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Journal of Environmental Quality

Peter C Van Metre, Jeffrey W Frey, MaryLynn Musgrove, Naomi Nakagaki, Sharon Qi, Barbara J Mahler, Michael E Wieczorek, Daniel T Button
Nitrogen sources in the Mississippi River basin have been linked to degradation of stream ecology and to Gulf of Mexico hypoxia. In 2013, the USGS and the USEPA characterized water quality stressors and ecological conditions in 100 wadeable streams across the midwestern United States. Wet conditions in 2013 followed a severe drought in 2012, a weather pattern associated with elevated nitrogen concentrations and loads in streams. Nitrate concentrations during the May to August 2013 sampling period ranged from <0...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Travis W Shaddox, Jason K Kruse, Grady L Miller, Peter Nkedi-Kizza, Jerry B Sartain
United States Golf Association putting greens are susceptible to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) leaching. Inorganic soil amendments are used to increase moisture and nutrient retention and may influence N and P leaching. This study was conducted to determine whether N and P leaching could be reduced using soil amendments and surfactant-modified soil amendments. Treatments included a control (sand), sand-peat, zeolite, calcined clay, hexadecyltrimethylammonium-zeolite, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium-calcined clay...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Madhulika Kushwaha, Shalini Verma, Subhankar Chatterjee
Pesticides play an important role in the protection of different crops. Among the diverse sets of pesticides used all over the world, the organophosphates are the most widely used group. Profenofos [O-(4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl) O-ethyl S-propyl phosphorothioate] is one of the most largely used organophosphate insecticides on field crops, vegetables, and fruit crops. The World Health Organization classifies this compound as moderately hazardous (Toxicity Class II), and its residues have been found in vegetables like okra [ (L...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Hedeff I Essaid, Nancy T Baker, Kathleen A McCarthy
Surplus nitrogen (N) estimates, principal component analysis (PCA), and end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) were used in a multisite comparison contrasting the fate of N in diverse agricultural watersheds. We applied PCA-EMMA in 10 watersheds located in Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Nebraska, Mississippi, and Washington ranging in size from 5 to 1254 km with four nested watersheds. Watershed Surplus N was determined by subtracting estimates of crop uptake and volatilization from estimates of N input from atmospheric deposition, plant fixation, fertilizer, and manure for the period from 1987 to 2004...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Jacob Bruun, Carl Christian Hoffmann, Charlotte Kjaergaard
Unregulated and event-driven agricultural tile drainage discharge poses several challenges that potentially limit the nitrate (NO) removal performance of woodchip-based wetlands constructed to intercept subsurface tile drain flows. Laboratory column tests were conducted to evaluate the biogeochemical response of mixed reactive media (woodchips-seashells and woodchips-Filtralite mixtures) at two woodchip ratios to changes in hydraulic loading rate (HLR). The tests involved continuous loading of aerated artificial drainage water spiked with NO-N and tritium (HO) breakthrough experiments...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
K W King, M R Williams, W A Dick, G A LaBarge
Elevated phosphorus (P) loading from agricultural nonpoint-source pollution continues to impair inland waterbodies throughout the world. The application of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum to agricultural fields has been suggested to decrease P loading because of its high calcium content and P sorbing potential. A before-after control-impact paired field experiment was used to examine the water quality effects of successive FGD gypsum applications (2.24 Mg ha; 1 ton acre each) to an Ohio field with high soil test P levels (>480 ppm Mehlich-3 P)...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Katrina L Gillette, Yaling Qian, Ronald F Follett, Stephen Del Grosso
Few studies have quantified nitrous oxide (NO) emissions from intensively managed turfgrass systems on golf courses. Fertilizer treatments consisting of urea with inhibitors of nitrification and urease (INU), polymer-coated urea (PCU), and uncoated balanced methylene urea (BMU) chain, which use different mechanisms to control the release of N substrate, were applied to a golf course fairway and rough three times during the 2011 growing season at a rate of 50 kg N ha per application. The vented chamber method was used to measure turf-soil-atmospheric NO exchange...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Hong Wang, Yuanfang Huang, Chongyang Shen, Junxue Wu, An Yan, Hongyan Zhang
