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Journal of Environmental Quality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898802/nutrient-cycling-in-grassed-roadside-ditches-and-lawns-in-a-suburban-watershed
#1
Lauren E McPhillips, Peter M Groffman, Rebecca L Schneider, M Todd Walter
Roadside ditches are ubiquitous in developed landscapes. They are designed to route water from roads for safety, with little consideration of water quality or biogeochemical implications in ditch design and minimal data on environmental impacts. We hypothesize that periodic saturation and nutrient influxes may make roadside ditches hotspots for nitrogen (N) removal via denitrification as well as biological production of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) nitrous oxide (NO), methane (CH), and carbon dioxide (CO). Research sites included 12 grassed ditches and adjacent lawns with varying fertilization in a suburban watershed in central New York, where lawns represented a reference with similar soils as ditches but differing hydrology...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898801/reduction-of-methane-emission-during-slurry-storage-by-the-addition-of-effective-microorganisms-and-excessive-carbon-source-from-brewing-sugar
#2
Mohd Saufi B Bastami, Davey L Jones, David R Chadwick
Storing livestock manure is the primary stage of manure management where microbial processes and chemical reactions result in the release of methane (CH), nitrous oxide (NO), ammonia (NH), and carbon dioxide (CO). This study examined the reduction of CH emissions from slurry storage under two temperatures (cool [10°C] and warm [30°C]) when a glucose-rich substrate (brewing sugar) and activated effective microorganisms were applied at 10% (w/w) and 5% (v/w), respectively. Brewing sugar addition influenced microbial anaerobic respiration, resulting in a reduction of slurry pH to <5...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898800/greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-stored-dairy-slurry-from-multiple-farms
#3
Etienne L Le Riche, Andrew C VanderZaag, Jeffrey D Wood, Claudia Wagner-Riddle, Kari Dunfield, N Martin Ngwabie, John McCabe, Robert J Gordon
A significant need exists to improve our understanding of the extent of greenhouse gas emissions from the storage of livestock manure to both improve the reliability of inventory assessments and the impact of beneficial management practice adoption. Factors affecting the extent and variability of greenhouse gas emissions from stored dairy manure were investigated. Emissions from six slurries stored in clean concrete tanks under identical "warm-season" conditions were monitored consecutively over 173 d (18°C average air temperature)...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898799/effects-of-dolomitic-limestone-application-on-zinc-speciation-in-boreal-forest-smelter-contaminated-soils
#4
Jordan G Hamilton, Richard E Farrell, Ning Chen, Joel Reid, Renfei Feng, Derek Peak
Anthropogenic activities at the HudBay Minerals, Inc., Flin Flon (Manitoba, Canada) mining and processing facility have severely affected the surrounding boreal forest ecosystem. Soil contamination occurred via a combination of metal and sulfuric acid deposition and has resulted in forest dieback and ineffective natural recovery. A community-led effort to revegetate areas of the landscape through the application of a dolomitic limestone has been met with varied success. Zinc (Zn) speciation has shown to be closely linked to the presence or absence of an invasive metal-tolerant grass species, with soils being broadly classed into two revegetation response groups...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898798/visualization-of-colloid-transport-pathways-in-mineral-soils-using-titanium-iv-oxide-as-a-tracer
#5
Stefan Koch, Petra Kahle, Bernd Lennartz
In soils, colloidal transport has been identified as the most important pathway for strong adsorbing, environmental contaminants like pesticides, heavy metals, and phosphorus. We conducted a comparative dye tracer experiment using a Brilliant Blue (BB) solution and a Titanium(IV) oxide (TiO) colloid suspension (average particle size 0.3 μm), aiming to visualize and quantify colloid pathways in soils. Both dye tracers showed comparable general flow patterns with preferred transport over the deepest part of the soil profile, independent of clay content...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898797/effectiveness-of-livestock-exclusion-in-a-pasture-of-central-north-carolina
#6
Daniel E Line, Deanna L Osmond, Wesley Childres
Reducing the export of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and sediment from agricultural land in water-supply watersheds is a continuing goal in central North Carolina. The objective of this project was to document the effectiveness of a combination of livestock exclusion fencing and nutrient management implemented on a beef cattle pasture located in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. The quantity and quality of discharge from two predominantly pasture watersheds were monitored simultaneously for 3.8 yr before and after implementation of the exclusion fencing and nutrient management in the treatment watershed; a control watershed remained unchanged...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898796/sorption-of-pharmaceuticals-heavy-metals-and-herbicides-to-biochar-in-the-presence-of-biosolids
#7
Daniel A Bair, Fungai N D Mukome, Inna E Popova, Temitope A Ogunyoku, Allie Jefferson, Daoyuan Wang, Sarah C Hafner, Thomas M Young, Sanjai J Parikh
