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Journal of Environmental Quality

W H Strosnider, S E Schultz, K A Johnson Strosnider, R W Nairn
Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) are an emerging engineering option with promise for simultaneous water quality improvement and habitat creation. Relatively little research has been published regarding their construction or effects on the underlying water column. In this field-scale experiment, four different extensive FTW designs were constructed using minimal materials, including drainpipe, burlap, mulch, utility netting, and reused polyethylene bottles. The FTWs were then planted with spp. (cattail) and L...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
E W Duncan, C J Dell, P J A Kleinman, D B Beegle
Trade-offs associated with surface application or injection of manure pose important environmental and agronomic concerns. Manure injection can conserve nitrogen (N) by decreasing ammonia (NH) volatilization. However, the injection band also creates conditions that potentially favor nitrous oxide (NO) production: an abundant organic substrate-promoting microbial activity, anaerobic conditions favoring denitrification, and large local concentrations of N. We assessed differences in NH volatilization and NO emissions with broadcast application versus shallow disk injection of dairy slurry during the 2011 to 2013 growing seasons on a well-drained silt loam that received average manure-N application rates of 180 kg N ha via injection or 200 kg N ha via broadcast...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Peter M Smyntek, Rachel C Wagner, Leigh-Anne Krometis, Sergio Carvajal Sanchez, Theresa Wynn-Thompson, William H J Strosnider
The remediation of mine water to preserve receiving water quality has advanced substantially over the past half century, but prospective regulations to limit the conductivity of mining-impacted waters pose a significant new challenge. Conventional approaches to reduce high levels of conductivity in these mine waters are often costly, requiring high levels of maintenance and significant inputs of energy and refined chemicals. In contrast, passive biological treatment (PBT) systems are a relatively low-cost, low-maintenance treatment technology for mine waters that have been used for over three decades...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
J Habetwold, R J Gordon, J D Wood, C Wagner-Riddle, A C VanderZaag, K E Dunfield
Stored liquid dairy manures are methane (CH) emission hotspots because of the large amount of slurry volatile solids (VS) converted into CH by methanogens under anaerobic conditions. Our research has indicated that a reduction of total solids (TS) of slurries before storage can reduce CH emissions. In the current study, methanogen abundance was characterized in tanks with different CH emissions. Using mesoscale slurry storage facilities equipped for continuous gaseous emission monitoring, we stored dairy slurries having TS from 9...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Biana H Kuwano, Marco A Nogueira, Cristiane A Santos, Dáfila S L Fagotti, Michele B Santos, Luís E A M Lescano, Diva S Andrade, Graziela M C Barbosa, João Tavares-Filho
Landfill leachates, which are potential pollutants, may also carry significant amounts of nutrients that can be recycled by plants. We assessed the nutritional status and yield of wheat ( L.) and properties of a Rhodic Kandiudult soil (depths of 0-10, 10-20, 20-40, and 40-60 cm) after 11 applications of landfill leachate over 4 yr. In the last application, wheat received 0, 32.7, 65.4, 98.1, or 130.8 m ha (875 mg L of nitrogen, N) of leachate and a positive control (90 kg ha of N as urea) 15 d after sowing...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Raea M Gooding, Helen M Baulch
There are few beneficial management practices (BMPs) with demonstrated efficacy in snowmelt-dominated regions. Small reservoirs are a BMP that can help mitigate flooding and reduce sediment transport, while reducing export of dissolved nutrients. To understand controls on nitrate removal and assess how this ecosystem service can be optimized, denitrification activity was measured in reservoirs and stream pools of the Tobacco Creek Model Watershed (Manitoba, Canada) via the chloramphenicol-amended acetylene block technique...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Elyse V Clark, Carl E Zipper, W Lee Daniels, Zenah W Orndorff, Matthew J Keefe
Surface mining in the central Appalachian coalfields (USA) influences water quality because the interaction of infiltrated waters and O with freshly exposed mine spoils releases elevated levels of total dissolved solids (TDS) to streams. Modeling and predicting the short- and long-term TDS release potentials of mine spoils can aid in the management of current and future mining-influenced watersheds and landscapes. In this study, the specific conductance (SC, a proxy variable for TDS) patterns of 39 mine spoils during a sequence of 40 leaching events were modeled using a five-parameter nonlinear regression...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