The role of biochar as a soil amendment on the transport of acetamiprid, a widely used neonicotinoid pesticide, is little known. We conducted saturated column experiments to examine cotransport of acetamiprid and silica nanoparticles (NPs) in pure and biochar-amended sands. Retention of acetamiprid was minor in the pure sand, whereas application of biochar in the sand significantly increased retention. Retention was greater at lower ionic strengths and near neutral pH values and was attributed to biodegradation and sorption through π-π interaction and pore filling...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Alex Charlton, Ruben Sakrabani, Steve P McGrath, Colin D Campbell
The Long-Term Sludge Experiment (LTSE) began in 1994 at nine UK field sites as part of continuing research into the effects of sludge-borne heavy metals on soil fertility. The long-term effects of Zn, Cu, and Cd on the most probable numbers of cells (MPN) of biovar were monitored for 8 yr in sludge-amended soils. To assess the statutory limits set by the UK Sludge (Use in Agriculture) Regulations, the experimental data were reviewed using statistical methods of meta-analysis. Previous LTSE studies have focused predominantly on statistical significance rather than effect size, whereas meta-analysis focuses on the magnitude and direction of an effect, i...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Paul L Mosquin, Jeremy Aldworth, Wenlin Chen
The performance of kriging methods in predicting maximum m-day (m = 1, 7, 14, or 30) rolling averages of atrazine concentrations in 42 site-years of Midwest Corn Belt watersheds under two systematic sampling designs (sampling every 7 or 14 d) was examined. Daily atrazine monitoring data obtained from the Atrazine Ecological Monitoring Program in the Corn Belt region (2009-2014) were used in the evaluation. Both ordinary and universal kriging methods were considered, with the covariate for universal kriging derived from the deterministic Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM)...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
D E Pelster, B Gisore, J Goopy, D Korir, J K Koske, M C Rufino, K Butterbach-Bahl
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission measurements from livestock excreta in Africa are limited. We measured CH and NO emissions from excreta of six Boran () and six Friesian () steers near Nairobi, Kenya. The steers were fed one of three diets (T1 [chaffed wheat straw], T2 [T1 + Meissner - 0.2% live weight per day], and T3 [T1 + calliandra - 0.4% live weight every 2 d]). The T1 diet is similar in quality to typical diets in the region. Calliandra is a leguminous fodder tree promoted as a feed supplement. Fresh feces and urine were applied to grasslands and emissions measured using static chambers...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Peter A Turner, John M Baker, Timothy J Griffis, Rodney T Venterea
Nitrous oxide (NO), produced primarily in agricultural soils, is a potent greenhouse gas and is the dominant ozone-depleting substance. Efforts to reduce NO emissions are underway, but mitigation results have been inconsistent. The leguminous perennial kura clover ( M. Bieb.) (KC) can grow side-by-side with cash crops in rotational corn ( L.)-soybean ( L.) systems. With biological nitrogen fixation, KC provides land managers an opportunity to reduce external fertilizer inputs, which may diminish problematic NO emissions...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Varun K Kasaraneni, Vinka Oyanedel-Craver
Exposure to high concentrations of carcinogenic pollutants in soils and sediments can result in increased health risks. Determining the levels and sources of contamination in developing communities is important for helping to reduce pollution and mitigate the risk of exposure. In the Mayan community of San Mateo Ixtatán, Guatemala, 24 samples of topsoil from urban, peri-urban, and agricultural sites and six samples of river sediment were collected and analyzed for 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
William Jokela, Jessica Sherman, Jason Cavadini
