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Social Science Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961492/varying-weekly-work-hours-and-earnings-instability-in-the-great-recession
#1
Ryan Finnigan
Unstable work schedules are increasingly a prominent stratification outcome, particularly for low-wage workers. Nationally representative and longitudinal research on the topic is limited, however. This article examines varying numbers of weekly work hours among hourly workers, their increase during the Great Recession of the late 2000s, and their impact on growing earnings instability. Using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), the cumulative probability of ever reporting varying hours among hourly workers increased from 36 percent between 2004 and 2007 to 46 percent between 2008 and 2012...
August 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961491/less-equal-less-trusting-longitudinal-and-cross-sectional-effects-of-income-inequality-on-trust-in-u-s-states-1973-2012
#2
Orestes P Hastings
Does income inequality reduce social trust? Although both popular and scholarly accounts have argued that income inequality reduces trust, some recent research has been more skeptical, noting these claims are more robust cross-sectionally than longitudinally. Furthermore, although multiple mechanisms have been proposed for why inequality could affect trust, these have rarely been tested explicitly. I examine the effect of state-level income inequality on trust using the 1973-2012 General Social Surveys. I find little evidence that states that have been more unequal over time have less trusting people...
August 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961490/diversity-preferences-among-employees-and-ethnoracial-workplace-segregation
#3
Moa Bursell, Fredrik Jansson
Ethno-racial workplace segregation increases already existing ethno-racial inequality. While previous research has identified discriminatory employers as drivers of workplace segregation, this study addresses the role of the employees. Sociological and social psychological theory suggest that people prefer to surround themselves with people who positively confirm their social identity or who contribute with higher group status. Through web-based surveys, we measure employee attitudes and preferences concerning ethno-racial workplace diversity, to what extent they differ by ethnicity/race, and if they contain intersectional patterns...
August 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961489/occupational-status-benefits-of-studying-abroad-and-the-role-of-occupational-specificity-a-propensity-score-matching-approach
#4
Stine Waibel, Knut Petzold, Heiko Rüger
Occupational status benefits of student mobility remain uncertain, despite increasing interest in the implications of international student mobility for the reproduction of societal inequality. Since mobile young people are a selective group in terms of socio-economic and achievement-oriented factors, we apply propensity score techniques to test whether German higher education graduates who did or did not study abroad differ in occupational status (based on the Socio-Economic Index of Occupational Status) three years after graduation...
August 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961488/gender-differences-in-the-impact-of-job-mobility-on-earnings-the-role-of-occupational-segregation
#5
Jessica Pearlman
In recent years, researchers have begun to explore the extent to which the impact of switching firms (inter-firm mobility) on wages varies between men and women. Using data from the NLSY79 from 1979 to 2012, this paper extends existing research by exploring how occupational segregation and individual level factors contribute to gender differences in the impact of voluntary inter-firm mobility on wages. The paper also examines how patterns vary depending on education level. Findings suggest that men without a college education receive greater wage gains from voluntary inter-firm mobility than similarly educated women although there is no overall gender difference for individuals with a bachelor's degree...
August 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961487/using-latent-class-analysis-to-produce-a-typology-of-environmental-concern-in-the-uk
#6
Rebecca Rhead, Mark Elliot, Paul Upham
Factor analysis is often used to study environmental concern. This choice of methodology is driven by predominant theories that tie environmental attitudes to the multidimensional construct of environmental concern. This paper demonstrates that using a clustering method such as latent class analysis can be a valuable tool for studying environmental attitudes as they exist within a given population. In making the case for the value of latent class analysis in this context, we examine UK public concern for the environment and how this concern is associated with pro-environmental behaviours...
August 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961486/group-size-and-secular-endogamy-among-the-religiously-unaffiliated-in-canada
#7
Sharon M Lee, Feng Hou, Barry Edmonston, Zheng Wu
High religious intermarriage among the religiously unaffiliated is usually interpreted as evidence of religion's minor importance for this group. Between 1981 and 2011, religious intermarriage among the unaffiliated in Canada declined from 38 percent to 21 percent, while the unaffiliated population tripled from 7 percent to 23 percent. This paper examines the role of demographic factors such as increased group size in decreased religious intermarriage among the unaffiliated. Using census and survey data, we estimate probit models of religious intermarriage for unaffiliated men and women...
