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Social Science Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888294/occupy-the-government-analyzing-presidential-and-congressional-discursive-response-to-movement-repression
#1
Joshua Gary Mausolf
I examine the role of Occupy Wall Street in shifting presidential and congressional discourse on economic fairness and inequality. Using data from 4646 presidential speeches and 1256 congressional records from 2009 to 2015, I test different mechanisms, including repression, media coverage, public opinion, and presidential agenda-setting by applying a novel combination of web scraping, natural language processing, and time series models. I suggest that movement success can be measured in its ability to shape discursive opportunity structures, and I argue that the role of the president should be at the forefront of social movements research...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888293/too-much-of-a-good-thing-economic-growth-and-human-rights-1960-to-2010
#2
Wade M Cole
Despite widespread belief in the benefits of economic growth, some scholars emphasize the potentially negative consequences of growth-and especially rapid growth-for social and political outcomes. Using data for 149 countries between 1960 and 2010, I analyze the effect of economic growth on fundamental human rights conditions. Dynamic random-effects and two-way fixed-effects estimators, both with and without instrumental variables, yield several conclusions. First, economic growth is causally prior to rights conditions...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888292/racial-identity-and-the-quality-of-life-among-blacks-and-whites-in-the-u-s
#3
K Jill Kiecolt, Michael Hughes
Social identity theory and research on mental health among racial minority groups suggest that a stronger, more positive racial identity will be related to a higher subjective quality of life. We investigate how ingroup closeness, ingroup evaluation, and ingroup bias are associated with happiness, positive affect about life, and generalized trust for blacks and whites, using partial proportional odds models. Data came from the 1996-2014 General Social Surveys (N = 6553). Ingroup closeness and more favorable ingroup evaluation had mostly positive associations with the quality of life dimensions...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888291/ultimatum-bargaining-over-losses-and-gains-an-experimental-comparison
#4
Thomas Neumann, Stephan Schosser, Bodo Vogt
Subjects in the loss domain tend to split payoffs equally when bargaining. The ultimatum game offers an ideal mechanism through which social scientists can investigate whether equal splits are the consequence of the proposers' generosity or due to their anticipation that the responders will reject lower offers. This paper experimentally compares ultimatum bargaining that takes place in a loss domain with that under a gains domain. The results reveal that, although responders do not expect more in the loss domain, proposers do make higher offers...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888290/experiencing-discrimination-in-los-angeles-latinos-at-the-intersection-of-legal-status-and-socioeconomic-status
#5
Nancy S Landale, R S Oropesa, Aggie J Noah
Despite its recent slowdown, immigration from Latin America continues to be a controversial issue. Some scholars argue that the social climate is increasingly inhospitable to Latinos, potentially fueling discriminatory attitudes and behaviors. However, little research has examined Latinos' experiences with discrimination, especially variation by nativity and legal status. We address this issue with research on perceived discrimination among Mexican and Central American residents of Los Angeles County, a major destination for Latin American immigrants...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888289/measuring-multiple-discrimination-through-a-survey-based-methodology
#6
Ma Ángeles Cea D'Ancona
This paper focuses on the concept of multiple discrimination and its measurement through survey methods. The study was designed as a quasi-experimental comparison of survey mode effects on the quality of discrimination measurement: the traditional 'face-to-face' survey, the conventional self-completed mode and CAWI (finally deleted due to its non-comparability). Consistent with our hypothesis, some support was obtained for the social desirability bias and survey mode effects: 1) self-administration of questionnaires favours the declaration of discriminatory attitudes and personal experiences of discrimination; 2) the effect of privacy is greater in direct indicators of discriminatory attitudes; 3) perceptions and experiences of discrimination are more frequently reported by highly educated respondents...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888288/the-effect-of-sociodemographic-mis-match-between-interviewers-and-respondents-on-unit-and-item-nonresponse-in-belgium
#7
Anina Vercruyssen, Celine Wuyts, Geert Loosveldt
Interviewer characteristics affect nonresponse and measurement errors in face-to-face surveys. Some studies have shown that mismatched sociodemographic characteristics - for example gender - affect people's behavior when interacting with an interviewer at the door and during the survey interview, resulting in more nonresponse. We investigate the effect of sociodemographic (mis)matching on nonresponse in two successive rounds of the European Social Survey in Belgium. As such, we replicate the analyses of the effect of (mis)matching gender and age on unit nonresponse on the one hand, and of gender, age and education level (mis)matching on item nonresponse on the other hand...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888287/the-optimism-trap-migrants-educational-choices-in-stratified-education-systems
#8
Jasper Dag Tjaden, Christian Hunkler
Immigrant children's ambitious educational choices have often been linked to their families' high level of optimism and motivation for upward mobility. However, previous research has mostly neglected alternative explanations such as information asymmetries or anticipated discrimination. Moreover, immigrant children's higher dropout rates at the higher secondary and university level suggest that low performing migrant students could have benefitted more from pursuing less ambitious tracks, especially in countries that offer viable vocational alternatives...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888286/applying-to-college-do-information-deficits-lower-the-likelihood-of-college-eligible-students-from-less-privileged-families-to-pursue-their-college-intentions-evidence-from-a-field-experiment
#9
Martin Ehlert, Claudia Finger, Alessandra Rusconi, Heike Solga
Information deficits are considered an important source of why students from less-privileged families do not enroll in college, even when they are college-eligible and intend to go to college. In this paper, we examine whether correct and detailed information on the costs of and returns to higher education increases the likelihood of college applications of less-privileged high school graduates who expressed college intentions in their junior high school year. We employ an experimental design with a randomly assigned 25-minute information treatment about funding opportunities for, and returns to, higher education given at Berlin schools awarding university entrance qualifications...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888285/the-stratification-of-college-going-latinos-postsecondary-destinations
#10
