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Journal of Environmental Quality

Jim J Miller, Tony Curtis, David S Chanasyk, Walter D Willms
Cattle trails in grazed pastures close to rivers may adversely affect surface water quality of the adjacent river by directing runoff to it. The objective of this 3-yr study (2013-2015) in southern Alberta, Canada, was to determine if cattle trails significantly increased the risk of runoff and contaminants (sediment, nutrients) compared with the adjacent grazed pasture (control). A portable rainfall simulator was used to generate artificial rainfall (140 mm h) and runoff. The runoff properties measured were time to runoff and initial abstraction (infiltration), total runoff depth and average runoff rates, as well as concentrations and mass loads of sediment, N, and P fractions...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Susanna M Blunt, Mark J Benotti, Michael R Rosen, Brian P Hedlund, Duane P Moser
Environmental endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a growing concern as studies reveal their persistence and detrimental effects on wildlife. Microorganisms are known to affect the transformation of steroid EDCs; however, the diversity of estrogen-degrading microorganisms and the range of transformations they mediate remain relatively little studied. In mesocosms, low concentrations of added estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2) were removed by indigenous microorganisms from Las Vegas Wash water within 2 wk...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Shai Sela, Harold M van Es, Bianca N Moebius-Clune, Rebecca Marjerison, Daniel Moebius-Clune, Robert Schindelbeck, Keith Severson, Eric Young
Large temporal and spatial variability in soil nitrogen (N) availability leads many farmers across the United States to over-apply N fertilizers in maize ( L.) production environments, often resulting in large environmental N losses. Static Stanford-type N recommendation tools are typically promoted in the United States, but new dynamic model-based decision tools allow for highly adaptive N recommendations that account for specific production environments and conditions. This study compares the Corn N Calculator (CNC), a static N recommendation tool for New York, to Adapt-N, a dynamic simulation tool that combines soil, crop, and management information with real-time weather data to estimate optimum N application rates for maize...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Kenneth Barbarick, James Ippolito, Jacob McDaniel
Land application to cropping systems is USEPA's preferred method of recycling biosolids. Determination of biosolids effect size through meta-analyses from two decades of field-location research at three sites should answer the question: Does 20 yr of biosolids application affect dryland wheat ( L.) grain production, grain nutrient concentrations, and soil elemental extractability compared with equivalent rates of commercial N fertilizer? At two sites, biennial biosolids application rates to a wheat-fallow (WF) rotation were up to 11...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
J A Ippolito, C M Berry, D G Strawn, J M Novak, J Levine, A Harley
Biochar has been proposed as an amendment to remediate mine land soils; however, it could be advantageous and novel if feedstocks local to mine land sites were used for biochar production. Two different feedstocks (pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine [] and tamarisk [ spp.]), within close proximity to mine land-affected soils, were used to create biochars to determine if they have the potential to reduce metal bioavailability. Four different mine land soils, contaminated with various amounts of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, received increasing amounts of biochar (0, 5, 10, and 15% by wt)...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Rebecca D Marjerison, Jeff Melkonian, John L Hutson, Harold M van Es, Shai Sela, Larry D Geohring, Jeffrey Vetsch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Carla E Rosenfeld, Rufus L Chaney, Ryan V Tappero, Carmen E Martínez
Metal contaminants in soils can persist for millennia, causing lasting negative impacts on local ecosystems. Long-term contaminant bioavailability is related to soil pH and to the strength and stability of solid-phase associations. We combined physical density separation with synchrotron-based microspectroscopy to reduce solid-phase complexity and to study Zn speciation in field-contaminated soils. We also investigated Zn uptake in two Zn-hyperaccumulating ecotypes of (Ganges and Prayon). Soils were either moderately contaminated (500-800 mg Zn kg via contaminated biosolids application) or grossly enriched (26,000 mg Zn kg via geogenic enrichment)...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Emily E Woodward, Danielle M Andrews, Clinton F Williams, John E Watson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
David M Snider, Claudia Wagner-Riddle, John Spoelstra
Understanding the fate of applied nitrogen (N) in agricultural soils is important for agronomic, environmental, and human health reasons, but it is methodologically difficult to study at the field scale. Natural abundance stable isotope measurements (δN) were used in this field study with micrometeorological measurements of nitrous oxide (NO) emissions to identify the biogeochemical processes responsible for rapid N transformations immediately after application of liquid dairy manure. Fifteen samplings occurred between 16 Mar...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Marco Pipolo, Rui C Martins, Rosa M Quinta-Ferreira, Raquel Costa
The discharge of poorly decontaminated winery wastewater remains a serious environmental problem in many regions, and the industry is welcoming improved treatment methods. Here, an innovative decontamination approach integrating Fenton's process with biofiltration by Asian clams is proposed. The potential of this approach was assessed at the pilot scale using real effluent and by taking an actual industrial treatment system as a benchmark. Fenton peroxidation was observed to remove 84% of the effluent's chemical oxygen demand (COD), reducing it to 205 mg L...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Richard E Lizotte, Lindsey M W Yasarer, Martin A Locke, Ronald L Bingner, Scott S Knight
