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Science of the Total Environment

Mingxiao Di, Jun Wang
We investigated microplastic pollution levels in surface waters and sediments from the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). The TGR is the largest reservoir in China and is located across the Chongqing municipality and Hubei Province. Microplastic abundance in the surface water ranged from 1597 to 12,611n/m(3) and in the sediments was 25 to 300n/kg wet weight (ww). In the surface waters, the contamination was more serious in urban areas, and in the sediments, countrysides were the most heavily polluted areas. Fibers were the most abundant microplastics, the dominant color was transparent, and small-sized particles were predominant...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Huihui Wang, Jiarui Zhang, Weihua Zeng
Rapid urbanization and population growth have resulted in serious water shortage and pollution of the aquatic environment, which are important reasons for the complex increase in environmental deterioration in the region. This study examines the environmental consequences and economic impacts of water resource shortages under variant economic policies; however, this requires complex models that jointly consider variant agents and sectors within a systems perspective. Thus, we propose a complex system model that couples multi-agent based models (ABM) and system dynamics (SD) models to simulate the impact of alternative economic policies on water use and pricing...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Larissa Oliveira Gonçalves, Diego Janisch Alvares, Fernanda Zimmermann Teixeira, Gabriela Schuck, Igor Pfeifer Coelho, Isadora Beraldi Esperandio, Juan Anza, Júlia Beduschi, Vinicius Augusto Galvão Bastazini, Andreas Kindel
Understanding road-kill patterns is the first step to assess the potential effects of road mortality on wildlife populations, as well as to define the need for mitigation and support its planning. Reptiles are one of the vertebrate groups most affected by roads through vehicle collisions, both because they are intentionally killed by drivers, and due to their biological needs, such as thermoregulation, which make them more prone to collisions. We conducted monthly road surveys (33months), searching for carcasses of freshwater turtles, lizards, and snakes on a 277-km stretch of BR-101 road in Southernmost Brazil to estimate road-kill composition and magnitude and to describe the main periods and locations of road-kills...
October 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
William Shotyk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Kirsten Cowley, Arun Looman, Damien T Maher, Kirstie Fryirs
Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone (THPSS) are a type of upland wetland, similar to fens in the Northern Hemisphere and are found at the headwaters of low-order streams on the plateaus of Eastern Australia. They are classified as endangered ecological communities under State and National legislation. Previous works have identified particular geomorphic characteristics that are important to carbon storage in these low energy sediment accumulation zones. Changes in the geomorphic structure of THPSS, such as channelisation, may have profound implications for carbon storage...
October 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Suqing Li, Karsten Liber
In order to identify suitable pioneer plant species for future revegetation of coal gob piles, a field survey was conducted to assess the success of different revegetation species and their influence on soil development nine years after initial planting on a reclaimed coal gob pile in the Yangquan mining area of Shanxi province, China. Data were analyzed using a quantitative classification method (TWINSPAN), ordination techniques (DCA and DCCA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a geo-accumulation index (Igeo)...
October 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Wei Chen, Huajun Feng, Dongsheng Shen, Yufeng Jia, Na Li, Xianbin Ying, Ting Chen, Yuyang Zhou, Jiayun Guo, Mengjiao Zhou
In this study, carbonized waste tires were directly used as a high-performance anode material in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The effect of the pyrolysis temperature used for waste tire carbonization on the current output performance was investigated to determine the optimal pyrolysis temperature. Thermal gravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry showed that tire carbonization started at 200°C and ended at about 500°C; the weight loss was about 64%. When used in an MFC, the electrode obtained from waste tires carbonized at 800°C gave a current density of 23...
October 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
J Kammer, E Perraudin, P-M Flaud, E Lamaud, J M Bonnefond, E Villenave
Improving the understanding of processes related to atmospheric particle sources is essential to better assess future climate. Especially, how biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are involved in new particle formation (NPF) is still unclear, highlighting the need for field studies in sites that have not yet been explored. Weakly anthropised, mostly composed of maritime pines (known as strong monoterpene emitters), vast and under the influence of sea spray inputs, the Landes forest (located in the southwestern part of France) is a suitable ecosystem to explore these questions...
October 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Vera Silva, Luca Montanarella, Arwyn Jones, Oihane Fernández-Ugalde, Hans G J Mol, Coen J Ritsema, Violette Geissen
Approval for glyphosate-based herbicides in the European Union (EU) is under intense debate due to concern about their effects on the environment and human health. The occurrence of glyphosate residues in European water bodies is rather well documented whereas only few, fragmented and outdated information is available for European soils. We provide the first large-scale assessment of distribution (occurrence and concentrations) of glyphosate and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in EU agricultural topsoils, and estimate their potential spreading by wind and water erosion...
October 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Nannan Liu, Lin Xu, Yaqi Cai
Methyl siloxanes (MSs) have been widely added as emollients or solvents in various personal care products (PCPs) such as soap, shampoo and hair conditioner. A considerable percentage of MSs are released into the atmosphere directly from the use of PCPs in indoor environments. Indoor dust is a major reservoir of MSs, due to their particle-binding affinity. Dust ingestion could be one exposure pathway for special populations (hairdressers, for example). Though the toxicity of MSs is known, there is no information regarding the occurrence of MSs in barbershop dusts and the exposure of hairdressers through indoor dust ingestion...
