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Science of the Total Environment

Pengfei Wang, Naiyi Yin, Xiaolin Cai, Huili Du, Zejiao Li, Guoxin Sun, Yanshan Cui
Arsenic (As) is a highly toxic contaminant in food and soil. In this study, we investigated the effects of four nutritional states (including a fed state with vitamin C, a fed state with protein powder, a fed state with glucose and a fasted state) on the variability of soil As bioaccessibility and biotransformation using the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) combined with a simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem model (SHIME). The results indicated that the vitamin C and protein powder increased As bioaccessibility in gastric digests...
July 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Qingfu Liu, Alexander Buyantuev, Jianguo Wu, Jianming Niu, Deyong Yu, Qing Zhang
Intensive anthropogenic land-use causes habitat loss and landscape homogenization, which leads to the decrease of biodiversity and ecosystem degradation. Therefore, it is important to study the influence of landscape heterogeneity on biodiversity. In this study, vegetation surveys conducted at 53 sites in the Tabu River basin, located at the agro-pastoral ecotone of Inner Mongolia of China, revealed 146 species. Species diversity was evaluated at three scales: species richness within patches (alpha diversity), between patches (beta diversity) and at the landscape scale (gamma diversity)...
July 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Daisuke Onozuka, Kunihiro Nishimura, Akihito Hagihara
BACKGROUND: Several studies have examined the association between environmental factors and traffic accidents. However, the role of a full moon in triggering emergency ambulance transport due to road traffic casualties is unclear. Thus, we aimed to examine whether a full moon contributes to the incidence of emergency transport due to road traffic crashes. METHODS: We acquired nationwide data on daily emergency transport due to road traffic crashes from all 47 prefectures of Japan from 2010 to 2014...
July 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jun Zhang, Baogang Zhang, Yao Liu, Yanqing Guo, Peng Shi, Gehong Wei
Fungi play a crucial role in the agroecological system; however, little is known about their large-scale biogeographical patterns and how various ecological processes contribute to community assembly, especially in the crop rhizosphere. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution and community assembly of fungi in the bulk soil and rhizosphere of soybean collected from 43 sites across China using high-throughput sequencing. The alpha diversity of the rhizosphere was lower than that of bulk soil...
July 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jian Peng, Yang Yang, Yanxu Liu, Yi'na Hu, Yueyue Du, Jeroen Meersmans, Sijing Qiu
The rapid process of urbanization, accompanied by the sharp increase of urban population and expansion of artificial surface, has resulted in the loss of natural ecosystems and the degradation of ecosystem services. Identifying and protecting key places that have high importance for ecological sustainability are great challenges. Ecological security patterns are such an integrated approach to protecting regional ecological sustainability. In this study, taking Yunnan Province, China as a case study area, ecological sources were identified through ecosystem services, and circuit theory was used to model ecosystem processes in heterogeneous landscapes via calculating the 'resistance' or 'current', and thus to identify ecological corridors and key ecological nodes...
July 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Concepción García-Gómez, Ana Obrador, Demetrio González, Mar Babín, María Dolores Fernández
The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in agriculture and consumer products has created the need to evaluate their impact on crops. Nine crops were investigated: wheat, maize, radish, bean, lettuce, tomato, pea, cucumber, and beet. The toxic effects of ZnO NPs on seed germination, plant growth, and biochemical parameters, including photosynthetic pigments, protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, reactive oxygen species (ROS), enzymes of the antioxidant defence system, as well as the Zn translocation in the plants were investigated using pots containing non-contaminated or ZnO NP-contaminated soil at concentrations of 20, 225, 450, and 900 mg Zn kg-1 ...
July 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xiaomei Chen, Qi Deng, Guojun Lin, Meizhen Lin, Hui Wei
Soil stores a substantial proportion of carbon (C), making it the greatest terrestrial C pool and pivotal to stabilizing the global climate system. Rainfall amounts and regimes have been changing in many places, but effects of precipitation changes on soil organic C (SOC) stabilization are not completely understood. Considerable attention has been focused on the consequences of changes in rainfall amounts, with rainfall regimes having been less studied. This study was conducted in a tropical climax forest to clarify the effects of rainfall changes on SOC fractions, with permanganate oxidation and density fractionations employed to divide the labile and non-labile SOC fractions...
