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Journal of Environmental Quality

Mohamad Assad, Michel Chalot, Fabienne Tatin-Froux, Valérie Bert, Julien Parelle
The development of a biomonitor in the context of multiple-element contamination in urban environments was tested by comparing element transfer in edible crops and poplar ( Torr. × A. Henry cutlivar 'Skado'). A multielemental analysis was performed with various common edible crops (cucumber [ L.], pepper [ L.], cabbage [ L.], and lettuce [ L.]) and the Skado poplar cultivar grown on soils that received sediments dredged from water canals in the 1960s. Sediments were distributed unevenly on the soil, allowing us to sample two types of areas that were either weakly (Area 1) or highly (Area 2) contaminated, mainly by Cd, Pb, and Zn...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Shrutika L Wadgaonkar, Alberto Ferraro, Marco Race, Yarlagadda V Nancharaiah, Karaj S Dhillon, Massimiliano Fabbricino, Giovanni Esposito, Piet N L Lens
Seleniferous soil collected from the wheat ( L.)-grown agricultural land in Punjab, India, was characterized and the Se concentration in various soil fractions was determined by sequential extraction. The soil had a total Se content of 4.75 (±0.02) mg kg, of which 44% was observed in the oxidizable soil fraction. Soil flushing as an in situ technique was performed to simulate the Se migration pattern in case of rainfall or irrigation. Significant migration of Se from the upper layer to the lower layers was observed during water percolation through the soil column at a flow rate of 1 mL min, which could be attributed to Se reduction in the lower anoxic layers of the soil column...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Alison M Franklin, Clinton F Williams, John E Watson
With low levels of human antibiotics in the environment due to release of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, concern is rising about impacts on human health and antibiotic resistance development. Furthermore, WWTP effluent may be released into waterways used as drinking water sources. The aim of this study was to analyze three antibiotics important to human health (sulfamethoxazole, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim) in soil and groundwater at a long-term wastewater reuse system that spray irrigates effluent...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Yina Xie, Yuzhou Luo, Nan Singhasemanon, Kean S Goh
For the aquatic exposure assessment of pesticides, the USEPA uses the Variable Volume Water Model (VVWM) to predict the estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) of a pesticide in a water body that receives runoff inputs from the Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM). The standard farm pond and additional generalized static and flowing water bodies used in endangered species assessment (aquatic bins) are used by USEPA to model the worst-case aquatic exposure for the nationwide exposure assessment. However, whether or not model results are relevant to state-specific conditions has not been validated...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Hanh T V Le, Rory O Maguire, Kang Xia
Although research has shown that manure soil subsurface injection reduces nutrient input to the aquatic environment, it is less known if it also reduces antibiotic surface runoff from manure-applied fields. Surface runoff of four dairy production antibiotics was monitored comparing (i) surface application and subsurface injection of manure and (ii) time gaps between manure application and a subsequent rain event. Liquid dairy manure spiked with pirlimycin, tylosin, chlortetracycline, and sulfamerazine was applied to 1...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
R Mukundan, M Scheerer, R K Gelda, E M Owens
Streamflow-based rating curves are widely used to estimate turbidity or suspended sediment concentrations in streams. However, such estimates are often inaccurate at the event scale due to inter- and intra-event variability in sediment-streamflow relationships. In this study, we use a quantile regression approach to derive a probabilistic distribution of turbidity predictions for Esopus Creek, a major stream in one of the watersheds that supply drinking water to New York City, using measured daily mean streamflow-turbidity data pairs for 2003 to 2016...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Isabela C F Vasques, Jaime W V de Mello, Renato W Veloso, Vanessa de P Ferreira, Walter A P Abrahão
