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Journal of Environmental Quality

Bei Chu, Frieda Eivazi
Most farms have a centralized location to fill spray tanks with pesticides and to flush and clean application equipment. These sites, depending on the frequency of use, could be significant sources of surface and groundwater contamination. One approach to minimize this contamination is to install a treatment system, such as a biobed. This study sought to construct a biobed and test the effects of different biomix materials in enhancing the dissipation of herbicides widely used in crop production. The four types of biomix evaluated had mixing ratios by volume of (1) 12...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Nicole Jaeger, Ludovic Besaury, Eileen Kröber, Anne-Marie Delort, Markus Greule, Katharina Lenhart, Thierry Nadalig, Stéphane Vuilleumier, Pierre Amato, Steffen Kolb, Françoise Bringel, Frank Keppler
Chloromethane (CHCl, methyl chloride) is the most abundant volatile halocarbon in the atmosphere and involved in stratospheric ozone depletion. The global CHCl budget, and especially the CHCl sink from microbial degradation in soil, still involves large uncertainties. These may potentially be resolved by a combination of stable isotope analysis and bacterial diversity studies. We determined the stable isotope fractionation of CHCl hydrogen and carbon and investigated bacterial diversity during CHCl degradation in three soils with different properties (forest, grassland, and agricultural soils) and at different temperatures and headspace mixing ratios of CHCl...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
R D Lentz, G A Lehrsch
A better understanding of nutrient leaching in furrow irrigated agriculture is needed to optimize fertilizer use and avoid contamination of water supplies. In this field study (2003-2006), we measured deep percolation fluxes at 1.2-m depth and associated nutrient concentrations and mass losses from dairy manure nitrogen (N) or mineral N (urea, sodium nitrate [NaNO])-amended soils (372 kg available N ha in 4 yr) and nonamended controls and determined the δN-NO and δO-NO isotope ratios in the leached nitrate...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Pernille Lund Kasper, Arne Oxbøl, Michael Jørgen Hansen, Anders Feilberg
Alteration of the chemical composition of odor samples during storage in polymer sample bags can significantly impair the accuracy of subsequent odor evaluations. To overcome or minimize this effect, the mechanisms determining compound loss must be more thoroughly understood. The present study examines the storage stability of a selection of key odorants from livestock production in polymer sample bags of Nalophan, Tedlar, and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The compounds included are acetic acid, butanoic acid, propanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, trimethylamine, and 4-methylphenol...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
R Li, R Hardy, W Zhang, G L Reinbold, S M Strachan
Severe air pollution has significant adverse health effects and poses a threat to public health in many communities, including nonattainment areas in the Unites States. To develop effective control strategies to reduce air pollution with minimum economic cost, one of the biggest challenges is to quantify the contributions from different sources. By combining chemical analyses, Positive Matrix Factorization modeling, and emission inventory development, this study identified primary and secondary sources of particulate matter with a diameter of <2...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Hongkai Qi, Zhiming Qi, T Q Zhang, C S Tan, Debasis Sadhukhan
Modeling soil phosphorus (P) losses by surface and subsurface flow pathways is essential in developing successful strategies for P pollution control. We used the ICECREAM model to simultaneously simulate P losses in surface and subsurface flow, as well as to assess effectiveness of field practices in reducing P losses. Monitoring data from a mineral-P-fertilized clay loam field in southwestern Ontario, Canada, were used for calibration and validation. After careful adjustment of model parameters, ICECREAM was shown to satisfactorily simulate all major processes of surface and subsurface P losses...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
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March 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Andrew R McGowan, Doo-Hong Min, Jeffery R Williams, Charles W Rice
Switchgrass ( L.) has been promoted as a potential feedstock for cellulosic biofuel in the United States. Switchgrass is known to respond to N fertilizer, but optimal rates remain unclear. Given the potential nonlinear response of nitrous oxide (NO) emissions to N inputs, N additions to switchgrass above optimal levels could have large impacts on the greenhouse gas balance of switchgrass-based biofuel. Additionally, N additions are likely to have large impacts on switchgrass production costs. Yield, N removal, and net returns were measured in switchgrass receiving 0 to 200 kg N ha in Manhattan, KS, from 2012 to 2014...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Tucker R Burch, Susan K Spencer, Spencer S Borchardt, Rebecca A Larson, Mark A Borchardt
Anaerobic digestion can inactivate zoonotic pathogens present in cattle manure, which reduces transmission of these pathogens from farms to humans through the environment. However, the variability of inactivation across farms and over time is unknown because most studies have examined pathogen inactivation under ideal laboratory conditions or have focused on only one or two full-scale digesters at a time. In contrast, we sampled seven full-scale digesters treating cattle manure in Wisconsin for 9 mo on a biweekly basis ( = 118 pairs of influent and effluent samples) and used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to analyze these samples for 19 different microbial genetic markers...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Jerry W Martin, Philip A Moore, Hong Li, Amanda J Ashworth, Dana M Miles
Ammonia (NH) scrubbers reduce amounts of NH and dust released from animal rearing facilities while generating nitrogen (N)-rich solutions, which may be used as fertilizers. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various NH scrubber solutions on forage yields, N uptake, soil-test phosphorus (P), and P runoff. A small plot study was conducted using six treatments: (i) an unfertilized control, (ii) potassium bisulfate (KHSO) scrubber solution, (iii) aluminum sulfate [Al(SO) ⋅14HO, alum] scrubber solution, (iv) sodium bisulfate (NaHSO) scrubber solution, (v) sulfuric acid (HSO) scrubber solution, and (vi) ammonium nitrate (NHNO) fertilizer...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Maarten Everaert, Rodrigo C da Silva, Fien Degryse, Mike J McLaughlin, Erik Smolders
