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Science of the Total Environment

Ye Lu, Bin Zhu, Yong Huang, Shuangshuang Shi, Honglei Wang, Junlin An, Xingna Yu
Based on a field campaign in Shouxian, a rural site on the Yangtze River Delta, China, from December 14, 2016 to January 4, 2017, the vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) and planetary boundary layer (PBL) structures were studied. In total, 58 vertical profiles were obtained, including of the PM2.5 , BC mass concentration (mBC ) and relevant meteorological parameters. Four profile types were categorized: I: uniform vertical distributions (38%), II: higher values at lower altitudes (29%), III: bimodal distributions with high values near the ground and at higher altitudes (17%), and IV: unimodal distributions with high values at higher altitudes (11%)...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Sara Corrado, Gloria Luzzani, Marco Trevisan, Lucrezia Lamastra
In light of the considerable pressure exerted by food production on the environment, the assessment of the environmental burdens of dietary choices has recently gained interest among the scientific community. Several studies based on life cycle thinking approach agreed that a transition from an omnivorous to either a vegan or vegetarian diets would reduce the environmental impact associated with food consumption. The majority of the studies set the system boundaries up to the retail, excluding the consumption phase and generally do not account for uncertainties...
January 8, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Lygia Therese Budnik, Ludwine Casteleyn, Anastasia K Paschalidou, Pavlos Kassomenos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Mark Flint, Anne-Fleur Brand, Ian P Bell, Christine A Madden Hof
Between 2014 and 2017, the Rivers to Reef to Turtles (RRT) project examined the health of green turtles at two coastal sites impacted by urban and agricultural human activities (Cleveland and Upstart Bays) and one proposed pristine site (Howick Group of Reefs) in northern Queensland, Australia, through blood biochemistry and haematology, plasma protein electrophoresis, and clinical assessments including body condition and barnacle counts. Furthermore, cases of mortality were subjected to comprehensive postmortem examination...
January 7, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Hao Sun, Fred S Cannon, Xin He
This research reports an integrated method for synthesizing a quaternary nitrogen-grafted activated carbon that is derived from a subbituminous coal source. The protocol employed nitric acid oxidation, thermal ammonia treatment and methyl iodide quaternization. The quaternized product greatly increased trifluoroacetate (TFA, CF3 COO- ) removal from a groundwater source. This quaternary nitrogen-grafted carbon (designated AWNQ) exhibited the highest TFA adsorption capacity of 32.9 mg/g and exhibited high energy of adsorption for TFA...
January 7, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Qingju Hao, Shijie Chen, Xue Ni, Xiaoxi Li, Xinhua He, Changsheng Jiang
To investigate the effect of dam impounding on CH4 and N2 O emissions from the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), CH4 and N2 O fluxes were measured at the elevations of 180 m, 175 m, 165 m and 155 m (above the sea level) from September 2010 to August 2012 using the static chamber technique. The elevations of 175 m, 165 m and 155 m were located in the drawdown area and the non-flooded elevation of 180 m was taken as the control for the drawdown area. The drawdown area studied here acted as the sources of CH4 and N2 O as a whole...
January 7, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Gabriel Lopez Porras, Lindsay C Stringer, Claire H Quinn
Water governance in the Rio del Carmen watershed has failed to achieve sustainable water use, generating social conflicts, water overexploitation, and grassland loss. This leaves it unable to adapt and learn, to reconcile different stakeholder perspectives and to adequately respond to uncertainty. Adaptive water governance regulates water access through flexible, inclusive and innovative institutions, increasing system adaptive capacity in the face of uncertainty. This is necessary for water-scarce systems since they suffer context-specific exposure to land degradation and climate change...
January 7, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Jun Chen, You-Sheng Liu, Wen-Jing Deng, Guang-Guo Ying
Steroid hormones and biocides are regarded as emerging contaminants in rural wastewater in China, owing to their widespread occurrence and adverse effects on both aquatic organisms and humans. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are an alternative technology for cost-effective and efficient decentralized rural sewage treatment. In this study, an integrated constructed wetland (ICW) system was built and used to treat a typical rural wastewater mixture composed of domestic sewage and livestock wastewater from a small village...
