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Social Science Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108602/tackling-inequalities-in-political-socialisation-a-systematic-analysis-of-access-to-and-mitigation-effects-of-learning-citizenship-at-school
#1
Bryony Hoskins, Jan Germen Janmaat, Gabriella Melis
This article tackles the issue of social inequalities in voting and identifies how and when differences in learning political engagement are influenced by social background in the school environment between the ages of 11-16 in England. Using Latent Growth Curve Modelling and Regression Analysis on the Citizenship Education Longitudinal (CELS) data this research identifies two elements that influence the political socialisation process: access to political learning and effectiveness in the form of learning in reducing inequalities in political engagement...
November 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108601/childhood-social-capital-and-postsecondary-educational-attainment
#2
Linda K Mayger, Craig D Hochbein, Bridget V Dever
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108600/why-does-college-education-matter-unveiling-the-contributions-of-selection-factors
#3
Hui Zheng
This study investigates the contributions of pre-college selection factors that may partially lead to the college degree - health link by using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979) cohort. Propensity score matching method finds that the effects of college degree on various health outcomes (self-rated health, physical component summary index, health limitations, CESD scale) are reduced by 51% on average (range: 37%-70%) in the matched sample. Among these observed factors, cognitive skill is the biggest confounder, followed by pre-college health and socioeconomic characteristics (marital aspiration, years of schooling, marriage, fertility, poverty status) and non-cognitive skills (e...
November 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108599/women-s-employment-trajectories-during-early-adulthood-in-urban-china-a-cohort-comparison
#4
Shengwei Sun, Feinian Chen
This study uses retrospective work history data from CGSS 2008 and employs group-based trajectory analysis to model the diverse employment trajectories of cohorts of urban Chinese women (born in the 1940s-1970s) during young adulthood (age 20-35). We identify ideal-types of urban women's employment trajectories and explore traits associated with each group type. In particular, we examine whether and how the timing of marriage and fertility as well as socioeconomic background help to distinguish patterns of women's labor force attachment in young adulthood...
November 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108598/disentangling-the-reciprocal-relationship-between-change-in-crime-and-racial-ethnic-change
#5
Lyndsay N Boggess
Prior research has found that racial/ethnic change and residential instability are positively related to neighborhood crime. However, the process of racial/ethnic change differentially influences crime above and beyond residential instability. While both processes affect crime through the disruption of existing social ties, racial/ethnic change has additional consequences for crime by heightening racial/ethnic tensions and undercutting cross-group interactions. This means racial/ethnic change is a different process than residential instability, and suggests that neighborhoods experiencing high rates of instability and high rates of racial/ethnic change may be particularly susceptible to crime...
November 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108597/disability-and-social-participation-the-case-of-formal-and-informal-volunteering
#6
Carrie L Shandra
People with disabilities in the United States experience lower levels of social integration than people without disabilities. However, less is known about the association between disability and volunteer participation-despite an extensive literature on other disparities in volunteerism. This study uses data from the 2009-2015 Volunteer Supplement of the Current Population Survey to evaluate how working-aged adults with sensory disabilities, cognitive disabilities, physical disabilities, or multiple disabilities access, participate in, and maintain volunteer roles...
November 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108596/the-relationship-between-societal-change-and-rising-support-for-gender-egalitarianism-among-men-and-women-results-from-counterfactual-analyses-in-the-netherlands-1979-2012
#7
Paula Thijs, Manfred Te Grotenhuis, Peer Scheepers
This study examines the relationship between important social, cultural, economic, and demographic changes and the rise of support for gender egalitarianism within the Dutch population between 1979 and 2012. Cohort replacement, educational expansion, secularization, and the feminization of the labor force are important processes that have taken place in western societies in ways that may have fostered support for gender egalitarianism. Using unique data from 16 repeated cross-sectional surveys in the Netherlands, we estimate age-period-cohort regression models, and the outcomes are subsequently applied in counterfactual simulation designs...
