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Science of the Total Environment

Shahab Karimifard, Mohammad Reza Alavi Moghaddam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Li-Mei Cai, Qiu-Shuang Wang, Jie Luo, Lai-Guo Chen, Run-Liang Zhu, Shuo Wang, Cui-Hua Tang
Nonferrous metallurgy is causing significant concerns due to its emissions of heavy metals into environment, degrading environmental quality, and consequently posing high risks to human health. In this study, the concentration levels of Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), and Arsenic (As) were investigated in soil, crop, well water, and fish samples collected around the Daye Copper Smelter in Hubei province, China, and the potential health risks were assessed for local children. The results showed that soils near the smelter were heavily polluted by Cd, Cu, Pb, and As, with the mean concentrations of 4...
September 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Andrea E Ulrich
The European Union has been concerned about cadmium (Cd), because of its toxic nature, since the 1970s. While many anthropogenic sources of Cd were regulated early on at the community level, and most member states later established national limits, Cd content in widely used mineral fertilizers remains uncontrolled across the EU. In 1997, the European Commission first suggested phased Cd limit values in mineral fertilizers as a promising approach to reducing Cd content in soils and harmonising national measures...
September 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Wengang Kang, Guangjie Chen, Jiaoyuan Wang, Linpei Huang, Lei Wang, Rui Li, Kui Hu, Yuanyuan Liu, Jianshuang Tao, Jules M Blais, John P Smol
Regional warming and atmospheric nitrogen deposition have been widely recorded to impact remote catchments and alpine lakes; however, their independent roles and interactions have rarely been identified. Here, we combined down-core analyses of sedimentary mercury (Hg) and aluminum (Al) with multiple proxies (i.e. nitrogen stable isotope, chlorophyll a pigments, diatoms) for a radiometrically-dated sediment core of an alpine lake in southeast Tibet to track the atmospheric deposition of pollutants, and to examine possible effects of climate and catchment forcing over the past three centuries...
September 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Giulia Poma, Yu Liu, Matthias Cuykx, Bin Tang, Xiao-Jun Luo, Adrian Covaci
Due to the fast growth of the electronic industry, a large quantity of electronic waste (e-waste) is generated worldwide and then often inappropriately dismantled and disposed of. In a pilot study, the occurrence of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (PFRs) was investigated for the first time in several wild insect species collected from a former e-waste recycling site in the Guangdong province, South China. TEHP was the most abundant PFR (average concentration of 5.8 ng/g ww), followed by TPHP (2...
September 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Songyan Jiang, Hui Hua, Hu Sheng, Helen P Jarvie, Xin Liu, You Zhang, Zengwei Yuan, Ling Zhang, Xuewei Liu
The phosphorus footprint (PF) is a novel concept to analyze human burdens on phosphorus resources. However, research on PF approach is still limited, and current several PF studies include incomplete phosphorus sources and have limited quantitative interpretation about the drivers of PF changes, which can help understand future trends of PF. This study develops a more comprehensive PF model by considering crop, livestock and aquatic food, and non-food goods, which covers the mainly phosphorus containing products consumed by human...
September 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jesus Aparicio, Antonio J Tenza-Abril, Malcolm Borg, John Galea, Lucila Candela
Maltese agriculture faces great challenges due to the severe scarcity of water. Sufficient water resources, in quantity and quality, are necessary to cover the demand in the production of wine grape, one of the most important crops in Maltese agriculture. But also, economic efficiency is essential in the grape cultivation. A Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) is defined for Maltese vineyards in the Siġġiewi region, considering two irrigation scenarios, irrigation with groundwater or "do-nothing", compared with the "use non-conventional waters" from mixing water from a small desalination plant and groundwater...