Coprecipitation of Fe and Al (hydr)oxides has been considered a low-cost process to remove As from wastewater. Arsenate is the most stable form of As in aerobic environments such as surface water, soils, and sediments and can be removed from water through methods based on this process. Iron/aluminum molar ratios of 100:0, 80:20, and 60:40 were used to treat water contaminated with As at concentrations of 50 and 500 mg L. Aluminum, ferrous, and ferric sulfates were used to coprecipitate Al and Fe (hydr)oxides at high pH...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Taylor Beard, Tai Maaz, Kristy Borrelli, James Harsh, William Pan
Raindrop-induced crusting of mineral soils supporting wheat ( L.) in the semiarid US Pacific Northwest reduces seedling establishment of late summer-seeded winter crops during dry, hot conditions. Canola ( L.) integration is diversifying regional food, feed and fuel global markets. Subsequent shifts in recycled crop residue characteristics, including Si and crop fiber, may shift soil characteristics of traditional wheat-dominated systems, potentially affecting their propensity to form soil crusts. In a greenhouse study, wheat and canola were fertilized with varying N rates...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
P J A Kleinman, S Spiegal, J R Rigby, S C Goslee, J M Baker, B T Bestelmeyer, R K Boughton, R B Bryant, M A Cavigelli, J D Derner, E W Duncan, D C Goodrich, D R Huggins, K W King, M A Liebig, M A Locke, S B Mirsky, G E Moglen, T B Moorman, F B Pierson, G P Robertson, E J Sadler, J S Shortle, J L Steiner, T C Strickland, H M Swain, T Tsegaye, M R Williams, C L Walthall
Agriculture in the United States must respond to escalating demands for productivity and efficiency, as well as pressures to improve its stewardship of natural resources. Growing global population and changing diets, combined with a greater societal awareness of agriculture's role in delivering ecosystem services beyond food, feed, fiber, and energy production, require a comprehensive perspective on where and how US agriculture can be sustainably intensified, that is, made more productive without exacerbating local and off-site environmental concerns...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Nicholson Jeke, Francis Zvomuya
Managing biosolids from end-of-life municipal lagoons is a major challenge for many small communities where landfilling or spreading of biosolids on farmland is restricted. Contaminant removal via phytoextraction may be a viable remediation option for end-of-life lagoons in such communities. This study examined the effect of harvest frequency (once or twice per season) on cattail ( L.) biomass yield and N and P removal under a terrestrial phytoremediation system designed to treat the dewatered secondary cell of a municipal lagoon in Manitoba, Canada...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Risto Uusitalo, Riitta Lemola, Eila Turtola
No-till as a water protection measure is highly efficient in controlling erosion and particulate P (PP) loss but tends to increase dissolved reactive P (DRP) concentrations in runoff water. In a 9-yr field study on a clay soil in Southwest Finland, the effects of no-till and autumn plowing on surface runoff and subsurface drainage water quality were compared. The site had a 2% slope and was under spring cereal cropping, with approximately replacement fertilizer P rates. Vertical stratification of soil-test P that had developed during a preceding 6-yr grass ley was undone by plowing but continued to develop under no-till...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
A J Ashworth, F L Allen, J M DeBruyn, P R Owens, C Sams
Dynamic soil chemical interactions with conservation agricultural practices and soil biota are largely unknown. Therefore, this study aims to quantify long-term (12-yr) impacts of cover crops, poultry litter, crop rotations, no-tillage, and their interactions on dynamic soil properties and to determine their relationships with nutrient cycling, crop yield, and soil biodiversity (soil microbial and earthworm communities). Main effects were 13 different cropping sequences of soybean [ (L.) Merr.], corn ( L.), and cotton ( L...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Resham Thapa, Steven B Mirsky, Katherine L Tully
Cover crops are well recognized as a tool to reduce NO leaching from agroecosystems. However, their effectiveness varies from site to site and year to year depending on soil, cash and cover crop management, and climate. We conducted a meta-analysis using 238 observations from 28 studies (i) to assess the overall effect of cover crops on NO leaching and subsequent crop yields, and (ii) to examine how soil, cash and cover crop management, and climate impact the effect of non-leguminous cover crops on NO leaching...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Subash Dahal, Dorcas H Franklin, Miguel L Cabrera, Dennis W Hancock, Lawton Stewart, Laura C Ney, Anish Subedi, Kishan Mahmud
