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Social Science Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202159/positive-and-negative-contact-and-attitudes-towards-the-religious-out-group-testing-the-contact-hypothesis-in-conflict-and-non-conflict-regions-of-indonesia-and-the-philippines
#1
Agnieszka Kanas, Peer Scheepers, Carl Sterkens
This study examines the relationship between interreligious contact and negative attitudes towards the religious out-group. It uses unique survey data collected by the authors among Christian and Muslim students in Maluku and Yogyakarta (Indonesia) and Mindanao and Metro Manila (the Philippines). Even after taking self-selection effects into account, interreligious friendships reduce negative attitudes towards the religious out-group. However, casual interreligious contact increases negative out-group attitudes...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202158/conservative-protestantism-and-attitudes-toward-corporal-punishment-1986-2014
#2
John P Hoffmann, Christopher G Ellison, John P Bartkowski
Research indicates that conservative Protestants are highly supportive of corporal punishment. Yet, Americans' support for this practice has waned during the past several decades. This study aggregates repeated cross-sectional data from the General Social Surveys (GSS) to consider three models that address whether attitudes toward spanking among conservative Protestants shifted relative to those of other Americans from 1986 to 2014. Although initial results reveal a growing gap between conservative Protestants and the broader American public, we find that average levels of support have remained most robust among less educated conservative Protestants, with some erosion among more highly educated conservative Protestants...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202157/determinants-of-regional-differences-in-rates-of-overeducation-in-europe
#3
Maria A Davia, Seamus McGuinness, Philip J O'Connell
This paper examines the factors determining variations in spatial rates of overeducation. A quantile regression model has been implemented on a sample of region-yearly data drawn from the EU Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) and several institutional and macroeconomic features captured from other data-sets. Potential determinants of overeducation rates include factors such as labour market risk, financial aid to university students, excess labour demand and institutional factors. We find significant effects both for labour market structural imbalances and institutional factors...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202156/the-status-value-theory-of-power-and-mechanisms-of-micro-stratification-theory-and-new-experimental-evidence
#4
Shane R Thye, Ashley Harrell
This paper employs sociological theories of status and power to explore the mechanisms wherein status characteristics produce power in exchange relations. Theories in the status and exchange literature suggest that status characteristics produce power most strongly when actors possess (i) multiple differentiating status characteristics, and (ii) multiple resources. An experiment manipulating these factors finds that the former is related to expectations of competence while the latter induces perceptions of status value - mechanisms whereby status produces power...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202155/-the-liability-of-newness-revisited-theoretical-restatement-and-empirical-testing-in-emergent-organizations
#5
Tiantian Yang, Howard E Aldrich
The mismatch between Stinchcombe's original propositions regarding "the liability of newness" and subsequent attempts to test those propositions suggests to us that the form and causes of the liability remain open to further investigation. Taking organizational emergence as a process comprising entrepreneurs engaging in actions that produce outcomes, we propose hypotheses about the social mechanisms of organizational construction involved in investing resources, developing routines, and maintaining boundaries...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202154/social-media-processes-in-disasters-implications-of-emergent-technology-use
#6
Dhiraj Murthy, Alexander J Gross
This article seeks to extend social science scholarship on social media technology use during disruptive events. Though social media's role in times of crisis has been previously studied, much of this work tends to focus on first-responders and relief organizations. However, social media use during disasters tends to be decentralized and this organizational structure can promote different types of messages to top-down information systems. Using 142,786 geo-tagged tweets collected before and after Hurricane Sandy's US landfall as a case study, this article seeks to explore shifts in social media behavior during disruptive events and highlights that though Sandy disrupted routine life within Twitter, users responded to the disaster by employing humor, sharing photos, and checking into locations...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202153/dyad-vs-network-effects-modeling-relationships-in-personal-networks-using-contextual-effects
#7
E C Hedberg
This paper proposes using contextual models to disentangle the effects of dyad characteristics from the effects of characteristics of the networks in which they reside. Multilevel models that nest dyads in personal networks can be coded for contextual analysis by entering both the dyad value of a predictor and the network mean of that predictor into the prediction equation. These models can then be used to measure a within-network effect for dyads and a network contextual effect. This paper conducts an example analysis of how dyad redundancy, and the network's average dyad redundancy, impact discussions of job opportunities...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202152/social-isolation-survey-nonresponse-and-nonresponse-bias-an-empirical-evaluation-using-social-network-data-within-an-organization
#8
Megumi Watanabe, Kristen Olson, Christina Falci
Survey researchers have long hypothesized that social isolation negatively affects the probability of survey participation and biases survey estimates. Previous research, however, has relied on proxy measures of isolation, such as being a marginalized group member within a population. We re-examine the relationship between social isolation and survey participation using direct measures of social isolation derived from social network data; specifically, instrumental research and expressive friendship connections among faculty within academic departments...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202151/when-contact-counts-intergroup-contact-on-business-and-intermarriage-resistance-in-the-caucasus-region
#9
Benjamin T Gurrentz, Roger Finke
Intergroup contact theory has been empirically supported in a variety of social contexts, but few samples have been drawn from rapidly developing nations undergoing severe political and sociocultural conflict. Using 2012 Caucasus Barometer data from the three nations of the South Caucasus - Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia - we test the effect of interreligious contact on various forms of out-group resistance in a region of the world that is both historically and presently marked with severe religious and ethnic conflict...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202150/age-at-migration-family-instability-and-timing-of-sexual-onset
#10
Rachel E Goldberg, Marta Tienda, Alícia Adserà
