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Science of the Total Environment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550729/bioaccessibility-and-size-distribution-of-metals-in-road-dust-and-roadside-soils-along-a-peri-urban-transect
#1
Elio Padoan, Chiara Romè, Franco Ajmone-Marsan
Road dust (RD), together with surface soils, is recognized as one of the main sinks of pollutants in urban environments. Over the last years, many studies have focused on total and bioaccessible concentrations while few have assessed the bioaccessibility of size-fractionated elements in RD. Therefore, the distribution and bioaccessibility of Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn in size fractions of RD and roadside soils (<2.5μm, 2.5-10μm and 10-200μm) have been studied using aqua regia extraction and the Simple Bioaccessibility Extraction Test...
May 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550728/quantification-of-nitrous-oxide-in-wastewater-based-on-salt-induced-stripping
#2
Pascal Kosse, Manfred Lübken, Torsten C Schmidt, Marc Wichern
Monitoring nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from wastewater treatment plants has attracted much attention in recent years demanding accurate and rapid quantification methods. In the present study a salt-assisted methodology is proposed by which N2O is chemically stripped out from wastewater and quantified by gas chromatography (GC-TCD) subsequently. Eight different inorganic salts have been evaluated for this purpose, likewise the application of ultrasound. By addition of sodium bromide (NaBr) the best recovery rate of about 98% (=1...
May 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550727/multiple-remote-sensing-data-sources-to-assess-spatio-temporal-patterns-of-fire-incidence-over-campos-amaz%C3%A3-nicos-savanna-vegetation-enclave-brazilian-amazon
#3
Daniel Borini Alves, Fernando Pérez-Cabello
Fire activity plays an important role in the past, present and future of Earth system behavior. Monitoring and assessing spatial and temporal fire dynamics have a fundamental relevance in the understanding of ecological processes and the human impacts on different landscapes and multiple spatial scales. This work analyzes the spatio-temporal distribution of burned areas in one of the biggest savanna vegetation enclaves in the southern Brazilian Amazon, from 2000 to 2016, deriving information from multiple remote sensing data sources (Landsat and MODIS surface reflectance, TRMM pluviometry and Vegetation Continuous Field tree cover layers)...
May 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550726/indices-of-stress-and-immune-function-in-arctic-barnacle-goslings-branta-leucopsis-were-impacted-by-social-isolation-but-not-a-contaminated-grazing-environment
#4
Margje E de Jong, Isabella B R Scheiber, Nico W van den Brink, Anna Braun, Kevin D Matson, Jan Komdeur, Maarten J J E Loonen
In many areas around the Arctic remains and spoil heaps of old mines can be found, which have been abandoned after their heydays. Runoff from tailings of these abandoned mines can directly contaminate the local environment with elevated concentrations of trace metals. Few studies have investigated the possible negative effects of contaminants on Arctic terrestrial animals that use these areas. Trace metals can accumulate in animals and this accumulation has been linked to negative effects on fitness. Both, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and/or the immune system have been named as possible underlying causes for these observations...
May 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550725/geographical-variation-and-age-related-dietary-exposure-to-arsenic-in-rice-from-bangladesh
#5
Shofiqul Islam, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, M R Islam, Ravi Naidu
An extensive number (965) of rice samples collected by household survey from 73 upazilas (i.e. sub-districts) in Bangladesh was analyzed to determine regional variation, distribution and associated health risks from arsenic (As). No previous study had conducted a study examining such a large number of rice samples. The mean and median concentrations of total As were 126μg/kg and 107μg/kg, respectively, ranging from between 3 and 680μg/kg. Importantly, total As levels of aromatic rice were significantly lower (average 58μg/kg) than non-aromatic rice (average 150μg/kg) and also varied with rice grain size...
May 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550724/soil-erosion-predictions-from-a-landscape-evolution-model-an-assessment-of-a-post-mining-landform-using-spatial-climate-change-analogues
#6
G R Hancock, D Verdon-Kidd, J B C Lowry
Landscape Evolution Modelling (LEM) technologies provide a means by which it is possible to simulate the long-term geomorphic stability of a conceptual rehabilitated landform. However, simulations rarely consider the potential effects of anthropogenic climate change and consequently risk not accounting for the range of rainfall variability that might be expected in both the near and far future. One issue is that high resolution (both spatial and temporal) rainfall projections incorporating the potential effects of greenhouse forcing are required as input...
May 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549289/identifying-the-source-of-zn-in-soils-around-a-zn-smelter-using-pb-isotope-ratios-and-mineralogical-analysis
#7
Soo-Kyung Jeon, Man Jae Kwon, Jung-Seok Yang, Seunghak Lee
The contribution by anthropogenic sources to abnormally high Zn concentrations in soils with naturally abundant Zn was investigated at a contaminated site surrounding a Zn smelter in eastern Korea. Nineteen soil samples were collected within a 2km radius of the smelter, and analyzed for metal concentrations and Pb isotope ratios using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer and -mass spectrometer, respectively. Higher Zn concentrations in locations closer to the smelter implied that the smelter was the source of the Zn pollution...