August 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961485/measuring-religiosity-in-a-religiously-diverse-society-the-china-case
#8
L Luke Chao, Fenggang Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961484/sexual-identities-and-participation-in-liberal-and-conservative-social-movements
#9
Eric Swank
The desire for social change, political activism, and sexual identities may all be related. Lesbians and gays generally contest heterosexism more than heterosexuals but we do not know how sexual identities sways participation in class, race, and gender based social movements. When analyzing the American National Election Surveys of 2012 (n = 3519), gays and lesbians were about twenty times more likely to join LGB justice campaigns than heterosexuals. Moreover, the greater activism of gays and lesbians also crossed over to recent Occupy Wall Street, peace, and environmental mobilizations...
August 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961483/perceived-group-cohesion-versus-actual-social-structure-a-study-using-social-network-analysis-of-egocentric-facebook-networks
#10
Marina Tulin, Thomas V Pollet, Nale Lehmann-Willenbrock
Research on group cohesion often relies on individual perceptions, which may not reflect the actual social structure of groups. This study draws on social network theory to examine the relationship between observable structural group characteristics and individual perceptions of group cohesion. Leveraging Facebook data, we extracted and partitioned the social networks of 109 participants into groups using a modularity algorithm. We then surveyed perceptions of cohesion, and computed group density and size using social network analysis...
August 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961482/conflict-thinking-exploring-the-social-basis-of-perceiving-the-world-through-the-lens-of-social-conflict
#11
Bram Spruyt, Filip Van Droogenbroeck, Jochem van Noord
Both human rights organisations and studies in political communication have noticed an increasing use of conflict frames in contemporary politics within Western societies. As such frames are only interesting for political actors if they find resonance among a substantial share of the population, these observations raise the question as to who supports conflict thinking and why? Whereas public opinion research has studied many attitudes that are based on conflict thinking (e.g., ethnic prejudice, populism, feelings of collective deprivation, and welfare chauvinism), this paper addresses the more fundamental question as to whether it is possible to measure people's general tendency to perceive the world through the lens of social conflict...
August 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961481/educational-attainment-of-transgender-adults-does-the-timing-of-transgender-identity-milestones-matter
#12
Lindsey Wilkinson, Jennifer Pearson, Hui Liu
Adolescence is a difficult life stage in which to navigate a transgender identity, yet adolescence plays a key role in shaping educational trajectories. While transgender-related stigma and victimization within secondary schools persists, the social climate in which transgender adolescents navigate their identity has changed over time. Analyzing data from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey, a national, non-probability sample of U.S. transgender adults, we address the following research questions: 1) Is experiencing transgender identity milestones in adolescence associated with educational attainment?; 2) Does this association vary by birth cohort? We find that those who first experienced transgender identity milestones in adolescence attained less education than those who first experienced milestones in other life stages...
August 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961480/how-far-can-the-apple-fall-differences-in-teacher-perceptions-of-minority-and-immigrant-parents-and-their-impact-on-academic-outcomes
#13
Phoebe Ho, Hua-Yu Sebastian Cherng
While a large body of research has focused on increasing parental involvement in schools, less work has considered teacher perceptions of parental involvement. Teacher perceptions of parents are important because they influence teacher practices and relationships with students, with ensuing consequences for student outcomes. Prior research suggests that teacher perceptions of parents vary by children's family background, but empirical work comparing teacher perceptions of parental involvement across groups and the impact of such perceptions on different student outcomes is lacking...
August 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961479/mental-and-physical-health-impairments-at-the-transition-to-college-early-patterns-in-the-education-health-gradient
#14
Jamie M Carroll, Melissa Humphries, Chandra Muller
Part of the education-health gradient may be related to inequalities in the transition from high school to college by health impairment status. In this paper, we use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to investigate the link between health impairments beginning prior to high school completion and college-going, distinguishing between individuals with mental, physical, or multiple health impairments and between enrollment in 2-year and 4-year postsecondary institutions. We find that individuals with mental impairments or multiple impairments are less likely to initially enroll in 4-year postsecondary institutions than individuals without health impairments, controlling on background and high school preparation...