July 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Wan-Li Ma, Xue Zhao, Zi-Feng Zhang, Tie-Fu Xu, Fu-Jie Zhu, Yi-Fan Li
Parabens are widely used in food, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products because they are excellent preservatives. Recently, the environmental fate of parabens has attracted attention owing to their similarity to some endocrine disrupters. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are both important sinks of parabens discharged from our daily activities and key pollution sources for the environment if the parabens are not completely removed. However, research in this area is scarce, especially in Asia. In this study, 6 commonly used parabens and 4 metabolites were analyzed in wastewater and sludge samples from two typical WWTPs with different treatment processes (the anaerobic-oxic (A/O) and cyclic activated sludge technology (CAST) treatment processes)...
July 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chan Yu, Fei Wang, Sae Jung Chang, Jun Yao, Ruth Elaine Blake
The ocean is an important source of methane, however, the sources of oceanic methane and mechanisms of its release to the atmosphere have only recently begun to be understood. Recent studies have identified methylphosphonate (MPn) as a previously unknown and likely source of methane in the aerobic ocean (Karl et al., 2008), as well as shown the biosynthesis of methylphosphonic acid to be a widespread trait in marine microbes (Metcalf et al., 2012). The mechanisms and reaction pathways from MPn to free methane, however, have not been well studied...
July 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shaopan Bao, Jiaolong Huang, Xiawei Liu, Wei Tang, Tao Fang
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are among the most widely used engineered nanomaterials and may eventually accumulate in sediments. Limited information is currently available regarding the toxicity, bioaccumulation and distribution of sediment-associated AgNPs in aquatic organisms. In the present study, a freshwater snail Bellamya aeruginosa was exposed via sediment to commercial Ag particles of four nominal sizes: 20 nm (AgNPs-20), 40 nm (AgNPs-40), 80 nm (AgNPs-80), and < 10 μm (bulk Ag), and to silver nitrate at sub-lethal concentrations (1, 10 and 100 μg Ag/g sediment)...
July 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yankun Liu, Yingpeng Yu, Min Liu, Min Lu, Rongrong Ge, Shuwen Li, Xinran Liu, Wenbo Dong, Abdul Qadeer
PM2.5 samples in four representative periods were collected from a highly industrialized district in Shanghai, China. The concentrations of PM2.5 and PM2.5 -bound PAHs were analyzed. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was used to identify the potential sources. Relationship between PAHs distribution and meteorological parameters was assessed meanwhile. The incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) model was applied to quantitatively evaluate the exposure risk of PAHs. Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLT) model was used to track the potential pollution area of PM2...
July 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
H Veselá, O Mudrák, J Frouz
Here we explore the idea that keeping dead standing (marcescent) biomass plants can reduce its nutrient (N, P) content. Later after biomass falling to ground this may result in substantial changes in nutrient turnover with consequences for plant competitive interactions. To explore the effects standing dead biomass we used Calamagrostis epigejos as a model species. It is a common expansive grass, which after senescence retain a large proportion of the plant remains as dead standing biomass. We determined the biomass, N and P concentrations of living biomass, standing dead biomass, and lying dead biomass at young and old successional sites on the post-mining heap near Sokolov...
July 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zheng-Zhe Zhang, Yu-Xin Ji, Ya-Fei Cheng, Lian-Zeng-Ji Xu, Ren-Cun Jin
While the application of anammox-based process for mesophilic sidestream treatment is at present the state of the art and mainstream treatment at ambient temperature is also in development, the feasibility of thermophilic anammox process is still unclear. This study investigated the effects of salinity on the thermotolerance of mesophilic anammox sludge. In batch activity tests, 45 °C seems to be the critical temperature for the tolerance of mesophilic anammox consortia without acclimatization or amendments...
