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Social Science Research

Peter Grajzl, Jonathan Eastwood, Valentina Dimitrova-Grajzl
We develop and empirically test a theory concerning host-society natives' beliefs about whether immigrants should culturally assimilate into the host society or preserve their own cultural norms. We argue that when national identity is a source of intrinsic utility, the longevity of national identity influences a national identity's perceived resilience to an ostensible immigrant threat and, thus, affects natives' beliefs about the need for immigrants' cultural assimilation. Empirical evidence based on data from countries of wider Europe supports our theory...
September 2018: Social Science Research
Yvette Young, Peter Loebach, Kim Korinek
Using data from the World Values Survey for 51 countries, we conduct a multi-level analysis with mixed effects multinomial logistic regression models to explore the effects of economic context, cultural context, and national security events on immigration policy attitudes. Analyses of attitudes towards immigration to date have been limited in key respects: the scope has been mostly restricted to Western Europe and the Americas; limited attention has been paid to institutional and sociopolitical features of the macro-context; and national security events have been rarely taken into account...
September 2018: Social Science Research
Sunnee Billingsley, Sven Drefahl, Gebrenegus Ghilagaber
In social mobility research, the diagonal reference model (DRM) is argued to best isolate the effect of social mobility from origin and destination status effects. In demographic research, standard analyses of the duration until an event occurs rely heavily on the appropriate use of covariates that change over time. We apply these best-practice methods to the study of social mobility and demographic outcomes in Sweden using register data that covers the years 1996-2012. The mortality analysis includes 1,024,142 women and 747,532 men and the fertility analysis includes 191,142 women and 164,368 men...
September 2018: Social Science Research
Landon Schnabel
Gender gaps in religiosity are among the most consistent findings in the social sciences. The literature, however, has typically under-emphasized gender theory, paid insufficient attention to variation across different contexts, and failed to consider styles of religious expression. This study draws on gender theory, brings religion and political attitudes research into dialogue, and explores potential gender differences in religious dogmatism (e.g., religious absolutism, exclusivity, and intolerance). Using U...
September 2018: Social Science Research
Joseph O Baker, Samuel Stroope, Mark H Walker
Extensive literature in the social and medical sciences link religiosity to positive health outcomes. Conversely it is often assumed that secularity carries negative consequences for health; however, recent research outlining different types of secular individuals complicates this assumption. Using a national sample of American adults, we compare physical and mental health outcomes for atheists, agnostics, religiously nonaffiliated theists, and theistic members of organized religious traditions. Results indicate better physical health outcomes for atheists compared to other secular individuals and members of some religious traditions...
September 2018: Social Science Research
Joshua Doyle
How do institutions affect the relationship between an individual's beliefs and their actions? Institutionalized strategies are routine ways of addressing problems that become taken-for-granted in a society. Environmental problems constitute a collective action problem in that personal consumption often conflicts with collective interests. I test whether beliefs about environmental problems have a different impact on a person's pro-environmental behaviors, depending on how addressing collective action problems is institutionalized in their society...
September 2018: Social Science Research
Donald P Haider-Markel, Mark R Joslyn, Ranya Ahmed, Sammy Badran
Civil unrest and riots in the U.S. engender considerable attention. Much of the civil unrest from the 1960s, and recent incidents, likely result from many factors, including poverty, police practices, and negative motivations of some unrest participants. However, not all observers view these events from the same perspective. We contend that individuals often interpret events through social identities, such as race and partisanship, and thus causal attributions for unrest differ widely. We employ data from three recent national surveys and examine individual interpretations of the causal forces leading to these events...
September 2018: Social Science Research
Joanna Tyrowicz, Lucas van der Velde, Karolina Goraus
Women in developed economies have experienced an unparalleled increase in employment rates, to the point that the gap with respect to men was cut in half. This positive trend has often been attributed to changes in the opportunity costs of working (e.g. access to caring facilities) and the opportunity costs of not-working (notably, relative growth in wages in positions more frequently occupied by women, improved educational attainment). Meanwhile, the gender employment gaps were stagnant in transition economies...
September 2018: Social Science Research
Anna Ruelens, Bart Meuleman, Ides Nicaise
The extensive literature on political trust has long suggested a link between macroeconomic conditions and public trust in political institutions. However, empirical evidence regarding this relationship remains ambiguous. Conflicting results appear to be related to differences in research design: while cross-sectional studies tend not to find evidence of a link between macroeconomic variables and trust in political institutions, most longitudinal studies do. In this paper, using recent advances in multilevel methodology, we examine both cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of macroeconomic variables on trust in national parliament within a single dynamic multilevel framework...
September 2018: Social Science Research
Aida Just
The paper posits that individual religious engagement reduces people's motivations to hold governments accountable for their performance while in office. This expectation is based on previous research which shows that religion is closely linked with believing that the world is just, a place where people generally get what they deserve and deserve what they get. Using data from the European Social Survey 2012-13 in seventeen established democracies, the study shows that individual religious engagement - in a form of religiosity and attendance of religious services - is indeed negatively associated with believing that governing parties should be punished in elections for poor performance...