January 7, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Yiwen Zhang, Jiangtao Wang, Liju Tan
Allelopathy has been regarded as chemical weapons for marine phytoplankton that enhanced competition ability in stressful conditions, especially during blooms. In a previous study, Chaetoceros curvisetus achieved growth advantage to Skeletonema costatum by producing allelochemicals. However, C. curvisetus allelochemicals have never been isolated and characterized until now. In this study the extraction and purification conditions were systematically optimized and C. curvisetus filtrate extracts were used to assess bioactive effects on the growth of S...
January 7, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Jinyang Wang, Felicity Hayes, Robert Turner, David R Chadwick, Gina Mills, Davey L Jones
Reduced belowground carbon (C) allocation by plants exposed to ozone may change properties and activities of the microbial community in soils. To investigate how soil microbial biomass and extracellular enzyme activities respond to elevated ozone, we collected soils from a temperate grassland after four years of ozone exposure under fully open-air field conditions. We measured soil microbial biomass, the metabolism of low molecular weight C substrates and hydrolytic extracellular enzyme activities in both bulk soil and isolated aggregates to assess changes in microbial activity and community function...
January 7, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Zeng-Hui Diao, Wei Qian, Ze-Xiang Lei, Ling-Jun Kong, Jian-Jun Du, Hui Liu, Jie-Wen Yang, Sheng Yan Pu
Herein, the application of a novel acid mine drainage-based nanoscale zero valent iron (AMD-based nZVI) for the remediation of nitrate and norfloxacin (NOR) was studied. Experimental results indicated that the catalytic reactivity of AMD-based nZVI toward nitrate reduction was superior to that of iron salt-based nanoscale zero valent iron (Iron salt-based nZVI). The presence of ultrasound irradiation could significantly enhance the reactivity toward both the nitrate reduction and NOR oxidation processes. The optimal efficiencies of nitrate and NOR by AMD-based nZVI/US process could be kept 96 and 94% within 120 min, respectively...
January 6, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Gang Xu, Limin Jiao, Jiafeng Liu, Zhongkui Shi, Chen Zeng, Yaolin Liu
Rapid urbanization accelerates urban expansion, especially in populous areas, such as Southeast Asia. The urban forms and changes at the macro level and the dynamics at the patch level are interrelated. Considering its spatiotemporal interdependences and global-local interactions, we propose a framework to quantify urban expansion by combining macro patterns and micro dynamics. Taking three Southeast Asian megacities, Bangkok, Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), and Manila, as examples, we calculate the urban land densities in concentric rings (macro pattern) and the proximity expansion index (PEI) of new urban patches (micro dynamic) to compare the urban form changes and expansion patterns based on Landsat imagery in 1990, 2000, and 2014...
January 6, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Denis Medinas, Vera Ribeiro, João Tiago Marques, Bruno Silva, Ana Márcia Barbosa, Hugo Rebelo, António Mira
The effects of roads on bats are still a poorly documented issue. Most of the available research focuses on large and high-traffic highways, while low-medium-traffic roads are often assumed to have negligible impacts. However, small roads are ubiquitous in landscapes around the world. We examined the effects of these roads, as well as habitat types, on the activity of three bat guilds (short-, mid- and long-range echolocators) and the most common bat species Pipistrellus kuhlii. We performed three bat acoustic surveys between May and October 2015, with these surveys being performed along twenty transects that were each 1000 m long and perpendicular to three roads with different traffic volumes...
January 6, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Jingwei Yang, Andreas Holbach, Andre Wilhelms, Yanwen Qin, Binghui Zheng, Hua Zou, Boqiang Qin, Guangwei Zhu, Stefan Norra
Predicting algal blooms is challenging due to rapid growth rates under suitable conditions and the complex physical, chemical, and biological processes involved. Physico-chemical parameters, monitored in this study by a high-resolution in-situ multi-sensor system and derived from lab-based water sample analyses, show the seasonal variation and have different degrees of vertical gradients across the water column. Through analyzing the changes and relations between multi-factors, we reveal pictures of water quality dynamics and algal kinetics...