John F Obrycki, Nicholas T Basta, Robyn S Wilson
Regulators ( = 14) and the public ( = 30) were surveyed to compare how they perceived contaminated soil management strategies, including bioavailability assessments, using a mental models approach. Both groups proposed similar soil contamination definitions and agreed laboratory tests were needed to identify contaminants. When responding to open-ended questions about management options, regulators emphasized the risk assessment process, whereas the public noted specific treatment options. The majority of the public (68%) and regulators (86%) were concerned about particular contaminants...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Taylor J Mills, Suzanne P Anderson, Carleton Bern, Arnulfo Aguirre, Louis A Derry
Colloids can be important vectors for the transport of contaminants in the environment, but little is known about colloid mobilization at the watershed scale. We present colloid concentration, composition, and flux data over a large range of hydrologic conditions from a small watershed (Gordon Gulch) in the foothills of the Colorado Front Range. Colloids, consisting predominantly of Si, Fe, and Al, were present in most stream samples but were not detected in groundwater samples. Mineralogical and morphological analysis indicated that the colloids were composed of kaolinite and illite clays with lesser amounts of amorphous Fe-hydroxides...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
K G I D Kumari, Per Moldrup, Marcos Paradelo, Lars Elsgaard, Lis W de Jonge
The mobility of water-dispersible colloids (WDCs) in soil may be influenced by soil management practices such as organic soil amendments. Biochar has recently been promoted as a useful soil amendment, and extensive research has been devoted to investigating its effects on soil macroscopic properties and functions. However, there is limited understanding of the effects of biochar application on micro-scale particle dynamics. We conducted a field study to investigate the effects of the application of birch ( spp...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
N Gottselig, I Wiekenkamp, L Weihermüller, N Brüggemann, A E Berns, H R Bogena, N Borchard, E Klumpp, A Lücke, A Missong, T Pütz, H Vereecken, J A Huisman, R Bol
Current understanding of the variability in soil properties and their relationship to processes and spatial patterns in forested landscapes is limited due to the scarcity of datasets providing such information. Here we present a spatially highly resolved dataset () that provides detailed information on the three-dimensional variability of biogeochemical properties in the Wüstebach catchment (western Germany), a long-term environmental observation site of the TERENO (Terrestrial Environmental Observatories) project...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Partha Ray, Chaoqi Chen, Katharine F Knowlton, Amy Pruden, Kang Xia
Manure composting has general benefits for production of soil amendment, but the effects of composting on antibiotic persistence and effects of antibiotics on the composting process are not well-characterized, especially for antibiotics commonly used in dairy cattle. This study provides a comprehensive, head-to-head, replicated comparison of the effect of static and turned composting on typical antibiotics used in beef and dairy cattle in their actual excreted form and corresponding influence on composting efficacy...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Michela Schiavon, Elizabeth A H Pilon-Smits
The element selenium (Se) is both essential and toxic for most life forms, with a narrow margin between deficiency and toxicity. Phytotechnologies using plants and their associated microbes can address both of these problems. To prevent Se toxicity due to excess environmental Se, plants may be used to phytoremediate Se from soil or water. To alleviate Se deficiency in humans or livestock, crops may be biofortified with Se. These two technologies may also be combined: Se-enriched plant material from phytoremediation could be used as green fertilizer or as fortified food...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
K Christy Tanner, Lisamarie Windham-Myers, Jacob A Fleck, Kenneth W Tate, Stephen A McCord, Bruce A Linquist
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a bioaccumulative pollutant produced in and exported from flooded soils, including those used for rice ( L.) production. Using unfiltered aqueous MeHg data from MeHg monitoring programs in the Sacramento River watershed from 1996 to 2007, we assessed the MeHg contribution from rice systems to the Sacramento River. Using a mixed-effects regression analysis, we compared MeHg concentrations in agricultural drainage water from rice-dominated regions (AgDrain) to MeHg concentrations in the Sacramento and Feather Rivers, both upstream and downstream of AgDrain inputs...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Eric O Young, Justin R Geibel, Donald S Ross
