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Journal of Environmental Quality

Peter A Vadas, Nicole M Fiorellino, Frank J Coale, Robert Kratochvil, Alisha S Mulkey, Josh M McGrath
Agricultural nutrient management is an issue due to P loss from fields and water quality degradation. This is especially true in watersheds where a history of P application in excess of crop needs has resulted in elevated soil P (legacy P). As practices and policy are implemented in such watersheds to reduce P loss, information is needed on time required to draw down soil P and how much P loss can be reduced by drawdown. We used the Annual P Loss Estimator (APLE) model to simulate soil P drawdown in Maryland, and to estimate P loss at a statewide scale associated with different combinations of soil P and P transport...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Wenguang Sun, H Magdi Selim
Much uncertainty exists in mechanisms and kinetics controlling the adsorption and desorption of molybdenum (Mo) in the soil environment. To investigate the characteristics of Mo adsorption and desorption and predict Mo behavior in the vadose zone, kinetic batch experiments were performed using three soils: Webster loam, Windsor sand and Mahan sand. Adsorption isotherms for Mo were strongly nonlinear for all three soils. Strong kinetic adsorption of Mo by all soils was also observed, where the rate of retention was rapid initially and was followed by slow retention behavior with time...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Bruce A Linquist, Mathias Marcos, M Arlene Adviento-Borbe, Merle Anders, Dustin Harrell, Steve Linscombe, Michele L Reba, Benjamin R K Runkle, Lee Tarpley, Allison Thomson
Previous reviews have quantified factors affecting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Asian rice ( L.) systems, but not from rice systems typical for the United States, which often vary considerably particularly in practices (i.e., water and carbon management) that affect emissions. Using meta-analytic and regression approaches, existing data from the United States were examined to quantify GHG emissions and major practices affecting emissions. Due to different production practices, major rice production regions were defined as the mid-South (Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Missouri) and California, with emissions being evaluated separately...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
John P Brooks, Haile Tewolde, Ardeshir Adeli, Mark W Shankle, Thomas R Way, Renotta K Smith, Ian L Pepper
Agronomic management is aimed at managing the crop environment to maximize crop yield, but soil biology is often ignored. This study aimed to compare the application of poultry litter via broadcast and subsurface banding versus standard inorganic fertilizer to cotton ( L.) and their effects on soil bacterial populations and fecal indicator bacteria. The study comprised a randomized complete block design, with fertilizer and time of application as treatment effects and cover crop as a main effect. Soil cores were collected and analyzed from 2008 to 2014...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Mingwei Yuan, Fabián G Fernández, Cameron M Pittelkow, Kristin D Greer, Daniel Schaefer
Phosphorus fertilization can increase P losses in surface runoff, but limited information is available for fields with <2% slopes in the US Midwest. Our objectives were to determine the effects of tillage-fertilizer placement (no-till-broadcast, strip till-broadcast; or strip till-deep placement, -15-cm subsurface band) and fertilizer rate applied in the fall (0, 52, or 90 kg PO ha yr) on runoff P concentrations and loads in fields with <2% slopes near Pesotum, IL, during fall and spring simulation runoff events, and to measure corn ( L...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Kristopher L Nichols, Stephen J Del Grosso, Justin D Derner, Ronald F Follett, Shawn L Archibeque, Jorge A Delgado, Keith H Paustian
Grazing cattle redistribute nitrogen (N) consumed in forage through urine and feces patches. The high concentration of N in these patches often exceeds the uptake demands of the local plant community, thereby providing ideal conditions for losses of reactive N. However, knowledge on nitrous oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH) emissions from excretal patches on shortgrass steppe grassland is limited. We studied the effect of cattle urine (1002 kg N ha) and feces (1021 kg N ha) patches on NO and NH emissions in two sites with contrasting vegetation: (i) cool-season (C3) 'Bozoisky-Select' Russian wildrye [ (Fisch...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Wei He, Zong-Hao Hu, Sheng Yuan, Wen-Hui Zhong, Yan-Zhen Mei, Chuan-Chao Dai