Agricultural practices are increasingly incorporating recycled waste materials, such as biosolids, to provide plant nutrients and enhance soil functions. Although biosolids provide benefits to soil, municipal wastewater treatment plants receive pharmaceuticals and heavy metals that can accumulate in biosolids, and land application of biosolids can transfer these contaminants to the soil. Environmental exposure of these contaminants may adversely affect wildlife, disrupt microbial communities, detrimentally affect human health through long-term exposure, and cause the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898795/corn-nitrogen-management-influences-nitrous-oxide-emissions-in-drained-and-undrained-soils
#8
Fabián G Fernández, Rodney T Venterea, Karina P Fabrizzi
To date, no studies have evaluated nitrous oxide (NO) emissions of a single versus a split-nitrogen (N) fertilizer application under different soil drainage conditions for corn ( L.). The objective of this study was to quantify season-long cumulative NO emissions, N use efficiency, and soil N dynamics when corn received a recommended N rate as single or split-N application in Minnesota soils with and without tile drainage over two growing seasons. Preplant urea was broadcast incorporated, and in-season split-N was broadcast as urea plus urease inhibitor...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898794/greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-solid-and-liquid-organic-fertilizers-applied-to-lettuce
#9
Phasita Toonsiri, Stephen J Del Grosso, Arina Sukor, Jessica G Davis
Improper application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and environmental factors can cause the loss of nitrous oxide (NO) to the environment. Different types of fertilizers with different C/N ratios may have different effects on the environment. The focus of this study was to evaluate the effects of environmental factors and four organic fertilizers (feather meal, blood meal, fish emulsion, and cyano-fertilizer) applied at different rates (0, 28, 56, and 112 kg N ha) on NO emissions and to track CO emissions from a lettuce field ( L...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898793/increasing-soluble-phosphate-species-by-treatment-of-phosphate-rocks-with-acidic-waste
#10
Wedisson O Santos, Dean Hesterberg, Edson M Mattiello, Leonardus Vergütz, Matheus S C Barreto, Ivo R Silva, Luiz F S Souza Filho
The development of efficient fertilizers with a diminished environmental footprint will help meet the increasing demand for food and nutrients by a growing global population. Our objective was to evaluate whether an acidic mine waste (AMW) could be used beneficially by reacting it with sparingly soluble phosphate rocks (PRs) to produce more soluble P fertilizer materials. Three PRs from Brazil and Peru were reacted with different concentrations of AMW. Changes in mineralogy and P species were determined using a combination of X-ray diffraction and phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy, in addition to extractable P concentrations...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898792/soybean-area-and-baseflow-driving-nitrate-in-iowa-s-raccoon-river
#11
Gabriele Villarini, Christopher S Jones, Keith E Schilling
Improved understanding of the drivers of stream nitrate is necessary to improve water quality. This is particularly true for Iowa, a large contributor to Mississippi River Basin nitrate loads. Here, we focus on the Raccoon River at Des Moines, Iowa, and develop statistical models to describe the monthly (from March to August) nitrate concentrations in terms of eight drivers representing monthly climate, monthly hydrology, and yearly cropping practices. We consider six two-parameter distributions, linear and nonlinear dependencies between the predictors, and the distributions' parameters...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898791/high-removal-of-effluent-borne-nitrogen-with-multiple-external-electron-donors-in-the-engineered-drainfield-of-an-advanced-septic-system
#12
Mriganka De, Gurpal S Toor
Septic systems can be a major source of nitrogen (N) in shallow groundwater. We designed an in situ engineered drainfield with aerobic-anaerobic (sand-woodchips) and anaerobic (elemental sulfur-oyster shell) media to remove N in the vadose zone and reduce N transport to groundwater. Effluent was dispersed on top of the engineered drainfield (3.72 m infiltrative surface) and then infiltrated through the aerobic-anaerobic and anaerobic media before reaching natural soil. Water samples were collected over 64 sampling events (May 2012-December 2013) from three parts of the drainfield: (i) a suction cup lysimeter installed at the sand-woodchips interface, (ii) a pipe after effluent passed through the aerobic-anaerobic media, and (iii) a tank containing anaerobic media...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898790/assessment-of-carbon-stocks-in-the-topsoil-using-random-forest-and-remote-sensing-images
#13
Jongsung Kim, Sabine Grunwald
Wetland soils are able to exhibit both consumption and production of greenhouse gases, and they play an important role in the regulation of the global carbon (C) cycle. Still, it is challenging to accurately evaluate the actual amount of C stored in wetlands. The incorporation of remote sensing data into digital soil models has great potential to assess C stocks in wetland soils. Our objectives were (i) to develop C stock prediction models utilizing remote sensing images and environmental ancillary data, (ii) to identify the prime environmental predictor variables that explain the spatial distribution of soil C, and (iii) to assess the amount of C stored in the top 20-cm soils of a prominent nutrient-enriched wetland...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898789/nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-open-lot-cattle-feedyards-a-review
#14
Heidi M Waldrip, Richard W Todd, David B Parker, N Andy Cole, C Alan Rotz, Kenneth D Casey