Amy G Langenkamp, Andrew D Hoyt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888284/long-term-consequences-of-youth-volunteering-voluntary-versus-involuntary-service
#11
Jinho Kim, Kerem Morgül
Despite the renewed interest in youth volunteering in recent years, there remain major gaps in our knowledge of its consequences. Drawing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we examine the long-term effects of youth volunteering on the civic and personal aspects of volunteers' lives. Our results suggest that youth volunteering has a positive return on adult volunteering only when it is voluntary, and that net of contextual factors neither voluntary nor involuntary youth service has a significant effect on adult voting...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888283/in-home-firearm-access-among-us-adolescents-and-the-role-of-religious-subculture-results-from-a-nationally-representative-study
#12
Samuel Stroope, Joshua C Tom
Religious participation is linked to numerous positive safety outcomes for adolescents. Scant attention, however, has been paid to associations between religious participation and safety risks among adolescents. Using data from Add Health (N = 18,449), a nationally representative school-based sample of US adolescents, this study examines the relationship between adolescents' religious affiliation and easy access to firearms at home. Regression analyses adjust for complex sampling design and compare easy firearm access at home among conservative Protestant adolescents to adolescent firearm access in other religious traditions...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888282/market-transformation-and-the-opportunity-structure-for-gender-inequality-a-cohort-analysis-using-linked-employer-employee-data-from-slovenia
#13
Joe King, Andrew M Penner, Nina Bandelj, Aleksandra Kanjuo-Mrčela
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888281/intergenerational-relations-before-and-after-offspring-arrive-a-within-person-investigation
#14
Antti O Tanskanen
The birth of a child may re-orientate the relations between adult children and their parents; however, the previous studies on the topic are both scarce and methodologically limited. The current study investigates whether younger adults' entry into parenthood (i.e., the birth of the first child) is associated with increased contact frequency, emotional closeness, intimacy and conflict with their own parents. The participants are from the German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics, which is a prospective survey of younger adults with six annual follow-up waves between 2009 and 2014 (n = 17,662 person-observations from 4821 persons)...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888280/intergenerational-transmission-of-parent-child-relationship-quality-evidence-from-a-multi-actor-survey
#15
Karsten Hank, Veronika Salzburger, Merril Silverstein
Intergenerational transmission is a long-standing interest of social science research. However, little attention has been devoted to the study of transmission of relationship quality between several generations of family members. Exploiting multigenerational multi-actor data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), we estimate multilevel models to investigate whether, in three-generation families, relationship quality between the middle generation and the oldest (that is, grandparent) generation predicts relationship quality between the youngest generation of adolescent children and the middle generation...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888279/a-social-ecology-of-civil-conflict-shifting-allegiances-in-the-conflict-in-sierra-leone
#16
Andrew P Davis
Drawing on data from a survey of 1043 ex-combatants who took part in the civil war in Sierra Leone (1991-2002) this paper explores the conditions that predict a key outcome in the conflict literature: defection, or side-switching between the various organizations at war. This paper advances arguments drawn from the organizational ecology school and works to extend key theories related to "Blau Space" to the study of civil war. Using a series of logistic regression procedures, this paper tests various competing hypotheses against key contributions of the organizational ecology school...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888278/are-all-jobs-created-equal-a-cross-national-analysis-of-women-s-employment-and-child-malnutrition-in-developing-countries
#17
Rebekah Burroway
Using multi-level models, the analysis examines female employment and child stunting across 49 developing countries. At the country level, female labor force participation is not associated with malnutrition after controlling for economic development. At the individual level, a binary measure of employment is not significantly associated with malnutrition. However, a more nuanced measure of seven occupational categories shows that certain types of employment improve malnutrition. Professional, clerical, sales, and domestic jobs are associated with reduced stunting...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705365/gender-quotas-for-women-in-national-politics-a-comparative-analysis-across-development-thresholds
#18
Jennifer Rosen
Women's share of global lower or single house parliamentary seats has increased by over 70% over the course of the 21st century. Yet these increases have not been uniform across countries. Rather countries with low levels of socioeconomic development have outpaced developed democracies in terms of the gains made in the formal political representation of women. One reasonable explanation for this trend is the adoption in many poorer countries of national gender quota legislation, that is, affirmative action laws intended to compensate for sex discrimination in the electoral process...
August 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705364/political-democracy-economic-liberalization-and-macro-sociological-models-of-intergenerational-mobility
#19
Alexi Gugushvili
Building on the previously investigated macro-sociological models which analyze the consequences of economic development, income inequality, and international migration on social mobility, this article studies the specific contextual covariates of intergenerational reproduction of occupational status in post-communist societies. It is theorized that social mobility is higher in societies with democratic political regimes and less liberalized economies. The outlined hypotheses are tested by using micro- and macro-level datasets for 21 post-communist societies which are fitted into multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions...
August 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705363/black-people-don-t-exercise-in-my-neighborhood-perceived-racial-composition-and-leisure-time-physical-activity-among-middle-class-blacks-and-whites
#20
Rashawn Ray
Using a sample of middle class blacks and whites living in urban and suburban areas, this article focuses on how perceptions of the racial composition of neighborhoods influence leisure-time physical activity. Using an ordinal representation of an underlying continuous indication of the perceived percentage of blacks and whites within an egocentric neighborhood, the results show that black men are significantly less likely to be physically active in neighborhoods perceived as predominately white. Alternatively, they are more likely to be physically active in neighborhoods perceived as racially diverse and predominately black...
August 2017: Social Science Research
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