September 2018: Social Science Research
Gøsta Esping-Andersen, Jorge Cimentada
The recent PIACC data offer us the first ever opportunity to identify the relative salience of abilities versus social origin in comparative social mobility research. Sampling 21 countries, we identify the degree of meritocratic selection by estimating the relative influence of social origin versus individual cognitive and social skills. We pay particular attention to the possibility of skills combinations as regards both upward and downward mobility. Social skills may compensate for weak cognitive abilities, or vice-versa; and what are the added effects of commanding strong skills on both counts? This is, as far as we know, the first time that comparative mobility research has examined such skills-complementarities...
September 2018: Social Science Research
Emma D Cohen
Scholars have examined gender differences in many areas of college life, but we know little about how men and women may interact differently with faculty-an activity with strong links to student outcomes. Using data from the National Survey of Student Engagement, I investigate whether men and women demonstrate different styles of interaction with faculty. I find that women are more likely than men to engage frequently in instrumental interactions, such as emailing and discussing course logistics with faculty...
September 2018: Social Science Research
Ori Swed
Can international nongovernmental organizations (INGO) mitigate human rights violations when armed conflict ensues? There is a reason to believe that the harsh conditions of war, which destabilize society and incite nationalist and militarist notions, would prevent the work of INGO from being effective. However, world polity scholarship suggests that regardless of these conditions INGOs can improve human rights standards. INGOs are one of the principal and most effective vehicles for the diffusion of international human rights norms...
September 2018: Social Science Research
Ryan Finnigan
Unstable work schedules are increasingly a prominent stratification outcome, particularly for low-wage workers. Nationally representative and longitudinal research on the topic is limited, however. This article examines varying numbers of weekly work hours among hourly workers, their increase during the Great Recession of the late 2000s, and their impact on growing earnings instability. Using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), the cumulative probability of ever reporting varying hours among hourly workers increased from 36 percent between 2004 and 2007 to 46 percent between 2008 and 2012...
August 2018: Social Science Research
Orestes P Hastings
Does income inequality reduce social trust? Although both popular and scholarly accounts have argued that income inequality reduces trust, some recent research has been more skeptical, noting these claims are more robust cross-sectionally than longitudinally. Furthermore, although multiple mechanisms have been proposed for why inequality could affect trust, these have rarely been tested explicitly. I examine the effect of state-level income inequality on trust using the 1973-2012 General Social Surveys. I find little evidence that states that have been more unequal over time have less trusting people...
August 2018: Social Science Research
Moa Bursell, Fredrik Jansson
Ethno-racial workplace segregation increases already existing ethno-racial inequality. While previous research has identified discriminatory employers as drivers of workplace segregation, this study addresses the role of the employees. Sociological and social psychological theory suggest that people prefer to surround themselves with people who positively confirm their social identity or who contribute with higher group status. Through web-based surveys, we measure employee attitudes and preferences concerning ethno-racial workplace diversity, to what extent they differ by ethnicity/race, and if they contain intersectional patterns...
August 2018: Social Science Research
Stine Waibel, Knut Petzold, Heiko Rüger
Occupational status benefits of student mobility remain uncertain, despite increasing interest in the implications of international student mobility for the reproduction of societal inequality. Since mobile young people are a selective group in terms of socio-economic and achievement-oriented factors, we apply propensity score techniques to test whether German higher education graduates who did or did not study abroad differ in occupational status (based on the Socio-Economic Index of Occupational Status) three years after graduation...
August 2018: Social Science Research
Jessica Pearlman
In recent years, researchers have begun to explore the extent to which the impact of switching firms (inter-firm mobility) on wages varies between men and women. Using data from the NLSY79 from 1979 to 2012, this paper extends existing research by exploring how occupational segregation and individual level factors contribute to gender differences in the impact of voluntary inter-firm mobility on wages. The paper also examines how patterns vary depending on education level. Findings suggest that men without a college education receive greater wage gains from voluntary inter-firm mobility than similarly educated women although there is no overall gender difference for individuals with a bachelor's degree...
August 2018: Social Science Research
Rebecca Rhead, Mark Elliot, Paul Upham
Factor analysis is often used to study environmental concern. This choice of methodology is driven by predominant theories that tie environmental attitudes to the multidimensional construct of environmental concern. This paper demonstrates that using a clustering method such as latent class analysis can be a valuable tool for studying environmental attitudes as they exist within a given population. In making the case for the value of latent class analysis in this context, we examine UK public concern for the environment and how this concern is associated with pro-environmental behaviours...
August 2018: Social Science Research
Sharon M Lee, Feng Hou, Barry Edmonston, Zheng Wu
High religious intermarriage among the religiously unaffiliated is usually interpreted as evidence of religion's minor importance for this group. Between 1981 and 2011, religious intermarriage among the unaffiliated in Canada declined from 38 percent to 21 percent, while the unaffiliated population tripled from 7 percent to 23 percent. This paper examines the role of demographic factors such as increased group size in decreased religious intermarriage among the unaffiliated. Using census and survey data, we estimate probit models of religious intermarriage for unaffiliated men and women...
August 2018: Social Science Research
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