The enrichment of P in surface waters has been linked to P runoff from agricultural fields amended with fertilizers. Novel slow-release mineral fertilizers, such as struvite and P-exchanged layered double hydroxides (LDHs), have received increasing attention for P recycling from waste streams, and these fertilizers may potentially reduce the risk of runoff losses. Here, a rainfall simulation experiment was performed to evaluate P runoff associated with the application of recycled slow-release fertilizers relative to that of a soluble fertilizer...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Harry H Schomberg, Dinku M Endale, Michael B Jenkins, Rufus L Chaney, Dorcas H Franklin
Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) from coal-fired power plants is readily available for agricultural use in many US regions. Broiler litter (BL) provides plant available N, P, and K but can be a source of unwanted As, Cu, and Zn. As a source of Ca and S, FGDG can reduce losses of P and other elements in runoff from BL-amended areas. Rainfall simulation plots (2.0 m) were established on a Piedmont Cecil soil growing 'Coastal' bermudagrass ( L.) for hay. Accumulation and transport of As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Zn were evaluated after annual BL applications (13...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
R K Bhomia, K R Reddy
Sustainable operation of a treatment wetland depends on its continued treatment of influent water to achieve desired outflow water quality targets. Water treatment or nutrient reduction is attained by a combination of biotic and abiotic processes. We studied one of the world's largest treatment wetlands established to revive the Florida Everglades from impacts of excessive phosphorus (P) inputs. Phosphorus retained in the treatment wetlands is sequestered within the accumulated material via biotic and abiotic pathways that are influenced by the existing wetland vegetation...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Y T Wang, T Q Zhang, C S Tan, Z M Qi, T Welacky
Forms (e.g., liquid and solid) of manure influence the risk of P loss after land application. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of P-based application of various forms of cattle manure (liquid, LCM; or solid, SCM) or inorganic P as triple superphosphate (IP) on soil P losses in tile drainage water. A 4-yr field experiment was conducted in a clay loam soil with a corn ( L.)-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation in the Lake Erie basin. Over the 4 yr, the dissolved reactive P (DRP) flow-weighted mean concentration (FWMC) in tile drainage water was greater under SCM fertilization than under either IP or LCM fertilization...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Ying Wang, Nora Fung Yee Tam
Mangroves are often exposed to contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from wastewater discharges and solid waste dumping. As one of the most prevalent and toxic PBDE congeners in the environment, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and its oxidative stress deserves more attention. In plants, the glutathione-ascorbate (GSH-AsA) cycle plays an important role in the defensive processes against oxidative stress. However, the importance of this cycle in mangroves to defend against PBDE toxicity has not been reported...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Seok-Young Oh, Yong-Deuk Seo, Tae-Yong Jeong, Sang-Don Kim
Factors affecting the sorptive removal of nitro explosives (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene [TNT] and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine [RDX]) to polymer/biomass-derived biochar were investigated through batch experiments. Compared with that of rice ( L.) straw (RS)-derived biochar, the sorption of TNT and RDX to polymer/RS-derived biochar was greatly enhanced by >2.5 and 4 times, respectively. The type and amount of polymer did not significantly affect the sorption of nitro explosives to polymer/RS-derived biochar...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Joanne L Vanderzalm, Declan W Page, Peter J Dillon, Karen E Barry, Dennis Gonzalez
Stormwater harvesting coupled to managed aquifer recharge (MAR) provides a means to use the often wasted stormwater resource while also providing protection of the natural and built environment. Aquifers can act as a treatment barrier within a multiple-barrier approach to harvest and use urban stormwater. However, it remains challenging to assess the treatment performance of a MAR scheme due to the heterogeneity of aquifers and MAR operations, which in turn influences water treatment processes. This study uses a probabilistic method to evaluate aquifer treatment performance based on the removal of total organic C (TOC), N, and P during MAR with urban stormwater in an anoxic carbonate aquifer...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Longyong Lin, Lirong Zhong, Xiulan Yan, Yang Fei
(Burk.) F.H. Chen, a valuable Chinese medicine, is currently confronted with arsenic (As) contamination in China due to soil pollution. Our previous research demonstrated that Fe(0) and zeolite had a certain inhibitory effect on As accumulation in . In order to further reduce As accumulation in the plant, a synthetic iron material (Fe-Ce oxide [FC]) with high As adsorption capacity was tested for As remediation. In the study, after FC was applied to the As-contaminated soil, was planted in the soil. The As leaching behavior of the treated soil and As accumulation in were evaluated...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Lidong Huang, Junming Yang, Yuting Xu, Jiayan Lei, Xiaoshan Luo, Barbara J Cade-Menun
Alum [KAl(SO)⋅12HO] is often added to chicken manure to limit P solubility after land application. This is generally ascribed to the formation of Al-PO complexes. However, Al-PO complex formation could be affected by the matrix of chicken manure, which varies with animal diet. Alum was added to KHPO (as a reference material) and two manures from typical chicken farms in China, one from an intensive farm (CMIF) and another from free-ranging chickens (CMFR). These were subsequently incubated with soils for 100 d to investigate P transformations...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Meie Wang, Yang Yang, Weiping Chen
Very little has been reported on the effects of pH, Zn, and Mn on Cd uptake in rice ( L.) and their levels under field conditions. Rice accumulates a high concentration of Cd in acid soils, even at low soil Cd levels. Lime (CaO) was spread at 1200 kg ha on the topsoil of a rice field during the tillering stage. Effects of liming on rice Cd, soil pH, and amorphous Mn (MnO-AM) were then investigated. Slight increases in pH from 5.17 to 5.45 and MnO-AM from 66.3 to 82.1 mg kg were observed after liming. The proportion of rice samples with a Cd concentration greater than the Chinese rice Cd standard (0...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
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