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Social Science Research

Miao Li, Sarah Mustillo, James Anderson
Integrating several life course models, this study examines how childhood poverty dynamics shape the risk of adulthood overweight/obesity. Growth mixture models of yearly poverty data from age 0-16 from the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics identify four childhood poverty trajectories: chronic poverty, early childhood poverty, downward mobility, and poverty-free. Chronic poverty and early childhood poverty groups have higher risk of adulthood overweight/obesity than the poverty-free group. Overweight/obesity risk is not significantly different between the chronic poverty group and the early childhood poverty group, suggesting that the effects of early childhood exposure persist despite subsequent upward mobility...
November 2018: Social Science Research
Nicholas Branic, John R Hipp
This study explored the dynamic nature of neighborhoods using a relatively novel approach and data source. By using a nonparametric holistic approach of neighborhood change based on latent class analysis (LCA), we have explored how changes in the socio-demographic characteristics of residents, as well as home improvement and refinance activity by residents, are related to changes in neighborhood crime over a decade. Utilizing annual home mortgage loan data in the city of Los Angeles from the years 2000-2010, we 1) conducted principle components factor analyses using measures of residential in-migration and home investment activities; 2) estimated LCA models to identify classes of neighborhoods that shared common patterns of change over the decade; 3) described these 11 classes; 4) estimated change-score regression models to assess the relationship of these classes with changing crime rates...
November 2018: Social Science Research
Alyssa W Goldman
Since the 1970s, criminal justice contact has become an increasingly common event in early adulthood, and disproportionately so for African American men. Policymakers often argue that reducing drug-related conviction rates is among the easiest ways to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in incarceration. These arguments are often backed by statistics that convey the number of drug offenders in contact with the criminal justice system at a given point in time. Unfortunately, we know little about the extent to which over-time conviction risk and associated racial/ethnic disparities may be affected by drug-related policy changes...
November 2018: Social Science Research
Karsten Hank, Anja Steinbach
Few studies have yet investigated how intergenerational solidarity between parents and adult children is associated with intragenerational relations between siblings. Theoretically, one might expect compensation between inter- and intragenerational relationship solidarity as well as spillover effects from parent-child solidarity to sibling solidarity. Using data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), this study analyzes 5410 interviews with young adults who provided detailed information on the relationships to their parents and up to four siblings...
November 2018: Social Science Research
Raphaël Charron-Chénier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Social Science Research
Yunsong Chen, Fei Yan
While previous studies use economic and institutional variables to explain transnational investment operations, we argue that regionally-specific international visibility can significantly influence the investment decisions of foreign firms with spatial and temporal dynamics. Empirically, we extract the usage frequency of the names of all of the Chinese provinces in millions of English-language books from Google Books N-gram corpus to construct the index of international visibility as a proxy measurement of international prominence...
November 2018: Social Science Research
Rebecca Rhead
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Social Science Research
Adam Boessen, John R Hipp
Although neighborhood studies often focus on the presence of some particular entity and its consequences for a variety of local processes, a frequent limitation is the failure to account more broadly for the local context. This paper therefore examines the role of parks for community crime, but contributes to the literature by testing whether the context of land uses and demographics nearby parks moderate the parks and crime relationship. A key feature of our approach is that we also test how these characteristics explain crime in the park, nearby the park, and in other neighborhoods in the city with data from nine cities across the United States (N = 109,808 blocks)...
November 2018: Social Science Research
Johan Westerman
Inequality has often been explained by stable individual traits or by the structural features of labor markets. This study argues that we also should consider task involvement when we account for labor market inequality. Three mechanisms derived from experimental research link task involvement to performance: individuals involved in tasks are more focused on the work process, are more dedicated to mastery and problem-solving, and have stronger product quality perseverance. Despite the significance of task involvement as a motivation, its potential implication for labor market inequality is so far rather unacknowledged...
November 2018: Social Science Research
Emily Smith-Greenaway, Sarah Brauner-Otto, William Axinn
Decades of research show that education not only confers individual health benefits, but it also spills over to advantage subsequent generations. More recently, research has confirmed that the intergenerational health benefits of education can also flow upward: aging adults with more highly educated children experience better health and higher survival. Research has documented this finding in high-income settings, and also in select low- and middle-income contexts, raising questions about how having an adult child who attended relatively low levels of education can benefit aging parents' well-being...
November 2018: Social Science Research
Bilal Khan, Hsuan-Wei Lee, Courtney R Thrash, Kirk Dombrowski
Human agency has been a focus of philosophical and sociological concern from early debates about "free will" to recent themes in poststructuralism. Debates over the proper understanding of structure, agency, and constraint are hindered by the fact that few if any empirical measures of these concepts have been proposed. As sociologists have long recognized, the total results of the decisions of a group's members can be viewed as a distribution, and parameters can be fit to obtain a description of observed distributions...