October 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Sai-Nan Guo, Jia-Lang Zheng, Shuang-Shuang Yuan, Qing-Ling Zhu
In this study, female zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 26°C or 34°C, 0 or 197μg/L cadmium (Cd), singly or in combination for 7days. Multiple stress-related indicators were evaluated in the liver. Mortality, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and ultrastructural damage increased significantly by Cd exposure alone, and were not affected by heat alone. Interestingly, the combined exposure increased LPO, ultrastructural damage, and mortality compared with Cd exposure alone. The results indicated that elevated temperature increased Cd toxicity, which could be explained by several reasons...
October 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
S Amuno, A Jamwal, B Grahn, S Niyogi
Previous gold mining activities and arsenopyrite ore roasting activities at the Giant mine site (1948 to 2004) resulted in the release of high amounts of arsenic and trace metals into the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. While elevated levels of arsenic has been consistently reported in surface soils and vegetation near the vicinity of the Giant mine area and in surrounding locations, systematic studies evaluating the overall health status of terrestrial small mammals endemic to the area are lacking...
October 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
David Helman
Land surface phenology (LSP) provides bio-indication of ongoing climate change. It uses space-borne greenness proxies to monitor plant phenology at the landscape level from the regional to global scale. However, several unconsidered methodological and observational -related limitations may lead to misinterpretation of the satellite-derived signals. For instance, changes in species composition within a pixel could result in a change in the time series of the greenness proxy, due to the distinct phenology of the plant species involved...
October 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Parth Sarathi Mahapatra, Sumeet Jain, Sujan Shrestha, Shantibhusan Senapati, Siva Praveen Puppala
BACKGROUND: Endotoxin associated with ambient PM (particulate matter) has been linked to adverse respiratory symptoms, but there have been few studies of ambient endotoxin and its association with co-pollutants and inflammation. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to measure endotoxin associated with ambient PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter<10μm) in summer 2016 at four locations in Chitwan, Nepal, and investigate its association with meteorology, co-pollutants, and inflammatory activity...
October 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jon A Arnot, Sascha Pawlowski, Samantha Champ
The bioaccumulation assessment of chemicals is challenging because of various metrics and criteria, multiple lines of evidence and underlying uncertainty in the data. Measured in vivo laboratory and field bioaccumulation data are generally considered preferable; however, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), mass balance models and in vitro data can also be considered. This case study critically evaluates in vivo, in vitro and in silico data and provides new data for the bioaccumulation assessment of triclosan (TCS)...
October 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
S Singh, S Tiwari, P K Hopke, C Zhou, J R Turner, A S Panicker, P K Singh
Light-absorbing, atmospheric particles have gained greater attention in recent years because of their direct and indirect impacts on regional and global climate. Atmospheric black carbon (BC) aerosol is a leading climate warming agent, yet uncertainties in the global direct aerosol radiative forcing remain large. Based on a year of aerosol absorption measurements at seven wavelengths, BC concentrations were investigated in Dhanbad, the coal capital of India. Coal is routinely burned for cooking and residential heat as well as in small industries...
October 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Tamiko Ikeno, Chihiro Miyashita, Sonomi Nakajima, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Keiko Yamazaki, Yasuaki Saijo, Toshiko Kita, Seiko Sasaki, Kanae Konishi, Junboku Kajiwara, Tsuguhide Hori, Reiko Kishi
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like compounds [DLCs]) through environmental chemicals may affect the neurodevelopment of children. In our previous study, an inverse association was observed between prenatal DLCs and neurodevelopment of infants aged 6months in both sexes. However, studies are yet to determine how long these adverse effects last. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the effects of DLCs on cognitive development remains at 42months...
October 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
T Rodríguez-Cabo, I Rodríguez, M Ramil, R Cela
Similarities and differences among the phototransformation routes of four azolic fungicides (diniconazole, DIN, imazalil, IMA; penconazole, PEN; and propiconazole, PRO) in surface water aliquots are investigated. Selected compounds share a common chemical structure consisting on dichlorophenyl and azolic rings connected through an ethylene bridge, which is substituted with different functionalities. Liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) was employed as analytical technique to follow the time-course of precursor fungicides and to detect and to identify their photo-transformation products (TPs)...
October 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Huacheng Xu, Erin M Houghton, Christopher J Houghton, Laodong Guo
Dynamic variations in chemical composition and size distribution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) along the river-lake interface in the Fox River plume were investigated using ultrafiltration, flow field-flow fractionation, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis. On average, ~67% of bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were partitioned in the <1kDa (actual cutoff 2.5kDa) low molecular weight fraction, and the other 33% were in the 1kDa-0.7μm colloidal phase. Concentrations of DOC and chromophoric DOM in the bulk and size-fractionated samples decreased monotonously with decreasing conductivity from river to bay waters, demonstrating a dominant terrestrial source and quasi conservative mixing behavior...
October 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Xiaoping Wang, Fei Zhang, Jianli Ding, Hsiang-Te Kung, Aamir Latif, Verner C Johnson
Soil salinity is recognized worldwide as a major threat to agriculture, particularly in arid regions. Producers and decision-makers thus require updated and accurate maps of salinity in agronomical and environmentally relevant regions. The goals of this study were to test various regression models for estimating soil salt content based on hyperspectral data, HJ-CCD images, and Landsat OLI data using; develop optimal band Difference Index (DI), Ratio Index (RI), and Normalization Index (NDI) algorithms for monitoring soil salt content using image and spectral data; and to compare the performances of the proposed models using a Bootstrap-BP neural network model (Bootstrap-BPNN) from different data sources...
October 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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