November 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108595/depression-in-later-life-a-closer-look-at-the-gender-gap
#8
Francesco Acciai, Melissa Hardy
Gender differences in depressive symptoms have been extensively documented, with women reporting a higher number of depressive symptoms than men. However, studies offer different explanations for why such a gap exists. The goal of the current paper is to analyze how much of the observed gender gap in depression may be attributed to (1) compositional versus (2) reporting differences or (3) differences in reactivity to adversities. We contribute to this literature by testing, net of compositional differences, whether the relationship between reporting behavior and depressive symptoms is gendered and whether accounting for the possibility of gender-specific reactivity alters the structure of the gender gap at older ages...
November 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108594/studying-neighborhood-crime-across-different-macro-spatial-scales-the-case-of-robbery-in-4-cities
#9
John R Hipp, James C Wo, Young-An Kim
Whereas there is a burgeoning literature focusing on the spatial distribution of crime events across neighborhoods or micro-geographic units in a specific city, the present study expands this line of research by selecting four cities that vary across two macro-spatial dimensions: population in the micro-environment, and population in the broader macro-environment. We assess the relationship between measures constructed at different spatial scales and robbery rates in blocks in four cities: 1) San Francisco (high in micro- and macro-environment population); 2) Honolulu (high in micro- but low in macro-environment population); 3) Los Angeles (low in micro- but high in macro-environment population); 4) Sacramento (low in micro- and macro-environment population)...
November 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108593/radius-of-trust-gradient-based-conceptualization-and-measurement
#10
Anning Hu
The radius of trust - the width of one's cooperation circle - has been widely cited by scholars from various disciplines as a key factor in the production and maintenance of public good. However, the vagueness in its conceptualization, measurement, and analysis obstructs efficient communication between empirical works, impeding the accumulation of scientific knowledge. This study develops a conceptualization of trust radius as the gradient in the level of trust in specific individuals across social ties of differing strengths...
November 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108592/partisan-strength-political-trust-and-generalized-trust-in-the-united-states-an-analysis-of-the-general-social-survey-1972-2014
#11
Marc Hooghe, Jennifer Oser
The literature on political parties suggests that strong partisan identities are associated with citizens' effective interaction with the political system, and with higher levels of political trust. Traditionally, party identity therefore is seen as a mechanism that allows for political integration. Simultaneously, however, political parties have gained recent attention for their role in promoting societal polarization by reinforcing competing and even antagonistic group identities. This article uses General Social Survey data from 1972 - 2014 to investigate the relationship between partisan strength and both political and generalized trust...
November 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108591/solamente-mexicanos-patterns-and-sources-of-hispanic-diversity-in-u-s-metropolitan-areas
#12
Barrett A Lee, Michael J R Martin, Matthew Hall
Rapid Hispanic growth has been a major source of increasing ethnoracial diversity in the United States. However, diversity within the Hispanic population is frequently obscured by the tendency to lump all Latinos together. Our study examines Hispanic diversity at the local level, drawing insights from the Mexican dominance, Caribbean-centric settlement, spatial assimilation, and economic opportunity perspectives. Measures of the magnitude and structure of Hispanic origin-group diversity during the 1990-2010 period are constructed for 363 metropolitan areas based on each area's shares of Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Dominicans, Salvadorans, Guatemalans, Colombians, and 'others'...
November 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108590/multiracial-identities-single-race-history-contemporary-consequences-of-historical-race-and-marriage-laws-for-racial-classification
#13
Jenifer L Bratter, Heather A O'Connell
This work interrogates the role of the law as an "actor" in the spatial patterning of racial classification. Laws governing racial intermarriage represent key ways that rigid distinctions between groups were codified. Critically, there is a great deal of state variation in these laws. We draw on a unique data set that combines samples from the 1990 and 2000 Census (5 percent IPUMS) and the 2009-2011 estimates from the American Community Survey with information on state-specific legal bans against intermarriage...