Controlled drainage can reduce nitrate export from tile drainage flow, but its impact on phosphorus (P) loss is largely unknown. We compared P leaching from soil cores treated as free drainage (FD) or controlled drainage (CD) before and after manure application. In August 2012, 16 intact cores (45 cm long, 15 cm diameter) were collected from a grass forage field () located in Chazy, NY, and modified for drainage control and sampling. In Experiment 1 (no manure), initial leachate was defined as FD, and leachate collected 21 d later (valves closed) was considered CD...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Alvaro J Romera, Rogerio Cichota, Pierre C Beukes, Pablo Gregorini, Val O Snow, Iris Vogeler
Intensification of pastoral dairy systems often means more nitrogen (N) leaching. A number of mitigation strategies have been proposed to reduce or reverse this trend. The main strategies focus on reducing the urinary N load onto pastures or reducing the rate of nitrification once the urine has been deposited. Restricted grazing is an example of the former and the use of nitrification inhibitors an example of the latter. A relevant concern is the cost effectiveness of these strategies, independently and jointly...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Helen P Jarvie, Laura T Johnson, Andrew N Sharpley, Douglas R Smith, David B Baker, Tom W Bruulsema, Remegio Confesor
Cumulative daily load time series show that the early 2000s marked a step-change increase in riverine soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) loads entering the Western Lake Erie Basin from three major tributaries: the Maumee, Sandusky, and Raisin Rivers. These elevated SRP loads have been sustained over the last 12 yr. Empirical regression models were used to estimate the contributions from (i) increased runoff from changing weather and precipitation patterns and (ii) increased SRP delivery (the combined effects of increased source availability and/or increased transport efficiency of labile phosphorus [P] fractions)...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Roxana P Colombo, José G Ibarra, Laura Fernandez Bidondo, Vanesa A Silvani, María J Bompadre, Mariana Pergola, Nancy I Lopez, Alicia M Godeas
The commercial use of genetically modified (GM) plants has significantly increased worldwide. The interactions between GM plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are of considerable importance given the agricultural and ecological role of AM and the lack of knowledge regarding potential effects of drought-tolerant GM corn ( L.) on AM fungal symbiosis. This work studied AM fungal colonization in five corn lines growing under two different irrigation regimes (30 and 100% of soil field capacity [SFC]). Four of the lines were GM corn, and two of these were drought tolerant...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Astrid Spielmeyer, Franziska Stahl, Madeleine S Petri, Walter Zerr, Hubertus Brunn, Gerd Hamscher
Liquid manure is frequently used as soil fertilizer due to its high nutrient content. It can also contain residues of pharmaceuticals, such as antibiotics, if farm animals are medicated. The anaerobic fermentation process in biogas plants is discussed as one way to reduce the input of antibiotics into the environment. Therefore, 10 worldwide-applied sulfonamides (sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadiazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfaguanidine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfapyridine, and sulfathiazole) and four frequently used tetracyclines (chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline) were investigated concerning their elimination pattern during anaerobic fermentation...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Roman Babko, Tatiana Kuzmina, Grzegorz Łagód, Katarzyna Jaromin-Gleń, Yaroslav Danko, Małgorzata Pawłowska, Artur Pawłowski
Spent drilling muds are the liquid residues of rock drilling operations. Due to a high concentration of suspended solids and potentially detrimental chemical properties, they can negatively affect microorganisms participating in wastewater treatment processes. We evaluated the addition of a potassium-polymer drilling fluid (DF) to activated sludge in laboratory sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment. Ciliate assemblage, the most dynamic component of eukaryotes in activated sludge, and which is highly sensitive to changes in the system, was evaluated...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
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