January 6, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Yun Kyung Lee, Mi-Hee Lee, Jin Hur
In this study, we utilized a size exclusion chromatography (SEC) system that was equipped with a fluorescence emission scanning mode to explore the heterogeneous distribution of the humification index (HIX) values within bulk dissolved organic matter (DOM). The HIX-based SEC chromatograms showed that the molecular weight (MW)-dependent distribution of aromatic condensation was heavily affected by the DOM sources and the progress of biodegradation. The HIX heterogeneity across different MW was more pronounced for terrestrial versus aquatic DOM sources...
January 6, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Nadin Graf, Karina P Battes, Mirela Cimpean, Pitt Dittrich, Martin H Entling, Moritz Link, Andreas Scharmüller, Verena C Schreiner, Eduard Szöcs, Ralf B Schäfer
Freshwater ecosystems are coupled with their riparian area. Emerging insects are prey for predators in the riparian zone, enriching the terrestrial ecosystem with energy and nutrients. Stressors associated with agriculture can alter insect communities in water and on land, resulting in complex response patterns of terrestrial predators relying on prey from both systems. Examining the effects from individual agricultural stressors such as pesticides is hampered in landscapes with intensive agriculture where multiple stressors like habitat degradation and typically co-occur...
January 6, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Victor Rolo, Gerardo Moreno
Pastures and wood-pastures, livestock grazing systems where scattered trees and shrubs co-occur, are essential for global food supply. The grazing value of these systems, which is closely related to soil moisture, is increasingly threatened by changes in climate variability and vegetation structure, mainly by shrub encroachment. However, it remains relatively unexplored to what extent the concurrent effect of climate change and shrub encroachment will affect the exposure to drought stress of Mediterranean wood-pastures - defined as a period where soil water availability drops below 40%...
January 5, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Alireza Arabameri, Khalil Rezaei, Artemi Cerdà, Christian Conoscenti, Zahra Kalantari
In north of Iran, flood is one of the most important natural hazards that annually inflict great economic damages on humankind infrastructures and natural ecosystems. The Kiasar watershed is known as one of the critical areas in north of Iran, due to numerous floods and waste of water and soil resources, as well as related economic and ecological losses. However, a comprehensive and systematic research to identify flood-prone areas, which may help to establish management and conservation measures, has not been carried out yet...
January 5, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Angélica F M Streit, Letícia N Côrtes, Susanne P Druzian, Marcelo Godinho, Gabriela C Collazzo, Daniele Perondi, Guilherme L Dotto
A high quality activated carbon was developed from biological sludge of a beverage wastewater treatment plant (BWTP). The material was characterized and its adsorption potential to remove Allura Red AC and Crystal Violet dyes from aqueous media was verified. The ACBS (activated carbon from beverage sludge) revealed mesoporous features, presenting average pore diameter of 6.32 nm, pore volume of 0.5098 cm3  g-1 and surface area of 631.8 m2  g-1 . Adsorption was adequate using 0.25 g L -1 of ACBS, and, the process was favored at pH 2...
January 5, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Yunliang Li, Qi Zhang, Yongjiu Cai, Zhiqiang Tan, Huawu Wu, Xinggen Liu, Jing Yao
Small, seasonal lakes that exist in floodplains are rarely investigated, and yet they play an important role in the protection of biodiversity and are highly susceptible to modification due to human activities. This study presents a first attempt to combine hydrodynamic modeling and statistical methods to investigate hydrological connectivity and its relationship with the water quality of nine seasonal lakes within the floodplains of Poyang Lake (China). The hydrodynamic model reproduced reasonably well the hydrological regime of the lake and surrounding floodplains, based on field measurements and remote sensing data...
January 5, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
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