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Journal of Environmental Quality

Madhubhashini B Galkaduwa, Ganga M Hettiarachchi, Gerard J Kluitenberg, Stacy L Hutchinson
The soil material in constructed wetlands is effective in retaining Se from flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater (WW), but reducing conditions can enhance native-soil As mobility. A laboratory-based soil column experiment was performed to assess the effectiveness of ferrihydrite (Fh) in minimizing the mobility of native-soil As in water-saturated soil material. A saline FGD WW mixture (i.e., influent) was delivered to columns of untreated and Fh-treated soil for 60 d. One untreated column and one Fh-treated column were then subjected to drying, followed by an additional 30 d of influent delivery...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Edward Flathers, Paul E Gessler
As funding agencies embrace open science principles that encourage sharing data and computer code developed to produce research outputs, we must respond with new modes of publication. Furthermore, as we address the expanding reproducibility crisis in the sciences, we must work to release research materials in ways that enable reproducibility-publishing data, computer code, and research products in addition to the traditional journal article. Toward addressing these needs, we present an example framework to model and map soil organic carbon (SOC) in the cereal grains production region of the northwestern United States...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
H Allen Torbert, Dexter B Watts, Rufus L Chaney
There are concerns regarding the fate of nutrients from surface application of animal manure. One approach to reduce losses of P is to treat manure with industrial byproducts such as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum. However, concerns regarding potentially toxic elements contributed to the environment have arisen based on previous element-rich forms of FGD gypsum that included fly ash, whereas "new" FGD gypsum without fly ash is much lower in contaminants. This study examined the impact of FGD gypsum application on soil, plants, and runoff when applied alone or with poultry litter (PL) to soil...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Elias Mendes Costa, Wagner de Souza Tassinari, Helena Saraiva Koenow Pinheiro, Sidinei Julio Beutler, Lucia Helena Cunha Dos Anjos
The soil organic matter (SOM) content and dynamic are related to vegetation cover, climate, relief, and geology; these factors have strong variation in space in the southeastern of Brazil. The objective of the study was to compare and evaluate performance of classical multiple linear regressions (MLR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models to predict soil organic carbon (SOC) and chemical fractions of organic matter in the Brazilian southeastern mountainous region. The regression models were fitted based on SOC and chemical fractions of SOM...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
K Christy Tanner, Lisamarie Windham-Myers, Mark Marvin-DiPasquale, Jacob A Fleck, Kenneth W Tate, Bruce A Linquist
Few studies have considered how methylmercury (MeHg, a toxic form of Hg produced in anaerobic soils) production in rice ( L.) fields can affect water quality, and little is known about MeHg dynamics in rice fields. Surface water MeHg and total Hg (THg) imports, exports, and storage were studied in two commercial rice fields in the Sacramento Valley, California, where soil THg was low (25 and 57 ng g). The median concentration of MeHg in drainage water exiting the fields was 0.17 ng g (range: <0.007-2.1 ng g)...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Andy D Robertson, Yao Zhang, Lucretia A Sherrod, Steven T Rosenzweig, Liwang Ma, Lajpat Ahuja, Meagan E Schipanski
Dryland agroecosystems could be a sizable sink for atmospheric carbon (C) due to their spatial extent and level of degradation, providing climate change mitigation. We examined productivity and soil C dynamics under two climate change scenarios (moderate warming, representative concentration pathway [RCP] 4.5; and high warming, RCP 8.5), using long-term experimental data and the DayCent process-based model for three sites with varying climates and soil conditions in the US High Plains. Each site included a no-till cropping intensity gradient introduced in 1985, with treatments ranging from wheat-fallow ( L...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Jemaneh Habtewold, Robert Gordon, Paul Voroney, Vera Sokolov, Andrew VanderZaag, Claudia Wagner-Riddle, Kari Dunfield
