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Journal of Environmental Quality

Kristen N Wyckoff, Si Chen, Andrew J Steinman, Qiang He
Stormwater runoff from roadways has increasingly become a regulatory concern for water pollution control. Recent work has suggested roadway stormwater runoff as a potential source of microbial pollutants. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of roadway runoff on the microbiological quality of receiving streams. Microbiological quality of roadway stormwater runoff and the receiving stream was monitored during storm events with both cultivation-dependent fecal bacteria enumeration and cultivation-independent high-throughput sequencing techniques...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Tingting Chen, Courtney Philips, Jordan Hamilton, Blaine Chartbrand, Jay Grosskleg, Kris Bradshaw, Trevor Carlson, Karen Timlick, Derek Peak, Steven D Siciliano
Phosphorus (P) bioavailability often limits gasoline biodegradation in calcareous cold-region soils. One possible method to increase P bioavailability in such soils is the addition of citrate. Citrate addition at the field scale may increase hydrocarbon degradation by: (i) enhancing inorganic and organic P dissolution and desorption, (ii) increasing hydrocarbon bioavailability, and/or (iii) stimulating microbial activity. Alternatively, citrate addition may inhibit activity due to competitive effects on carbon metabolism...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Julia G Jay, Sally L Brown, Kate Kurtz, Fritz Grothkopp
The phosphorus saturation index (PSI) and P saturation ratio (PSR) were tested across a wide range of bioretention soil mixtures (BSMs) for their relationship to total and dissolved P in column leachate. The BSMs tested were made using different feedstocks including sand alone, food and yard waste compost, biosolids and yard compost, and high Fe biosolids. The PSI of the mixtures ranged from 0.23 ± 0.03 (biosolids and yard waste compost 15%, oyster shells 5%) to 1.26 ± 0.02 (biosolids and yard waste compost 80%)...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Cameron M Pittelkow, Matthew W Clover, Robert G Hoeft, Emerson D Nafziger, Jeffery J Warren, Lisa C Gonzini, Kristin D Greer
Nitrogen (N) management strategies that maintain high crop productivity with reduced water quality impacts are needed for tile-drained landscapes of the US Midwest. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of N application rate, timing, and fall nitrapyrin addition on tile drainage nitrate losses, corn ( L.) yield, N recovery efficiency, and postharvest soil nitrate content over 3 yr in a corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation. In addition to an unfertilized control, the following eight N treatments were applied as anhydrous ammonia in a replicated, field-scale experiment with both corn and soybean phases present each year in Illinois: fall and spring applications of 78, 156, and 234 kg N ha, fall application of 156 kg N ha + nitrapyrin, and sidedress (V5-V6) application of 156 kg N ha...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
T Adam Coates, Alex T Chow, Donald L Hagan, G Geoff Wang, William C Bridges, James H Dozier
The O horizon, or detrital layer, of forest soils is linked to long-term forest productivity and health. Fuel reduction techniques, such as prescribed fire, can alter the thickness and composition of this essential ecosystem component. Developing an understanding of the changes in the chemical composition of forest detritus due to prescribed fire is essential for forest managers and stakeholders seeking sustainable, resilient, and productive ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated fuel quantity, fuel structure, and detrital chemical composition in longleaf pine ( Miller) forests that have been frequently burned for the last 40 yr at the Tom Yawkey Wildlife Center in Georgetown, SC...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Yingying Xie, Guining Lu, Han Ye, Chengfang Yang, Xiaoyun Yi, Zhi Dang
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important factor influencing mineral biogeochemistry, although the role of labile DOM in the release of chromium (Cr) from schwertmannite, a mineral with high surface area, is unclear. In this study, the interaction of DOM with synthetic CrO-schwertmannite was investigated to better understand the potential fate of Cr in high-DOM environments. Minerals and their products were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Robert C Borden, Jongho Won, Bilgen Yuncu
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (Royal Demolition Explosive, or RDX) deposited on hand grenade training ranges can leach through the soil and impact shallow groundwater. A 27-mo field monitoring project was conducted to evaluate the transport and attenuation of high explosives in variably saturated soils at an active grenade range located at Fort Bragg, NC. Two approaches were evaluated: (i) natural attenuation in grenade Bay C; and (ii) enhanced attenuation in Grenade Bay T...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Abha Mundepi, Jeanette Norton, Miguel Cabrera, Dorcas Franklin, Mussie Y Habteselassie
Poultry litter (PL) is widely applied on grazing lands in Georgia. However, it is not clear how its long-term use affects soil microorganisms and their function. We examined changes in activity and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in a grazing land with a history of PL application and compared it to treatment with urea ammonium nitrate (UAN). Soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected in 2009 (after 15 yr of PL application) and in 2013 (after 2 yr of no application). The abundance and community composition of ammonia oxidizers (AO) were determined with molecular techniques that targeted Nitrification potential (NP) was used for measuring their activity...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Molly K Welsh, Sara K McMillan, Philippe G Vidon
Although floodplain restoration may improve stream-riparian connectivity and increase channel stability through cross-vane installation, stream bank regrading, and buffer revegetation, the impact of these geomorphic alterations on denitrification across the aquatic-terrestrial interface is poorly understood. Seasonal denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) was compared in stream-riparian ecotones of four streams with varying hydrologic connection, riparian vegetation composition, and agricultural influence. Riparian and stream DEA was generally higher in sites adjacent to agricultural fields due to proximity to nitrate source...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Quan Van Nguyen, Lars Stoumann Jensen, Roland Bol, Di Wu, Jin Mi Triolo, Ali Heidarzadeh Vazifehkhoran, Sander Bruun
Knowledge about environmental impacts associated with the application of anaerobic digestion residue to agricultural land is of interest owing to the rapid proliferation of biogas plants worldwide. However, virtually no information exists concerning how soil-emitted NO is affected by the feedstock hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the biogas digester. Here, the O planar optode technique was used to visualize soil O dynamics following the surface application of digestates of the codigestion of pig slurry and agro-industrial waste...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Cecily A Flemming, Vince Pileggi, Shu Chen, Susan S Lee