November 2018: Social Science Research
Rune Stubager, James Tilley, Geoffrey Evans, Joshua Robison, Gitte Sommer Harrits
Contrary to much conventional wisdom, this article shows that class is still used by people to sort others into groups, that this sorting is largely on the basis of income and occupation and that it occurs in conditions of both high and low income inequality. Uniquely, we use both open-ended survey questions and a factorial survey experiment to show that people from high (Britain) and low (Denmark) inequality countries are willing to define classes and they do so mainly in terms of job and income. Even though people in the two countries classify others using somewhat different class labels - with working class labels being used more frequently in Britain than in Denmark - we find a common underlying pattern to the classification...
November 2018: Social Science Research
Eric Kaufmann, Matthew J Goodwin
Does ethnic diversity increase or reduce white threat perceptions? Meta-analyses help orient a field and communicate findings to policymakers. We report the results of a meta-analysis of studies measuring the relationship between ethnic context and both opposition to immigration and support for anti-immigration parties. Our analysis attempts to be exhaustive, and is based on 171 post-1995 studies averaging 25,000 observations each, a knowledge base of over 4 million data points. We find a linear association between ethnic change and elevated threat...
November 2018: Social Science Research
Shiyou Wu, Mark W Fraser, Mimi V Chapman, Qin Gao, Jin Huang, Gina A Chowa
OBJECTIVE: Depression is a serious mental health disorder, and untangling its causal agents is a major public health priority in the United States. This study examines the relationship between participating in welfare programs during childhood and experiencing depression during young adulthood. METHOD: This study used wave I and IV data from the Add Health (N = 15,701). Multiple imputation is used to deal with missing data. Propensity score matching is used to reduce the selection bias, and then multiple regressions were used to examine the welfare participation and depression relationships...
November 2018: Social Science Research
Shelley Clark, Sangeetha Madhavan, Caroline Kabiru
Extensive research from sub-Saharan Africa shows that mothers frequently rely on help from other family members to ensure their children's health and well-being. Yet, there is considerable debate about the relative importance of support from grandmothers versus fathers. Using an innovative survey instrument to interview 462 unmarried mothers in a slum area of Nairobi, Kenya, we provide insight into this debate by showing that a status versus transfers approach to measuring kin support asks subtly different questions and yields different results...
November 2018: Social Science Research
Theun Pieter van Tienoven, Jef Deyaert, Teresa Harms, Djiwo Weenas, Joeri Minnen, Ignace Glorieux
Research from recent years reports that physical inactivity is a major risk factor for global mortality. Several societal trends in the last decades are likely to have contributed to the increasing prevalence of sedentary lifestyles. Physical activity throughout the day has become much less self-evident and much more a matter of personal effort. Its presumed discretionary character made leisure the time par excellence to compensate for daily inactivity in non-discretionary time. The historical dichotomy of leisure and paid work led to a large body of research assessing the association between occupational and non-occupational physical activity, almost always equated with leisure time physical activity...
November 2018: Social Science Research
Peter Grajzl, Jonathan Eastwood, Valentina Dimitrova-Grajzl
We develop and empirically test a theory concerning host-society natives' beliefs about whether immigrants should culturally assimilate into the host society or preserve their own cultural norms. We argue that when national identity is a source of intrinsic utility, the longevity of national identity influences a national identity's perceived resilience to an ostensible immigrant threat and, thus, affects natives' beliefs about the need for immigrants' cultural assimilation. Empirical evidence based on data from countries of wider Europe supports our theory...
September 2018: Social Science Research
Yvette Young, Peter Loebach, Kim Korinek
Using data from the World Values Survey for 51 countries, we conduct a multi-level analysis with mixed effects multinomial logistic regression models to explore the effects of economic context, cultural context, and national security events on immigration policy attitudes. Analyses of attitudes towards immigration to date have been limited in key respects: the scope has been mostly restricted to Western Europe and the Americas; limited attention has been paid to institutional and sociopolitical features of the macro-context; and national security events have been rarely taken into account...
September 2018: Social Science Research
Sunnee Billingsley, Sven Drefahl, Gebrenegus Ghilagaber
In social mobility research, the diagonal reference model (DRM) is argued to best isolate the effect of social mobility from origin and destination status effects. In demographic research, standard analyses of the duration until an event occurs rely heavily on the appropriate use of covariates that change over time. We apply these best-practice methods to the study of social mobility and demographic outcomes in Sweden using register data that covers the years 1996-2012. The mortality analysis includes 1,024,142 women and 747,532 men and the fertility analysis includes 191,142 women and 164,368 men...
September 2018: Social Science Research
Landon Schnabel
Gender gaps in religiosity are among the most consistent findings in the social sciences. The literature, however, has typically under-emphasized gender theory, paid insufficient attention to variation across different contexts, and failed to consider styles of religious expression. This study draws on gender theory, brings religion and political attitudes research into dialogue, and explores potential gender differences in religious dogmatism (e.g., religious absolutism, exclusivity, and intolerance). Using U...
September 2018: Social Science Research
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