September 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chenjun Du, Xiaodan Wang, Mengyao Zhang, Jie Jing, Yongheng Gao
A substantial number of experiments have so far been carried out to study the response of the C-N-P stoichiometry of terrestrial plants to the rising CO2 level of the earth. However, there is a need of systematic evaluation for assessing the impact of the elevated CO2 on plant C-N-P stoichiometry. In the present investigation, a comprehensive meta-analysis involving 386 published reports and including 4481 observations has been carried out. The goal of the research was to determine the response of plants to their C-N-P stoichiometry due to elevated levels of global atmospheric CO2 ...
September 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Samuel C Andrew, Mark Patrick Taylor, Sarah Lundregan, Sigbjørn Lien, Henrik Jensen, Simon C Griffith
Metals and metalloids at elevated concentrations can be toxic to both humans and wildlife. In particular, lead exposure can act as a stressor to wildlife and cause negative effects on fitness. Any ability to adapt to stress caused by the negative effects of trace metal exposure would be beneficial for species living in contaminated environments. However, mechanisms for responding adaptively to metal contamination are not fully understood in free-living organisms. The Australian populations of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) provides an excellent opportunity to study potential adaptation to environmental lead contamination because they have a commensal relationship with humans and are distributed broadly across Australian settlements including many long-term mining and smelting communities...
September 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Pengfei Wu, Zongwei Cai, Hangbiao Jin, Yuanyuan Tang
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics are easily embrittled and decomposed to microplastics in an aquatic environment. The plasticizers such as bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS) and their analogues might be released and adsorbed by the PVC microplastics causing consequential pollution to the ecosystem. Herein, a systematic study was performed to determine the adsorption mechanisms of five bisphenol analogues (BPA, BPS, BPF, BPB and BPAF) on PVC microplastics. The maximum adsorption efficiency reached 0.19 ± 0...
September 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jack B Fursdon, Jake M Martin, Michael G Bertram, Topi K Lehtonen, Bob B M Wong
Pharmaceutical pollutants constitute a major threat to wildlife because of their capacity to induce biological effects at low doses. One such pollutant is the antidepressant fluoxetine, which has been detected in surface waters globally at levels that recent studies suggest can alter physiology and behaviour in aquatic organisms. However, wildlife exposed to pharmaceutical contaminants are typically confronted with multiple stressors simultaneously, including predation risk, which is a particularly important natural stressor that can have direct (e...
September 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xiangqin Wang, Fangbai Li, Chaolei Yuan, Bin Li, Tongxu Liu, Chengshuai Liu, Yanhong Du, Chuanping Liu
Antimony (Sb) accumulation in rice grains is a potential risk to human health. This study aims to develop agronomic practices that can reduce the accumulation of Sb in rice grain in contaminated soil. A pot culture experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of co-application of ferrous iron and nitrate (Fe(II) + NO3 - ) in paddy soils on Sb uptake by rice. The co-application of Fe(II) and NO3 - promoted abiotic/biotic Fe(II) oxidation and mineralization in the rhizosphere soil and formation of Fe plaques, consequently, Sb bioavailability was significantly reduced by enhancing Sb immobilization on the newly formed Fe(III) (hydr)oxides...
September 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Peng Zeng, Zhaohui Guo, Xiyuan Xiao, Chi Peng, Wenli Feng, Liqing Xin, Zhi Xu
The objective of this study was to determine the phytoextraction potential of a hyperaccumulator co-planted with a large biomass of woody plant in metal(loid)-contaminated soil. A pot experiment was conducted for 270 days (d) to study the growth, physiological responses, and metal(loid)s accumulation characteristics of plants, which included a shade-requiring, As-hyperaccumulator perennial herb, Pteris vittata L., co-planted with a woody tree, namely Morus alba L. or Broussonetia papyrifera L., for soil contaminated with arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)...
September 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Juan Moreno-Gutiérrez, Emilio Pájaro-Velázquez, Yolanda Amado-Sánchez, Rubén Rodríguez-Moreno, Fátima Calderay-Cayetano, Vanesa Durán-Grados
With the aim of more reliably measuring ships' fuel consumption and emissions several different estimation methods have been put forward and are in use but there is ongoing debate still on the best way to measure maritime emissions. Fuel and emissions monitoring are already a common practice in the shipping industry. But there are currently neither harmonised guidelines nor legal requirements that clearly define the method and the rules to follow to monitor on-board fuel consumption for each situation during navigation...