Nitrous oxide (NO) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations, including cattle feedyards, have become an important research topic. However, there are limitations to current measurement techniques, uncertainty in the magnitude of feedyard NO fluxes, and a lack of effective mitigation methods. The objective of this review was to assess NO emission from cattle feedyards, including comparison of measured and modeled emission rates, discussion of measurement methods, and evaluation of mitigation options...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898788/field-nitrogen-losses-induced-by-application-timing-of-digestate-from-dairy-manure-biogas-production
#15
Emily A Schwager, Andrew C VanderZaag, Claudia Wagner-Riddle, Anna Crolla, Chris Kinsley, Ed Gregorich
Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure has environmental benefits, but the impact of effluent (i.e., digestate [DG]) application on environmental nitrogen (N) losses from soils has not been well quantified. Our objective was to evaluate how field application of DG affected nitrous oxide (NO) emissions and nitrate (NO) leaching compared with raw dairy manure (RM) in spring versus fall applications. We measured N losses year-round for 2.5 yr in silage corn on tile-drained clay soil in Alfred, Ontario, Canada. Treatments were: digestate applied in spring (DS) and fall (DF), raw dairy manure applied in spring (RS) and fall (RF), urea applied in spring, and a control...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898787/zeolite-combined-with-alum-and-polyaluminum-chloride-mixed-with-agricultural-slurries-reduces-carbon-losses-in-runoff-from-grassed-soil-boxes
#16
J G Murnane, R B Brennan, O Fenton, M G Healy
Carbon (C) losses from agricultural soils to surface waters can migrate through water treatment plants and result in the formation of disinfection by-products, which are potentially harmful to human health. This study aimed to quantify total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic C losses in runoff after application of dairy slurry, pig slurry, or milk house wash water (MWW) to land and to mitigate these losses through coamendment of the slurries with zeolite (2.36-3.35 mm clinoptilolite) and liquid polyaluminum chloride (PAC) (10% AlO) for dairy and pig slurries or liquid aluminum sulfate (alum) (8% AlO) for MWW...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898786/the-extent-of-manure-removal-from-storages-and-its-impact-on-gaseous-emissions
#17
N M Ngwabie, R J Gordon, A VanderZaag, K Dunfield, A Sissoko, C Wagner-Riddle
Manure remaining in storage due to incomplete removal is a source of microbial inoculum that may affect methane (CH), nitrous oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH) emissions during subsequent storage. Manure removal was studied by loading fresh manure into outdoor concrete tanks (10.6 m) that contained previously stored manure (inoculum) at six levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25%, with 0% representing an empty tank). Emissions were continuously measured for 6-mo storage periods (warm and cold seasons) using flow-through chambers...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898785/diffusive-gradients-in-thin-films-as-a-reference-method-for-assessing-soil-phosphorus-by-visual-and-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#18
Marie van Maarschalkerweerd, Songjuan Gao, Jinshun Bai, Søren Husted, Weidong Cao, Peter E Holm
Phosphorus (P) deficiency is a severe challenge in many agricultural areas around the globe, while at the same time, aquatic environments are threatened by leaching and runoff of excess P in other areas. Accurate, cheap, and rapid assessment of crop P needs and risk of P loss is therefore necessary to optimize the use of P fertilizer worldwide. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to predict soil P concentrations by visual and near-infrared spectroscopy using reference P concentrations determined by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT); Olsen P results were included for comparison...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898784/effect-of-metal-ions-on-the-formation-of-trichloronitromethane-during-chlorination-of-catechol-and-nitrite
#19
Guojuan Gan, Rongwu Mei, Lin Qiu, Huachang Hong, Qingjun Wang, Asit Mazumder, Shikai Wu, Xiangliang Pan, Yan Liang
Catechol, nitrite, and dissolved metals are ubiquitous in source drinking water. Catechol and nitrite have been identified as precursors for halonitromethanes (HNMs), but the effect of metal ions on HNM formation during chlorination remains unclear. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of metal ions (Fe, Ti, Al) on the formation of trichloronitromethane (TCNM) (the most representative HNM species in disinfected water) on chlorinating catechol and nitrite. Trichloronitromethane was extracted by methyl tert-butyl ether and detected by gas chromatography...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898783/production-of-biomass-crops-using-biowastes-on-low-fertility-soil-2-effect-of-biowastes-on-nitrogen-transformation-processes
#20
J Esperschuetz, S Bulman, C Anderson, O Lense, J Horswell, N Dickinson, B H Robinson
Increasing production of biowastes, particularly biosolids (sewage sludge), requires sustainable management strategies for their disposal. Biosolids can contain high concentrations of nutrients; hence, land application can have positive effects on plant growth and soil fertility, especially when applied to degraded soils. However, high rates of biosolids application may result in excessive nitrogen (N) leaching, which can be mitigated by blending biosolids with other biowastes, such as sawdust. We aimed to determine the effects of biosolids and sawdust on growth and N uptake by sorghum, rapeseed, and ryegrass as well as N losses via leaching...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
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