May 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549288/ecological-effects-of-soil-properties-and-metal-concentrations-on-the-composition-and-diversity-of-microbial-communities-associated-with-land-use-patterns-in-an-electronic-waste-recycling-region
#8
Wencheng Wu, Changxun Dong, Jiahui Wu, Xiaowen Liu, Yingxin Wu, Xianbin Chen, Shixiao Yu
Soil microbes play vital roles in ecosystem functions, and soil microbial communities may be strongly structured by land use patterns associated with electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities, which can increase the heavy metal concentration in soils. In this study, a suite of soils from five land use types (paddy field, vegetable field, dry field, forest field, and e-waste recycling site) were collected in Longtang Town, Guangdong Province, South China. Soil physicochemical properties and heavy metal concentrations were measured, and the indigenous microbial assemblages were profiled using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and clone library analyses...
May 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549287/unconventional-energy-resources-in-a-crowded-subsurface-reducing-uncertainty-and-developing-a-separation-zone-concept-for-resource-estimation-and-deep-3d-subsurface-planning-using-legacy-mining-data
#9
Alison A Monaghan
Over significant areas of the UK and western Europe, anthropogenic alteration of the subsurface by mining of coal has occurred beneath highly populated areas which are now considering a multiplicity of 'low carbon' unconventional energy resources including shale gas and oil, coal bed methane, geothermal energy and energy storage. To enable decision making on the 3D planning, licensing and extraction of these resources requires reduced uncertainty around complex geology and hydrogeological and geomechanical processes...
May 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549286/long-term-heavy-metal-removal-by-a-constructed-wetland-treating-rainfall-runoff-from-a-motorway
#10
Laurence W Gill, Pamela Ring, Brian Casey, Neil M P Higgins, Paul M Johnston
The accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) in the sediment and plants growing in a constructed wetland used to treat highway runoff in Ireland has been quantified after 6 and 9year periods of operation. The spatial distribution of the metals' deposition showed strong evidence of flow channelling through the wetland with a strong correlation between the spatial accumulation, particularly for Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn with most of these metals deposited towards the front of the wetland in the sediment...
May 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549285/environmental-response-to-long-term-mariculture-activities-in-the-weihai-coastal-area-china
#11
Hongmei Li, Xiaomin Li, Qiang Li, Ying Liu, Jide Song, Yongyu Zhang
The environmental impacts of rapid expansion of mariculture have garnered worldwide attention. China is currently one of the largest countries to engage in this practice. In this study, a representative mariculture zone, the Weihai coastal area in China, was explored to determine the temporal variations in regional nutrients, N/P ratio, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, chlorophyll a (Chl-a), and cellular abundance of diatoms and dinoflagellates in response to the rapid growth in mariculture activities between 2006 and 2014...
May 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549371/theoretical-analysis-of-coupled-effects-of-microbe-and-root-architecture-on-methane-oxidation-in-vegetated-landfill-covers
#12
S Feng, A K Leung, C W W Ng, H W Liu
Reduction of soil moisture by plant root-water uptake could improve soil aeration for microbial aerobic methane oxidation (MAMO) in a landfill cover, but excessive soil moisture removal could suppress microbial activity due to water shortage. Existing models ignore the coupled microbe-vegetation interaction. It is thus not known whether the presence of plants is beneficial or adverse to MAMO. This study proposes a newly-improved theoretical model that couples the effects of root-water uptake and microbial activity for capturing water-gas flow and MAMO in unsaturated soils...
May 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549370/assessment-of-the-influence-of-key-abiotic-factors-on-the-alternative-microcystin-degradation-pathway-s-mlr-a-detailed-comparison-with-the-mlr-route-mlr
#13
Jesús Morón-López, Lucía Nieto-Reyes, Rehab El-Shehawy
Cyanobacterial proliferation and toxin production in water bodies around the world have led to global concern about the control of these issues. Indigenous bacteria have been shown to degrade the cyanotoxin microcystin (MC) in natural environments. The mlr cluster has been widely used as a marker for microcystin biodegradation; however, recent studies have shown that alternative pathway(s) also contribute to the natural removal of MCs in the ecosystem. The main objective of this study is to provide initial insights concerning how key abiotic factors affect the rate of MC biodegradation via alternative pathway(s) and to provide a detailed comparison with the mlr(+) pathway...