Regulatory policies to manage land application of organic materials are risk based, with focus on the quality of these residuals. The Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change (MOECC) determined that limited information was available on pulp and paper biosolids (PPB) with respect to human enteric pathogens. To address this data gap, MOECC conducted an extensive survey (2005-2006) across Ontario to characterize the microbiological quality of PPB. Quantitative testing was performed for fecal indicators (, enterococci, ) and enteric pathogens (, , , and ) using matrix-validated methods...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Haojie Liu, Ditte M Forsmann, Charlotte Kjærgaard, Hermin Saki, Bernd Lennartz
There is a limited understanding of solute transport properties of degraded peat soils as compared to mineral substrates. A lower organic matter (OM) content is often the result of peat degradation and mineralization following artificial drainage. In this study, we aimed at deducing changes in solute transport properties of peat soils differing in OM content. Miscible displacement experiments were conducted on 70 undisturbed soil columns with OM contents ranging from 11 to 86% w/w under saturated steady-state conditions using tritium and bromide as conservative tracers...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Karen R Ryberg
Attribution of the causes of trends in nutrient loading is often limited to correlation, qualitative reasoning, or references to the work of others. This paper represents efforts to improve causal attribution of water-quality changes. The Red River of the North basin provides a regional test case because of international interest in the reduction of total phosphorus loads and the availability of long-term total phosphorus data and ancillary geospatial data with the potential to explain changes in water quality over time...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Craig F Drury, Xueming Yang, W Dan Reynolds, Wayne Calder, Tom O Oloya, Alex L Woodley
Less than 50% of applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer is typically recovered by corn ( L.) due to climatic constraints, soil degradation, overapplication, and losses to air and water. Two application methods, two N sources, and two inhibitors were evaluated to reduce N losses and enhance crop uptake. The treatments included broadcast urea (BrUrea), BrUrea with a urease inhibitor (BrUrea+UI), BrUrea with a urease and a nitrification inhibitor (BrUrea+UI+NI), injection of urea ammonium nitrate (InjUAN), and injected with one or both inhibitors (InjUAN+UI, InjUAN+UI+NI), and a control...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Ali Tasdighi, Mazdak Arabi, Deanna L Osmond
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Jongho Won, Robert C Borden
High explosives (HEs) deposited on military ranges can leach through the soil and contaminate groundwater. We examined the transport and fate of HEs in laboratory columns containing soils from two hand grenade bays (Bays C and T) and the impact of organic amendments on biodegradation. Soil characteristics were similar; however, Bay C had somewhat higher clay and organic C. Experimental treatments included addition of crude glycerin and lignosulfonate, and parallel control columns. Experimental results showed extensive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) degradation with minimal leaching, consistent with prior batch microcosm results...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
K J Forber, M C Ockenden, C Wearing, M J Hollaway, P D Falloon, R Kahana, M L Villamizar, J G Zhou, P J A Withers, K J Beven, A L Collins, R Evans, K M Hiscock, C J A Macleod, P M Haygarth
Climate projections for the future indicate that the United Kingdom will experience hotter, drier summers and warmer, wetter winters, bringing longer dry periods followed by rewetting. This will result in changes in phosphorus (P) mobilization patterns that will influence the transfer of P from land to water. We tested the hypothesis that changes in the future patterns of drying-rewetting will affect the amount of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) solubilized from soil. Estimations of dry period characteristics (duration and temperature) under current and predicted climate were determined using data from the UK Climate Projections (UKCP09) Weather Generator tool...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Elizabeth Quinn Brannon, Serena M Moseman-Valtierra, Brittany V Lancellotti, Sara K Wigginton, Jose A Amador, James C McCaughey, George W Loomis
Biological nitrogen removal (BNR) systems are increasingly used in the United States in both centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and decentralized advanced onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) to reduce N discharged in wastewater effluent. However, the potential for BNR systems to be sources of nitrous oxide (NO), a potent greenhouse gas, needs to be evaluated to assess their environmental impact. We quantified and compared NO emissions from BNR systems at a WWTP (Field's Point, Providence, RI) and three types of advanced OWTS (Orenco Advantex AX 20, SeptiTech Series D, and Bio-Microbics MicroFAST) in nine Rhode Island residences ( = 3 per type) using cavity ring-down spectroscopy...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Hannah Waterhouse, Jordon Wade, William R Horwath, Martin Burger
Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer formulations vary in their effects as substrates on nitrous oxide (NO) emissions. Mitigation of NO emissions can potentially be achieved through appropriate choice of N fertilizer sources combined with stabilizers. The effects of three N fertilizers and urease and nitrification inhibitors on NO emissions, crop N uptake, and yields were determined in a furrow-irrigated corn ( L.) system in Reiff loam soil in the Sacramento Valley of California for one growing season. Aqua ammonia (Aq...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Kristen E Gibson, Jung Ae Lee, Jay M Jackson, Lauren N Smith, Giselle Almeida
Standard methods for the evaluation of recreational water quality rely on generic bacterial indicators such as . However, does not provide enough information to determine fecal source or public health risk. The stsudy objective was to determine factors influencing the presence of and host-specific markers (HSM) from upstream to downstream in Beaver Lake Reservoir (BLR). From February 2014 to September 2015, 420 base flow and rain event samples were collected from seven sites-two sites from streams (White River [WR] and War Eagle Creek) draining into BLR and five sites from within BLR...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
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