November 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108589/the-lasting-effect-of-intergenerational-wealth-transfers-human-capital-family-formation-and-wealth
#14
Richard A Benton, Lisa A Keister
Recent evidence indicates that inheritances and other intergenerational wealth transfers have only a limited effect on wealth inequality and the intergenerational transmission of financial well-being. In this study, we explore the role that human capital and family formation play in mediating the relationship between receiving a transfer and building wealth. We examine how educational attainment and family formation determine whether or not households are able to convert inheritances into greater assets, facilitating improved wealth accumulation...
November 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888294/occupy-the-government-analyzing-presidential-and-congressional-discursive-response-to-movement-repression
#15
Joshua Gary Mausolf
I examine the role of Occupy Wall Street in shifting presidential and congressional discourse on economic fairness and inequality. Using data from 4646 presidential speeches and 1256 congressional records from 2009 to 2015, I test different mechanisms, including repression, media coverage, public opinion, and presidential agenda-setting by applying a novel combination of web scraping, natural language processing, and time series models. I suggest that movement success can be measured in its ability to shape discursive opportunity structures, and I argue that the role of the president should be at the forefront of social movements research...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888293/too-much-of-a-good-thing-economic-growth-and-human-rights-1960-to-2010
#16
Wade M Cole
Despite widespread belief in the benefits of economic growth, some scholars emphasize the potentially negative consequences of growth-and especially rapid growth-for social and political outcomes. Using data for 149 countries between 1960 and 2010, I analyze the effect of economic growth on fundamental human rights conditions. Dynamic random-effects and two-way fixed-effects estimators, both with and without instrumental variables, yield several conclusions. First, economic growth is causally prior to rights conditions...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888292/racial-identity-and-the-quality-of-life-among-blacks-and-whites-in-the-u-s
#17
K Jill Kiecolt, Michael Hughes
Social identity theory and research on mental health among racial minority groups suggest that a stronger, more positive racial identity will be related to a higher subjective quality of life. We investigate how ingroup closeness, ingroup evaluation, and ingroup bias are associated with happiness, positive affect about life, and generalized trust for blacks and whites, using partial proportional odds models. Data came from the 1996-2014 General Social Surveys (N = 6553). Ingroup closeness and more favorable ingroup evaluation had mostly positive associations with the quality of life dimensions...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888291/ultimatum-bargaining-over-losses-and-gains-an-experimental-comparison
#18
Thomas Neumann, Stephan Schosser, Bodo Vogt
Subjects in the loss domain tend to split payoffs equally when bargaining. The ultimatum game offers an ideal mechanism through which social scientists can investigate whether equal splits are the consequence of the proposers' generosity or due to their anticipation that the responders will reject lower offers. This paper experimentally compares ultimatum bargaining that takes place in a loss domain with that under a gains domain. The results reveal that, although responders do not expect more in the loss domain, proposers do make higher offers...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888290/experiencing-discrimination-in-los-angeles-latinos-at-the-intersection-of-legal-status-and-socioeconomic-status
#19
Nancy S Landale, R S Oropesa, Aggie J Noah
Despite its recent slowdown, immigration from Latin America continues to be a controversial issue. Some scholars argue that the social climate is increasingly inhospitable to Latinos, potentially fueling discriminatory attitudes and behaviors. However, little research has examined Latinos' experiences with discrimination, especially variation by nativity and legal status. We address this issue with research on perceived discrimination among Mexican and Central American residents of Los Angeles County, a major destination for Latin American immigrants...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888289/measuring-multiple-discrimination-through-a-survey-based-methodology
#20
Ma Ángeles Cea D'Ancona
This paper focuses on the concept of multiple discrimination and its measurement through survey methods. The study was designed as a quasi-experimental comparison of survey mode effects on the quality of discrimination measurement: the traditional 'face-to-face' survey, the conventional self-completed mode and CAWI (finally deleted due to its non-comparability). Consistent with our hypothesis, some support was obtained for the social desirability bias and survey mode effects: 1) self-administration of questionnaires favours the declaration of discriminatory attitudes and personal experiences of discrimination; 2) the effect of privacy is greater in direct indicators of discriminatory attitudes; 3) perceptions and experiences of discrimination are more frequently reported by highly educated respondents...
September 2017: Social Science Research
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