September 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Qihao Weng, Mohammad Karimi Firozjaei, Majid Kiavarz, Seyed Kazem Alavipanah, Saeid Hamzeh
Normalization of land surface temperature (LST) relative to environmental factors is of great importance in many scientific studies and applications. The purpose of this study was to develop physical models based on energy balance equations for normalization of satellite derived LST relative to environmental parameters. For this purpose, a set of remote sensing imagery, meteorological and climatic data recorded in synoptic stations, and soil temperatures measured by data loggers were used. For modeling and normalization of LST, a dual-source energy balance model (dual-EB), taking into account two fractions of vegetation and soil, and a triple -source energy balance model (triple-EB), taking into account three fractions of vegetation, soil and built-up land, were proposed with either regional or local optimization strategies...
September 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jinzhao Liu, Zhisheng An
Sedimentary δDn-alkane value is widely utilized as a reliable proxy for paleo-hydrological reconstruction. Applications of this proxy must be based upon a globally clear understanding of the relationship between leaf wax δDn-alkane values and precipitation δD (δDp ), defined as apparent fractionation (εapp ). However, there is a critical concern about whether relatively constant εapp values exist across different latitudes. In this study, we systematically analyzed the variations of available εapp with latitudes based upon two compiled-new databases of higher plants and sediments over the world...
September 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Vishnu Prasad Pandey, Sanita Dhaubanjar, Luna Bharati, Bhesh Raj Thapa
Chamelia (catchment area = 1603 km2 ), a tributary of Mahakali, is a snow-fed watershed in Western Nepal. The watershed has 14 hydropower projects at various stages of development. This study simulated the current and future hydrological system of Chamelia using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The model was calibrated for 2001-2007; validated for 2008-2013; and then applied to assess streamflow response to projected future climate scenarios. Multi-site calibration ensures that the model is capable of reproducing hydrological heterogeneity within the watershed...
September 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
W Casan Scott, Christopher S Breed, Samuel P Haddad, S Rebekah Burket, Gavin N Saari, Paul J Pearce, C Kevin Chambliss, Bryan W Brooks
In the rapidly urbanizing watersheds and estuaries flowing to the Gulf of Mexico in Texas, USA, instream flows are increasingly influenced by point source and nonpoint source discharges. Spatial and temporal tidal influences on water quality, especially for contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), is poorly understood in estuaries and coastal systems. We selected Dickinson Bayou, an urban estuary in Galveston County, Texas, for study because it has historically impaired water quality, receives point source discharge from one major wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), while also being influenced by high densities of onsite sewage facilities upstream in the watershed...
September 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mateu Menéndez-Serra, Xavier Triadó-Margarit, Carmen Castañeda, Juan Herrero, Emilio O Casamayor
Soil microbial communities (both Bacteria and Archaea) were studied after 16S rRNA genes massive sequencing in two hypersaline and gypsum-rich contrasted sites located in NE Spain. Soil microbial communities were also locally analysed according to environmental variables, including geological, physico-chemical, biogeochemically, and climatic data. Typical soil characteristics, climate data, and plant composition clearly split the two sites and major differences among the microbial communities for the areas were initially expected...
September 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zhaogui Yan, Mingjun Teng, Wei He, Anqian Liu, Yiran Li, Pengcheng Wang
Urban biodiversity has increasingly been recognized by the scientific community and environmental policymakers as a part of conservation efforts worldwide. However, most studies on urban biodiversity focus on cities in developed countries. An information gap exists for urban biodiversity of cities in developing countries. Here we focused on variability in plant diversity, a major component of biodiversity, in a Chinese city that has undergone rapid urbanization in recent time. The influence of urbanization was determined by comparing plant diversity and proportion of exotic/endemic plant species with the intensity of urbanization across the study area...
September 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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