Genetically engineered bacterial whole-cell bioreporters were deployed to investigate bioavailable mercury (b-Hg) and phenanthrene (b-PHE). Characterized by high sensitivity and specificity in aqueous solutions, the bioreporter system could detect in amended soils the concentrations of b-Hg and b-PHE in the ranges of 19.6 to 111.6 and 21.5 to 110.9 μg kg, respectively. The sensitivity of the system allowed for the combined analysis of b-Hg and b-PHE from real environmental samples. Therefore, soil samples from three large refinery facilities were tested, and the results from the instrumental analysis strongly correlated with the ones obtained with the bioreporter method...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Matthew Riddle, Lars Bergström, Frank Schmieder, Holger Kirchmann, Leo Condron, Helena Aronsson
Phosphorus derived from agricultural systems has been found to cause eutrophication of surface waters. To combat this, the specific location of soil profile P release is necessary for development of effective mitigation strategies. This paper describes a P leaching study of two Swedish arable soils, an organic (Typic Haplosaprist) and a mineral soil (Typic Hapludalf), both with high P content. Undisturbed soil columns isolated 0- to 20-, 20- to 40-, 40- to 60-, and 60- to 80-cm depth intervals. These were placed in a rainfall simulator and subjected to four 50-mm rainfall events to identify the origin of P leachate as a function of soil depth interval and physicochemical properties...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Chumki Banik, Michael Lawrinenko, Santanu Bakshi, David A Laird
The capacity of biochars to adsorb ionic contaminants is strongly influenced by biochar surface chemistry. We studied the effects of biomass feedstock type, pyrolysis temperature, reaction media pH, and AlCl pre-pyrolysis feedstock treatments on biochar anion exchange capacity (AEC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), point of zero net charge (PZNC), and point of zero salt effect (PZSE). We used the relationship between PZNC and PZSE to probe biochar surfaces for the presence of unstable (hydrolyzable) surface charge functional groups...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Ana Wingeyer, Martha Mamo, Walter Schacht, Dennis McCallister, Pamela Sutton
As a precautionary principle, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit establishes that the primary pollutant in concrete grinding residue (CGR) is its alkalinity and restricts CGR roadside discharge to 11 Mg ha or the agronomic liming rate, whichever is lower. We evaluated the effect of CGR application on roadside soil chemical properties, existing vegetation, and rainfall runoff. Five CGR rates (0, 11, 22, 45, and 90 dry Mg ha) were tested on roadsides slopes at two different locations in eastern Nebraska...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Rezvan Karimi, Wole Akinremi
The effect of liquid hog manure (LHM) and commercial fertilizer on NO-N leaching was measured for 2 yr in a long-term manure experiment on a loamy sand soil at Carberry, MB. The field experiment, sown to barley ( L.) and wheat ( L.), comprised six treatments including two rates of LHM (28, 084 and 56,168 L ha [2500 and 5000 gal acre, abbreviated LHM-2500 and LHM-5000, respectively]), two rates of fertilizer (abbreviated F-2500 and F-5000) corresponding approximately to available N in LHM-2500 and LHM-5000, compost (abbreviated Com-2500) supplemented with urea to approximate available N in LHM-2500, and an unamended control...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Michael S Massey, Iris Zohar, James A Ippolito, M Iggy Litaor
Phosphorus capture from wastewater can decrease water pollution and provide a P-rich fertilizer alternative for use in agricultural production. This study was conducted to elucidate P retention mechanisms in Al-based water treatment residuals (Al-WTR) to gain insight regarding P sorption and the potential for P release from Al-WTR after reaction with dairy wastewater. Synchrotron-based microfocused X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) spectrometry, bulk P -edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES), and P -edge micro-XANES spectroscopy were used to determine P distribution and speciation within the Al-WTR materials...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Lauren Wind, Leigh-Anne Krometis, W Cully Hession, Chaoqi Chen, Pang Du, Kyle Jacobs, Kang Xia, Amy Pruden
Identification of agricultural practices that mitigate the environmental dissemination of antibiotics is a key need in reducing the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria of human health concern. Here, we aimed to compare the effects of crop (lettuce [ L.] or radish [ L.]), soil amendment type (inorganic fertilizer, raw dairy manure, composted dairy manure, or no amendment), and prior antibiotic use history (no antibiotics during previous lactation cycles vs. manure mixed from cows administered pirlimycin or cephapirin) of manure-derived amendments on the incidence of culturable antibiotic-resistant fecal coliforms in agricultural soils through a controlled field-plot experiment...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Iris Zohar, Michael S Massey, James A Ippolito, M Iggy Litaor
