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Science of the Total Environment

Helen P Jarvie, Stephen M King, Colin Neal
River water-quality studies rarely measure dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) routinely, and there is a gap in our knowledge of the contributions of DIC to aquatic carbon fluxes and cycling processes. Here, we present the THINCARB model (THermodynamic modelling of INorganic CARBon), which uses widely-measured determinands (pH, alkalinity and temperature) to calculate DIC concentrations, speciation (bicarbonate, HCO3(-); carbonate, CO3(2-); and dissolved carbon dioxide, H2CO3(⁎)) and excess partial pressures of carbon dioxide (EpCO2) in freshwaters...
October 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Tong Zhao, Lingxiao Yang, Weida Yan, Junmei Zhang, Wei Lu, Yumeng Yang, Jianmin Chen, Wenxing Wang
Daytime and night-time PM1 and PM2.5 samples were simultaneously collected at the summit of Mount Tai during summer and autumn 2014. The mass concentrations and chemical compositions were analysed to determine the temporal variations of PM1 and PM2.5 and their contributions to visibility impairment. In summer, the average mass concentrations of PM1 and PM2.5 were 38.16μg/m(3) and 53.33μg/m(3), respectively. In autumn, the values were 42.75μg/m(3) and 59.16μg/m(3). Water-soluble inorganic ions were the most abundant species in both PM1 and PM2...
October 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Shu Zhang, Nancy Merino, Ning Wang, Ting Ruan, Xiaoxia Lu
Sediment microbial communities are responsible for many chemical biotransformation processes in the aquatic environment and play a critical role in various ecosystems and biogeochemical cycling. However, the impact of polyfluoroalkyl substances on sediment microbial communities remains unclear. These substances are increasingly being used in consumer and industrial products to replace environmentally persistent perfluoroalkyl substances. In this study, we investigated the effects of low (5mg/L) and high (15mg/L) doses of 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol [6:2 FTOH, F(CF2)6CH2CH2OH] on the structure of a sediment microbial community...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Miko U F Kirschbaum, Louis A Schipper, Paul L Mudge, Susanna Rutledge, Nicolas J B Puche, David I Campbell
A possible agricultural climate change mitigation option is to increase the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC). Conversely, some factors might lead to inadvertent losses of SOC. Here, we explore the effect of various management options and environmental changes on SOC storage and milk production of dairy pastures in New Zealand. We used CenW 4.1, a process-based ecophysiological model, to run a range of scenarios to assess the effects of changes in management options, plant properties and environmental factors on SOC and milk production...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
S Schiavo, N Duroudier, E Bilbao, M Mikolaczyk, J Schäfer, M P Cajaraville, S Manzo
In the last years, applications for silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) continue to increase together with the concerns about their potential input and hazards in aquatic ecosystems, where microalgae are key organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the relative sensitivity of three marine microalgae species with differences in cell wall composition/structure exposed to Poly N-vinyl-2-pirrolidone/Polyethyleneimine (PVP/PEI) coated 5nm Ag NPs and uncoated 47nm Ag NP. As limited attention has been paid to the role of coating agents in NP toxicity, the effect of PVP/PEI alone was also evaluated...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Sha Chen, Jiaxing Zhang, Junbeum Kim
China is the world's largest emitter of carbon dioxide, and it is also one of the largest fluorescent lamp consuming and producing country in the world. However, there are few studies evaluating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of fluorescent lamps in China. This analysis compared GHG emissions of compact fluorescent lamps with linear fluorescent lamps using life cycle assessment method in China's national conditions. The GHG emissions of fluorescent lamps from their manufacture to the final disposal phase on the national level of China were also quantified...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Alfred E Pinkney, Mark S Myers, Michael A Rutter
From the 1940s through 1977, at least 590,000kg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were released into the Hudson River from General Electric manufacturing plants located in Hudson Falls and Fort Edward, New York. In 1984, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency designated a nearly 322km reach as the Hudson River PCBs Superfund Site. Here we describe a Fish Health Assessment study, part of a Natural Resource Damage Assessment, that evaluated the prevalence of toxicopathic lesions in adult brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens)...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Luis A Henríquez-Hernández, Elena Carretón, María Camacho, José Alberto Montoya-Alonso, Luis D Boada, Pilar F Valerón, Yaiza Falcón-Cordón, Soraya Falcón-Cordón, Maira Almeida-González, Manuel Zumbado, Octavio P Luzardo
It has been described that the co-existence of parasite infection and chemical exposure has various effects on the accumulation of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) in the host. Certain parasites are not only able to accumulate POPs but also seem to have the ability to metabolize certain compounds. We have designed a case-control study aimed to disclose the role of Dirofilaria immitis in the bioavailability of POPs in dogs trying to know whether these parasites store or metabolize the POPs. A total of 40 common POPs (18 polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs) and 22 organochlorine pesticides were quantified in dog serum...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Sarah L Smith, Christopher Boothman, Heather A Williams, Beverly L Ellis, Joanna Wragg, Julia M West, Jonathan R Lloyd
Geological disposal of intermediate level radioactive waste in the UK is planned to involve the use of cementitious materials, facilitating the formation of an alkali-disturbed zone within the host rock. The biogeochemical processes that will occur in this environment, and the extent to which they will impact on radionuclide migration, are currently poorly understood. This study investigates the impact of biogeochemical processes on the mobility of the radionuclide technetium, in column experiments designed to be representative of aspects of the alkali-disturbed zone...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Angela Volpe, Michele Pagano, Giuseppe Mascolo, Paola Grenni, Simona Rossetti