Watershed-scale management efforts to reduce nutrient loads and improve the conservation of lakes in agricultural watersheds require effective integration of a variety of agricultural conservation best management practices (BMPs). This paper documents watershed-scale assessments of the influence of multiple integrated BMPs on oxbow lake nutrient concentrations in a 625-ha watershed of intensive row-crop agricultural activity during a 14-yr monitoring period (1996-2009). A suite of BMPs within fields and at field edges throughout the watershed and enrollment of 87 ha into the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) were implemented from 1995 to 2006...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Annamaria Costa
Even with the adoption of Best Available Techniques (BAT) standards, pig producers have observed different degrees of fouling on the floor during the finishing phase. These differences depend on the excretory behavior of pigs reared in different growing facilities. Our objectives in this study were to measure ammonia (NH) concentrations and emissions from finishing pigs reared in different growing rooms and subsequently housed in identical BAT room types. The 1600 pigs used in the study were reared in growing rooms with a slatted floor and a vacuum system for manure removal (WSF) or in growing rooms with a solid floor and an outside alley and storage pit (WCF)...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Sarah A Vitale, Gary A Robbins, Lukas A McNaboe
Many rural communities depend on bedrock wells as a primary water source, which raises the issue as to whether increasing amounts of salt application are affecting bedrock water quality and to what degree. Through wellbore profiling, this study investigated changes in specific conductance in two crystalline bedrock wells at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, CT, from 2003 to 2016, with particular emphasis on the impacts of increased salt application with a change in deicing practices at the university after 2009...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Brian W Davis, Brian A Needelman, Michel A Cavigelli, Stephanie A Yarwood, Jude E Maul, Gwendolyn A Bagley, Steven B Mirsky
Precipitation and irrigation induce pulses of NO emissions in agricultural soils, but the magnitude, duration, and timing of these pulses remain uncertain. This uncertainty makes it difficult to accurately extrapolate emissions from unmeasured time periods between chamber sampling events. Therefore, we developed a modeling protocol to predict NO emissions from data collected daily for 7 d after wetting events. Within a cover crop-based corn ( L.) production system in Beltsville, MD, we conducted the 7-d time series during four time periods representing a range of corn growth stages in 2013 and 2014...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
R Biddau, R Cidu
Wild edible plants are often considered healthier than crops because they are unaffected by fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides. However, the occurrence of potentially toxic elements in wild plants is poorly known and needs to be assessed. In this study, 22 elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in wild asparagus ( L.). Asparagus shoots were collected in uncontaminated environments (20 sites) and in areas contaminated by past mining (15 sites) in Sardinia, Italy. Beryllium, Bi, Te, Tl, and U were not detected in asparagus (<0...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Kosuke Yamamoto, Yohey Hashimoto
The release of phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) from swine manure compost and from soils applied with swine manure compost can be accelerated by colloidal particles. This study investigated the concentrations and chemical species of P and Zn in water-dispersible colloids (WDCs) collected from swine manure compost by using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. A filtration and ultracentrifugation process was used to separate and collect WDCs (20-1000 nm) from the bulk swine manure compost (<2 mm)...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Madhubhashini B Galkaduwa, Ganga M Hettiarachchi, Gerard J Kluitenberg, Stacy L Hutchinson, Lawrence Davis, Larry E Erickson
Constructed wetland treatment systems are used to remove selenium (Se) from flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater (WW). However, direct confirmation of the mechanism responsible for FGD WW Se retention in soil is lacking. A laboratory-based soil column study was performed to develop an evidence-based mechanism of Se retention and to study the behavior and the retention capacity of FGD WW constituents in water-saturated soil. A deoxygenated 1:1 mixture of FGD WW and raw water was delivered to the columns bottom-up at a flux of 1...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
John F Obrycki, Nicholas T Basta, Steven W Culman
Soil management in urban areas faces dual challenges of reducing public exposure to soil contaminants, such as lead (Pb) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and maintaining soil function. This study evaluated three management options for an urban lot in Cleveland, OH, containing 185 to 5197 mg Pb kg and 0.28 to 5.50 mg benzo(a)pyrene kg. Treatment options included: (i) cap the site with a soil blend containing compost and beneficially reused dredged sediments, (ii) mix compost with the soil, and (iii) mix compost and sediments with the soil...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Elizabeth Verhoeven, Engil Pereira, Charlotte Decock, Emma Suddick, Teri Angst, Johan Six
Through meta-analysis, we synthesize results from field studies on the effect of biochar application on NO emissions and crop yield. We aimed to better constrain the effect of biochar on NO emissions under field conditions, identify significant predictor variables, assess potential synergies and tradeoffs between NO mitigation and yield, and discuss knowledge gaps. The response ratios for yield and NO emissions were weighted by one of two functions: (i) the inverse of the pooled variance or (ii) the inverse of number of observations per field site...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Ardeshir Adeli, John J Read, John P Brooks, Dana Miles, Gary Feng, Johnie N Jenkins
The inability to incorporate broiler litter (BL) into permanent hayfields and pastures leads to nutrient accumulation near the soil surface and increases the potential transport of nutrients in runoff. This study was conducted on Marietta silt loam soil to determine the effect of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum and lignite on P, N, C, and microbial concentrations in runoff. Treatments were (i) control (unfertilized) and (ii) BL at 13.4 Mg ha alone or (iii) treated with either FGD gypsum or lignite applied at 20% (w/w) (2...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
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