This study builds on and extends previous research on nativity variations in adolescent health and risk behavior by addressing three questions: (1) whether and how generational status and age at migration are associated with timing of sexual onset among U.S. adolescents; (2) whether and how family instability mediates associations between nativity and sexual debut; and (3) whether and how these associations vary by gender. We find that first- and second-generation immigrant youth initiate sexual activity later than native youth...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202149/self-employment-of-immigrant-women-in-the-united-states-the-role-of-country-of-origin-and-family-related-policies
#11
Galit Aharon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202148/level-of-economic-development-of-the-country-of-origin-and-work-to-family-conflict-after-migration-to-canada
#12
Shirin Montazer, Marisa Young
Using a sample of employed adults living in Canada, this article examines patterns and antecedents of work-to-family conflict (WFC) among immigrants, relative to the native-born. We test whether the origin-country- or intermediary country of residence- country-level economic development, and length of residence in Canada interact to affect WFC differentially for immigrants. We hypothesize that origin-country economic development impacts the value and transferability of immigrants' capital in the host country...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202147/single-parent-households-and-mortality-among-children-and-youth
#13
Paul R Amato, Sarah E Patterson
Although many studies have examined associations between family structure and child outcomes, few have considered how the increase in single-parent households since the 1960s may have affected child mortality rates. We examined state-level changes in the percentage of children living with single parents between 1968 and 2010 and state-level trends in mortality among children and youth (age 19 or younger) in the United States. Regression models with state and year fixed effects revealed that increases in single parenthood were associated with small increments in accidental deaths and homicides...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202146/self-rated-health-at-the-intersection-of-sexual-identity-and-union-status
#14
Corinne Reczek, Hui Liu, Russell Spiker
There is a well-established relationship between union status and health within the general population, and growing evidence of an association between sexual identity and well-being. Yet, what is unknown is whether union status stratifies health outcomes across sexual identity categories. In order to elucidate this question, we analyzed nationally representative population-based data from the National Health Interview Surveys 2013-2014 (N = 53,135) to examine variation in self-rated health by sexual partnership status (i...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202145/who-kills-whom-the-micro-dynamics-of-civilian-targeting-in-civil-war
#15
Madhav Joshi, Jason Michael Quinn
Prior research on civilian targeting in civil war has focused on characteristics of either the government or rebel group that make them more or less likely to target civilians. However, no government or rebel group targets a population, but rather individuals within it. To date, no study has explored the issue of why particular civilians would be chosen by one actor versus the other. This study examines the divergent civilian-targeting strategies of governments and rebel groups. We argue that unique identification problems facing each political actor in civil war leads the parties to resort to social stereotypes based on data derived from known enemy subjects killed in combat...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202144/ethnic-and-gender-earning-gaps-in-a-liberalized-economy-the-case-of-israel
#16
Benjamin Bental, Vered Kraus, Yuval Yonay
During the 1990s and the 2000s Israel, a country ethnically divided into a dominant Jewish majority and a disadvantaged mostly Muslim Palestinian minority, underwent a transition from a heavily regulated to a neo-liberal economy. This paper makes use of the Israeli case to shed light on the effect of liberalization on earning gaps in the public and private sectors across dominant and disadvantaged population groups. The data, drawn from the 1995 and 2008 censuses-years that encompass the transition period, enable a dynamic investigation of the liberalization process by comparing labor market outcomes for Israeli Jews and Muslims of both genders working in the public or private sector...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202143/the-missing-women-in-stem-assessing-gender-differentials-in-the-factors-associated-with-transition-to-first-jobs
#17
Sharon Sassler, Jennifer Glass, Yael Levitte, Katherine M Michelmore
Women remain underrepresented in the STEM workforce. We assess explanations for women's underrepresentation in STEM jobs, focusing on a cohort that came of age in the 1980s and 1990s, when women dramatically increased their representation in the scientific labor force. Data are from the NLSY79, and our analysis focuses on members of this cohort who received a college degree, with an emphasis on those who completed a degree in a STEM field. Our analyses test the extent to which college major, expectations to work in STEM, and family expectations shaped transitions into STEM occupations within two years of degree completion...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202142/from-institutional-segmentation-to-market-fragmentation-institutional-transformation-and-the-shifting-stratification-order-in-urban-china
#18
Wei Zhao, Xueguang Zhou
Focusing on the changing roles of organizations, this study develops an institutional framework to examine the shifting stratification order since the mid-1990s in urban China. We argue that, after the mid-1990s, the Chinese state led a dual process of institutional transformation. On the one hand, the state dismantled the socialist redistributive system and broke down institutional segmentation based on organizational ownership and bureaucratic rank. On the other hand, the state developed different markets with various paces and strategies, resulting in fragmented market environments...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202141/non-intact-families-and-diverging-educational-destinies-a-decomposition-analysis-for-germany-italy-the-united-kingdom-and-the-united-states
#19
Fabrizio Bernardi, Diederik Boertien
We examine whether the presence of non-intact families in society is related to increased inequality in educational attainment according to social background, as suggested by the 'diverging destinies' thesis. We analyze four countries, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States, that differ in the prevalence of non-intact families and in the strength of the negative association between growing up in a non-intact family and children's educational attainment. We use a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to calculate a 'counterfactual' estimate of differences in educational attainment between socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged children in the hypothetical absence of non-intact families...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202140/educational-inequalities-in-parental-care-time-cross-national-evidence-from-belgium-denmark-spain-and-the-united-kingdom
#20
Pablo Gracia, Joris Ghysels
This study uses time-diary data for dual-earner couples from Belgium, Denmark, Spain, and the United Kingdom to analyze educational inequalities in parental care time in different national contexts. For mothers, education is significantly associated with parenting involvement only in Spain and the United Kingdom. In Spain these differences are largely explained by inequalities in mothers' time and monetary resources, but not in the United Kingdom, where less-educated mothers disproportionally work in short part-time jobs...
March 2017: Social Science Research
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