Uneven spatial distribution of soil N in conventionally managed pastures is a function of various biotic and abiotic factors and results in poor land use efficiency. In this study, we measured soil inorganic N (at depths of 0-5, 5-10, and 10-20 cm) in a 50-m grid and specific areas of interest from eight conventionally managed beef pastures (∼17 ha each), four near Eatonton and four near Watkinsville in the southern Piedmont of Georgia, USA, to assess the effects of management, landscape, and cattle locus in spatial distribution of soil inorganic N...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Rebecca Singer, Sally Brown
This study examined the impact of soil filtration on water quality for reclaimed water from two municipal wastewater treatment processes with two soils (forest and farm). Soils were watered for 16 wk. Nutrients (NO-N, NH-N, and PO), electrical conductivity, hardness, pH, total metals, and estrogenic activity in source and effluents were measured. Results were evaluated in reference to current regulations in Washington State. Both reclaimed waters met standards for unrestricted agricultural use but did not meet current state regulations for ecological use...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Amy Jimmo, Krystal M Isbister, Eric G Lamb, Steven D Siciliano, Katherine J Stewart
In the Yukon Territory, transmission rights-of-way (ROWs) are managed using brushing and mowing techniques alone. When cut, target species such as Michx. and spp. grow rapidly shortening maintenance cycles. Long-term vegetation control may be improved by integrating herbicide application. However, prior to implementation, the dissipation and toxicity of herbicides in northern latitudes needed to be assessed. The dissipation of Garlon XRT (triclopyr) and Arsenal Powerline (imazapyr) in soils was assessed at five ROW locations representative of the main ecoregion types where ROWs occur within the Yukon Territory...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Kevin F Bronson, Doug J Hunsaker, Clinton F Williams, Kelly R Thorp, Sharette M Rockholt, Stephen J Del Grosso, Rodney T Venterea, Edward M Barnes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Ling Ou, Travis W Gannon, Consuelo Arellano, Matthew L Polizzotto
Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) is one of the most widely used herbicides worldwide, and groundwater contamination is of concern, especially in heavily used regions and in edaphic conditions prone to leaching. Soil sorption plays an essential role in atrazine environmental fate, yet consistent atrazine risk prediction remains limited. A quantitative meta-analysis was conducted to characterize the effect of soil properties on atrazine sorption, using 378 previous observations in 48 publications from 1985 to 2015 globally, which included data on soil properties and sorption parameters...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Sirajum Munira, Annemieke Farenhorst, Kamala Sapkota, Denise Nilsson, Claudia Sheedy
Groundwater samples were collected from piezometers and water table wells in both dryland and irrigated agricultural regions of Alberta, Canada, to examine the occurrence of pesticide mixtures. Fourteen current-use pesticides and two historical compounds were detected over a 3-yr sampling period. Pesticide mixtures were detected in ∼3% of the groundwater samples, and the frequency of detection increased from spring (1.5%) to summer (3.8%) and fall (4.8%). Pesticide mixtures always consisted of at least one of two auxin herbicides: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA)...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Matthew T Moore, Martin A Locke, Robert F Cullum
Pesticides are responsible for nearly 1900 water quality impairments in the United States. Impacts of pesticide runoff on aquatic ecosystems can be mitigated by implementing management practices such as constructed wetlands, grass buffers, and vegetated ditches. A new practice currently being examined is the use of rice ( L.) fields for phytoremediation of pesticide-contaminated water. Rice is cultivated on every continent except Antarctica and is the staple food crop of 20% of the world's population. Four flooded 244-m fields (two planted with rice, two left bare) were amended with a mixture of atrazine (CHClN), diazinon (CHNOPS), and permethrin (CHClO) during a one-time simulated storm event, and pesticide concentrations and loads were monitored in water, sediment, and plant samples...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
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