We examined P sorption characteristics in Al-based water treatment residuals (Al-WTR) generated from slightly alkaline surface water and in an organic residual composite (WW-Al/O-WTR), produced by using the Al-WTR to treat organic-rich and high P concentration dairy wastewater. Solids from both residuals were examined using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and exposed to P additions of 0 to 4000 mg L in a sorption experiment. The Al-WTR removed ∼97% of the added P, whereas WW-Al/O-WTR removed only 78% of the added P in the addition range of 0 to 100 mg P L...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Jian Liu, John T Spargo, Peter J A Kleinman, Robert Meinen, Philip A Moore, Douglas B Beegle
Water-extractable P (WEP) in manure and manure compost is widely used as an indicator of P release to runoff from manure and compost that are land applied. A survey of 600 manures and composts was conducted to assess trends in WEP (dry weight equivalent) related to manure and compost types from sources in the Mid-Atlantic region. Manure and compost WEP ranged from 0.2 to 20.8 g kg. Mean WEP was highest in turkey and swine manures (manure: 4.1-5.6 g kg; no composts tested), followed by layer and broiler chicken manures (manure: 3...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Greg Wiggins, Elizabeth Benton, Jerome Grant, Marie Kerr, Paris Lambdin
Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, is a major component of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) [ (Annand)] management programs that are critical to protecting forest health in the eastern United States. However, the impact of imidacloprid soil applications in forests on some aquatic macroinvertebrate species by leaching into aquatic systems is uncertain. The time for residues from imidacloprid soil applications to migrate from treated hemlocks to nearby streams and the concentrations at which imidacloprid may occur after initial migration is unknown...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Ken Nakamura, Hidetaka Katou, Katsuhiro Suzuki, Toshimitsu Honma
Simultaneous suppression of rice ( L.) uptake of As and Cd is challenging because these toxic elements are immobilized under contrasting redox conditions. Given the notion that oxygen diffusion governs redox conditions in temporarily drained paddy soil, we assume that the key to simultaneous suppression of dissolved As and Cd concentrations is air-filled porosity (AFP) of soil. The objectives of this study were to reveal relationships between AFP and dissolved As and Cd concentrations in paddy soils and to identify the optimum water management, in terms of AFP, for simultaneous reduction of As and Cd...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Kelsey R Anderson, Philip A Moore, David M Miller, Paul B DeLaune, Dwayne R Edwards, Peter J A Kleinman, Barbara J Cade-Menun
Adding alum to poultry litter is a best management practice used to stabilize P in less soluble forms, reducing nonpoint-source P runoff. However, little research has been conducted on how alum additions to litter affect subsequent leaching of P from soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of alum-treated versus untreated poultry litter on P leaching from soil cores receiving long-term poultry litter applications. Two intact soil cores were taken from each of 52 plots in a long-term study with 13 treatments: a control, four rates each of untreated and alum-treated litter (2...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
P A Pittaway, A R Melland, D L Antille, S Marchuk
The progressive decline of soil organic matter (SOM) threatens the sustainability of arable cropping worldwide. Residue removal and burning, destruction of protected microsites, and the acceleration of microbial decomposition are key factors. Desorption of SOM by ammonia-based fertilizers from organomineral complexes in soil may also play a role. A urea- and molasses-based liquid fertilizer formulation and a urea-based granular formulation were applied at recommended and district practice rates, respectively, to soil leaching columns, with unfertilized columns used as controls...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Victoria R Kelly, Mary Ann Cunningham, Neil Curri, Stuart E Findlay, Sean M Carroll
We used a GIS analysis of sodium and chloride concentrations in private water wells in a southeastern New York township to describe the pattern of distribution of road salt in aquifers tapped for drinking water. The primary source of road salt was sodium chloride, and sodium and chloride concentrations were significantly correlated ( = 0.80, < 0.01). Chloride concentrations in wells increased as the percentage of impervious surface cover (ISC) within a 250-m radius around wells increased ( = 0.87, < 0...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
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