May 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549369/safety-analysis-of-occupational-exposure-of-healthcare-workers-to-residual-contaminations-of-cytotoxic-drugs-using-fmeca-security-approach
#14
Laetitia Minh Mai Le, Delphine Reitter, Sophie He, Franck Té Bonle, Amélie Launois, Diane Martinez, Patrice Prognon, Eric Caudron
Handling cytotoxic drugs is associated with chemical contamination of workplace surfaces. The potential mutagenic, teratogenic and oncogenic properties of those drugs create a risk of occupational exposure for healthcare workers, from reception of starting materials to the preparation and administration of cytotoxic therapies. The Security Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) was used as a proactive method to assess the risks involved in the chemotherapy compounding process. FMECA was carried out by a multidisciplinary team from 2011 to 2016...
May 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549368/developing-population-models-a-systematic-approach-for-pesticide-risk-assessment-using-herbaceous-plants-as-an-example
#15
Amelie Schmolke, Katherine E Kapo, Pamela Rueda-Cediel, Pernille Thorbek, Richard Brain, Valery Forbes
Population models are used as tools in species management and conservation and are increasingly recognized as important tools in pesticide risk assessments. A wide variety of population model applications and resources on modeling techniques, evaluation and documentation can be found in the literature. In this paper, we add to these resources by introducing a systematic, transparent approach to developing population models. The decision guide that we propose is intended to help model developers systematically address data availability for their purpose and the steps that need to be taken in any model development...
May 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544887/silver-nanoparticles-in-seawater-a-dynamic-mass-balance-at-part-per-trillion-silver-concentrations
#16
Claudio Toncelli, Kyriaki Mylona, Ioanna Kalantzi, Anastasia Tsiola, Paraskevi Pitta, Manolis Tsapakis, Spiros A Pergantis
This study investigates the dynamic processes affecting silver (Ag) nanoparticles that have been spiked into seawater at environmentally relevant concentrations (200 and 2000ngAgL(-1)). Seawater samples were taken at regular time intervals from multiple microcosm tanks and analysed rapidly, without any sample preparation, using a recently developed flow injection on-line dilution single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Dissolution was found to be the predominant process of Ag nanoparticle transformation, with its rate being influenced by the type and thickness of the nanoparticle organic coating...
May 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545219/new-species-for-the-biomitigation-of-a-super-intensive-marine-fish-farm-effluent-combined-use-of-polychaete-assisted-sand-filters-and-halophyte-aquaponics
#17
Bruna Marques, Ricardo Calado, Ana I Lillebø
The main objective of this study was to test an innovative biomitigation approach, where polychaete-assisted (Hediste diversicolor) sand filters were combined with the production of Halimione portulacoides in aquaponics, to remediate an organic-rich effluent generated by a super intensive fish farm operating a land-based RAS (Recirculating aquaculture system). The set up included four different experimental combinations that were periodically monitored for 5months. After this period, polychaete-assisted sand filters reduced in 70% the percentage of OM and the average densities increased from ≈400ind...
May 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545218/temporal-variability-in-taxonomic-and-trait-compositions-of-invertebrate-assemblages-in-two-climatic-regions-with-contrasting-flow-regimes
#18
Sylvain Dolédec, Jessica Tilbian, Núria Bonada
CONTEXT: Understanding natural temporal changes in Mediterranean rivers with contrasting flow regimes in relation to those of temperate rivers may prove helpful in predicting effects of climate change on aquatic biodiversity. GOAL: We aimed to compare temporal variability in taxonomic and trait compositions of nearly natural rivers in two climatic regions with varying flow regimes to address the effects of future climate changes on aquatic biodiversity in reference conditions...
May 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545217/a-miniature-bird-borne-passive-air-sampler-for-monitoring-halogenated-flame-retardants
#19
Manon Sorais, Ali Rezaei, Joseph O Okeme, Miriam L Diamond, Ricardo Izquierdo, Jean-François Giroux, Jonathan Verreault
Birds have been used intensively as biomonitors of halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), and several studies have reported elevated tissue concentrations and inter-individual variability for these contaminants. While diet is known to be an important exposure pathway for HFRs in birds, it has been suggested that exposure through air may represent an underestimated source of HFRs for certain species. However, a method was not available for measuring the atmospheric exposure of individual birds to HFRs or other semi-volatile contaminants...
May 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545216/multi-proxy-evidence-for-decreased-terrestrial-contribution-to-sedimentary-organic-matter-in-coastal-areas-of-the-east-china-sea-during-the-past-100years
#20
Yunyun Cao, Lei Xing, Ting Zhang, Wen-Hsuan Liao
Little is known about temporal changes in sedimentary organic matter (OM) in the East China Sea (ECS) due to the lack of continuous high-resolution records. In this study, we used a multi-proxy approach to reconstruct sedimentary OM variations over the past 100years from three sediment cores collected from the coastal areas of the ECS. For the three cores, total organic carbon (TOC) normalized concentrations of phytoplankton biomarkers (brassicasterol+dinosterol+alkenones) and a marine archaea biomarker (crenarchaeol) showed gradual increases over the past 100years with a greater increase after the 1980s...
May 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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