Stored liquid dairy manure is a hotspot for methane (CH) emission, thus effective mitigation strategies are required. We assessed sodium persulfate (NaSO), potassium permanganate (KMnO), and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for impacts on the abundance of microbial communities and CH production in liquid dairy manure. Liquid dairy manure treated with different rates (1, 3, 6, and 9 g or mL L slurry) of these chemicals or their combinations were incubated under anoxic conditions at 22.5 ± 1.3°C for 120 d. Untreated and sodium 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES)-treated manures were included as negative and positive controls, respectively, whereas sulfuric acid (HSO)-treated manure was used as a reference...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
A L Woodley, C F Drury, W D Reynolds, C S Tan, X M Yang, T O Oloya
Surface runoff and tile drainage are the main pathways for water movement and entry of agricultural nitrate into water resources. The objective of this 5-yr study was to characterize the partitioning of water flow and nitrate loss between these pathways for a humid-temperate Brookston clay loam soil under 54 to 59 yr of consistent cropping and fertilization. Cropping treatments included monoculture corn ( L., MC), continuous bluegrass ( L.) sod (CS), and a corn-oat-alfalfa ( L.)-alfalfa rotation (RC-RO-RA1-RA2)...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
P R Nash, H T Gollany, U M Sainju
Traditional dryland crop management includes fallow and intensive tillage, which have reduced soil organic carbon (SOC) over the past century, raising concerns regarding soil health and sustainability. The objectives of this study were: (i) to use CQESTR, a process-based C model, to simulate SOC dynamics from 2006 to 2011 and to predict relative SOC trends in cropping sequences that included barley ( L.), pea ( L.), and fallow under conventional tillage or no-till, and N fertilization rates through 2045; and (ii) to identify best dryland cropping systems to increase SOC and reduce CO emissions under projected climate change in eastern Montana...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Curtis D Jones, Lawrence G Oates, G Philip Robertson, R Cesar Izaurralde
While the US Midwest is expected to serve as a primary feedstock source for cellulosic biofuel production, the impacts of residue harvesting on soil organic carbon (SOC) may greatly limit sustainable production capacity. However, viable feedstock production could be realized through adoption of management practices and cropping systems that offset residue-harvest-induced SOC losses. Sequestration of SOC can be enhanced by increasing the duration of crop soil cover through cover or double cropping or cultivation of dedicated perennials...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Joshua J Stratton, Jay Ham, Thomas Borch
Atmospheric deposition of NH and NH contributes to eutrophication within sensitive subalpine ecosystems of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in the United States. However, little is known about the local contribution of NH from soils within the park. Thus, the goal of this study was to quantify and compare NH emissions from intact soil cores sampled from a subalpine grassland and forest within RMNP. Cores were collected at 2-wk intervals from 20 June 2011 to 12 Sept. 2011 and transferred to a laboratory chamber system for NH flux measurements...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Marek Jarecki, Brian Grant, Ward Smith, Bill Deen, Craig Drury, Andrew VanderZaag, Budong Qian, Jingyi Yang, Claudia Wagner-Riddle
Agricultural practices such as including perennial alfalfa ( L.), winter wheat ( L.), or red clover ( L.) in corn ( L.) rotations can provide higher crop yields and increase soil organic C (SOC) over time. How well process-based biogeochemical models such as DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) capture the beneficial effects of diversified cropping systems is unclear. To calibrate and validate DNDC for simulation of observed trends in corn yield and SOC, we used long-term trials: continuous corn (CC) and corn-oats ( L...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Feier Wang, Zuolei Sun, Siyuan Zheng, Jie Yu, Xinqiang Liang
Nonpoint sources are difficult to control because their nutrient contribution from different parts of a watershed can vary substantially. Identifying critical source areas of nutrient loss is an important step in watershed pollution mitigation programs. This study sought to use an integrated index model to differentiate between subbasins that serve as critical source areas of N and P nonpoint sources of pollution in China's Tiaoxi watershed. In contrast with previous N and P indices, multiple sources of pollution (i...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Brian J Wienhold, Virginia L Jin, Marty R Schmer, Gary E Varvel