Manure applied to cropland is a source of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in surface runoff and can contribute to impairment of surface waters. Tillage immediately after application incorporates manure into the soil, which may reduce nutrient loss in runoff as well as N loss via NH volatilization. However, tillage also incorporates crop residue, which reduces surface cover and may increase erosion potential. We applied liquid dairy manure in a silage corn ( L.)-cereal rye ( L.) cover crop system in late October using methods designed to incorporate manure with minimal soil and residue disturbance...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Sonya M Havens, Curtis J Hedman, Jocelyn D C Hemming, Mark G Mieritz, Martin M Shafer, James J Schauer
Hormone contamination of aquatic systems has been shown to have deleterious effects on aquatic biota. However, the assessment of hormone contamination of aquatic environments requires a quantitative evaluation of the potential effects of sample preservation on hormone concentrations. This study investigated the influence of acidification (pH 2) of surface water samples on the partitioning of hormones among filtrate, filter media, and filter-retained particulate matter. Hormones were spiked into unpreserved and sulfuric acid-preserved ultrapure water and surface water runoff samples...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Whitney L Nash, W Lee Daniels, Kathryn C Haering, James A Burger, Carl E Zipper
Rock-derived overburden material is used as a topsoil substitute for reclamation of Appalachian coal mines. We evaluated five mixtures ( = 4 each) of sandstone (SS) and siltstone (SiS) overburden as topsoil substitutes for 25+ years to quantify changes in mine soil properties. The study area was planted only to tall fescue [ (Schreb.)], but over 50 herbaceous species invaded over time. Standing biomass was highest in early years (5.2-9.3 Mg ha in 1983) and was strongly affected by rock type (SS > SiS), declined significantly by 1989 (1...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Santanu Bakshi, Deborah M Aller, David A Laird, Rajesh Chintala
The long-term impact of biochar on soil properties and agronomic outcomes is influenced by changes in the physical and chemical properties of biochars that occur with time (aging) in soil environments. Fresh biochars, however, are often used in studies because aged biochars are generally unavailable. Therefore, a need exists to develop a method for rapid aging of biochars in the laboratory. The objectives of this study were to compare the physicochemical properties of fresh, laboratory-aged (LA), and field-aged (FA) (≥3 yr) biochars and to assess the appropriateness of a laboratory aging procedure that combines acidification, oxidation, and incubations as a mimic to field aging in neutral or acidic soil environments...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Pei-Hsiou Ding, Gen-Shuh Wang, Bing-Yu Chen, Gwo-Hwa Wan
Urbanization causes air pollution in metropolitan areas, coupled with meteorological factors that affect air quality. Although previous studies focused on the relationships of urbanization, air pollution, and climate change in Western countries, this study evaluated long-term variations of air quality and meteorological factors in Taiwanese metropolitan areas (Taipei area, Taichung City, and Kaohsiung City) and a rural area (Hualien County) between 1993 and 2012. The influence of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system on air quality was also evaluated...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Somchai Butnan, Jonathan L Deenik, Banyong Toomsan, Michael J Antal, Patma Vityakon
The ability of biochar applications to alter greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO, CH, and NO) has been attracting research interest. However, inconsistent published results necessitate further exploration of potential influencing factors, including biochar properties, biochar rates, soil textures and mineralogy, and their interactions. Two short-term laboratory incubations were conducted to evaluate the effects of different biochars: a biochar with low ash (2.4%) and high-volatile matter (VM) (35.8%) contents produced under low-temperature (350°C) traditional kiln and a biochar with high ash (3...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Wenqing Zhang, Janusz J Zwiazek
Low phosphorus (P) availability and high pH inhibit plant growth in calcareous soils and some oil sands reclamation sites in northeastern Alberta, Canada. In this study, we used a split-root hydroponic setup to test the effects of supplemental P with different calcium (Ca) concentrations and root-zone pH conditions on the growth and physiological response of trees commonly found in the region: paper birch ( Marsh.), trembling aspen ( Michx.), green alder [ (Chaix) DC.], and black spruce [ (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
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