups of particles of a wood-derived biochar, both before and after a metal-sorption experiment. Our results showed that the distribution of metals at the surface of biochar particles depended on the corresponding wood tissues and the presence of carbonate phases...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
David B Parker, Heidi M Waldrip, Kenneth D Casey, Richard W Todd, William M Willis, Kathleen Webb
Nitrous oxide (NO) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted from agricultural operations. The objective of this research was to quantify NO-N emissions from simulated open-lot beef cattle feedlot pens after rainfall. A recirculating-flow-through, non-steady state chamber system consisting of five 1-m steel pans was designed for quantifying emissions. A lid was placed sequentially on each pan, and headspace air was recirculated between the pan and a real-time NO analyzer, measuring concentrations every 1 s. Air-dried manure (89...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Francis X M Casey, Nancy W Shappell, Heldur Hakk
17β-Estradiol (E2), a natural, endocrine-disrupting, steroid hormone, is excreted by all vertebrates and can enter the environment from domestic animal and wildlife wastes. Multiple field studies using livestock manures as E2 sources suggest significant background concentrations of E2 (e.g., wildlife sources, hydrolysis of E2 conjugates, previous inputs). To accurately understand field fate and transport processes of E2, it is necessary to address the issue of background detections. In this study, two fluorinated and three brominated surrogate compounds of E2 were synthesized and compared to native E2 using soil/water batch experiments and for estrogenic activity...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
María Jesús Gutiérrez-Ginés, Brett H Robinson, Juergen Esperschuetz, Engracia Madejón, Jacqui Horswell, Roger McLenaghen
Biosolids could potentially be used for reforestation of degraded soils in New Zealand with native vegetation. Many native plant species of New Zealand thrive in low-fertility soils, and there is scant knowledge about their nutrient requirements. Therefore, it is unclear whether they will respond positively to the addition of biosolids. We used a pot trial to determine the responses of 11 native plant species to biosolids addition (10% w/w, ∼90 Mg hm) on two distinct degraded soils, Lismore stony silt loam and a Kaikōura sand...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Mariem Yahya, Anicet R Blanch, Wim G Meijer, Katerina Antoniou, Fatma Hmaied, Elisenda Ballesté
Microbial source tracking (MST) has been extensively used to detect the sources of fecal pollution in water. The inclusion of MST in water management strategies improves the ecological status of the ecosystem and human and animal health under interdisciplinary analysis in all aspects of health care for humans, animals, and the environment (One Health approach). In this study, the performance of MST markers targeting host-specific Bacteroidales (HF183 and Rum-2-Bac) and species (HMBif and CWBif) were evaluated in raw sewage collected from human, ruminant, swine, and poultry sources in Tunisia, Cyprus, Ireland, and Spain...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Charles H Fontanier, Jacqueline A Aitkenhead-Peterson, Benjamin G Wherley, Richard H White, James C Thomas, Phil Dwyer
Proper management of turfgrass systems is critical for reducing the risk of nutrient loss and protecting urban surface waters. In the southern United States, irrigation can be the most significant management practice regulating the biogeochemical and hydrological cycles of turfgrass systems. A turfgrass runoff research facility was used to assess the effects of deficit irrigation and fertilizer applications on turfgrass canopy cover and nitrate-N (NO-N) exports in runoff from St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Peter L O'Brien, Thomas M DeSutter, Francis X M Casey, Abbey F Wick, E Khan
Successful remediation of oil-contaminated agricultural land may include the goal of returning the land to prespill levels of agricultural productivity. This productivity may be measured by crop yield, quality, and safety, all of which are influenced by soil characteristics. This research was conducted to determine if these metrics are affected in hard red spring wheat ( L. cultivar Barlow) when grown in soils treated by ex situ thermal desorption (TD) compared with wheat grown in native topsoil (TS). Additionally, TD soils were mixed with TS at various ratios to assess the effectiveness of soil mixing as a procedure for enhancing productivity...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Jonas Duus Stevens Lekfeldt, Charlotte Kjaergaard, Jakob Magid
Organic waste fertilizers have previously been observed to significantly affect soil organic carbon (SOC) content and soil structure. However, the effect of organic waste fertilizers on colloid dispersibility and leaching of colloids from topsoil has not yet been studied extensively. We investigated how the repeated application of different types of agricultural (liquid cattle slurry and solid cattle manure) and urban waste fertilizers (sewage sludge and composted organic household waste) affected soil physical properties, colloid dispersion from aggregates, tracer transport, and colloid leaching from intact soil cores...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Isabelle Pattis, Elaine Moriarty, Craig Billington, Brent Gilpin, Roger Hodson, Nick Ward