The western US Corn Belt is projected to experience major changes in growing conditions due to climate change over the next 50 to 100 yr. Projected changes include increases in growing season length, number of high temperature stress days and warm nights, and precipitation, with more heavy rainfall events. The impact these changes will have on soil organic carbon (SOC) needs to be estimated and adaptive changes in management developed to sustain soil health and system services. The process-based model CQESTR was used to model changes in SOC stocks (0-30 cm) of continuous corn ( L...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Camilla A Gardiner, Timothy J Clough, Keith C Cameron, Hong J Di, Grant R Edwards, Cecile A M de Klein
Urea, the dominant form of N in ruminant urine, degrades in soil to produce NO emissions. However, the fate of non-urea urine N compounds (NUNCs) in soil and their contribution to urine patch NO emissions remain unclear. This study evaluated five NUNCs: allantoin (10%), creatinine (3%), creatine (3%), uric acid (1%), and (hypo)xanthine (0.6%), where numbers in parentheses represent the average percentage of total urine N. The fates of NUNCs in a pasture soil were determined using N-labeled NUNCs in a laboratory trial...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Yuki Audette, Ivan P O'Halloran, Peter M Nowell, Richard Dyer, Ross Kelly, R Paul Voroney
The nature and management of agricultural soils can influence the forms of legacy P present in affected sediments; however, few studies have specifically characterized P in sediments affected by polder agriculture. In this study, the speciation of P as it flows from the muck soils of the Holland Marsh to the sediments of the West Holland River and Lake Simcoe, Ontario, Canada, was investigated. The distribution of P fractions and the characterization of organic P were analyzed by the sequential fractionation method and solution P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Andrew Sharpley, Helen Jarvie, Don Flaten, Peter Kleinman
2019 will be the 350th anniversary of the discovery of phosphorus (P) by the alchemist Henning Brandt. This perspective traces the historical threads that P has weaved through the fabric of our society and identifies challenges to improve P stewardship in the future and for our future. A century after Brandt's discovery, P was identified in bone ash, which became the primary source of P until guano and ultimately rock P was mined to provide the various mineral formulations used today. Owing to limited supplies, a strategic shift in resource management ethics-from exploiting to conserving P resources-is needed...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Gabriel Maltais-Landry, Nicolas Bertoni, Will Valley, Nicholas Grant, Zoran Nesic, Sean M Smukler
Manure-based soil amendments (MBSAs) must be managed optimally to maximize N concentration and availability while minimizing environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas [GHG]) emissions. We conducted an 83-d incubation study to determine the effects of different moisture (60 or 120% of water-holding capacity [WHC]) and temperature (4 or 20°C) conditions during the decomposition of MBSAs. We measured CO, CH, and NO emissions and total C, total N, NH, and NO during the decomposition of chicken MBSA and two understudied MBSAs (turkey and horse)...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Luis A Reyes Rojas, Kabindra Adhikari, Stephen J Ventura
Soil organic C (SOC) is the largest terrestrial C pool, and it influences diverse soil properties and processes in a landscape. At global scales, SOC is related to climate; as climate changes, we expect that SOC will change at broad scales as well, but how SOC will respond to climate change in diverse environments is complex and highly uncertain. To evaluate the potential impact of predicted changes in temperature and precipitation across central Chile, we first estimated current SOC content using pedon descriptions and environmental variables (temperature, rainfall, land use, topography, soil types, and geology) as predictors...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Shan Zuidema, Wilfred M Wollheim, Madeleine M Mineau, Mark B Green, Robert J Stewart
Chloride contamination of rivers due to nonpoint sources is increasing throughout developed temperate regions due to road salt application in winter. We developed a river-network model of chloride loading to watersheds to estimate road salt application rates and investigated the meteorological factors that control riverine impairment by chloride at concentrations above thresholds protective of aquatic organisms. Chloride loading from road salt was simulated in the Merrimack River watershed in New Hampshire, which has gradients in development density...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
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