The degradation of two of the most frequently used UV-filters was investigated through microcosm studies. Marine sediments sampled from two sites in Italy (La Spezia harbour and Sarno river estuary, S1 and S2 respectively) were used to set up aerobic and anaerobic sets of reactors. The sediments were spiked with a methanol solution of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC) and 2-ethylhexyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (EH-DPAB), at concentrations of either 25 or 50mgkg(-1) each. Methanol (6.3g/L) also served as an organic amendment and growth substrate for improving microbial activity...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Antonio López-Orenes, María C Bueso, Héctor M Conesa, Antonio A Calderón, María A Ferrer
Soil pollution by heavy metals/metalloids (HMMs) is a problem worldwide. To prevent dispersion of contaminated particles by erosion, the maintenance of a vegetative cover is needed. Successful plant establishment in multi-polluted soils can be hampered not only by HMM toxicities, but also by soil nutrient deficiencies and the co-occurrence of abiotic stresses. Some plant species are able to thrive under these multi-stress scenarios often linked to marked fluctuations in environmental factors. This study aimed to investigate the metabolic adjustments involved in Zygophyllum fabago acclimative responses to conditions prevailing in HMM-enriched mine-tailings piles, during Mediterranean spring and summer...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Zhenyi Chen, Cheng Liu, Wenqing Liu, Tianshu Zhang, Jin Xu
Despite extensive efforts into the characterization of air pollution during the past decade, concurrent real-time characterization of aerosol and NO2 as well as satellite observation above the urban canopy in the megacity of Beijing has sparsely been performed to date. We conducted a simultaneous real-time measurement of aerosol and NO2 in urban Beijing in a pollution episode from November 25, 2015 to December 2, 2015. The aerosol extinction coefficient was measured by a 532 Mie lidar and the NO2 concentration by a Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS)...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Ting Zhang, Xuan Ban, Xuelei Wang, Xiaobin Cai, Enhua Li, Zhi Wang, Chao Yang, Qing Zhang, Xiaorong Lu
A two-dimensional (2D) water quality model was established to determine the response of water quality variables and submerged aquatic vegetation biomass to load reduction from watershed inflows and enclosure aquaculture in Honghu Lake in China. Results showed that the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads from upstream discharge were the major external loads in the lake, accounting for 70% and 63% of the total loads, respectively. Scenario simulation results indicated that 93.2% of the lake area in summer (August) and 89...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Ye Yuan, John D Meeker, Kelly K Ferguson
Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has been associated with various adverse health outcomes related to liver, neural and endocrine systems. Some of these may be the result of PBDE-induced oxidative stress or inflammation, but these associations have been explored minimally in humans. In the present study we examined the relationship between PBDE concentrations and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation measured in blood samples among a representative US sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Juan Chen, Chao Wang, Zhi-Jun Shen, Gui-Feng Gao, Hai-Lei Zheng
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants, particularly in mangrove wetlands. However, little is known about the long-term effect of mangrove plants on PBDE removal from contaminated sediments. A 12-month microcosm experiment was conducted to understand the effect of two mangrove species, namely Avicennia marina (Am) and Aegiceras corniculatum (Ac), on PBDE removal from the sediments spiked with 2000ngg(-1) dry weight of BDE-47, and to explore the microbial mechanism responsible for the planting-induced effects on BDE-47 removal...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Qiong Wang, Changchang Li, Yanfang Guo, Adrian G Barnett, Shilu Tong, Dung Phung, Cordia Chu, Keith Dear, Xuemei Wang, Cunrui Huang
OBJECTIVE: Although many individual studies have examined the association between temperature and blood pressure (BP), they used different methods and also their results were somewhat inconsistent. The aims of this study are to quantitatively summarize previous studies and to systematically assess the methodological issues to make recommendations for future research. METHODS: We searched relevant empirical studies published before January 2016 concerning temperature and BP among adults using the MEDLINE, Embase and PubMed databases...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Solange E Brandão, Patricia Bulbovas, Marcos E L Lima, Marisa Domingos
The tolerance potential against the oxidative injury in native plants from forest ecosystems affected by environmental stressors depends on how efficiently they keep their pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Great variations in plant tolerance are expected, highlighting the higher relevance of measuring biochemical leaf trait indicators of oxidative injury in species with similar functions in the forest than in single species. The use of this functional approach seems very useful in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest because it still holds high plant diversity and was the focus of this study...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Nikolaos Th Skoulikidis, Leonidas Vardakas, Yorgos Amaxidis, Panagiotis Michalopoulos
Desiccation and re-flooding processes play a key role on hydrological features of non-perennial rivers. This study addresses the effects of these processes on the aquatic quality and unravels underlying biogeochemical processes of an intermittent river reach in southern Greece containing a spring-fed pool. Combined spatio-temporal sampling for physicochemical parameters, major ions and nutrients and high frequency automatic monitoring during a hydrological year (2010-2011) indicate that during the dry period, solute variation was controlled by "concentration" processes (i...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
K J Rattan, J C Corriveau, R B Brua, J M Culp, A G Yates, P A Chambers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Julio C López-Doval, Cassiana C Montagner, Anjaína Fernandes de Alburquerque, Viviane Moschini-Carlos, Gisela Umbuzeiro, Marcelo Pompêo
Reservoirs located in urban areas suffer specific pressures related to human activities. Their monitoring, management, and protection requirements differ from reservoirs situated in non-urbanized areas. The objectives of this study were: (a) to determine the concentrations of select pesticides and emerging pollutants (EPs) present in an urban reservoir; (b) to describe their possible spatial distributions; and (c) to quantify the risks for aquatic life and safeguard drinking water supplies. For this purpose, the Guarapiranga reservoir was studied as an example of a multi-stressed urban reservoir in a tropical region...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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