Intensive deer farming can cause environmental issues, mainly by its impact on soils and water quality. In particular, there is a risk to the microbial quality of water, as high quantities of suspended sediment and fecal bacteria can enter into water systems. The feces of farmed red deer (, = 206) from Canterbury and Southland, New Zealand, were analyzed with regard to the presence of spp., , enterococci, and spp.. Enterococci and were isolated from all samples, with mean concentrations of 4.5 × 10 (95% CI 3...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Rezvan Karimi, Wole Akinremi, Don Flaten
The application of livestock manure can result in the loss of nitrate-nitrogen (NO-N) and degrade surface and groundwater. A 3-yr lysimeter study was set up to compare the effect of cropping system and nitrogen (N)- and phosphorus (P)-based pig manure application rates on the loss of water and NO-N below the root zone. The experiment was a split-plot design with annual and perennial cropping systems as the main factor. Five nutrient management treatments were the subplots: N-based liquid pig manure application; P-based liquid pig manure application, N-based solid pig manure application, P-based solid pig manure application, and a control without amendment...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
H Zhang, R P Voroney, G W Price
There have been limited studies of how pyrolysis temperature and activation processes alter the chemical properties of biochar and how these changes influence ammonium (NH), nitrate (NO), and phosphate (PO) sorption. This study compared the chemical properties of biochars and activated biochars (ActBC with steam and CO activation) produced by slow pyrolysis at 200 (BC200), 400 (BC400), 600 (BC600), 800 (ActBC200, ActBC400, ActBC600), and 850°C (sulfachar-S enriched biochar with steam activation). Quantitative solid-state C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and elemental analysis were used to study temperature and activation on biochar chemical properties...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Adrian L D Paul, Rufus L Chaney
Cadmium (Cd)-mineralized soils occur in many nations. When these soils are noncalcareous, crops and especially leafy vegetables such as lettuce ( L.) and spinach ( L.) may accumulate levels of Cd in their edible portions that exceed international standards. Vegetable crops grown on Lockwood loam from Monterey County, CA, absorb an excessive amount of Cd into their edible portions. Agronomic or genetic management alternatives are needed to allow the use of these otherwise highly productive soils for spinach...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Katherine L Tully, Sheila Abwanda, Margaret Thiong'o, Paul M Mutuo, Todd S Rosenstock
Livestock keeping is ubiquitous in tropical Africa. Urine and dung from livestock release greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as nitrous oxide (NO) and methane (CH), to the atmosphere. However, the extent of GHG's impact is uncertain due to the lack of in situ measurements in the region. Here we measured NO and CH emissions from cow urine and dung depositions in two Kenyan pastures that received different amounts of rainfall using static chambers across wet and dry seasons. Cumulative NO emissions were greater under dung+urine and urine-only patches ( 0...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Colleen Zumpf, Herbert Ssegane, Maria Cristina Negri, Patty Campbell, Julian Cacho
Agricultural landscape design has gained recognition by the international environmental and development community as a strategy to address multiple goals in land, water, and ecosystem service management; however, field research is needed to quantify impacts on specific local environments. The production of bioenergy crops in specific landscape positions within a grain-crop field can serve the dual purpose of producing cellulosic biomass (nutrient recovery) while also providing regulating ecosystem services to improve water quality (nutrient reduction)...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Francesca Perazzolo, Gabriele Mattachini, Elisabetta Riva, Giorgio Provolo
Management factors affect nutrient loss during animal manure slurry storage in different ways. We conducted a pilot-scale study to evaluate carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses from unseparated and digested dairy slurry during winter and summer storage. In addition to season, treatments included mechanical separation of digestate into liquid and solid fractions and bimonthly mixing. Chemical analyses were performed every 2 wk for the mixed materials and at the start and end of storage for unmixed materials. The parameters examined allowed us to estimate C and N losses and examine the factors that determine these losses as well as emission patterns...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
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