August 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961478/predicting-bias-homicide-across-victim-groups-a-county-level-analysis
#15
Kayla Allison, Casey T Harris
Outside several notable exceptions, few studies have examined variations in bias crime occurrences across American communities, and how community-level factors may differentially shape violent and non-violent bias crimes across victim groups. Drawing from ecological theories of crime, this study asks, (1) what are the structural predictors of the likelihood of bias homicide occurrences? and (2) how do structural predictors differ across bias victim groups? To answer these questions, data on bias homicide are derived from the United States Extremist Crime Database (ECDB) for the years 1990 through 2014 and paired with socio- structural variables from the United States Census Bureau...
August 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961477/what-determines-the-rejection-of-immigrants-through-an-integrative-model
#16
Ma Ángeles Cea D'Ancona
This study tests different explanations of anti-immigrant attitudes through a model that incorporates aspects of group conflict, social identity and intergroup contact theories. Multigroup structural equation modelling was applied in three surveys, which tracked the same indicators in no similar economic and migratory contexts. In times of economic crisis, the perceived economic threat seems to lead more to discrimination and rejection of immigrants (in line with Group Conflict Theory), while sense of cultural threat is more likely to curb any desire for coexistence with them...
August 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793694/trust-and-contact-in-diverse-neighbourhoods-an-interplay-of-four-ethnicity-effects
#17
J Tolsma, T W G van der Meer
Ethnically diverse neighbourhoods are generally less cohesive. A negative relationship between neighbourhood diversity and social cohesion is, however, neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition to conclude that neighbourhood diversity erodes intra-neighbourhood cohesion. This contribution shows - by using data collected during the second wave of the NEtherlands Longitudinal Lifecourse Study (NELLS) - that: (1) members of ethnic minority groups are more likely to report having contact with and trust their immediate neighbours than natives (ego ethnicity effect); (2) minority group residents are less likely to be contacted and trusted by their neighbours (alter ethnicity effect) and (3) all ethnic groups prefer to mix with coethnics (dyad ethnicity effect)...
July 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793693/racial-variation-in-the-effect-of-motherhood-on-women-s-employment-temporary-or-enduring-effect
#18
Sandra M Florian
Part of the motherhood wage penalty results from mothers' loss of work experience, yet little research has investigated whether this loss is temporary or accumulates over time. Using growth curve models and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (1979), I examine the extent to which motherhood reduces work experience over the life course among White, Black, and Hispanic women. Results indicate that motherhood slows the accretion of experience in full-time work for all racial-ethnic groups, having an enduring effect on women's employment...
July 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793692/partner-selection-and-social-capital-in-the-status-attainment-process
#19
Jesper J Rözer, Matthew E Brashears
Why is individual success so strongly affected by parental socioeconomic status? We argue that parental socioeconomic status affects the socioeconomic status of one's romantic partner, thereby partially determining one's own social capital and socioeconomic status. Censored-inflated structural equation models using data from the NEtherlands Longitudinal Lifecourse Study (NELLS) and British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) confirm these relationships, while cross-lagged analyses suggest that they may be causal in nature...
July 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793691/is-there-really-such-thing-as-immigrant-spatial-assimilation-in-france-desegregation-trends-and-inequality-along-ethnoracial-lines
#20
Haley McAvay, Mirna Safi
This article describes patterns of ethnoracial and socioeconomic neighborhood attainment among North African, sub-Saharan African, and South European immigrants in France. We use French data from Trajectories and Origins to document the effects of assimilation variables such as immigrant generation, age at migration, parental age at migration, mixed ascendance, and socioeconomic status that are rarely available in large scale surveys. A simultaneous equation design is used to show patterns in ethnoracial and socioeconomic desegregation across groups and the contrasting ways in which these outcomes overlap...
July 2018: Social Science Research
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