July 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Steven Yuk-Fai Lau, Xiaoxiao Wang, Maggie Wang, Shelan Liu, Benny Chung-Ying Zee, Xiaoran Han, Zhao Yu, Riyang Sun, Ka Chun Chong, Enfu Chen
BACKGROUND: Since the first reported human infection with an avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus in China in early 2013, there have been recurrent outbreaks of the virus in the country. Previous studies have shown that meteorological factors are associated with the risk of human infection with the virus; however, their possible nonlinear and lagged effects were not commonly taken into account. METHOD: To quantify the effect of meteorological factors on the risk of human H7N9 infection, daily laboratory-confirmed cases of human H7N9 infection and meteorological factors including total rainfall, average wind speed, average temperature, average relative humidity, and sunshine duration of the 11 sub-provincial/prefecture cities in Zhejiang during the first four outbreaks (13 March 2013-30 June 2016) were analyzed...
July 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hayrol Azril Mohamed Shaffril, Steven Eric Krauss, Samsul Farid Samsuddin
Climate change in Asia is affecting farmers' daily routines. Much of the focus surrounding climate change has targeted the economic and environmental repercussions on farming. Few systematic reviews have been carried out on the social impacts of climate change among farmers in Asia. The present article set out to analyse the existing literature on Asian farmers' adaptation practices towards the impacts of climate change. Guided by the PRISMA Statement (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) review method, a systematic review of the Scopus and Web of Science databases identified 38 related studies...
July 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Guilherme C Borillo, Yara S Tadano, Ana Flavia L Godoi, Theotonio Pauliquevis, Hugo Sarmiento, Dennis Rempel, Carlos I Yamamoto, Mary R R Marchi, Sanja Potgieter-Vermaak, Ricardo H M Godoi
Among the new technologies developed for the heavy-duty fleet, the use of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system in standard Diesel engines associated with biodiesel/diesel mixtures is an alternative in use to control the legislated pollutants emission. Nevertheless, there is an absence of knowledge about the synergic behaviour of these devices and biodiesel blends regarding the emissions of unregulated substances as the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Nitro-PAHs, both recognized for their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on humans...
July 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kaushik Venkiteshwaran, Patrick J McNamara, Brooke K Mayer
Current and future trends indicate that mining of natural phosphorus (P) reserves is occurring faster than natural geologic replenishment. This mobilization has not only led to P supply concerns, but has also polluted many of the world's freshwater bodies and oceans. Recovery and reuse of this nuisance P offers a long-term solution simultaneously addressing mineral P accessibility and P-based pollution. Available physical, chemical, and biological P removal/recovery processes can achieve low total P (TP) concentrations (≤100 μg/L) and some processes can also recover P for direct reuse as fertilizers (e...
July 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Fei Li, Jingdong Zhang, Wenchu Liu, Jiaan Liu, Jinhui Huang, Guangming Zeng
An integrated stochastic-fuzzy pollution assessment method (ISFPAM) for soil heavy metal was established based on geo-accumulation index (Igeo ), stochastic-fuzzy theory and double weight system under synthetical consideration of metal ecotoxicity and bioaccessibility. The pollution characteristics of the topsoil heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr) in Xiangjiang New District were evaluated by the widely-used Single factor index (SF), Nemerow index (NI), Igeo , Potential ecological index (PERI), Risk assessment code (RAC) and the ISFPAM...
July 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sha Zhang, Jing Song
The cruciferous crop, oil rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), may bioaccumulate excessive cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) as well, from Cd-enriched noncalcareous soils in Guizhou province of southwestern China. Field paired soil-rapeseed sampling and greenhouse experiment were performed to characterize the Cd anomaly in rapeseed-planting soils and to predict the bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb in raw seeds using soil variables. The results indicated that total soil-Cd concentrations averaged 0.43 mg kg-1 (range 0.11-1...
July 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
D K Benbi
Green Revolution led to an unprecedented increase in world food production but with a significant carbon footprint raising concerns about its sustainability. With the rising global population and the need to produce more food, the farming systems will have to be sustainable. To identify farming practices that increase yield with minimum environmental cost, it is imperative to quantify the environment footprint of different technologies. The present study quantified the impact of Green Revolution technologies on the carbon footprint of intensive crop production systems, mainly rice-wheat in an agriculturally important region of Indo-Gangetic Plains...
July 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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